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Encyclopedia > Eurocentrism

Eurocentrism is the practice of viewing the world from a European perspective, with an implied belief, either consciously or subconsciously, in the preeminence of European (and, more generally, of Western) culture. The term Eurocentrism implies criticism of the concerns and values at the expense of non-Europeans and is not used by those who consider it factually justified. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Occident redirects here. ...


The Eurocentrism prevalent in international affairs in the 19th to 20th centuries has its historical roots in European colonialism and imperialism from the Early Modern period (16th to 18th centuries). Many international standards (such as the Prime Meridian, the Dionysian Era or the worldwide spread of the Latin alphabet) have their roots in this period. For more information on international affairs, see one of the following links: Diplomacy Foreign affairs International relations This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... The early modern period is a term used by historians to refer to the period in Western Europe and its first colonies which spans the two centuries between the Middle Ages and the Industrial Revolution. ... Standards are produced by many organisations, some for internal usage only, others for use by a groups of people, groups of companies, or a subsection of an industry. ... Location of the Prime Meridian Image:Prime Meridian. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ...


In both Europe and North America, the heyday of Eurocentricism was in the 19th century, today it is much less prevalent due to developments in popular culture and teaching.[1]


Alternatively, Eurocentric and Eurocentrist are occasionally used in British political discourse to describe supporters of European integration and the European Union, in other words as an antonym of Eurosceptic. European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... Look up Antonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ...

Contents

Origins

Further information: The European miracleAge of ExplorationColonialism, and Western World
Further information: Spanish Golden Age and Britain's Imperial Century

Early Eurocentrism can be traced to the European Renaissance, in which the revival of learning based on classical sources were focused on the ancient Greek and Roman civilizations, due to their being a significant source of contemporary European civilization. The term European miracle was coined by Eric Jones to describe his position that Europe was more advanced and progressive than all other civilizations prior to the year 1492, allowing it to develop capitalism, reach the New World first, and dominate world trade and politics. ... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Occident redirects here. ... The Spanish Golden Age (in Spanish, Siglo de Oro) was a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political decline and fall of the Habsburgs (Philip III, Philip IV and Charles II). ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


The effects of these assumptions of European superiority increased during the period of European imperialism, which started slowly in the 15th century, accelerated in the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, and reached its zenith in the 19th century. The progressively mechanised character of European culture was contrasted with traditional hunting, farming and herding societies in many of the areas of the world being newly conquered & colonised by Europeans, such as the Americas, most of Africa, and later the Pacific and Australasia. Even the complex civilizations of Arabia, Persia, India, China, Mexico, Peru and Japan were counted as underdeveloped when compared to Europe, and were often characterised as static.[citation needed] Many European writers of this time construed the history of Europe as paradigmatic for the rest of the world. Other cultures were identified as having reached a stage through which Europe itself had already passed – primitive hunter-gatherer; farming; early civilisation; feudalism;and modern liberal-capitalism. Only Europe was considered to have achieved the last stage. Superior has various meanings: A superior is a person who has the authority to command another, as in a superior officer. See: Superior (function) In a hierarchical structure of any kind, a superior is higher in the hierarchy and thus closer to the apex than the subordinate ones. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... World map showing the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere historically considered to consist of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Arab States redirects here. ... Persia redirects here. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... For other uses, see Civilization (disambiguation). ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...


For some writers, such as Karl Marx, the centrality of Europe to an understanding of world history did not imply any innate European superiority, but he nevertheless assumed that Europe provided a model for the world as a whole. Others looked forward to the expansion of modernity throughout the world through trade, imperialism or both. By the late 19th Century, the theory that European achievements arose from innate racial superiority became widespread, justifying race-based slavery, genocide, colonisation and other forms of political and economic exploitation. Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


The colonising period involved the widespread settlement of parts of the Americas and Australasia with European people, and the establishment of outposts and colonial administrations in parts of Asia and Africa. As a result, the majority populations of the Americas, Australia and New Zealand typically trace their ancestry to Europe. A Eurocentric history is taught in such countries, despite geographic isolation from Europe, with many European cultural traditions. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The European Miracle

