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Encyclopedia > Eurocommunism
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Communism

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Eurocommunism was a new trend in the 1970s and 1980s within various Western European communist parties to develop a theory and practice of social transformation that was more relevant in a Western European democracy and less aligned to the partyline of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union. Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... Image File history File links Hammer_and_sickle. ... See also Marxian economics Marxist philosophy or Marxist theory designs work in philosophy which is strongly influenced by Karl Marxs materialist approach to theory or which is written by Marxists. ... Class struggle is class conflict looked at from a Marxist, libertarian socialist, or anarchist perspective. ... International Socialism redirects here. ... Socialist economics is a broad, and sometimes controversial, term. ... In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... Marxism takes its name from the praxis (the synthesis of philosophy and political action) of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Manse Manse! Kim Jong Il! The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Titoism is a term describing political ideology named after Yugoslav leader, Josip Broz Tito, primarily used to describe the schism between the Soviet Union and Socialist Yugoslavia after the Second World War (see Cominform) when the Communist Party of Yugoslavia refused to take further dictates from Moscow. ... Left Communism is a term describing a whole range of communist viewpoints which oppose the political ideas of the Bolsheviks from a position which is asserted to be more authentically Marxist and proletarian than the views held by the Communist International after its first two Congresses. ... Council communism is a Radical Left movement originating in Germany and the Netherlands in the 1920s. ... Religious communism is a term used by some Communists that claim that before communism became associated with atheism, the word communism was mainly used by religious groups. ... Anarchist communism is a form of anarchism that advocates the abolition of the State and capitalism in favor of a horizontal network of voluntary associations through which everyone will be free to satisfy his or her needs. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... See Communist League (disambiguation) for other groups of the same name. ... The International Workingmens Association (IWA), sometimes called the First International, was an international socialist organization which aimed at uniting a variety of different left-wing political groups and trade union organizations that were based on the working class and class struggle. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... For other uses, see Fourth International (disambiguation). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818, Trier, Germany – March 14, 1883, London) was a German philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Friedrich Engels (November 28, 1820, Wuppertal – August 5, 1895, London), a 19th-century German political philosopher, developed communist theory alongside his better-known collaborator, Karl Marx, co-authoring The Communist Manifesto (1848). ... Rosa Luxemburg Rosa Luxemburg (March 5, 1870 or 1871 – January 15, 1919, in Polish Róża Luksemburg) was a Jewish Polish-born Marxist political theorist, socialist philosopher, and revolutionary. ... “Lenin” redirects here. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ...   (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий, Lyov Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born. ... “Mao” redirects here. ... Anarchism is a form of social criticism, a political movement as well as a political philosophy. ... This article lists ideologies opposed to capitalism and describes them briefly. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ... This article is on criticisms of communism, a branch of socialism. ... Democratic centralism is the name given to the principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party. ... The dictatorship of the proletariat is a term employed by Karl Marx in his 1875 Critique of the Gotha Program that refers to a transition period between capitalist and communist society in which the state can be nothing but the revolutionary dictatorship of the proletariat. The term refers to a... In Western thought, the history of communism, an idea of a society based on common ownership of property, can be traced back to ancient times. ... “Leftism” redirects here. ... Luxemburgism (also written Luxembourgism) is a specific revolutionary theory within communism, based on the writings of Rosa Luxemburg. ... The new class is a term to describe the privileged ruling class of bureaucrats and Communist party functionaries which typically arises in a Stalinist communist state. ... The New Left is a term used in different countries to describe left-wing movements that occurred in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Post-Communism is a name sometimes given to the period of political and economic transition in former communist states located in parts of Europe and Asia, usually transforming into a free market capitalist and globalized economy. ... Primitive communism, according to Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, is the original society of humanity. ... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian...

