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Encyclopedia > Euro
Euro
ευρώ (Greek)
Banknotes Coins
ISO 4217 Code EUR (num. 978)
Official user(s)
Unofficial user(s)
Inflation 3.1%
Source European Central Bank, January 2008
Method HICP
Pegged by
Subunit
1/100 cent
actual usage varies depending on language
Symbol
Plural See Euro linguistic issues
cent See article
Coins
Freq. used 1, 2, 5, 10, 20, 50 cent, €1, €2
unless otherwise stated as rarely used
Rarely used 1 and 2 cent
(applies to Finland and The Netherlands)
Banknotes
Freq. used €5, €10, €20, €50
Rarely used €100, €200, €500
Central bank European Central Bank
Website www.ecb.eu
Printer
Website

The euro (currency sign: ; banking code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union (EU), used in 15 member states, known collectively as the Eurozone (Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain). It is also used in 9 other countries around the world, 7 of those being in Europe. Hence it is the single currency for over 320 million Europeans.[1] Including areas using currencies pegged to the euro, the euro directly affects close to 500 million people worldwide.[2] With more than €610 billion in circulation as of December 2006 (equivalent to US$802 billion at the exchange rates at the time), the euro is the currency with the highest combined value of cash in circulation in the world, having surpassed the U.S. dollar.[3] Look up Euro, euro in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... EUR is an initialism that may mean: Euro, the currency; Esposizione Universale Roma, a quarter of Rome built for the World Fair Esposizione universale (1942). This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links Euro_banknotes. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (697x668, 508 KB)The new Euro coins. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Monaco. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_San_Marino. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Vatican_City. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Andorra. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Montenegro. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... The Harmonised Index of Consumer Prices (HICP) is an idicator of inflation and price stability for the European Central Bank (ECB). ... A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... ISO 4217 Code BAM User(s) Bosnia and Herzegovina Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... The Cape Verdean Escudo is the currency of Cape Verde. ... ISO 4217 Code XAF User(s) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Pegged with euro = CFA655. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code KMF User(s) Comoros Inflation rate 3% Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ... The West African CFA franc (XOF) is just known in French as the Franc CFA, where CFA stands for Communauté financière dAfrique (Financial Community of Africa). It is issued by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des États de lAfrique de lOuest, i. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... Look up plural in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... 1 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 2 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 5 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 10 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... // 20 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 50 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 1 euro coins are made of two alloys: the inner part of cupronickel, the outer part of nickel brass. ... // 2 euro coins are made of an inner coin and an outer ring. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The word printer is used to describe a company that provides commercial printing services, involving typesetting, printing and book-binding. ... The Istituto Poligrafico e Zecca dello Stato is the mint of the Italian Republic. ... The Banco de Portugal is the central bank of the Republic of Portugal. ... Not to be confused with the National Bank of Greece. ... One of the Banque de Frances offices in Paris. ... Banc Ceannais na hÉireann or the Central Bank of Ireland is the Republic of Ireland which had control of the issue of Irish banknotes and coins. ... De La Rue is a British commercial printer and paper maker headquartered in Basingstoke, Hampshire. ... Headquarters (Madrid). ... Giesecke & Devrient (G&D) is a German company headquartered in Munich that provides banknote and securities printing, smart cards, and cash handling systems. ... Koninklijke Joh. ... The National Bank of Belgium (Nationale Bank van België in Dutch, Banque nationale de Belgique in French, and Belgischen Nationalbank in German) has been the central bank of Belgium since 1850. ... Setec Oy is the former Bank of Finlands banknote printer. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... One thousand million (1,000,000,000) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. ... USD redirects here. ...


The euro was introduced to world financial markets as an accounting currency in 1999 and launched as physical coins and banknotes on 1 January 2002. It replaced the former European Currency Unit (ECU) at a ratio of 1:1. It has been suggested that Accounting scholarship be merged into this article or section. ... This article is about monetary coins. ... A £20 Bank of England banknote. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The European Currency Unit (₠; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ...


The euro is managed and administered by the Frankfurt-based European Central Bank (ECB) and the Eurosystem (composed of the central banks of the euro zone countries). As an independent central bank, the ECB has sole authority to set monetary policy. The Eurosystem participates in the printing, minting and distribution of notes and coins in all member states, and the operation of the Eurozone payment systems.   (German: , English: American English: ) is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a mid-2007 population of 663,567. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The Eurosystem is the system of central banks consisting of the European Central Bank and the central banks of the member states of the European Union whose currency is the euro. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        Monetary policy is the process by which the government, central bank... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the...


While all European Union (EU) member states are eligible to join if they comply with certain monetary requirements, not all EU members have chosen to adopt the currency. All nations that have joined the EU since the 1993 implementation of the Maastricht Treaty have pledged to adopt the euro in due course. Maastricht obliged current members to join the euro; however, the United Kingdom and Denmark negotiated exemptions from that requirement for themselves.[4] Sweden turned down the euro in a 2003 referendum, and has circumvented the requirement to join the euro area by not meeting the membership criteria. In addition, three European microstates (Vatican City, Monaco, and San Marino), although not EU members, have adopted the euro due to currency unions with member states. Andorra, Montenegro, and Kosovo have adopted the euro unilaterally, while not being EU members either (see #Eurozone.) This is an article about European Politics, Convergence criteria is also a mathematical term regarding series Convergence criteria, also known as the Maastricht criteria, are the criteria for European Union member states to enter the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... A microstate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very little land area - usually both. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Characteristics

Coins and banknotes

The ECB is in charge of the Eurozone's monetary policy
The ECB is in charge of the Eurozone's monetary policy
Main articles: euro coins and euro banknotes

The euro is divided into 100 cents (sometimes referred to as eurocents, especially when distinguishing them from U.S. cents or the former currency in a particular country). All circulating euro coins (including the €2 commemorative coins) have a common side showing the denomination (value) with the old 15 EU-countries in the background. From 2007 or 2008 on (depending on the country where the coin is issued) that "old" map is replaced by a map of Europe, thus also showing non-EU-members like Norway. The coins also have a national side showing an image specifically chosen by the country that issued the coin. Euro coins from any country may be freely used in any nation which has adopted the euro. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 563 KB) European Central Bank From German Wikipedia: Fotograf: Florian Kienetz Date: 9. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (960x1280, 563 KB) European Central Bank From German Wikipedia: Fotograf: Florian Kienetz Date: 9. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... ¢ c A United States cent, or 1¢ or a penny In currency, the cent is a monetary unit that equals 1/100 of various countries basic monetary units. ... The new reverse side of all €2 coins from 2007 onwards. ...


The euro coins are €2, €1, €0.50, €0.20, €0.10, €0.05, €0.02, and €0.01. In the Netherlands some, and in Finland by the law all cash transactions are rounded to the nearest five cents, to avoid the use of €0.02, and €0.01. (See also Linguistic issues concerning the euro.) // 2 euro coins are made of an inner coin and an outer ring. ... 1 euro coins are made of two alloys: the inner part of cupronickel, the outer part of nickel brass. ... 50 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... // 20 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 10 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 5 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 2 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 1 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 2 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 1 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Coins have a common side, and a national side designed by the respective national authorities.

Commemorative coins with €2 face value have been issued with changes to the design of the national side of the coin — as Greece did for the 2004 Summer Olympics. These two-euro coins are legal tender throughout the Eurozone. Coins with various other denominations have been issued as well, but these are not intended for general circulation. These later coins are only legal tender in the nation which issued them. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 628 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (698 × 666 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Money-EU banknote}}, for images of euro banknotes. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 628 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (698 × 666 pixel, file size: 173 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) {{Money-EU banknote}}, for images of euro banknotes. ... The new reverse side of all €2 coins from 2007 onwards. ... The ceremony for the lighting of the flame is arranged as a pagan pageant, with priestesses dancing. ...


All euro banknotes have a common design for each denomination on both sides. Notes are issued in €500, €200, €100, €50, €20, €10, €5. The design for each of them has a common theme of European architecture in various artistic periods. The front (or recto) of the note features windows or gateways while the back (or verso) has bridges. Care has been taken so that the architectural examples do not represent any actual existing monument, so as not to induce jealousy and controversy in the choice of which monument should be depicted. Some of the highest denominations such as the €500 are not issued in a few countries, though they remain legal tender throughout the Eurozone. The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ...


Payments clearing, electronic funds transfer

All intra-Eurozone transfers shall cost the same as a domestic one. This is true for retail payments, although several ECB payment methods can be used. Credit/debit card charging and ATM withdrawals within the Eurozone are also charged as if they were domestic. The ECB has not standardised paper-based payment orders, such as cheques; these are still domestic-based. The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ...


The ECB has set up a clearing system, TARGET, for large euro transactions.[5] In banking and finance, clearing denotes all activities from the time a transaction is made until it is finally settled (see settlement). ... TARGET (Trans-European Automated Real-time Gross Settlement Express Transfer System) is an interbank payment system for the real-time processing of cross-border transfers throughout the European Union. ...


Currency sign

Main article: Euro sign
The official construction of the euro logo, which was specified to be printed in Pantone Yellow on a Reflex Blue background
The official construction of the euro logo, which was specified to be printed in Pantone Yellow on a Reflex Blue background

A special euro currency sign (€) was designed after a public survey had narrowed the original ten proposals down to two. The European Commission then chose the final design. The eventual winner was a design created by the Belgian Alain Billiet. The official story of the design history of the euro sign is disputed by Arthur Eisenmenger, a former chief graphic designer for the EEC, who claims to have created it as a generic symbol of Europe.[6] The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... Image File history File links Euro_Construction. ... Image File history File links Euro_Construction. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... For the record label, see Pantone Music. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... Alain Billiet (b. ... Arthur Eisenmenger is a former chief graphic designer for the European Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ...