The European miracle theory, developed initially by Eric Jones in 1987, [2] describes his position that Europe was more advanced and progressive than all other civilizations prior to the year 1492, allowing it to develop capitalism, reach the New World first, and dominate world trade and politics. The theory is criticised for Eurocentrism, with critics of the theory pointing out that progress in the rest of the world paralleled Europe before 1492, and that more than half of the world's population living in urban settlements (over 10,000 people) lived in China during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. Jones' work can be seen as building on a Eurocentric view of earlier European thinkers, with Max Weber's idea of the Protestant work ethic and Georg Hegel's Spirit providing a rationale for claiming the European mind (and European religion) is inherently superior to that of all other continents. Immanuel Wallerstein's idea of a world-economy and world-system originating in Europe also appear to come through in European miracle theory. The term European miracle was coined by Eric Jones to describe his position that Europe was more advanced and progressive than all other civilizations prior to the year 1492, allowing it to develop capitalism, reach the New World first, and dominate world trade and politics. ... The term European miracle was coined by Eric Jones to describe his position that Europe was more advanced and progressive than all other civilizations prior to the year 1492, allowing it to develop capitalism, reach the New World first, and dominate world trade and politics. ... For the politician, see Max Weber (politician). ... The Protestant work ethic, or sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a persons calling as a sign of personal salvation. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... For other uses, see Spirit (disambiguation). ... Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein (born 28 September 1930, New York City) is a U.S. sociologist by credentials, but a historical social scientist, or world-systems analyst by trade. ...


Examples of Eurocentrism

World map showing Europe vertically centered
World map showing Europe vertically centered

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 55 KB) link title dkrjfjjfffffffffffffffffffffffffvnguigtailewGFGSgfgfFdsguuggsgsugusGUISHGUIYFGHFDGHEAHRUGIDAFGOFDSOGYFOHGUOFDYHOIYFDSYOGIDHB JKZVXCNBJKGDUGKDFH87IHZDJKLGXHGKVCZHBUIJZUIVBHUIVCYUBHFDZKHUIVCVCYUBYVCUIBXChkGHIDAHAYFDUGFGFDZOIGFDZHLGFDZHJLGFDSZhKLZFDHFXGJFSJGFXJXZJXGFGJXJJJJJJFGFFDFHFDZFHHDHFHDZHFDZHDZHFDHFDDHHHFDFDHZFHGFJZHJAYATHZDGXVJGJTDYHDGHBNDZHFXHZGFDHDZHZDZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG World map depicting Europe; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File links The following pages link to this file: Australia Africa Asia Antarctica Africa-Eurasia Continent Europe Elias Canetti... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2759x1404, 55 KB) link title dkrjfjjfffffffffffffffffffffffffvnguigtailewGFGSgfgfFdsguuggsgsugusGUISHGUIYFGHFDGHEAHRUGIDAFGOFDSOGYFOHGUOFDYHOIYFDSYOGIDHB JKZVXCNBJKGDUGKDFH87IHZDJKLGXHGKVCZHBUIJZUIVBHUIVCYUBHFDZKHUIVCVCYUBYVCUIBXChkGHIDAHAYFDUGFGFDZOIGFDZHLGFDZHJLGFDSZhKLZFDHFXGJFSJGFXJXZJXGFGJXJJJJJJFGFFDFHFDZFHHDHFHDZHFDZHDZHFDHFDDHHHFDFDHZFHGFJZHJAYATHZDGXVJGJTDYHDGHBNDZHFXHZGFDHDZHZDZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZZGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGG World map depicting Europe; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File links The following pages link to this file: Australia Africa Asia Antarctica Africa-Eurasia Continent Europe Elias Canetti...

Cartography

The division of the landmass of Eurasia into the separate continents of Asia and Europe is an anomaly with no basis in physical geography. An alternative view is that Eurasia is a single continent, one of six continents in total. This view is held by some geographers[who?] and is preferred[citation needed] in Russia (which spans Asia and Europe). The separation is maintained for historical and cultural reasons. For other uses, see Eurasia (disambiguation). ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Arno Peters highlighted the political implications of map design by promoting the Gall- Peters projection, as a contrasting world map to the Mercator projection, a commonly used world map projection at the time. The Mercator projection distorts areas further from the equator, making Europe and North America appear disproportionately large compared to similar sized areas closer to the equator, such as Africa, Central America and Australia. Alaska, for example, is presented as being similar or even slightly larger in size than Brazil, when Brazil's area is actually almost 5 times that of Alaska. Arno Peters (May 22, 1916 - December 2, 2002) was the developer of the Peters Projection map. ... Peters map The Peters World Map or Gall-Peters projection is an orthographic equal-area map projection of the earth. ... Mercator world map Nova et Aucta Orbis Terrae Descriptio ad Usum Navigatium Emendate (1569) The Mercator projection is a cylindrical map projection presented by the Flemish geographer and cartographer Gerardus Mercator, in 1569. ...


