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Encyclopedia > Euro banknotes

The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. The euro was formally established as a unit of exchange on 1 January 1999, and euro banknotes and coins (see euro coins) entered circulation in 12 member states on 1 January 2002. On 1 January 2007 Slovenia, a state that joined the EU in May 2004, became the 13th state to join the euro area. The remaining EU states with the exception of the United Kingdom and Denmark are required to adopt the euro after meeting the necessary economic conditions to enter the eurozone. Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links Euro_banknotes. ... Image File history File links Euro_banknotes. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Contents

Denominations

The banknotes show the signature of the president of the ECB, currently Jean-Claude Trichet
The banknotes show the signature of the president of the ECB, currently Jean-Claude Trichet

There are seven different denominations, each having a distinctive colour and size. The design for each of them has a common theme of European architecture in various artistic periods. The front (or recto) of the note features windows or gateways while the back (or verso) has bridges. Care has been taken so that the architectural examples do not represent any actual existing monument, so as not to induce jealousy and controversy in the choice of which monument should be depicted [2]. Image File history File links Trichet_signature. ... Image File history File links Trichet_signature. ... This is a list of the Presidents of the European Central Bank since the establishment of the bank on June 1, 1998. ... Order: 2nd President Nationality: French Vice President: Lucas Papademos Term of office: November 1, 2003 – Present Preceded by: Wim Duisenberg Succeeded by: Incumbent Jean-Claude Trichet (born December 20, 1942) is a French banker. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article is about the philosophical concept of Art. ...


Common to all notes are the European flag, the initials of the European Central Bank in five versions (BCE, ECB, EZB, ΕΚΤ, EKP), a map of Europe on the back, the name "euro" in both Latin and Greek script and the signature of the current president of the ECB. The 12 stars from the European Flagof the EU are also incorporated into every note. Flag Ratio: 2:3 The European flag consists of a circle of twelve golden stars on a blue background. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... The Greek alphabet (Greek: ) is an alphabet consisting of 24 letters that has been used to write the Greek language since the late 8th or early 9th century BC. It was the first alphabet in the narrow sense, that is, a writing system using a separate symbol for each vowel... This is a list of the Presidents of the European Central Bank since the establishment of the bank on June 1, 1998. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ...


The euro banknote designs were chosen from 44 proposals in a design competition, launched by The Council of the European Monetary Institute (EMI) on 12 February 1996. The winning entry, created by Robert Kalina from the Oesterreichische Nationalbank, was selected on 3 December 1996. is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Oesterreichische Nationalbank (OeNB) is the central bank of the Republic of Austria and, as such, an integral part of both the European System of Central Banks (ESCB) and the Eurozone. ... is the 337th day of the year (338th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ...


Specification

The paper used for euro banknotes is 100% pure cotton fibre,[1] which improves their durability as well as imparting a distinctive feel.

2002 Series
Image Value Dimensions,
millimetres
Main Colour Design Printer code position
Obverse Reverse Architecture Century
€5 120 × 62 Grey Classical < 5th left image edge
€10 127 × 67 Red Romanesque 11-12th 8 o'clock star
€20 133 × 72 Blue Gothic 13-14th 9 o'clock star
€50 140 × 77 Orange Renaissance 15-16th right image edge
€100 147 × 82 Green Baroque & Rococo 17-18th right of 9 o'clock star
€200 153 × 82 Yellow-brown Art Nouveau 19-20th above 7 o'clock star
€500 160 × 82 Purple Modern 20th century 20-21st 9 o'clock star
These images are to scale at 0.7 pixels per millimetre, a standard for world banknotes. For table standards, see the banknote specification table.

The following member overseas territories are shown: the Azores, French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Madeira, Martinique, Réunion, and the Canary Islands. Cyprus and Malta are not shown, as they only joined the EU in 2004; also Malta is too small to be shown, with the minimum size for depiction being 400km². Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... From the point of view of modern times, the ancient civilizations of the Mediterranean sometimes seem to blend smoothly into one melange we call the Classical. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... South transept of Tournai Cathedral, Belgium, 12th century. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Interior of Cologne Cathedral Interior of San Zanipolo, Venice, photo Giovanni dallOrto. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Tempietto di San Pietro in Montorio, Rome, 1502, by Bramante. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Baroque (disambiguation). ... North side of the Catherine Palace in Tsarskoye Selo - carriage courtyard: all the stucco details sparkled with gold until 1773, when Catherine II had gilding replaced with olive drab paint. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Vitebsk Railway Station one of the finest examples of Art Nouveau architecture. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Modern architecture, not to be confused with contemporary architecture, is a term given to a number of building styles with similar characteristics, primarily the simplification of form and the elimination of ornament. ... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ...