The glyph is, according to the European Commission, "a combination of the Greek epsilon, as a sign of the weight of European civilization; an E for Europe; and the parallel lines crossing through standing for the stability of the euro". Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Look up Ε, ε in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The European Commission also specified a euro logo with exact proportions and foreground/background colour tones.[7] While the Commission intended the logo to be a prescribed glyph shape, font designers made it clear that they intended to design their own variants instead.[8]


Placement of the currency sign varies from nation to nation. There are no official standards on where to place the euro sign.[9]


Another advantage to the final chosen symbol is that a similar symbol is easily created on a typewriter lacking the euro sign, by typing a capital 'C', backspacing and overstriking it with the equal ('=') sign.
Mechanical desktop typewriters, such as this Underwood Five, were long time standards of government agencies, newsrooms, and sales offices. ...


Economic and monetary union

History (1990–present)

Main article: Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union
Yielded currencies of the Eurozone  v  d  e 
Currency Abbr. Rate Fixed on EMU III
Flag of Austria Austrian schilling ATS 13.7603 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Belgium Belgian franc BEF 40.3399 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of the Netherlands Dutch gulden NLG 2.20371 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Finland Finnish markka FIM 5.94573 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of France French franc FRF 6.55957 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Germany German mark DEM 1.95583 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Ireland Irish pound IEP 0.787564 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Italy Italian lira ITL 1936.27 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg franc LUF 40.3399 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Portugal Portuguese escudo PTE 200.482 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Spain Spanish peseta ESP 166.386 1998-12-31 1999
Flag of Greece Greek drachma GRD 340.750[10] 2000-06-19 2001
Flag of Slovenia Slovenian tolar SIT 239.640[11] 2006-07-11 2007
Flag of Cyprus Cypriot pound CYP 0.585274[12] 2007-07-10 2008
Flag of Malta Maltese lira MTL 0.429300[13] 2007-07-10 2008

The euro was established by the provisions in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union that was used to establish an economic and monetary union. In order to participate in the new currency, member states had to meet strict criteria such as a budget deficit of less than three per cent of their GDP, a debt ratio of less than sixty per cent of GDP, low inflation, and interest rates close to the EU average. In the Maastricht Treaty, the United Kingdom and Denmark were granted exemptions from moving to the stage of monetary union which would result in the introduction of the euro. For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... There are three stages of monetary cooperation in the European Union. ... The introduction of the euro took place principally between 31 December 1998, when the exchange rates between the euro and legacy currencies in the Eurozone became fixed, and early 2002, when euro notes and coins were introduced and the legacy currencies withdrawn. ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Austria. ... The Schilling was the currency of Austria until 1999, when the Euro was introduced at a fixed parity of €1 = 13. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... ISO 4217 Code NLG User(s) The Netherlands Inflation 2. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland. ... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ireland. ... For the coin of the same value, see Irish one pound coin. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... ISO 4217 Code ITL User(s) Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, but not Campione dItalia Inflation 2. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... The franc was the currency of Luxembourg between 1854 and 1999 (except during the period 1940 and 1944). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... The escudo was the official currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro in 1 January 1999 (euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... ISO 4217 Code ESP User(s) Spain, Andorra Inflation 1. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovenia. ... ISO 4217 Code SIT User(s) Slovenia Inflation 0. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cyprus. ... ISO 4217 Code CYP User(s) Cyprus (except in the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus), Akrotiri and Dhekelia Inflation 2. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Malta. ... The Maltese lira, known in the Maltese language as the Lira Maltija, is the currency of Malta. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: , Country Province Area (2006)  - Municipality 60. ... The Maastricht treaty (formally, the Treaty on European Union) was signed on 7 February 1992 in Maastricht between the members of the European Community and entered into force on 1 November 1993. ... Also see Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. ... This is an article about European Politics, Convergence criteria is also a mathematical term regarding series Convergence criteria, also known as the Maastricht criteria, are the criteria for European Union member states to enter the third stage of European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and adopt the euro. ... A budget deficit occurs when an entity (often a government) spends more money than it takes in. ... GDP redirects here. ... For other senses of this word, see interest (disambiguation). ...


Economists who helped create or contributed to the euro include Robert Mundell, Wim Duisenberg, Robert Tollison, Neil Dowling, Fred Arditti and Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa. (For macro-economic theory, see below.) Robert Alexander Mundell C.C. (born October 24, 1932) is a professor of economics at Columbia University. ... Willem Frederik Duisenberg, commonly known as Wim Duisenberg, (July 9, 1935 – July 31, 2005) was a Dutch banker and politician. ... Robert D. Tollison (b. ... Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa, born July 23, 1940, is an Italian banker and a former member of the European Central Bank Executive Board. ... Macroeconomics is the economics sub-field of study that considers aggregate behavior, and the study of the sum of individual economic decisions. ...


Due to differences in national conventions for rounding and significant digits, all conversion between the national currencies had to be carried out using the process of triangulation via the euro. The definitive values in euro of these subdivisions (which represent the exchange rates at which the currency entered the euro) are shown at right.


The rates were determined by the Council of the European Union, based on a recommendation from the European Commission based on the market rates on 31 December 1998, so that one ECU (European Currency Unit) would equal one euro. (The European Currency Unit was an accounting unit used by the EU, based on the currencies of the member states; it was not a currency in its own right.) Council Regulation 2866/98 (EC), of 31 December 1998, set these rates. They could not be set earlier, because the ECU depended on the closing exchange rate of the non-euro currencies (principally the pound sterling) that day. is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The European Currency Unit (â‚ ; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... GBP redirects here. ...


The procedure used to fix the irrevocable conversion rate between the drachma and the euro was different, since the euro by then was already two years old. While the conversion rates for the initial eleven currencies were determined only hours before the euro was introduced, the conversion rate for the Greek drachma was fixed several months beforehand, in Council Regulation 1478/2000 (EC), of 19 June 2000. Drachma, pl. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


The currency was introduced in non-physical form (travellers' cheques, electronic transfers, banking, etc.) at midnight on 1 January 1999, when the national currencies of participating countries (the Eurozone) ceased to exist independently in that their exchange rates were locked at fixed rates against each other, effectively making them mere non-decimal subdivisions of the euro. The euro thus became the successor to the European Currency Unit (ECU). The notes and coins for the old currencies, however, continued to be used as legal tender until new notes and coins were introduced on 1 January 2002. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The European Currency Unit (â‚ ; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ... Legal tender or forced tender is payment that cannot be refused in settlement of a debt denominated in the same currency by virtue of law. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

The Ecofin presenting the denominations 22 September 2001
The Ecofin presenting the denominations 22 September 2001

The changeover period during which the former currencies' notes and coins were exchanged for those of the euro lasted about two months, until 28 February 2002. The official date on which the national currencies ceased to be legal tender varied from member state to member state. The earliest date was in Germany; the Mark officially ceased to be legal tender on 31 December 2001, though the exchange period lasted two months. The final date was 28 February 2002, by which all national currencies ceased to be legal tender in their respective member states. However, even after the official date, they continued to be accepted by national central banks for periods ranging from several years to forever in Austria, Germany, Ireland, and Spain. The earliest coins to become non-convertible were the Portuguese escudos, which ceased to have monetary value after 31 December 2002, although banknotes remain exchangeable until 2022. The Economic and Financial Affairs Council is one of the oldest configurations of the Council of the European Union. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


Slovenia joined the Eurozone on 1 January 2007, followed by Malta and Cyprus on 1 January 2008.[14] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Eurozone

Main article: Eurozone

The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Image File history File links Eurozone_map. ...

Null


     Eurozone
     ERM II members
     unilaterally adopted
     other EU members
     special adoption agreement

Image File history File links Eurozone_map. ... For other uses, see Andorra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bulgaria (disambiguation). ... Motto: (Czech) Truth prevails Anthem:  Czech Republic() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Prague Official languages Czech Demonym Czech Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Václav Klaus  -  Prime Minister Mirek Topolánek Independence (formed 9th century)   -  October 28, 1918   -  January 1, 1993  EU accession May... For other uses, see Denmark (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... For other uses, see Estonia (disambiguation). ... Motto: none Historically Regnum Mariae Patronae Hungariae (Latin) Anthem: Himnusz Hymn (God, bless the Hungarians) Hungary() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Budapest Official languages Hungarian (Magyar) Demonym Hungarian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President László Sólyom  -  Prime minister Ferenc Gyurcsány Foundation  -  Foundation... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Motto TÄ“vzemei un BrÄ«vÄ«bai(Latvian) For Fatherland and Freedom Anthem Dievs, svÄ“tÄ« Latviju!(Latvian) God, bless Latvia! Latvia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Riga Official languages Latvian Ethnic groups  59. ... Motto: Tautos jÄ—ga vienybÄ—je The strength of the nation lies in unity Anthem: TautiÅ¡ka giesmÄ— Lithuania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Vilnius Official languages Lithuanian Demonym Lithuanian Government  -  President Valdas Adamkus  -  Prime Minister Gediminas Kirkilas Independence from the Russian Empire... For other uses, see Monaco (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Motto:  (each main institution has its own motto) Anthem: DeÅŸteaptă-te, române! Romania() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bucharest (BucureÅŸti) Official languages Romanian1 Demonym Romanian Government Unitary semi-presidential republic  -  President Traian Băsescu  -  Prime Minister Călin Popescu-T... For other uses, see San Marino (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Nad Tatrou sa blýska Lightning over the Tatras Slovakia() – on the European continent() – in the European Union() [] Capital (and largest city) Bratislava Official languages Slovak Demonym Slovak Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Ivan GaÅ¡parovič  -  Prime Minister Robert Fico Independence due to dissolution of Czechoslovakia   -  Date January 1, 19931... Sverige redirects here. ... Swiss redirects here. ... “UK” redirects here. ... Anthem Inno e Marcia Pontificale(Italian) Hymn and Pontifical March Capital (and largest city) Vatican City1 Official languages Latin2, Italian, French and German. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ...  Eurozone countries  EU states to join Eurozone on 1 January 2008  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2009  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2010  EU states bound by the Maastricht Treaty to ultimately join the Eurozone  EU states with a derogation on Eurozone... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Saint-Pierre and Miquelon (French Saint-Pierre et Miquelon) is a French overseas collectivity consisting of several small islands off the eastern coast of Canada near Newfoundland. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... Anthem: La Marseillaise Capital (and largest city) Marigot Official languages French Government  -  President of France Jacques Chirac  -  Prefect Dominique Lacroix  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Albert Fleming is the mayor of Saint-Martin Overseas Collectivity of France   -  Island divided between France and the Netherlands 23 March 1648... Motto (Portuguese for Rather die free than in peace subjugated) Anthem  (national)  (local) Capital Ponta Delgada1 Angra do Heroísmo2 Horta3 Largest city Ponta Delgada Official languages Portuguese Government Autonomous region  -  President Carlos César Establishment  -  Settled 1439   -  Autonomy 1976  Area  -  Total 2,333 km² (n/a) 911 sq mi... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... A microstate is a sovereign state having a very small population or very little land area - usually both. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Anthem God Save the Queen Akrotiri and Dhekelia (Occupied Areas) Sovereign Base Areas indicated in pink. ... The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) is composed of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 25 EU Member States. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ... now. ... Currently there are several currencies pegged to the euro, some with fluctuation bands around a central rate and others with no fluctuations allowed around the central rate. ... Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... The railroads of Switzerland include standard gauge (1. ...