Contents

Theoretical Foundations

The main theoretical foundation of Eurocommunism was Antonio Gramsci's writing about Marxist theory which questioned the sectarianism of the Left and encouraged communist parties to develop social alliances to win hegemonic support for popular reforms. Eurocommunist parties expressed more clearly their fidelity to democratic institutions and attempted to widen their appeal by embracing public sector middle-class workers, new social movements such as feminism and gay liberation and more publicly questioning the Soviet Union. Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a [[List of forms of government|form of government]. While the term democracy is typically used in the context of a political state, the principles are also applicable to other groups and organizations. ... < [[[[math>Insert formula here</math>The public sector is that part of economic and administrative life that deals with the delivery of goods and services by and for the [[government </math></math></math></math> Direct administration funded through taxation; the delivering organisation generally has no specific requirement to meet commercial... The middle class, in colloquial usage, consists of those people who have a degree of economic independence, but not a great deal of social influence or power. ... The term new social movements (NSM) refers to a plethora of social movements that have come up in various western societies roughly since the mid-1960s (i. ... Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the social, political and economic equality of the sexes. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...


Western European Communist Parties

Some Communist parties with strong popular support, notably the Italian Communist Party (PCI) and the Spanish Communist Party (PCE) adopted Eurocommunism most enthusiastically. On the contrary, the French Communist Party (PCF) and many smaller parties strongly opposed to it and stayed aligned to the positions of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (and subsidized by it) until the end of USSR. In modern usage, the term communist party is generally used to identify any political party which has adopted communist ideology. ... The Fourth Estate The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... Spanish Communist Party (in Spanish: Partido Comunista Español), the first communist party in Spain, formed out of the Federación de Juventudes Socialistas (Federation of Socialist Youth, youth wing of PSOE). ... The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français or PCF) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of communism. ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian...


The PCE and its Catalan referent, the United Socialist Party of Catalonia, had already been committed to the liberal possibilist politics of the Popular Front during the Spanish Civil War. The leader of the PCE, Santiago Carrillo, wrote Eurocommunism's defining book Eurocomunismo y estado (Eurocommunism and the State) and participated in the development of the liberal democratic constitution as Spain emerged from the dictatorship of Franco. The Communist parties of Great Britain, the Netherlands and Austria were also Eurocommunist. PCE may stand for: Parametric cost estimation Parliamentary Commissioner for the Environment (New Zealand) Partial chemical equilibrium Partial Compliance Evaluation (EPA) Partido Comunista de España, the Communist Party of Spain Partido Comunista del Ecuador, the Communist Party of Ecuador Patrol escort (US Navy hull classification symbol) Tetrachloroethylene (perchloroethylene) Porsche... Anthem: Capital Barcelona Official language(s) Catalan,Spanish and Aranese. ... The PSUC (Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia), was formed through the unification fo socialist and communist parties in Catalonia in 1936. ... Popular Fronts comprise broad coalitions of political and other groups, often made up of oppositioners or left wingers, and often united against particularly stringent circumstances. ... Combatants Spanish Republic With the support of: Soviet Union[1] Nationalist Spain With the support of: Italy Germany Commanders Manuel Azaña Francisco Largo Caballero Juan Negrín Francisco Franco Gonzalo Queipo de Llano Emilio Mola José Sanjurjo Casualties 500,000[2] The Spanish Civil War was a major conflict... Santiago Carrillo Solares (born January 18, 1915), Spanish politician, was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1960 to 1982. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892–20th (or possibly 19th) November[1] 1975), commonly abbreviated to Francisco Franco (pron. ...


Western European communists came to Eurocommunism via a variety of routes. For some it was their direct experience of feminist and similar action. For others its was a reaction to the political events of the Soviet Union, at the apogee of what Mikhail Gorbachev later called the Era of Stagnation. This process was accelerated after the events of 1968, particularly the crushing of the Prague Spring. Feminism is a collection of social theories, political movements, and moral philosophies largely motivated by or concerned with the social, political and economic equality of the sexes. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (Russian: ), surname more accurately romanized as Gorbachyov; born March 2, 1931) is a Russian politician. ... Period of stagnation (Russian: , translitrated zastoy), also known as Brezhnevian Stagnation, the Stagnation Period, or the Era of Stagnation, or the Period of Stagnation (), refers to a period of socio-economic slowdown in the history of the Soviet Union that started during Leonid Brezhnevs time as chairman of the... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the...