These designs use the Duisenberg signature, which has since been replaced by the signature of Jean-Claude Trichet, the present president of the ECB.[3]


Special features for people with impaired sight

The design of euro banknotes include several characteristics suggested in co-operation with organisations representing blind people. These characteristics aid both people who are visually impaired (people who can see the banknotes, but cannot necessarily read the printing on them) and those who are entirely blind. This article is about the visual condition. ... Visual impairment is the functional loss of vision. ...


Euro banknotes increase in size with increasing denominations, which helps both the visually impaired and the blind. The predominant colouring of the notes alternates between “warm” and “cool” hues in adjacent denominations (see the chart above), making it still harder to confuse two similar denominations for those who can see the colour. The printing of the denominations is intaglio printing, which allows the ink to be felt by sensitive fingers, allowing some people to distinguish the printed denominations by touch alone. Lower denominations (5, 10, 20) have smooth bands along one side of the note containing holograms; higher denominations have smooth, square patches with holograms. Finally, the €200 and €500 notes have distinctive tactile patterns along the edges of the notes: the €200 note has vertical lines running from the bottom centre to the right-hand corner, and the €500 note has diagonal lines running down the right-hand edge. Intaglio printing. ... This article is about the photographic technique. ...


It can be useful to fold a note between two fingers and then use the fingers as a length gauge to distinguish one note from another.


Although there have been other currencies pre-dating the euro that were specifically designed in similar ways (different sizes, colours, and ridges) to aid the visually impaired, the introduction of the euro constitutes the first time that authorities have consulted associations representing the blind before, rather than after, the release of the currency.


Security features

The ECB has described some of the more rudimentary security features of the euro note, allowing the general public to authenticate their currency at a glance. However, in the interest of security, the exhaustive list of these features is a closely-guarded secret.


Still, between the official descriptions and independent discoveries made by observant users, it is thought that the euro notes include at least thirty different security features. These include:


Holograms: the €5, €10 and €20 notes carry a holographic band to the right of the front side. This band is imprinted with the note's denomination; e.g., "€5 €5 €5...." in the case of the five-euro note. Holography (from the Greek, &#908;&#955;&#959;&#962;-holos whole + &#947;&#961;&#945;&#966;&#942;-graphe writing) is the science of producing holograms, an advanced form of photography that allows an image to be recorded in three dimensions. ...


In the case of the €50 notes and higher, the band is replaced with a holographic decal.


Variable colour ink appears on the lower right corner of back side of the €50 and higher. When observed from different angles, the colour varies between purple and green.


Checksum: each note has a unique serial number. The serial number is validated using a checksum. The following is an extract from the europa.union.euro FAQ that explains how to check the validity of a serial number: A checksum is a form of redundancy check, a simple way to protect the integrity of data by detecting errors in data that are sent through space (telecommunications) or time (storage). ... A checksum is a form of redundancy check, a simple way to protect the integrity of data by detecting errors in data that are sent through space (telecommunications) or time (storage). ...

  • Replace the initial letter by its position in the alphabet (that is L is 12, M is 13,..., Z is 26).
  • Add up this number and every digit of the serial number. For example:
U08217383936 is 21 + 0 + 8 + 2 + 1 + 7 + 3 + 8 + 3 + 9 + 3 + 6 = 71
  • Add up all the digits of this new number, redo as many times as necessary until you obtain a one-digit number. Alternatively computer programmers may find the familiar MOD 9 function easier to implement. This gives the same result.

The resulting number must be 8 - in the example above, 7 + 1 = 8 or 71 MOD 9 = 8, so it's correct.


Watermark: Each denomination is printed on uniquely-watermarked paper. This may be observed by holding the note up to the light. This article is about physical paper watermarks. ...


Registration: The note denomination in the upper-left corner of the front of each note is printed incompletely, as is the denomination in the upper-right corner of the back. When held up to the light, this denomination is visible in its entirety. Genuine notes will exhibit perfect alignment (or 'registration') between the front and back. If the note has been printed incorrectly, i.e. by a counterfeiter, these numbers may appear poorly aligned. Registration is a term used in the printing and desktop publishing industry. ...


Texture: some areas of the notes have a different texture from others. the BCE ECB EZB text is one of them. Look up texture in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Raised printing: some characters are raised to the touch.