The longitude meridians of world maps based on the prime meridian, placing Greenwich, London in the centre, has been in use since 1851. Various other prime meridians were in use during the Age of Exploration. The current prime meridian has the advantage that it places the International Date Line in the Pacific, inconveniencing the smallest number of people. Location of the Prime Meridian Image:Prime Meridian. ... This page is about Greenwich in England. ... The so-called Age of Exploration was a period from the early 15th century and continuing into the early 17th century, during which European ships were traveled around the world to search for new trading routes and partners to feed burgeoning capitalism in Europe. ... “Date line” redirects here. ... For other meanings of Pacific, see Pacific (disambiguation). ...


A residual effect of the European origin of the English language are terms like 'Middle East', which describes an area slightly east of Europe, and the 'Far East'. Alternatively, the Western World, or 'Western civilisation' are terms that group culturally similar countries- not only Central and Western Europe, but the former European colonies of North America, Australia and New Zealand. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... This article is about the Asian regions. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Education

Eurocentrism was once embedded in the study of Greek classic literature. For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ...


In the 1960s a reaction against the priority given to a canon of "Dead White European Males" provided a slogan which neatly sums up the charge of Eurocentrism (alongside other important -centrisms)[citation needed]. Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Western canon is a canon of books and art (and specifically one with very loose boundaries) that has allegedly been highly influential in shaping Western culture. ... Dead white males or Dead White European Males (DWEM) is a derisive term referring to a tradition of thought and pedagogy, like the Great Books focus of educational essentialism and Educational perennialism, which is believed to stress the importance and contributions of individual European males from the past, while largely...


Garry Wills, the journalist and professor of American Studies at Northwestern University, writes that Eurocentrism created a false picture of the classics themselves.[3] Garry Wills (born May 22, 1934 in Atlanta, Georgia) is an author and historian, and a frequent contributor to the New York Review of Books. ...


Since the 1970s, the indebtedness of Classical Greece to "the Orient" (notably the Neo-Assyrian Empire) at the time of its formation during the Early Iron Age has been given more prominence.[4] Parthenon This article is on the term Classical Greece itself. ... Map of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its expansions. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


World languages

As a direct consequence of the "European miracle" and the colonial empires, languages of Europe are over-represented among the current world languages: out of nine languages generally considered "world languages", six are of European origin (English, Spanish, Russian, Portuguese, French), besides Mandarin Chinese, Arabic and Hindi-Urdu. The asymmetry is even more pronounced in the distribution of Nobel Prize in Literature, of which a clear majority has gone to authors writing in languages of European origin. In the period 1901 to 1950, Rabindranath Tagore was the only author writing in a non-European language (Bengali) who received a Nobel Prize (in 1913). In the period 1951 to 2000, there were six laureates writing in non-European languages. Most of the many languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family. ... Human Language Families Most languages are known to belong to language families (families hereforth). ... This article is on all of the Northern Chinese dialects. ... Arabic redirects here. ... // The Relationship between Hindi, Urdu, and Hindustani/Hindi-Urdu Hindustani (or the Hindustani language) is a term used by linguists to describe a closely related series of languages or dialects stretching across the northwestern part of the Indian subcontinent. ... René-François-Armand Prudhomme (1839–1907), a French poet and essayist, was the first person to win the Nobel Prize in Literature, in 1901, in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Of the six official languages of the UN (Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish, and Arabic), four are European. All six directly reflect historical imperialism: the European Spanish Empire (16th to 17th centuries), British Empire (16th to 20th centuries), Russian Empire (19th century) and French Empire (19th to 20th century), besides the Chinese Empire (3rd century BC to 19th century) and the Arab Caliphates (7th to 13th centuries). For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... An anachronous map of the overseas Spanish Empire (1492-1898) in red, and the Spanish Habsburg realms in Europe (1516-1714) in orange. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... -1... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ...