The politics of détente also played a part. With war less likely, Western communists were under less pressure to follow Soviet orthodoxy yet also wanted to engage with a rise in western proletarian militancy such as Italy's Hot Autumn and Britain's shop steward's movement. Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... The Hot Autumn of 1969-1970 was a massive series of strikes in the factories and industrial centers of northern Italy, during which workers demanded better pay and better conditions. ... The terms steward or stewardess can refer to a number of different professional roles. ...


Outside Western Europe

Eurocommunist ideas won at least partial acceptance outside of Western Europe. Prominent parties influenced by it outside of Europe were the Movement for Socialism (Venezuela), the Japanese Communist Party, the Mexican Communist Party and the Communist Party of Australia. Mikhail Gorbachev also refers to Eurocommunism as a key influence on the ideas of glasnost and perestroika in his memoirs. The Movement towards Socialism (Movimiento al Socialismo) is a political party in Venezuela. ... The Japanese Communist Party or Japan Communist Party (JCP) (in Japanese 日本共産党, Nihon Kyōsan-tō) is a political party in Japan. ... The Mexican Communist Party (Spanish: Partido Comunista Mexicano, PCM) was a communist party in Mexico. ... The Communist Party of Australia was founded in 1920 and dissolved in 1991. ...   (Russian: IPA: ) is a Russian word for transparency or openness. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ...


Results

Eurocommunism was in many ways only a staging ground for changes in the political structure of the European left. Some — principally the Italians — became social democrats, while others like the Dutch CPN moved into green politics and the French party during the 1980's reverted to a more pro-Soviet stance. Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Communist party of the Netherlands (CPN, in Dutch Communistische Partij Nederland) was a communist party of the Netherlands. ... Green politics or Green ideology is the ideology of the Green Parties, mainly informed by environmentalism, ecosophy and sustainable economics and aimed at developing a sustainable society. ...


Eurocommunism became a force across Europe in 1977, when Enrico Berlinguer of the Italian Communist Party (PCI), Santiago Carrillo of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) and Georges Marchais of the French Communist Party (PCF) met in Madrid and laid out the fundamental lines of the "new way". The PCI in particular had been developing an independent line from Moscow for many years prior, which had already been exhibited in 1968, when the party refused to support the Soviet invasion of Prague. In 1975 the PCI and the PCE had made a declaration regarding the "march toward socialism" to be done in "peace and freedom". In 1976 in Moscow, Berlinguer, in front of 5,000 Communist delegates, had spoken of a "pluralistic system" (translated by the interpreter as "multiform"), and described PCI's intentions to build "a socialism that we believe necessary and possible only in Italy". The compromesso storico ("historic compromise") with Democrazia Cristiana, stopped by Aldo Moro's murder in 1978, was a consequence of this new policy. Enrico Berlinguer. ... The Partito Comunista Italiano (PCI) or Italian Communist Party emerged as Partito Comunista dItalia or Communist Party of Italy from a secession by the Leninist comunisti puri tendency from the Italian Socialist Party (PSI) during that bodys congress on 21 January 1921 at Livorno. ... Santiago Carrillo Solares (born January 18, 1915), Spanish politician, was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1960 to 1982. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ... Georges Marchais (June 7, 1920 - November 16, 1997) was the head of the French Communist Party, and a candidate in the French presidential elections of 1981. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... The term Historic Compromise (Italian:compromesso storico) most commonly refers to the accommodation between the Italian Christian Democrats (DC) and the Italian Communist Party (PCI) in the 1970s, after the latter embraced eurocommunism. ... Christian Democracy, (Democrazia Cristiana), the Christian democratic party of Italy, commonly called the democristiani or DC, dominated government for nearly half a century until its demise amid a welter of corruption allegations in 1992-94. ... Aldo Moro (September 23, 1916 – May 9, 1978) was an Italian politician and five time Prime Minister of Italy, from 1963 to 1968 and then from 1974 to 1976. ... 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ...