Future prospects (2008–)

Main articles: Eurozone and Enlargement of the eurozone

The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ...  Eurozone countries  EU states to join Eurozone on 1 January 2008  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2009  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2010  EU states bound by the Maastricht Treaty to ultimately join the Eurozone  EU states with a derogation on Eurozone...

Pre-2004 EU members

From Greece's participation in 2001 until the EU enlargement in 2004, Denmark, Sweden and the United Kingdom were the only EU member states outside the monetary union. The situation for the three older member states also looks different from that of the newer EU members; the three countries have no clear roadmap for adopting the euro: States colour-shaded according to entry (darkest being earliest) The European Union originally consisted of six member states. ...

  • Denmark negotiated a number of opt-out clauses from the Maastricht treaty after it had been rejected in a first referendum. On 28 September 2000, another referendum was held in Denmark regarding the euro resulting in a 53.2% vote against joining. However, Danish politicians have suggested that debate on abolishing the four opt-out clauses may be re-opened. In addition, Denmark has pegged its krone to the euro (€1 = DKK 7.46038 ± 2.25%) as the krone remains in the ERM. Although not part of the European Union, both Greenland and the Faroe Islands use the Danish krone (the Faroes in the form of the Faroese króna), and so also fall within the ERM.
  • Sweden: Sweden is obliged to join the euro by the 1994 Act of Accession, when it meets the economic conditions. Although the other conditions are met, the krona has never been part of ERM II, rendering Sweden ineligible. In 2003, a public referendum rejected euro membership, and Sweden has no plans to adopt the euro. The EU has made it clear that it will tolerate this with respect to Sweden, giving Sweden a de facto opt-out, but not those member states that joined in 2004 or 2007.[citation needed]
  • The United Kingdom has an opt-out from eurozone membership under the Maastricht treaty and is not obliged to join the euro. While the government is in favour of membership provided the economic conditions are right (requiring that "five economic tests" be met), the question has never been put to referendum.[17] The United Kingdom was forced to withdraw the pound sterling from the ERM (the precursor to ERM II) on Black Wednesday (16 September 1992) due a mismatch between its benchmark currency parity and its economic performance, and the pound is not part of ERM II.

The Edinburgh Agreement was an agreement that granted Denmark four exceptions to the Maastricht Treaty so that it could be ratified by Denmark. ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... The Danish Maastricht Treaty referendum of 1992 was a referendum on whether Denmark should ratify the Maastricht Treaty. ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Danish euro referendum of September 28, 2000 was a referendum on whether Denmark should join the third stage of the European Monetary Union, adopting the euro as currency to replace the Danish krone. ... A referendum on abolishing one or more of Denmarks opt-outs from European Union legislation in four specific areas (as specified in the Edinburgh Agreement and later confirmed in other treaties of the European Union) will be held at some point between 2008 and 2011, before the next Danish... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... The Faroese króna is the currency of the Faroes. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... The five economic tests are the criteria defined by the United Kingdom Government that are to be used to assess the UKs readiness to join the Eurozone and adopt the euro as its currency. ... GBP redirects here. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... In British politics and economics, Black Wednesday refers to 16 September 1992 when the Conservative government was forced to withdraw the Pound from the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) due to pressure by currency speculators—most notably George Soros who made over US$1 billion from this speculation. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...

Post-2004 EU members

Remaining currencies on track to be migrated  v  d  e 
Currency Abbr. Rate Conv goal
Flag of Slovakia Slovak koruna SKK 35.4424[18] 2009-01-01
Flag of Lithuania Lithuanian litas LTL 3.45280 2010-01-01
Flag of Estonia Estonian kroon EEK 15.6466 2011-01-01
Flag of Bulgaria Bulgarian lev BGN 1.95583[19] 2012-01-01
Flag of Poland Polish złoty PLN 2012-01-01
Flag of Latvia Latvian lats LVL 0.702804 2012-01-01
Flag of the Czech Republic Czech koruna CZK 2012-01-01
Flag of Hungary Hungarian forint HUF 2012-01-01
Flag of Romania Romanian leu RON 2014-01-01
Flag of Sweden Swedish krona SEK

As of 2008, nine new EU member states have a currency other than the euro; however, all of these countries are required by their Accession Treaties to join the euro. Some of the following countries have already joined the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM II. They and the others have set themselves the goal of joining the euro (EMU III) as follows: Image File history File links Flag_of_Slovakia. ... ISO 4217 Code SKK User(s) Slovakia Inflation 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lithuania. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bulgaria. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Latvia. ... The 5 lats coin, used before WWII, becamed a popular symbol of independence during the Soviet era The lats (in Latvian: lats, plural lati, the ISO 4217 currency code: LVL) is the official currency of Latvia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... ISO 4217 Code CZK User(s) Czech Republic Inflation 1. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hungary. ... ISO 4217 Code HUF User(s) Hungary Inflation 8. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Romania. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ...

The entry of Lithuania and Estonia as planned for 1 January 2007 was postponed due to unacceptably high inflation rates in those countries. Some of these currencies do not float against the euro, and a subset of those were unilaterally pegged to the euro before joining ERM II. See European Exchange Rate Mechanism, currencies related to the euro, and individual currency articles for more details. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2009 (MMIX) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... Currently there are several currencies pegged to the euro, some with fluctuation bands around a central rate and others with no fluctuations allowed around the central rate. ...


The Czech Republic had originally aimed for entry into the ERM II in either 2008 or 2009, but the current government has officially dropped the 2010 target date, saying it will clearly not be able to meet the economic criteria. The new stated goal is 2012.[25]


Similarly, Latvia had aimed to join the euro in 2008 but inflation rates of over 11% have resulted in a delay as the country does not meet the current criteria under council rules. The government's official target is now 1 January 2012 although the head of the Bank of Latvia has suggested that 2013 may be a more realistic date.[26] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2012 (MMXII) will be a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Polish Finance Minister declared that he believed that a public declaration of a target entry date for Polish entry would be an "improper strategy".[27]


Other sources question the realism of even the revised the Czech, Lithuanian and Estonian targets.[28]


The Fifth Report on the Practical Preparations for the Future Enlargement of the Euro Area[29] stated on 16 July 2007 that only Cyprus, Malta (both of which adopted the euro in January 2008), Slovakia (2009) and Romania (2014) had currently set official target dates for adopting the euro. is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia have already finalised the design for their respective coins' obverse sides.


Economics of the euro

Optimal currency area

Main article: Optimum currency area

In economics, an optimum currency area (or region) (OCA, or OCR) is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. There are two models, both proposed by Robert A. Mundell: the stationary expectations model and the international risk sharing model. Mundell himself advocates the international risk sharing model and thus concludes in favour of the euro.[30] In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. ... Robert Alexander Mundell (born October 24, 1932) is a Canadian economist who graduated from the University of British Columbia in Vancouver. ... In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. ... In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. ... In economics, an optimum currency area (OCA), also known as an optimal currency region (OCR), is a geographical region in which it would maximize economic efficiency to have the entire region share a single currency. ...


Transaction costs and risks

The most obvious benefit of adopting a single currency is removing from trade the cost of exchanging currency, theoretically allowing businesses and individuals to consummate previously unprofitable trades. On the consumer side, banks in the Eurozone must charge the same for intra-member cross-border transactions as purely domestic transactions for electronic payments (e.g. credit cards, debit cards and cash machine withdrawals). Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... This article is about the payment system. ... Look up debit card in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Cash Machine was the first single from Middlesex group HARD-Fi, taken from their debut album Stars of CCTV. The single was re-released on December 26, 2005 and went to #14 in the UK singles chart and #15 on the US Modern Rock chart. ...


The absence of distinct currencies also removes exchange rate risks. The risk of unanticipated exchange rate movement has always added an additional risk or uncertainty for companies or individuals looking to invest or trade outside their own currency zones. Companies that hedge against this risk will no longer need to shoulder this additional cost. The reduction in risk is particularly important for countries whose currencies have traditionally fluctuated a great deal, particularly the Mediterranean nations. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hedge (finance). ...