By region

Eurocentrism in Africa

During the colonisation of Africa by European nations, Eurocentric systems of second-class citizenship were often set up in order to give Europeans political power far in excess of their numbers in those nations that had substantial European populations, such as Rhodesia (now Zimbabwe) and South Africa. The Congo Free State was claimed as the personal property of King Leopold II of Belgium, with a subsequent inhumane treatment and forced labour of the native population. Map showing European claimants to the African continent in 1913. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Capital Boma Government Monarchy Ruler and owner Leopold II of Belgium Historical era New Imperialism  - Established 1885  - Annexation by Belgium 15 November, 1908 The Congo Free State was a corporate state privately controlled by Leopold II, King of the Belgians through a dummy non-governmental organization, the Association Internationale Africaine. ... King Leopold II Leopold II, King of the Belgians (Louis Philippe Marie Victor) (April 9, 1835–December 17, 1909), succeeded his father, Leopold I of Belgium, to the Belgian throne in 1865 and remained king until his death. ...


Eurocentrism has been said to deny Africans agency in the creation of their own history. For example, until recently, in Western scholarship cities such as Dakar, Banjul (Bathhurst), Abidjan, Conakry and others were assumed to be creations of Western colonisers. However, though they were transformed in both negative and positive ways by colonisation, these cities predate colonisation as did many of the economic and institutional patterns found in Africa.[5] (City of Dakar, divided into 19 communes darrondissement) City proper (commune) Région Dakar Département Dakar Mayor Pape Diop (PDS) (since 2002) Area 82. ... Location of Banjul in The Gambia Street in Banjul city Banjul (formerly Bathurst) is the capital of The Gambia. ... Freeway along the Ébrié Lagoon near the Plateau, Abidjans business district and centre of the city. ...


Eurocentrism in Australia

The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was one of the first Acts of Australia's Federal Parliament after nationalism lead to the country's independence from European (British) rule. The Act placed "certain restrictions on immigration and... for the removal... of prohibited immigrants". Edmund Barton, the prime minister, argued in support of the Bill with the following statement: "The doctrine of the equality of man was never intended to apply to the equality of the Englishman and the Chinaman." The White Australia Policy was gradually removed after World War Two until the 1970s. This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration... The Immigration Restriction Act 1901 was an Act of the Parliament of Australia which limited immigration to Australia and formed the basis of the White Australia policy. ... Sir Edmund Barton, GCMG, QC (18 January 1849 – 7 January 1920), Australian politician and judge, was the first Prime Minister of Australia and a founding justice of the High Court of Australia. ... This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration...


Less overtly Eurocentric was the view that the Indigenous people of Australia did not require any compensation or consideration when their land was claimed as a British colony, as their use of the land did fit with recognised (European) views of land ownership. They were later specifically denied citizenship in the Australian constitution, and traditional European views of appropriate lifestyles and attitudes lead to a policy of cultural assimilation, designed to eradicate the race through measures including the forced removal of children. Not to be confused with Intermarriage. ... Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were removed from their families, under the rationale of...


Eurocentrism in Argentina

In Argentina an extensive racist ideology has been built on the notion of European supremacy.[6] This ideology forwards the idea that Argentina is a country populated by European immigrants "bajados de los barcos" (straight off the boat), frequently referred to as "our grandfathers", who founded a special type of "white" and European society that is not Latin-American.[7] In addition, this ideology holds forth that cultural influences from other communities such as the Aborigines, Africans, Latin-Americans, or Asians are not relevant and even undesirable. White-European racism in Argentina shares similarities with the White Australia policy that was practiced during the beginning of the 20th century. This badge from 1906 shows the use of the expression White Australia at that time While there was never any specific official policy called the White Australia policy, this is the term used for a collection of historical legislation and policies which either intentionally or unintentionally restricted non-white immigration...


White-European racism in Argentina has a history of government participation. The ideology even has a legal foundation that was set forth in Article 25 of the National Constitution sponsored by Juan B. Alberdi. The article establishes a difference between European immigration (which should be encouraged) and non-European immigration.