Bar code: when held up to the light, metallic bars can be seen to the right of the watermark. The number and width of these bars indicates the value of the note. When scanned, these bars are converted to Manchester code. Wikipedia encoded in Code 128_B A barcode (also bar code) is a machine-readable representation of information in a visual format on a surface. ... In telecommunication, Manchester code (also known as Phase Encoding, or PE) is a form of data communications line code in which each bit of data is signified by at least one voltage level transition. ...

Manchester code
Note Barcode Manchester
€5 0110 10 100
€10 0101 10 110
€20 1010 1010 0000
€50 0110 1010 1000
€100 0101 1010 1100
€200 0101 0110 1110
€500 0101 0101 1111

(looked at from the reverse, a dark bar is 1, a bright bar 0)


EURion constellation: Euro banknotes contain a pattern known as the EURion constellation which can be used to detect their identity as banknotes to prevent copying. Some older photocopiers are programmed to reject images containing this pattern. The small circles or dots constituting the EURion constellation are clearly visible on the centre-left of 10 euro banknotes. ...


Digital watermark: Like the EURion constellation, a Digimarc digital watermark is embedded in the banknotes' designs. Recent versions of image editors, such as Adobe Photoshop or Paint Shop Pro refuse to process banknotes. Steven J. Murdoch's description. Digimarc Corporation, commonly known as Digimarc, (NASDAQ: DMRC) is the leading provider in secure government issued credentials. ... Photoshop redirects here. ... Paint Shop Pro (PSP) is a bitmap graphics editor and vector graphics editor for computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system that was originally published by Minneapolis-based Jasc Software. ...


Security Thread: A black thread in the middle of the note is seen only against a light source. It shows the denomination of the note, along with the word "euro". This thread is magnetic.


Magnetic ink: Some areas feature magnetic ink. The rightmost church window on the €20 note is magnetic, as well as the large zero above it.


Infra-red and ultra-violet watermarks: when seen in the near infrared, the banknotes will show darker areas in different zones depending on the denomination. Ultraviolet light will make the EURion constellation show in sharper contrast, and also some fluorescent threads stand out. Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) Infrared (IR) radiation is electromagnetic radiation of a wavelength longer than visible light, but shorter than microwave radiation. ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Fluorescence induced by exposure to ultraviolet light in vials containing various sized cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots. ...


Micro-print: the texture lines to the bottom, e.g. those aligned with the ΕΥΡΩ mark on the 10 EUR note, are actually made of the word "EURO" in very small print.


Matted surface: the euro sign and the denomination are printed on a vertical band which is only visible when lighted at an angle of 45°.


Counterfeiting

Graph of counterfeits seized by ECB
Graph of counterfeits seized by ECB

There has been a rapid growth in the counterfeiting of euro banknotes and coins since the launch of the currency in 2002. The first counterfeit work was a €10 note spent at Vivo newsagents, Straffan, Ireland mere days after the currency was launched: it was an amateur effort, made with a PC scanner and printer. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Counterfeit (disambiguation). ... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Leinster County: Elevation: 70 m Population (2006)  - Town:  - Rural:   c. ...


In 2003, 551,287 fake euro notes and 26,191 bogus euro coins were removed from EU circulation. In 2004, French police seized fake 10 euro and 20 euro notes worth a total of around €1.8 million from two laboratories and estimated that 145,000 notes had already entered circulation.


Serial number

Unlike the euro coins, the euro notes do not have a national side indicating which country produced them. This information is instead encoded within the note's serial number. The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the...


The first letter of the serial number uniquely identifies the country that issues the note. The remaining numbers (when added up and the digits of the resulting sum then added together again until a single digit remains) give a checksum also particular to that country. The W, K and J codes have been reserved for the EU member states currently not participating in the euro.


Country letters

Country codes are alphabetised according to the countries' names in the official language of each country, but reversed:

National identification codes
Code Country Checksum(1)
in English in official language
Z Belgium België/Belgique/Belgien 9
Y Greece Ελλάδα [Ellada] 1
X Germany Deutschland 2
(W) (Denmark) Danmark (3)
V Spain España 4
U France France 5
T Ireland Éire/Ireland 6
S Italy Italia 7
(R) (Luxembourg) Luxembourg/Luxemburg/Lëtzebuerg (8)
(Q) Not Used
P Netherlands Nederland 1
(O) Not Used
N Austria Österreich 3
M Portugal Portugal 4
L Finland Suomi/Finland 5
(K) (Sweden) Sverige (6)
(J) (United Kingdom) United Kingdom (7)

(1) checksum of the 11 digits without the letter A checksum is a form of redundancy check, a simple way to protect the integrity of data by detecting errors in data that are sent through space (telecommunications) or time (storage). ...