Financial markets on the continent are expected to be far more liquid and flexible than they were in the past. The reduction in cross-border transaction costs will allow larger banking firms to provide a wider array of banking services that can compete across and beyond the Eurozone. Market liquidity is a business, economics or investment term that refers to an assets ability to be easily converted through an act of buying or selling without causing a significant movement in the price and with minimum loss of value. ...


Price parity

Another effect of the common European currency is that differences in prices—in particular in price levels—should decrease because of the 'law of one price'. Differences in prices can trigger arbitrage, i.e. speculative trade in a commodity across borders purely to exploit the price differential. Therefore, prices on commonly traded goods are likely to converge, causing inflation in some regions and deflation in others during the transition. Some evidence of this has been observed in specific markets. [1] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... The law of one price is an economic law stated as: In an efficient market all identical goods must have only one price. ... In economics and finance, arbitrage is the practice of taking advantage of a price differential between two or more markets: a combination of matching deals are struck that capitalize upon the imbalance, the profit being the difference between the market prices. ... Speculation involves the buying, holding, and selling of stocks, bonds, commodities, currencies, collectibles, real estate, derivatives or any valuable financial instrument to profit from fluctuations in its price as opposed to buying it for use or for income via methods such as dividends or interest. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Macroeconomic stability

Low levels of inflation are the hallmark of stable and modern economies. Because a high level of inflation acts as a tax (seigniorage) and theoretically discourages investment, it is generally viewed[attribution needed] as undesirable. In spite of the downside, many countries have been unable or unwilling to deal with serious inflationary pressures. Some countries have successfully contained them by establishing largely independent central banks. One such bank was the Bundesbank in Germany; as the European Central Bank is modelled on the Bundesbank,[citation needed] it is independent of the pressures of national governments and has a mandate to keep inflationary pressures low.[citation needed] Member countries that join the bank commit to lower inflation, hoping to enjoy the macroeconomic stability associated with low levels of expected inflation.[citation needed] The ECB (unlike the Federal Reserve in the United States of America) does not have a second objective to sustain growth and employment.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage, is the net revenue derived from the issuing of currency. ... The Deutsche Bundesbank is the central bank of Germany and a part of the European System of Central Banks. ... The Fed redirects here. ...


Many national and corporate bonds denominated in euro are significantly more liquid and have lower interest rates than was historically the case when denominated in legacy currencies.[citation needed] While increased liquidity may lower the nominal interest rate on the bond, denominating the bond in a currency with low levels of inflation arguably plays a much larger role. A credible commitment to low levels of inflation and a stable debt reduces the risk that the value of the debt will be eroded by higher levels of inflation or default in the future, allowing debt to be issued at a lower nominal interest rate. For alternative meanings, see bond (a disambiguation page). ... A nominal interest rate is the interest rate as stated - that is, not adjusted for compounding. ...


A new reserve currency

The euro is perceived[attribution needed] to be a major global reserve currency, sharing that status with the U.S. dollar (USD). The U.S. dollar still continues to enjoy its status as the primary reserve of most commercial and central banks worldwide.[citation needed] Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ...


Since its introduction, the euro has been the second most widely-held international reserve currency after the U.S. dollar. The euro inherited this status from the German mark, and since its introduction, it has increased its standing, mostly at the expense of the dollar. The increase of 4.4% in 2002 is due to the introduction of euro banknotes and coins in January 2002. Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... ISO 4217 Code DEM User(s) Germany, Montenegro, Kosovo ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 1. ...


The possibility of the euro's becoming the first international reserve currency is now widely debated among economists.[31] Former Federal Reserve Chairman Alan Greenspan gave his opinion in September 2007 that the euro could indeed replace the U.S. dollar as the world's primary reserve currency. He said it is "absolutely conceivable that the euro will replace the dollar as reserve currency, or will be traded as an equally important reserve currency."[32] Additionally, there has been suggestion that recent weakness of the US dollar might encourage parties to increase their reserves in euro at the expense of the dollar.[33] In the second term of 2007, euro as a reserve currency has reached a record level of 25.6% (a +0.8% increase from the year before)- at the expense of US dollar which dropped to 64.8% (a drop of 1.3% from the year before).[34] By the end of 2007, shares of euro increased to 26.4% as the dollar slumped to its lowest level since records began in 1999, 63.8%.[35] The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central banking system of the United States. ... Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ...

Currency composition of official foreign exchange reserves
'95 '96 '97 '98 '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07
US dollar 59.0% 62.1% 65.2% 69.3% 70.9% 70.5% 70.7% 66.5% 65.8% 65.9% 66.4% 65.7% 63.3%
Euro 17.9% 18.8% 19.8% 24.2% 25.3% 24.9% 24.3% 25.2% 26.5%
German mark 15.8% 14.7% 14.5% 13.8%
Pound sterling 2.1% 2.7% 2.6% 2.7% 2.9% 2.8% 2.7% 2.9% 2.6% 3.3% 3.6% 4.2% 4.7%
Japanese yen 6.8% 6.7% 5.8% 6.2% 6.4% 6.3% 5.2% 4.5% 4.1% 3.9% 3.7% 3.2% 2.9%
French franc 2.4% 1.8% 1.4% 1.6%
Swiss franc 0.3% 0.2% 0.4% 0.3% 0.2% 0.3% 0.3% 0.4% 0.2% 0.2% 0.1% 0.2% 0.2%
Other 13.6% 11.7% 10.2% 6.1% 1.6% 1.4% 1.2% 1.4% 1.9% 1.8% 1.9% 1.5% 1.8%
Sources: 1995-1999, 2006-2007 IMF: Currency Composition of Official Foreign Exchange ReservesPDF (80 KB)
Sources: 1999-2005, ECB: The Accumulation of Foreign ReservesPDF (816 KB)           v  d  e       

A currency is attractive for international transactions when it demonstrates stability, a well-developed financial market to trade the currency, and acceptability to others. While the euro has made substantial progress, a few challenges undermine the ascension of the euro as a major reserve currency. Persistent excessive budget deficits of some member nations, economically weak new members, conservatism of financial markets, and inertia or path dependence are important factors keeping the euro as a junior international currency to the U.S. dollar. However, at the same time, the USD has increasingly suffered from a double deficit and has its own concerns. Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... USD redirects here. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... GBP redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code JPY User(s) Japan Inflation -0. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ... A list of all currencies, current and historic. ... IMF redirects here. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... “PDF” redirects here. ... Path-dependence is a phrase used to mean one of two things (Pierson 2004). ... An economy is deemed to have a double deficit (a. ...


As the euro becomes a new reserve currency, Eurozone governments will enjoy substantial benefits. Since money is an interest-free loan to the issuing government by the holder of the currency, foreign reserves act as a subsidy to the country minting the currency (see Seigniorage). However, reserve status also holds risks, as the currency may become overvalued, hurting European exporters and potentially exposing the European economy to influence by external factors who hold large quantities of euros.[citation needed] Seigniorage, also spelled seignorage or seigneurage, is the net revenue derived from the issuing of currency. ...


Criticism

Some European nationalist parties oppose the euro as part of a more general opposition to the European Union. A significant group of these include the members of the Independence and Democracy bloc in the European Parliament. Additionally the Green Party of England and Wales is opposed for anti-globalisation reasons but the rest of the European Green Party bloc in the European Parliament do not share their stances. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... Euroscepticism has become a general term for opposition to the process of European integration. ... IND/DEM logo The Independence and Democracy (IND/DEM) group, formed July 20, 2004 is a euro-sceptic political group with 36 MEPs in the European Parliament. ... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... The Green Party of England and Wales (GPEW) is the principal Green political party in England and Wales. ... Anti-globalization (anti-globalisation) is a political stance of opposition to the perceived negative aspects of globalization. ... European Greens (or the European Green Party) is the name of the European Green Party, a political party at European level. ...


In their view, the countries that participate in the EMU have surrendered their sovereign abilities to conduct monetary policy. The European Central Bank is required to pursue a policy that might be at odds with national interests and there is no guarantee of extra-national assistance from their more fortunate neighbours should local conditions necessitate some sort of economic stimulus package. Many critics of the EMU believe the benefits to joining the organisation are outweighed by the loss of sovereignty over local policy that accompanies membership. Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ...


The euro is underpinned by the Stability and Growth Pact, which is designed to ensure even fiscal policy across the Eurozone. The SGP has been criticised for removing the ability of national governments to stimulate their own economies to a certain extent, in the only way left to them now that monetary policy is determined supranationally. The failure of some member states to observe the SGP, and its inherent problems have led to minor reforms, and further reforms are likely.[citation needed] The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) is an agreement by European Union member states related to their conduct of fiscal policy, to facilitate and maintain Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. ...


Exchange rate

U.S. dollars per 1 euro 1999-2008
Year Lowest ↓ Highest ↑
Date Rate Date Rate
1999 03 Dec $1.0015 05 Jan $1.1790
2000 26 Oct $0.8252 06 Jan $1.0388
2001 06 Jul $0.8384 05 Jan $0.9545
2002 28 Jan $0.8578 31 Dec $1.0487
2003 08 Jan $1.0377 31 Dec $1.2630
2004 14 May $1.1802 28 Dec $1.3633
2005 15 Nov $1.1667 03 Jan $1.3507
2006 02 Jan $1.1826 05 Dec $1.3331
2007 12 Jan $1.2893 27 Nov $1.4874
2008 21 Jan $1.4482 10 Apr $1.5875
Source: Euro exchange rates in USD, ECB

USD redirects here. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ...