Article 25: The Federal Government will encourage European immigration; and will not restrict, limit, nor tax the entry of any foreigner into the territory of Argentina who comes with the goal of working the land, bettering industry, or introducing or teaching sciences or the arts.

Eurocentrism in the United States

Further information: Culture wars and Afrocentrism

During the 17th century, British settlers and immigrants from across Europe brought their Eurocentrism with them to America. After the American Revolution, the colonists Eurocentrism morphed into the Americentrism that was epitomised in the zeitgeist of the Jacksonian Era and Manifest Destiny. The term culture war has been used to describe ideologically-driven and often strident confrontations typical of American public culture and politics since at least the 1980s. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress in Philadelphia The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen... This article is about the German word. ... Order: 7th President Term of Office: March 4, 1829–March 3, 1837 Preceded by: John Quincy Adams Succeeded by: Martin Van Buren Date of birth: March 15, 1767 Place of birth: South Carolina or North Carolina Date of death: June 8, 1845 Place of death: The Hermitage, Nashville, Tennessee First... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ...


Decline

Even in the 19th century, anti-colonial movements had developed claims about national traditions and values that were set against those of Europe. In some cases, as with China, where local ideology was even more exclusionist than the Eurocentric one, Westernisation did not overwhelm long-established Chinese attitudes to its own cultural centrality.[8]


In contrast, countries such as Australia defined their nationhood entirely in terms of an overseas extension of European history. It was, until recently, thought to have had no history or serious culture before colonisation. The history of the native inhabitants was subsumed by the Western disciplines of ethnology and archaeology. In Central America and South America a merger of immigrant and native histories was constructed. Nationalist movements appropriated the history of native civilizations such as the Mayans and Incas, to construct models of cultural identity that claimed a fusion between immigrant and native identity. Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning people) is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... This article is about the pre-Columbian Maya civilization. ... For the political organization and administration of the Inca territory, see Inca Empire. ...


At the same time, the intellectual traditions of Eastern cultures were becoming more widely known in the West, mediated by figures such as Rabindranath Tagore. By the early 20th century some historians such as Arnold J. Toynbee were attempting to construct multi-focal models of world civilizations. (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... This page is about the universal historian Arnold Joseph Toynbee; for the economic historian Arnold Toynbee see this article. ...


Since the end of World War II, the former worldwide dominance of European culture has waned drastically (Decolonization). The change has been most drastic in the USA, triggered by the 1950s to 1960s civil rights movement and perpetuated by the political correctness of the 1970s to 1980s. Today, Eurocentrism remains a topic in the US "culture wars", notably when juxtaposed to Afrocentrism, but its prominence is limited compared to topics of religion or social issues. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... The term culture war has been used to describe ideologically-driven and often strident confrontations typical of American public culture and politics since at least the 1980s. ... see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ...


Bibliography

  • Samir Amin: L´Eurocentrisme, critique d´une idéologie. Paris 1988, engl. Eurocentrism, Monthly Review Press 1989, ISBN 0853457867
  • J.M. Blaut: The Colonizer's Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History . Guilford Press 1993. ISBN 0898623480
  • J.M. Blaut: Eight Eurocentric Historians. Guilford Press 2000. ISBN 1572305916
  • Dipesh Chakrabarty, Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference, Princeton UP 2000
  • Gerhard Hauck, Die Gesellschaftstheorie und ihr Anderes : wider den Eurozentrismus der Sozialwissenschaften, Münster 2003
  • Vassilis Lambropoulos, The rise of Eurocentrism : anatomy of interpretation, Princeton, NJ : Princeton Univ. Press, 1993
  • Jose Rabasa, Inventing America: Spanish Historiography and the Formation of Eurocentrism (Oklahoma Project for Discourse and Theory, Vol 2), University of Oklahoma Press 1994
  • Ella Shohat and Robert Stam, Unthinking Eurocentrism: multiculturalism and the media, Routledge 1994
  • Charlotte Spitzer, Neorassismus und Europa : rassistische Strukturen in der Selbstvergewisserung Europäischer Identität, Frankfurt am Main [etc.] : Lang, 2003
  • Ngugi wa Thiong'o, Moving the Centre: The Struggle for Cultural Freedom, Heinemann Educational Publishers, 1993
  • Robert J.C. Young, White mythologies : writing history and the west, 2nd edition, Taylor & Francis, 2004

Samir Amin (b. ... Ngũgĩ wa Thiongo signs copies of his new book Wizard of the Crow. In London at the Congress Centre in central London. ... Robert JC Young, postcolonial theorist and activist, literary critic, and historian. ...