  • The positions of Denmark and Greece have been swapped in the list of letters starting the serial numbers, presumably because Y (upsilon) is a letter of the Greek alphabet, while W is not.
  • Ireland's first official language is Irish; however, in the above chart it is clear the order was based on the English Ireland rather than the Irish which is Éire. Irish is an official EU language as of 1 January 2007. It is uncertain if this will affect the placement of its code in euro banknotes printed after that time.
  • In the case of Finland, which has two official languages that are also official EU languages (Finnish and Swedish), the order was based on the Finnish Suomi instead of the Swedish Finland, presumably because Finnish is the majority language in the country.
  • Belgium has three official languages, all of which are official EU languages. Luxembourg also has three official languages, with two being official EU languages. However, in these cases, the countries' positions in the list would be the same no matter which language was used.

The notes of Luxembourg currently use the prefix belonging to the country where they were printed. Upsilon (upper case , lower case ) is the 20th letter of the Greek alphabet. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Slovenia will not print euro notes for the time being, and will use previously issued banknotes from other eurozone member states. For this reason, no country code has been reserved for Slovenia yet.


Also, as the number of members of the EU grows steadily larger, it seems likely that when the next series is issued (2008 expected) that the prefixes will change to 2-digit prefixes as at that stage, there should be 27 members (but only 26 letters in the Latin alphabet, or fewer if letters that could be confused with numbers are excluded).


It has also been suggested that, should the prefixes change to two characters, the code should be the state's ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code (e.g., EE for Estonia, DE for Germany). ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 codes are two-letter country codes in the ISO 3166-1 standard to represent countries and dependent areas. ...


Printing works

Somewhat hidden on the front of the note is a second, smaller sequence where the first letter identifies the actual printer of the note. The printer code need not coincide with the country code, i.e. notes issued by a particular country may have been printed in another country (e.g. some Finnish notes have in fact been produced by a UK printer). The A, C and S codes have been reserved for printers currently not printing euro banknotes.

Printer identification codes
Code Printer Location Country
(A)
(Bank of England Printing Works) (Loughton) (United Kingdom)
(B)
Not Used --- ---
(C)
(Tumba Bruk) (Tumba) (Sweden)
D
Setec Oy Vantaa Finland
E
F. C. Oberthur Chantepie France
F
Österreichische Banknoten und Sicherheitsdruck Vienna Austria
G
Koninklijke Joh. Enschedé Haarlem Netherlands
H
De La Rue Gateshead United Kingdom
(I)
Not Used --- ---
J
Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato Rome Italy
K
Banc Ceannais na hÉireann / Central Bank of Ireland Dublin Ireland
L
Banque de France Chamalières France
M
Fábrica Nacional de Moneda y Timbre Madrid Spain
N
Bank of Greece Athens Greece
(O)
Not Used --- ---
P
Giesecke & Devrient Munich & Leipzig Germany
(Q)
Not Used --- ---
R
Bundesdruckerei Berlin Germany
(S)
(Danmarks Nationalbank) (Copenhagen) (Denmark)
T
National Bank of Belgium Brussels Belgium
U
Valora - Banco de Portugal Carregado Portugal

As from 2002, the individual national central banks (NCBs) are responsible for the production of one or two specific banknote denominations and will thus select the printing works. For example the National Bank of Belgium is one of the 4 banks responsible for printing 50€ notes. This decentralised pooling scheme means that the NCBs have to exchange the denominations produced in different locations prior to issue. Headquarters Coordinates , , Governor Mervyn King Central Bank of United Kingdom Currency Pound sterling ISO 4217 Code GBP Base borrowing rate 5. ... For other places with the same name, see Loughton (disambiguation). ... Tumba Bruk is the printing company responsible for manufacturing of the Swedish krona banknotes. ... Tumba is a suburb of Greater Stockholm, and the seat of Botkyrka Municipality, in Stockholm County, Sweden. ... Founded 1974 Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Area - Of which land - Rank 243 km² 240,84 km² ranked 316th Population - Density - Rank 187 365 (2005) 770. ... For other uses, see Vienna (disambiguation). ... Koninklijke Joh. ... Coordinates: Country Netherlands Province North Holland Area (2006)  - Municipality 32. ... De La Rue is a British commercial printer and paper maker headquartered in Basingstoke, Hampshire. ... This article is about Gateshead, England. ... The Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato is the mint of the Italian Republic. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Banc Ceannais na hÉireann or the Central Bank of Ireland is the Republic of Ireland which had control of the issue of Irish banknotes and coins. ... For other uses, see Dublin (disambiguation). ... One of the Banque de Frances offices in Paris. ... Chamalières is a town and commune in France, in the Puy-de-Dôme département. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Not to be confused with the National Bank of Greece. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Giesecke & Devrient (G&D) is a German company headquartered in Munich that provides banknote and securities printing, smart cards, and cash handling systems. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Leipzig ( ; Sorbian/Lusatian: Lipsk from the Sorbian word for Tilia) is, with a population of over 506,000, the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Danmarks Nationalbank (English: National Bank of Denmark - in Danish often simply Nationalbanken) is the central bank of Denmark. ... For other uses, see Copenhagen (disambiguation). ... The National Bank of Belgium (Nationale Bank van België in Dutch, Banque nationale de Belgique in French, and Belgischen Nationalbank in German) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... The Banco de Portugal is the central bank of the Republic of Portugal. ... Carregado is a north-east suburb of Lisbon, Portugal. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The National Bank of Belgium (Nationale Bank van België in Dutch, Banque nationale de Belgique in French, and Belgischen Nationalbank in German) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850. ...