Flexible exchange rates

The ECB targets interest rates rather than exchange rates and in general does not intervene on the foreign exchange rate markets, because of the implications of the Mundell-Fleming Model which suggest that a central bank cannot maintain interest rate and exchange rate targets simultaneously because increasing the money supply results in a depreciation of the currency. In the years following the Single European Act, the EU has liberalised its capital markets, and as the ECB has chosen monetary autonomy, the exchange rate regime of the euro is flexible, or floating. This explains why the exchange rate of the euro vis-à-vis other currencies is characterised by strong fluctuations. Most notable are the fluctuations of the euro versus the U.S. dollar, another free-floating currency. However this focus on the dollar-euro parity is partly subjective. It is taken as a reference because the euro competes with the dollar's role as reserve currency. The effect of this selective reference is misleading, as it gives observers the impression that a rise in the value of the euro versus the dollar is the effect of increased global strength of the euro, while it may be the effect of an intrinsic weakening of the dollar itself. The Mundell-Fleming model is an economic model first set forth by Robert Mundell and Marcus Fleming. ... In macroeconomics, money supply (monetary aggregates, money stock) is the quantity of currency and money in bank accounts in the hands of the non-bank public available within the economy to purchase goods, services, and securities. ... Declining-balance depreciation of a $50,000 asset with $6,500 salvage value over 20 years. ... The Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the Treaty of Rome. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The exchange rate regime is the way a country manages its currency in respect to foreign currencies and the foreign exchange market. ... A floating exchange rate or a flexible exchange rate is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is allowed to fluctuate according to the foreign exchange market. ...

Exchange rate evolution of the euro compared to USD, JPY and GBP. Exchange rate at start is put to 1. Green: in Jan-1999: €1 = $1.18 ; in Apr-2008: €1 = $1.57 Red: in Jan-1999: €1 = ¥133 ; in Apr-2008: €1 = ¥161 Blue: in Jan-1999: €1 = £0.71 ; in Apr-2008: €1 = £0.79
Exchange rate evolution of the euro compared to USD, JPY and GBP. Exchange rate at start is put to 1.
Green: in Jan-1999: €1 = $1.18 ; in Apr-2008: €1 = $1.57
Red: in Jan-1999: €1 = ¥133 ; in Apr-2008: €1 = ¥161
Blue: in Jan-1999: €1 = £0.71 ; in Apr-2008: €1 = £0.79

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1214x754, 87 KB) Euro_exchange_rate_to_USD,_JPY,_and_GBP source of data: http://www. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1214x754, 87 KB) Euro_exchange_rate_to_USD,_JPY,_and_GBP source of data: http://www. ...

Against other major currencies

After the introduction of the euro, its exchange rate against other currencies fell heavily, especially against the U.S. dollar. At its introduction in 1999, the euro was traded at US$1.18/€, but by October 26, 2000, it had fallen to an all-time low of $0.8228/€. After the appearance of the coins and notes in January 2002 and the replacement of all national currencies, the euro then began steadily appreciating, and reached shortly after the parity with the U.S. dollar on July 15, 2002. Since December 2002, the euro has not fallen below parity with the U.S. dollar but began an unprecedented ascendency. On 23 May 2003, the euro surpassed its initial ($1.18) trading value for the first time. At the end of 2004, it reached a peak of $1.3668 (€0.7316/$) as the U.S. dollar fell against all major currencies, fuelled by the so-called double deficit in the US accounts. But the dollar recovered in 2005, rising to $1.18 (€0.85/$) in July 2005, and was stable throughout the second half of 2005. The steep increase in U.S. interest rates during 2005 had much to do with this trend. On November 2005 the dollar again began to fall steadily until the present day hitting one record low after another. On 10 April 2008, the U.S. dollar fell to an all-time low of $1.5875 (€0.6299/$) against the euro.[36] On 11 April 2008, the pound sterling fell to an all-time low of £0.80170 (€1.2473/£) against the euro.[37] is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An economy is deemed to have a double deficit (a. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... GBP redirects here. ...

  • Current and historical exchange rates against 29 other currencies (European Central Bank)
  • Current dollar/euro exchange rates (BBC)
  • Historical exchange rate from 1971 until now
Worldwide use of the euro and the U.S. dollar:      Eurozone      External adopters of the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro w/ narrow band      United States      External adopters of the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar w/ narrow band
Worldwide use of the euro and the U.S. dollar:      Eurozone      External adopters of the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro      Currencies pegged to the euro w/ narrow band      United States      External adopters of the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar      Currencies pegged to the US dollar w/ narrow band

Currently there are several currencies pegged to the euro, some with fluctuation bands around a central rate and others with no fluctuations allowed around the central rate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ...

Currencies pegged to the euro

There are a number of non-EU currencies that were pegged to a European currency and are now currencies related to the euro: the Cape Verdean escudo, the Bosnia and Herzegovina convertible mark, the CFP franc, the CFA franc and the Comorian franc. A fixed exchange rate, sometimes (less commonly) called a pegged exchange rate, is a type of exchange rate regime wherein a currencys value is matched to the value of another single currency or to a basket of other currencies, or to another measure of value, such as gold. ... The Cape Verdean Escudo is the currency of Cape Verde. ... ISO 4217 Code BAM User(s) Bosnia and Herzegovina Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 Code XPF User(s) New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna Inflation 2. ... now. ... ISO 4217 Code KMF User(s) Comoros Inflation rate 3% Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ...


In total, the euro is the official currency in 15 states inside the European Union, and 5 states/territories outside the European Union. In addition, 23 states and territories have currencies that are directly pegged to the euro including 14 countries in mainland Africa, 3 EU members that will ultimately join the euro, 3 French Pacific territories, 2 African island countries and another Balkan country, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Current EUR exchange rates
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In the United Kingdom, although not a member of the Eurozone, many high-street banks report that as much as 90% of their international trade is conducted in euro. It is common therefore for them to use the euro as their 'core' currency on international business systems, only converting to Sterling for local accountancy purposes.[38]


Linguistic issues

The formal titles of the currency are "euro" for the major unit and "cent" for the minor (one hundredth) unit and for official use in most Eurozone languages, these names are invariant in the plural.[39] These styles are often in conflict with the structures of the national languages. For English language texts, however, there is a recommendation from the Directorate-General for Translation, the EU's translation service, that the natural plurals 'euros' and 'cents' should be used in non-legal documents intended for the general public.[40] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Directorate-General for Translation (DGT), located in Brussels and Luxembourg, provides translation of written text into and out of the European Unions twenty official languages. ...


See also

Image File history File links Euro_symbol_black. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Currently there are several currencies pegged to the euro, some with fluctuation bands around a central rate and others with no fluctuations allowed around the central rate. ... The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five nations that form the European Union (and four outside it, as well as Montenegro and Kosovo), which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Euro A petroeuro is a petroleum trade valued in the euro as opposed to the US dollar (a petrodollar). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Trichet_signature. ... Headquarters Coordinates , , Established 1 January 1998 President Jean-Claude Trichet Central Bank of Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain Currency Euro ISO 4217 Code EUR Reserves €43bn directly, €338bn through the Eurosystem (including gold deposits). ... The European System of Central Banks (ESCB) is composed of the European Central Bank (ECB) and the national central banks (NCBs) of all 25 EU Member States. ... The Eurosystem is the system of central banks consisting of the European Central Bank and the central banks of the member states of the European Union whose currency is the euro. ... This is a list of the Presidents of the European Central Bank since the establishment of the bank on June 1, 1998. ... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... The Economic and Financial Affairs Council is one of the oldest configurations of the Council of the European Union. ... The Stability and Growth Pact (SGP) is an agreement by European Union member states related to their conduct of fiscal policy, to facilitate and maintain Economic and Monetary Union of the European Union. ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The snake in the tunnel was the first attempt at European monetary cooperation in the 1970s, aiming at limiting fluctuations between different European currencies. ... There are three stages of monetary cooperation in the European Union. ... The European Currency Unit (â‚ ; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for...  Eurozone countries  ERM II countries  other EU countries  unilaterally adopted euro The European Exchange Rate Mechanism, ERM, was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for... For the concept in general, see economic and monetary union. ... The European Monetary Institute (EMI) was the forerunner of the European Central Bank (ECB). ... The introduction of the euro took place principally between 31 December 1998, when the exchange rates between the euro and legacy currencies in the Eurozone became fixed, and early 2002, when euro notes and coins were introduced and the legacy currencies withdrawn. ...  Eurozone countries  EU states to join Eurozone on 1 January 2008  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2009  EU state aiming to join Eurozone on 1 January 2010  EU states bound by the Maastricht Treaty to ultimately join the Eurozone  EU states with a derogation on Eurozone... If it is considered as a single state, the economy of the European Unions twenty-seven member states is the worlds largest economy. ... The economy of Europe comprises more than 710 million people in 48 different states. ... Eonia (Euro OverNight Index Average) is an effective overnight rate computed as a weighted average of all overnight unsecured lending transactions in the interbank market. ... The rise of technology has allowed our environment to be characterized as a global one. ... Percentage of global currencies A reserve currency (or anchor currency) is a currency which is held in significant quantities by many governments and institutions as part of their foreign exchange reserves. ... The euro and the US dollar are by far the most used currencies in terms of global reserves. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... 1 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 2 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 5 cent euro coins are made of a steel core plated with copper. ... 10 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... // 20 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 50 cent euro coins are made of copper alloy (Nordic gold). ... 1 euro coins are made of two alloys: the inner part of cupronickel, the outer part of nickel brass. ... // 2 euro coins are made of an inner coin and an outer ring. ... The new reverse side of all €2 coins from 2007 onwards. ... Before the introduction of the euro in 2001, the sixteen (as of 2007) Eurozone members produced their own individual national coinage, most of which featured mint marks, privy marks and/or mint master marks. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the single currency for the European Union and currently 13 of its member states. ... Kosovo has no currency of its own. ... Montenegro has no currency of its own. ... The European Currency Unit (â‚ ; ECU) was a basket of the currencies of the European Community member states, used as the unit of account of the European Community before being replaced by the euro. ... The Schilling was the currency of Austria until 1999, when the Euro was introduced at a fixed parity of €1 = 13. ... ISO 4217 Code BEF User(s) Belgium, Luxembourg ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 40. ... ISO 4217 Code CYP User(s) Cyprus (except in the self-proclaimed Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus), Akrotiri and Dhekelia Inflation 2. ... The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... The gulden (sometimes guilder in English), represented by the symbol Æ’ or fl. ... The markka or mark was the currency used in Finland from 1861 until January 1, 1999, when it was replaced by the euro (€). The currency code used for the markka was FIM, and the usual familiar notation was a postfix mk. ... ISO 4217 Code FRF User(s) Monaco, Andorra, France except New Caledonia, French Polynesia, and Wallis and Futuna ERM Since 13 March 1979 Fixed rate since 31 December 1998 Replaced by €, non cash 1 January 1999 Replaced by €, cash 1 January 2002 € = 6. ... ISO 4217 Code GRD User(s) Greece Inflation 3. ... For the coin of the same value, see Irish one pound coin. ... ISO 4217 Code ITL User(s) Italy, San Marino, Vatican City, but not Campione dItalia Inflation 2. ... The franc was the currency of Luxembourg from 1854 until 2002. ... The Maltese lira, known in the Maltese language as the Lira Maltija, is the currency of Malta. ... The Monégasque franc was one of the official currencies of the Principality of Monaco until 2002, when it changed to the Euro. ... The escudo was the official currency of Portugal prior to the introduction of the euro in 1 January 1999 (euro coins and notes were not introduced until 2002). ... The San Marinese lira (plural lire) was the official unit of San Marino from the 1860s until the introduction of the Euro in 2002. ... ISO 4217 Code SIT User(s) Slovenia Inflation 0. ... ISO 4217 Code ESP User(s) Spain, Andorra Inflation 1. ... The Vatican lira (plural lire) was the official unit of the Vatican City State. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... The 5 lats coin, used before WWII, becamed a popular symbol of independence during the Soviet era The lats (in Latvian: lats, plural lati, the ISO 4217 currency code: LVL) is the official currency of Latvia. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ... ISO 4217 Code SKK User(s) Slovakia Inflation 2. ... GBP redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code CZK User(s) Czech Republic Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 code: GIP Symbol: £ 1/100th unit: penny Introduced in: 1927 Exchange Rates May 2006 USD exchange: 0. ... ISO 4217 Code HUF User(s) Hungary Inflation 8. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ...