See also

see African studies for the study of African culture and history in Africa. ... Progress of America, 1875, by Domenico Tojetti American exceptionalism (cf. ... Anthropocentrism (Greek άνθρωπος, anthropos, human, κέντρον, kentron, center), or the human-centered principle, refers to the idea that humanity must always remain the central concern for humans. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Pan-Europeanism. ... For the book by Edward Said, see Orientalism (book). ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... The Sinocentric World: The area of usage of Chinese characters at its maximum extent (to a considerable extent following the borders of the Qing dynasty). ...

References

  1. ^ GCSE History National Curriculum, Quality and Curriculums Authority, London UK 1989; A Level Modern History, Edexcel, www.edexcel.org.uk
  2. ^ Jones, Eric ((2003 (1st ed 1987))). The European Miracle: Environments, Economies and Geopolitics in the History of Europe and Asia. ISBN ISBN 0-521-52783-X. 
  3. ^ The Culture Wars and the Great Conversation PBS.org
  4. ^ Walter Burkert, (1992) The Orientalizing Revolution: Near Eastern Influence on Greek Culture in the Early Archaic Age, trans. Margaret E. Pinder, Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-64363-1. 
  5. ^ The History of African Cities South of the Sahara by Catherine Coquery-Vidrovitch P. 329
  6. ^ La discriminación en la discursividad social, por Mario Margulis, en Margulis (1998):17-37
  7. ^ El racismo argentino es un racismo europeo, por Teun van Dijk, Centro de Documentación Mapuche, 2004
  8. ^ Cambridge History of China, CUP,1988

Walter Burkert (born Neuendettelsau (Bavaria), February 2, 1931), the most eminent living scholar of Greek myth and cult, is an emeritus professor of classics at the University of Zurich, Switzerland who has also taught in the United Kingdom and the United States. ...

Bibliography

  • Bairoch, Paul (1993). Economics and World History: Myths and Paradoxes. University Of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226034623. 
  • Baudet, E. H. P. (1959). Paradise on Earth: Some Thoughts on European Images of Non-European Man, Translated by Elizabeth Wentholt, New Haven, CT: Yale University Press. ASIN B0007DKQMW (1965). 
  • Lefkowitz, Mary (1996). Not Out of Africa: How Afrocentrism Became an Excuse to Teach Myth as History. New York: Basic Books. ISBN 0465098371. 
  • Preiswerk, Roy; Dominique Perrot (1978). Ethnocentrism and History: Africa, Asia, and Indian America in Western Textbooks. New York and London: NOK. ISBN 0883570718. 
  • Rüsen, Jörn (2004). "How to Overcome Ethnocentrism: Approaches to a Culture of Recognition by History in the Twenty-First Century.". History and Theory: Studies in the Philosophy of History (43:2004): pp. 118–129. 
  • Trevor-Roper, Hugh (1965). The Rise of Christian Europe. London: Thames and Hudson. ASIN B000O894GO. 

The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a unique identification number assigned by Amazon. ... Mary R. Lefkowitz (born 1935) and Professor Emerita of Classical Studies at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, USA. She earned her B.A. from Wellesley College in 1957, and received her Ph. ... Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton (January 15, 1914 – January 26, 2003) was a notable historian of Early Modern Britain and Nazi Germany. ... The Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN) is a unique identification number assigned by Amazon. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eurocentrism and Science (1265 words)
Several strategies have been used to reinforce the myth that regions outside Europe contributed nothing to the development of science and technology either in terms of hardware or software- the view that historically the majority of the world have been passive recipients of a so-called Western science and technology.
The birth of modern science is often associated with the 17th century, admittedly a period of intensified intellectual activity on the part of European scholars.
But it may be that Modern Science predates such eurocentric boundaries.It is as difficult to conceive of mathematics without the Hindu-Arabic numerals, the concept zero and algebraic notations as it is to think of optics without al-Haitham and al-Kindi.
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