Before the end of the Cold War put practically all Leftist parties in Europe on the defensive and made neoliberal reforms the order of the day, many Eurocommunist parties split, with the Right (such as Democratici di Sinistra or Iniciativa per Catalunya) adopting social democracy more whole-heartedly, while the Left strove to preserve some identifiably Communist positions (Partito della Rifondazione Comunista or PSUC viu/Communist Party of Spain). For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The term neoliberalism is used to describe a political-economic philosophy that had major implications for government policies beginning in the 1970s &#8211; and increasingly prominent since 1980 &#8211; that de-emphasizes or rejects positive government intervention in the economy, focusing instead on achieving progress and even social justice by... The Democrats of the Left (Democratici di Sinistra, DS) is the main Italian left-wing political party, part of the Olive Tree electoral coalition. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Catalan political parties ... Social democracy is a political ideology emerging in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from supporters of Marxism who believed that the transition to a socialist society could be achieved through democratic evolutionary rather than revolutionary means. ... The Communist Refoundation Party (Italian: Partito della Rifondazione Comunista) is an Italian reformed communist party. ... PSUC viu symbol PSUC viu (Catalan for Living PSUC) is a political party in Catalonia, Spain. ... PCE symbol The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España or PCE) is the third largest political party of Spain. ...


Criticism of Eurocommunism

Two main criticisms have been advanced against Eurocommunism. First, it is alleged by right-wing critics that Eurocommunists showed a lack of courage in definitively breaking off from the Soviet Union (the Italian Communist party, for example, took this step only in 1981, after the repression of Solidarność in Poland). This "timidity" has been explained as the fear of losing old members and supporters, many of whom admired the USSR, or with a realpolitik desire to keep the support of a strong and powerful country. In politics, right-wing, the political right, or simply the right, are terms which refer, with no particular precision, to the segment of the political spectrum in opposition to left-wing politics. ... Solidarity (Polish Solidarność) is a Polish trade union federation founded in September 1980 at the Gdansk Shipyards, originally led by Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa. ... Realpolitik (German: real (realistic, practical or actual) and Politik (politics)) is a term that is synonomous to Machiavellianism and is used to describe politics based on strictly practical rather than ideological notions, and practiced without any sentimental illusions. Realpolitik is usually used pejoratively as a term to imply politics imposed...


Other critics point out the difficulties the Eurocommunist parties had in developing a clear and recognisable strategy. They observe that Eurocommunists have always claimed to be different - not only from Soviet Communism but also from Social Democracy - while, in practice, they were always very similar to at least one of these two tendencies. Thus, critics argue that Eurocommunism does not have a well defined identity and cannot be regarded as a separate movement in its own right.


From a Trotskyist point of view, Ernest Mandel in From Stalinism to Eurocommunism: The Bitter Fruits of 'Socialism in One Country' views Eurocommunism as a subsequent development of the decision taken by the Soviet Union in 1924 to abandon the goal of world revolution and concentrate on social and economic development of the Soviet Union, the so-called "Socialism in One Country". Thus the Eurocommunists of the Italian and French Communist parties are considered to be nationalist movements, who together with the Soviet Union abandoned internationalism. This is analogous to the Social democratic parties of the Second International during the First World War, when they supported their national governments in prosecution of the war. Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar). ... World revolution is a Marxist concept of a violent overthrow of capitalism that would take place in all countries, although not necessarily simultaneously. ... Socialism in One Country was a thesis put forward by Joseph Stalin in 1924 and further supported by Nikolai Bukharin. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Internationalism is a political movement which advocates a greater economic and political cooperation between nations for the benefit of all. ... The Second International was an organization formed in 1889 (after several years of preparation) by socialist and labour parties who wished to work together for international socialism. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


More generally, from the point of view of most revolutionary left-wing movements, Eurocommunism simply meant an abandonment of basic communist principles, such as the call for a proletarian revolution, which eventually led many Eurocommunists to abandon communism or even socialism altogether (by giving up their commitment to overthrow capitalism). Such critics felt strongly vindicated when several Eurocommunist parties scrapped their communist credentials following the fall of the Soviet Union. In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... A communist revolution is a social revolution inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, normally with socialism (public ownership over the means of production) as an intermediate stage. ...