Previous currency unions

The Latin Monetary Union (LMU) was a 19th century attempt to unify several European currencies into a single currency that could be used in all the member states, at a time when most national currencies were still made out of gold and silver. ... The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Swedish: Skandinaviska myntunionen, Danish: Skandinaviske møntunion) was a monetary union formed by Sweden and Denmark on May 5, 1873 by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other. ... The sterling area or sterling zone refers to a group of countries, often dominions and colonies of the former British Empire (and Commonwealth), which either use the pound sterling as their currency, or peg their respective currencies to the British pound. ...

Other existing common currencies

ISO 4217 Code XAF User(s) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Pegged with euro = CFA655. ... The East Caribbean dollar (currency code XCD) is the currency of eight members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. ... Map of the Eastern Caribbean showing OECS member states (dark green) and associate member states (light green) Secretariat Castries, St. ... The West African CFA franc (XOF) is just known in French as the Franc CFA, where CFA stands for Communauté financière dAfrique (Financial Community of Africa). It is issued by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des États de lAfrique de lOuest, i. ... A unitary currency can increase the economic stability of a country while enhancing trade within its borders. ...

Future planned and potential common currencies

  • Afro (currency), planned to be implemented in Africa before 2028.
  • Amero, one of the possible names of the currency for an academically speculated North American currency union. It is hypothetical and not considered by governments of involved nations.
  • Eco, a planned West African currency to be used by 5 or 6 nations by 2009.
  • Khaleeji, a planned common currency of the 6 nations of the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Persian Gulf to be produced by 2010.

The afro is the proposed official currency of the Afrozone (also known as the Afro Area or the Afro Land), which consists of the African states of Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the... The Fraser Institutes proposed symbol/logo for the amero The North American currency union is a controversial proposal in which the three principal countries of North America, namely Canada, the United States and Mexico, would share a common currency. ... States of WAMZ Light green: interested in joining The Eco is the proposed name for the common currency the West African Monetary Zone plans to introduce by 2009 in the framework of ECOWAS. Category: ... It has been suggested that GCC - Gulf Cooperation Council be merged into this article or section. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ www.eurodesigncontest.eu/emu.cfm?lang=en.
  2. ^ Number is a sum of estimated populations (as stated in their respective articles) of: all Eurozone members; all users of euro not part of Eurozone (whether officially agreed upon or not); all areas which use a currency pegged to the euro, and only the euro. - Please see detailed summation in article Eurozone
  3. ^ Atkins, Ralph (2006-12-27). Euro notes cash in to overtake dollar. Financial Times. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  4. ^ The €uro: Our Currency. Economic and Financial Affairs. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  5. ^ TARGET. European Central Bank. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  6. ^ Connolly, Kate (2001-12-23). Inventor who coined euro sign fights for recognition. The Observer. Guardian Unlimited.
  7. ^ The €uro: Our Currency. europa.eu. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  8. ^ Siebert, Jürgen (2002). "The Euro: From Logo to Letter". Font Magazine (2). 
  9. ^ Frequently Asked Questions. europa.eu. Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  10. ^ Greece failed to meet the criteria for joining initially, so it did not join the common currency on 1 January 1999. It was admitted two years later, on 1 January 2001, with a Greek drachma (GRD) exchange rate of 340.750.
  11. ^ The final exchange rate was agreed on 11 July 2006. However, this rate was not formally effective until the tolar was succeeded by the euro on 1 January 2007.
  12. ^ The final exchange rate was agreed on 10 July 2007. However, this rate was not formally effective until the pound was succeeded by the euro on 1 January 2008.
  13. ^ The final exchange rate was agreed on 10 July 2007. However, this rate was not formally effective until the lira was succeeded by the euro on 1 January 2008.
  14. ^ CNNMoney.com.
  15. ^ Agreements on monetary relations (Monaco, San Marino, the Vatican and Andorra). Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  16. ^ SBB - More at the station - Automatic ticket machine.
  17. ^ "Sluggish Europe proves Brown's case on currency", The Guardian, Guardian News and Media Limited, 2004-12-20. Retrieved on 2008-02-07. 
  18. ^ The central rate of the Slovak koruna was 38.4550 before 17 March 2007. See Slovak koruna for details.
  19. ^ Bulgaria is not officially part of ERM II as of 7 January 2007. But as the Bulgarian lev exchange rate is fixed to the rate of German mark (and thus to the euro) country is included in the list.
  20. ^ Government approved the National Euro Changeover Plan. Bank of Slovakia (2005-07-07).
  21. ^ Adoption of the euro in Lithuania. Bank of Lithuania. Retrieved on 2007-02-03.
  22. ^ "Alcohol and tobacco tax to rise in Estonia next year", Helsingin Sanomat, 2007-05-25. Retrieved on 2007-07-30. 
  23. ^ "Bulgaria's budget of reform", The Sofia Echo, 2007-11-30. Retrieved on 2008-02-06. 
  24. ^ Latvia might adopt Euro between 2010 and 2012 - Minister. Forbes (2006-12-04). Retrieved on 2007-01-01.
  25. ^ Finance Ministry sees 2012 as realistic for euro adoption. Prague Daily Monitor (2007-02-22). Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  26. ^ Bank targets 2013 as Latvia’s ‘E-day’.
  27. ^ Polish Fin Min: Setting Euro Target Date Improper Strategy.
  28. ^ Analysts Poll - Euro entry seen delayed for some countries. www.finance.cz. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  29. ^ Fifth Report on the Practical Preparations for the Future Enlargement of the Euro Area (PDF). Commission of the European Communities (2007-07-16). Retrieved on 2007-10-25.
  30. ^ A Plan for a European Currency, 1973 by Mundell
  31. ^ Will the Euro Eventually Surpass the Dollar As Leading International Reserve Currency? (PDF).
  32. ^ Reuters. Euro could replace dollar as top currency - Greenspan. Retrieved on September 17, 2007.
  33. ^ "American Gangster's Wad of Euros Signals U.S. Decline".
  34. ^ "Euro Rises on Speculation ECB's Trichet to Signal Higher Rates".
  35. ^ Dollar's Share of Currency Reserves Falls, IMF Says (Update1) Bloomberg
  36. ^ ECB official rates against the U.S. dollar from ecb.eu
  37. ^ ECB official rates against the British pound from ecb.eu
  38. ^ Nina, Koeppen (June 26, 2007). Euro's Role Slips in World Markets. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 2007-08-08.
  39. ^ European Central Bank, CONVERGENCE REPORT MAY 2007 (PDF).
  40. ^ For example, see European Commission, Directorate General for Translation: English Style Guide section 20.8 "The euro. Like 'pound', 'dollar' or any other currency name in English, the word 'euro' is written in lower case with no initial capital and, where appropriate, takes the plural 's' (as does 'cent')." European Commission Directorate-General for Translation - English Style Guide.