Design changes

Banknotes have to bear the ECB president's signature. New notes printed after November 2003 show Jean Claude Trichet's signature, replacing that of the first president, Wim Duisenberg. Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jean-Claude Trichet (born December 20, 1942) is a French banker. ... Willem Frederik Duisenberg, commonly known as Wim Duisenberg, (July 9, 1935 – July 31, 2005) was a Dutch banker and politician. ...


Current issues do not reflect the expansion of the EU to 27 member states (Cyprus and Malta are missing in current notes). Since the ECB plans to redesign the notes every seven or eight years after each issue, a second series of banknotes is already in preparation. New production and anti-counterfeiting techniques will be employed on the new notes, but the design will be of the same theme and colours as the current series; bridges and arches. They would still be recognisable as a new series however.[2].


Only the Cyrillic rendering of the name "euro" (Евро or еуро) will be added to the new series, since it is ECB policy that the name euro be used in all countries using Latin script. See the article Linguistic issues concerning the euro for more information on this discussion. The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is an alphabet used for several East and South Slavic languages; (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


This new series are expected to be issued in 2010 at earliest [3]. 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


€1 and € 2 notes

Italy, Greece and Austria have asked several times to introduce lower denominations of euro notes.[4] The ECB has stated that "printing a €1 note is more expensive (and less durable) than minting a €1 coin". On 18 November 2004 the ECB decided definitively that there was insufficient demand across the Eurozone for very low denomination banknotes. On 25 October 2005, however, more than half of the MEPs tabled a motion calling on the European Commission and the European Central Bank to recognise the definite need for the introduction of €1 and €2 banknotes. [4]However it must be noted that the European Central Bank is not directly answerable to the Parliament or the Commission, and will therefore possibly ignore the motion. It is also possible the ECB may recognise the need, but take no action to fulfil this need. is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A Member of the European Parliament (English abbreviation MEP)[1] is a member of the European Unions directly-elected legislative body, the European Parliament. ...


Design

Owing to the ubiquity of countless historic bridges, arches, and gateways throughout the continent, all the structures represented on the banknotes are entirely fictional syntheses of the relevant architectural styles, merely designed to evoke the landmarks within the EU.[5]


See also

European Union Portal
Numismatics Portal

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (910x910, 596 KB)Media:Example. ... Currency bill tracking is the process (usually facilitated by any one of a number of websites set up for the purpose) of tracking the movements of banknotes, similar to how ornithologists track migrations of birds by ringing them. ... EuroBillTracker is a website designed for tracking Euro banknotes. ...

References

  1. ^ Euro
  2. ^ The life cycle of a banknote, De Nederlandsche Bank. Accessed 2007-08-17.
  3. ^ Neue Euro-Banknoten erst nach 2010Accessed 2007-09-19.
  4. ^ [1]

De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB, The Dutch Bank) is the central bank of the Netherlands. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Security features on euro banknotes
  • RFID technology on euro banknotes
  • Information on signatures, printer plate numbers and more
  • Euro banknote design exhibition — entries for the 1996 banknote design competition (24MB PDF)
  • "The euro banknotes that never were! (L’euro : les maquettes refusées! )" 44 euro banknote designs of the 1996 competition
  • Defective 10 Euros banknote

  Results from FactBites:
 
ECB: Euro banknotes (172 words)
The euro banknote series comprises seven different values (denominations): €5, €10, €20, €50, €100, €200 and €500.
The euro banknotes were designed by Mr Robert Kalina of the Austrian central bank (Oesterreichische Nationalbank).
Euro banknotes with the signature of the ECB President, Jean-Claude Trichet
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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