Origin of the Term

The origin of the term Eurocommunism was subject to great debate in the mid-1970s, being attributed to Zbigniew Brzezinski and Arrigo Levi, among others. Jean-Francois Revel once wrote that "one of the favourite amusements of 'political scientists' is to search for the author of the term Eurocommunism." In April 1977, Deutschland-Archiv decided that the word was first used in the summer of 1975 by Yugoslav journalist Frane Barbieri, former editor of Belgrade's NIN Newsmagazine. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979. ... Zbigniew Kazimierz Brzezinski (born March 28, 1928, Warsaw, Poland) is a Polish-American political scientist, geostrategist, and statesman. ... Jean-Francois Revel (born January 19, 1924 in Marseille, France) is a French politician, journalist, author, philosopher and member of the Academie Francaise. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Macedonian Government Socialist republic President  - 1945 - 1953 Ivan Ribar  - 1991 Stjepan Mesić Prime Minister  - 1945 - 1963 Josip Broz Tito  - 1989 - 1991 Ante Marković Historical era Cold War  - Proclamation November 29, 1943  - UN membership October 24, 1945  - Constitution February 21, 1974  - Secessions... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... NIN is a weekly newsmagazine published in Serbia. ...


Further reading

  • Antonio Gramsci, Prison Notebooks: Selections, Lawrence and Wishart, 1973, ISBN 0-85315-280-2
  • Santiago Carrillo, Eurocommunism and the State, Lawrence and Wishart, 1977, ISBN 0-85315-408-2
  • Enrico Berlinguer, Antonio Bronda, Stephen Bodington, After Poland, Spokesman, 1982, ISBN 0-85124-344-4
  • Richard Kingsley (ed.), In Search of Eurocommunism, Macmillan Press, 1981, ISBN 0-333-26594-2
  • Roger Simon, Stuart Hall, Gramsci's Political Thought: An Introduction, Lawrence and Wishart, 1977, ISBN 0-85315-738-3
  • Ernesto Laclau, Chantal Mouffe, Hegemony and Socialist Strategy: Towards a Radical Democratic Politics, Verso, 2001, ISBN 1-85984-330-1
  • Ernest Mandel, From Stalinism to Eurocommunism: The Bitter Fruits of 'Socialism in One Country', NLB, 1978, hardcover, ISBN 0-86091-005-9; trade paperback, ISBN 0-86091-010-5

Antonio Gramsci (IPA: ) (January 22, 1891 – April 27, 1937) was an Italian writer, politician and political theorist. ... Santiago Carrillo Solares (born January 18, 1915), Spanish politician, was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1960 to 1982. ... Enrico Berlinguer. ... Roger Simon may refer to: Roger Simon, 2nd Baron Simon of Wythenshawe (1913-2002), a solicitor and left wing journalist and political activist Roger L. Simon, a mystery author, blogger and screenwriter Category: ... There have been several well-known people named Stuart Hall, including: Stuart Hall - radio and TV presenter from the United Kingdom Stuart Hall - influential cultural theorist from the United Kingdom This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ernesto Laclau is a political theorist often described as post-marxist. ... Chantal Mouffe (born 1943) is a Belgian political theorist. ... Ernest Mandel Ernest Ezra Mandel, also known by various pseudonyms such as Ernest Germain, Pierre Gousset, Henri Vallin, Walter etc. ...

References

  • "A Trotskyist criticism" is adapted from the Wikinfo article, "Eurocommunism, the Trotskyist criticism"

  Results from FactBites:
 
PMag v03n1p27 -- Eurocommunism: Showing a Human Face to Both Blocs (4063 words)
Eurocommunism represents a challenge to the militaristic governments of both blocs, with a dynamic that opposes both the advances of military technology in the West and abuses of human rights in the East.
Eurocommunism offers an important breakaway from the terms of "anti-Communism" and "Communism" which are used in both blocs to attack peace and social justice activists in their societies.
Eurocommunism's coming of age in its defence of Solidarity, came at the height of protests in Europe against the deployment of the cruise and Pershing missiles.
Eurocommunism: a new form of reformism [Sam Marcy -- 1978]: The Significance of Eurocommunism (2920 words)
Eurocommunism is the logical culmination of a long historical process which after a period of time became inevitable.
Eurocommunism is wholly in line with the perspective of American imperialism in its struggle against the USSR.
Eurocommunism, however, while it raises enormous problems for the working class in the struggle against the bourgeoisie, is not the formidable weapon, is not the great realization of their dream that the liberal arm of the imperialist establishment in the U.S. believes it is.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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