The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (362nd in leap years). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 357th day of the year (358th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Drachma, pl. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code SIT User(s) Slovenia Inflation 0. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... ISO 4217 Code SKK User(s) Slovakia Inflation 2. ... is the 7th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 188th day of the year (189th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Forbes (disambiguation). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Baldwin, Richard and Charles Wyplosz, The Economics of European Integration, New York: McGraw Hill, 2004.
  • European Commission, High Level Task Force on Skills and Mobility - Final Report, 14 December 2001.

is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
euro

Official websites

  • The euro – Europa
    • English style guidePDF (621 KiB)
  • European Central Bank
    • Security features
    • Exchange rates

Europa (also written EUROPA), the official web portal of the European Union, is designed to improve the public’s interaction with the EU institutions by quickly directing website visitors to the services or information they are seeking. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to...

Other

  • Ron Wise's World Paper Money - Euro Mirror site
  • The Global History of Currencies - Europe
  • Global Financial Data currency histories table ( Microsoft Excel format)
  • The Euro Information Site – ibiblio
  • Dollar falls to record euro low Mar 17 2008
  • The symbolic power of the euro

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ibiblio (formerly SunSITE and MetaLab) is a collection of collections, and hosts a diverse range of publicly available information and open source software. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony From prehistoric to modern times, the human History of Europe has been turbulent, cultured, and much-documented. ... This is a timeline of European Union history including the European Economic Community, its de facto successor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The first moves towards the establishment of the Union came following the end of the Second World War. ... Out of the two newly founded communities, the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom), the former became the most important community. ... On 1 January 1973, Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom became the first countries to join the Communities. ... The European Union is a unique geo-political entity covering a large portion of the European continent. ... The Prodi Commission was the European Commission from 1999 to 2004. ... The Barroso Commission is the European Commission that has been in office since 22 November 2004 and is due to serve until 31 October 2009. ... Members of the European Coal and Steel Community Flag of the European Coal and Steel Community The European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was founded in 1951 (Treaty of Paris), by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands to pool the steel and coal resources of its member... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The European Atomic Energy Community, or EURATOM, is an international organization composed of the members of the European Union. ... The European Union or EU is a supranational and international organization of 27 member states. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... Eurojust (also spelled capitalised as EUROJUST) is a European Union body composed of national prosecutors, magistrates or police officers of equivalent competence from each of the European Unions member states. ... Europol (the name is a contraction of European Police Office) is the European Unions criminal intelligence agency. ... The Treaty of Maastricht which established the European Union, divided EU policies into three main areas, called pillars. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Police and Judicial Co-operation in Criminal Matters (PJC) is the third of the three pillars of the European Union, focusing on co-operation in law enforcement and combating racism. ... European integration is the process of political and economic (and in some cases social and cultural) integration of European states into a tighter bloc. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Established 1952 Presiding Country Portugal President Luís Amado President in Office José Sócrates Members 27 (at one time) Political parties 7, including: European Peoples Party Party of European Socialists Meeting place Justus Lipsius, Brussels, Belgium, European Union Web site http://www. ... Official emblem of the ECJ The Court of Justice of the European Communities, usually called the European Court of Justice (ECJ), is the highest court in the European Union (EU). ... Elections in the European Union gives information on election and election results in the European Union. ... The European Union (EU) was created by six founding states in 1957 (following the earlier establishment by the same six states of the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952) and has grown to 27 member states. ... This article deals with the meeting of European Union leaders. ... Foreign relations of the European Union Foreign relations of Austria Foreign relations of Belgium Foreign relations of Cyprus Foreign relations of the Czech Republic Foreign relations of Denmark Foreign relations of Estonia Foreign relations of Finland Foreign relations of France Foreign relations of Germany Foreign relations of Greece Foreign relations... Established 1952, as the Common Assembly President Hans-Gert Pöttering (EPP) Since 16 January 2007 Vice-Presidents 14 Rodi Kratsa-Tsagaropoulou (EPP) Alejo Vidal-Quadras (EPP) Gérard Onesta (Greens – EFA) Edward McMillan-Scott (ED) Mario Mauro (EPP) Miguel Angel Martínez Martínez (PES) Luigi Cocilovo (ALDE) Mechtild... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... The Law of the European Union is the unique legal system which operates alongside the laws of Member States of the European Union (EU). ... The term acquis (or sometimes acquis communautaire), deriving from French, is used in European Union law to refer to the total body of EU law accumulated so far. ... The European Commission, established following World War II, was the first Europe wide competition authority European Community competition law is one of the areas of authority of the European Union. ... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: There is no copyright law of the European Union at all If you can address this concern by improving, copyediting, sourcing, renaming or merging the page, please edit this page and do so. ... The Official Journal of the European Union is the gazette of record for the European Union. ...  member state with at least one opt-out  member state with a de facto opt-out  member state without opt-outs Currently, five European Union member states have (or will have) opt-outs from certain parts of the European Union structure, namely:  Denmark (four)  Ireland (two)  Poland (one)  Sweden (one... The European Union legislative procedure describes the way the European Union creates and enacts legislation across the community. ... The treaties of the European Union are effectively its constitutional law, making up the EUs primary legislation. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ... The Maastricht Treaty (formally, the Treaty of European Union, TEU) was signed on February 7, 1992 in Maastricht, Netherlands after final negotiations in December 1991 between the members of the European Community and entered into force on November 1, 1993 during the Delors Commission. ... Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts The Treaty of Amsterdam amending the Treaty of the European Union, the Treaties establishing the European Communities and certain related acts, commonly known as the Amsterdam Treaty, was signed on... Treaty of Nice The Treaty of Nice is a treaty adopted in Nice by the European Council to amend the two founding treaties of the European Union: the Treaty on European Union, or Maastricht Treaty, which introduced the Euro and the 3-pillar structure of the EU; the Treaty of... For other uses, see Treaty of Lisbon (disambiguation). ... This is a list of countries bordering the European Union and its predecessor the European Community both at its current geographical extent and after all previous rounds of enlargement. ...  Member states  Candidates Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Croatia Cyprus Czech Rep. ... This is a list of all the urban areas of the European Union which have more than 750,000 inhabitants in 2005. ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ...  Implementing countries  Implementing through partnership with a signatory state  Members implementing from 21 December 2007 (overland borders and seaports) and 29 March 2008 (airports)  Members (not yet implemented)  Expressed interest in joining A monument to the Agreement in Schengen A typical Schengen border crossing without any border control post, just... Map of European Union in the world  European Union  Outermost regions  Overseas countries and territories Map of EU member states and candidate countries, with an inset showing the 7 outermost regions As of 2007 the European Union has 27 member states, most of which participate in all EU policy areas... This article is on the political entity. ... The European Union (EU) has an independent parliament and civil service which is distinct from those of the 27 member states. ... Freedom of movement for workers is a policy chapter of the acquis communotaire of the European Union. ... The European Investment Bank (the Banque Européenne dInvestissement) is the European Unions financing institution and was established under the Treaty of Rome (1957) to provide loan finance for capital investment furthering European Union policy objectives, in particular regional development, Trans-European Networks of transport, telecommunications and energy... The European Investment Fund, established in 1994, is a European Union agency for the provision of finance to SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... The Regional policy of the European Union is a policy with the stated aim of improving the economic well-being of certain regions in the EU. Around one third of the EUs budget is devoted to this policy, the aim of which has been stated to be to remove... The Galileo positioning system is a planned Global Navigation Satellite System, to be built by the European Union (EU) and European Space Agency (ESA). ... Cultural cooperation in the European Union has become a community competency since its inclusion in 1992 in the Maastricht Treaty. ... Citizenship of the Union was introduced by the Maastricht Treaty signed in 1992. ... The demographics of the European Union show a highly populated, culturally diverse union of 27 member states. ... The European Institute of Innovation and Technology (EIIT) is a proposal adopted on 22 February 2006 by the European Commission to the European Council intended to be a new flagship research university for excellence in higher education, research and innovation. ... Mass media are the means through which information is transmitted to a large audience. ... The Flag of Europe consists of a circle of twelve golden (yellow) stars on a blue background. ... 4th movement (European Union anthem) samples: Problems playing the files? See media help. ... Statistics in the European Union are collected by Eurostat. ... The agencies of the European Union (or decentralised bodies of the European Union) are bodies which are distinct from the European Unions institutions, in that they have not been created by the treaties but rather by acts of secondary legislation, in order to accomplish a very specific task. ... List of European Councils, by presidency, date, and location. ... The following is a List of European Union directives: // Intellectual property Harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society (2001/29/EC May 22, 2001) Criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights (proposed) Enforcement of intellectual property rights (2004/48/EC... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... A European political party, formally a political party at European level, sometimes informally (especially in academic circles) a Europarty, is a type of political party organization operating transnationally in Europe. ... Presidency of the Council of the European Union refers to the responsibility of presiding over all aspects of the Council of the European Union, when exercised collectively by a government, on a pre-established rota of the member states, of the European Union. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of tallest buildings in Europe#List of tallest buildings in the European Union. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Eurozone (also called Euro Area, Eurosystem or Euroland) refers to the European Union member states that have adopted the euro currency union. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... The Faroese króna is the currency of the Faroes. ... Króna (plural krónur) is the name of the currency used in Iceland. ... ISO 4217 Code NOK User(s) Norway Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code SEK User(s) Sweden Inflation 2. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... The 5 lats coin, used before WWII, becamed a popular symbol of independence during the Soviet era The lats (in Latvian: lats, plural lati, the ISO 4217 currency code: LVL) is the official currency of Latvia. ... The litas (ISO currency code LTL, symbolized as Lt; plural litai or litų) is the official currency of Lithuania. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... GBP redirects here. ... The Guernsey pound (currency code GGP) is the currency used in Guernsey. ... ISO 4217 Code none User(s) Jersey Inflation 5. ... The pound is the currency of the Isle of Man. ... Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... ISO 4217 Code CZK User(s) Czech Republic Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code HUF User(s) Hungary Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 Code PLN User(s) Poland Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code SKK User(s) Slovakia Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code CHF User(s) Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Campione dItalia Inflation 1. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... Belarusian ruble (ISO-code BYR, before 2000 - BYB) is the official currency of Belarus. ... ISO 4217 Code KZT User(s) Kazakhstan Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... Abkhazia (pronounced or , Apsny, Georgian: Apkhazeti or Abkhazeti, Russian: Abhazia) is an autonomous region of Georgia in the Caucasus. ... Anthem unknown Capital Tskhinvali Official languages Ossetian1 Government  -  President Eduard Kokoity  -  Prime Minister Yury Morozov De facto independence from Georgia  -  Declared November 28, 1991   -  Recognition none  Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Russian in widespread use by government and other institutions. ... ISO 4217 Code None User(s) Transnistria Inflation 10. ... ISO 4217 Code UAH User(s) Ukraine Inflation 11. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... Lek is the currency used in Albania. ... ISO 4217 Code BAM User(s) Bosnia and Herzegovina Inflation 8. ... ISO 4217 Code BGN User(s) Bulgaria Inflation 7. ... “HRK” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code MKD User(s) Republic of Macedonia Inflation rate 0% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... 1 Moldovan leu note, obverse and reverse The leu (ISO 4217 code MDL) is the national currency of Moldova. ... For the Moldovan currency, see Moldovan leu. ... ISO 4217 Code RSD User(s) Serbia (including parts of Kosovo) Inflation 6. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... ISO 4217 code: GIP Symbol: £ 1/100th unit: penny Introduced in: 1927 Exchange Rates May 2006 USD exchange: 0. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... Anthem: Ä°stiklâl Marşı(Turkish) Independence March Capital Nicosia (LefkoÅŸa in Turkish) Official languages Turkish Government Representative democratic republic1  -  President Mehmet Ali Talat  -  Prime Minister Ferdi Sabit Soyer Independence from Cyprus   -  Proclaimed November 15, 1983   -  Recognition By Turkey only  Area  -  Total 3,355 km² (167th ranked together with Cyprus... Transcaucasia is the name given to a region south of the Caucasus Mountains that covers Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia. ... ISO 4217 Code AMD User(s) Armenia and the self proclaimed Nagorno Karabakh Republic Inflation -0. ... Nagorno-Karabakh (Azerbaijani: Dağlıq Qarabağ or Yuxarı Qarabağ, literally mountainous black garden or upper black garden; Russian: Нагорный Карабах, translit. ... ISO 4217 Code AZN User(s) Azerbaijan except Nagorno-Karabakh Inflation 11. ... Georgian 1 lari Georgian 2 lari Georgian 5 lari Georgian 10 lari Georgian 50 lari Georgian 100 lari The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of Georgia. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | North Africa ... The dinar is the currency of Algeria. ... The Plazas de Soberanía. ... ISO 4217 Code EGP User(s) Egypt Inflation 6. ... ISO 4217 Code LYD User(s) Libya Inflation rate -1% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... 2000 MRO issued in 2004 The ouguiya (Arabic: أوقية; ISO 4217: MRO) is the currency of Mauritania. ... The dirham (Arabic: درهم, plural: درهمان , دراهم or درهما) is the currency of Morocco. ... The Sudanese pound (Arabic: ) is the currency of Sudan. ... ISO 4217 Code TND User(s) Tunisia Inflation 2. ...  Central Africa  Middle Africa (UN subregion)  Central African Federation (defunct) Central Africa is a core region of the African continent often considered to include: Burundi Central African Republic Chad Democratic Republic of the Congo Rwanda Middle Africa (as used by the United Nations when categorising geographic subregions) is an analogous... ISO 4217 Code AOA User(s) Angola Inflation 13. ... The franc (ISO 4217 code is BIF) is the currency of Burundi. ... ISO 4217 Code XAF User(s) Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic of the Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon Pegged with euro = CFA655. ... The Congolese Franc is the currency of the Democratic Republic of Congo. ... The Rwandan franc is a currency used in the African nation of Rwanda. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... The Cape Verdean Escudo is the currency of Cape Verde. ... Anthem: Arrorró Capital Las Palmas de Gran Canaria and Santa Cruz de Tenerife Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 13th  7,447 km²  1. ... For other uses, see Madeira (disambiguation). ... The Dalasi is the currency of The Gambia. ... The cedi is the unit of currency of Ghana. ... The Guinean franc (French: franc guinéen) is the currency used in the African nation of Guinea. ... The dollar (currency code LRD) has been the currency of Liberia since 1943. ... naira sign The naira is the currency of Nigeria. ... The São Tomé and Príncipe Dobra is a currency used in the African nation of São Tomé and Príncipe. ... This article is about the currency. ... The West African CFA franc (XOF) is just known in French as the Franc CFA, where CFA stands for Communauté financière dAfrique (Financial Community of Africa). It is issued by the BCEAO (Banque Centrale des États de lAfrique de lOuest, i. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... ISO 4217 Code KMF User(s) Comoros Inflation rate 3% Source CIA World Fact Book, 2005 est. ... The franc (Arabic: فرنك) is the official currency of the African nation of Djibouti. ... The nakfa is the currency of Eritrea, divided into 100 cents. ... For other uses, see Birr (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code KES User(s) Kenya Inflation 10. ... ISO 4217 Code SCR User(s) Seychelles Inflation 4. ... The Somali shilling (shilin soomaali) is the currency used in the African nation of Somalia. ... ISO 4217 Code None User(s) Somaliland Symbol Sl. ... The current curency used in Tanzania, althought the wide spread use of U.S. Dollars is accepted. ... The Ugandan shilling is the currency of Uganda. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... ISO 4217 Code BWP User(s) Botswana Inflation 10. ... The Loti (pl. ... ISO 4217 Code MWK User(s) Malawi Inflation 15. ... The Malagasy ariary (currency code MGA) is the currency of Madagascar. ... ISO 4217 Code MUR User(s) Mauritius Inflation 8. ... The metical (plural: meticais) is the currency of Mozambique. ... The Namibian dollar (abbreviated N$ or NAD) is the national currency of Namibia, adopted in 1993. ... Front and back of a St Helena £5 note. ... ISO 4217 Code ZAR User(s) Common Monetary Area: Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, and Swaziland Inflation 5. ... The lilangeni (plural: emalangeni) is the national currency of Swaziland and is subdivided into 100 cents. ... The Zambian kwacha has been the official currency of Zambia since 1968. ... ISO 4217 Code ZWD (initially ZWN) User(s) Zimbabwe Inflation est. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas in an equal-area projection The Americas are the lands of the New World, consisting of the continents of North America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... North American redirects here. ... C$ redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code DKK User(s) Denmark, Greenland, Faroe Islands 1 Inflation 1. ... USD redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code MXN User(s) Mexico Inflation 3. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 Code BZD User(s) Belize Inflation 3% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... The colón (named after Christopher Columbus, known as Cristóbal Colón in Spanish) is the currency of Costa Rica. ... ISO 4217 Code GTQ User(s) Guatemala Inflation 6. ... The lempira (IPA: , ISO 4217 code: HNL) is the currency of Honduras. ... ISO 4217 Code NIO User(s) Nicaragua Inflation 9. ... For other uses, see balboa. ... USD redirects here. ... West Indies redirects here. ... The Aruban florin is the official currency of Aruba. ... The Bahamian dollar (B$; ISO 4217 code BSD) is the national currency of The Bahamas. ... The Barbados dollar – currency symbol $ or Bds$ – is the national unit of currency of Barbados. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: BMD; symbol: $) has been the national currency of Bermuda since 1970. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Cayman Islands dollar. ... ISO 4217 Code CUP User(s) Cuba Inflation 5% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... The Cuban convertible peso (ISO 4217 code: CUC) is one of two official currencies in Cuba. ... ISO 4217 Code DOP User(s) Dominican Republic Inflation 8. ... The East Caribbean dollar (currency code XCD) is the currency of eight members of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States. ... St. ... Anthem For Sweden - The Land of The Incredible Biffs Capital (and largest city) Gustavia Official languages Swedish Government  -  Prime Minister of Sweden Nick XII Bonaparte  -  Prefect Per af Biffsläkt  -  President of the Territorial Council none yet; however Henning is the mayor of Saint-Barthelemy Overseas Collectivity of Sweden   -  Swedish... The gourde is the currency of Haiti. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: JMD) is the currency of Jamaica. ... The gulden is the unit of currency in the Netherlands Antilles. ... The dollar (ISO 4217 code: TTD; also TT$) is the currency of Trinidad and Tobago. ... USD redirects here. ... The United States Virgin Islands is a group of islands in the Caribbean that is a dependency of the United States. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... The Argentine peso (originally established as the nuevo peso argentino or peso convertible) is the currency of Argentina. ... The boliviano (ISO 4217 code: BOB) is the currency of Bolivia. ... ISO 4217 Code BRL User(s) Brazil Inflation 3. ... Chilean notes currently in circulation: 1,000; 2,000; 5,000; 10,000; 20,000 pesos The peso is the currency of Chile. ... ISO 4217 Code COP User(s) Colombia Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 Code FKP User(s) Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Inflation 3. ... The dollar (currency code GYD) has been the currency of Guyana since 1966. ... The guaraní (plural: guaraníes; ISO 4217 code PYG) is the national currency unit of Paraguay. ... ISO 4217 Code PEN User(s) Peru Inflation 2. ... The dollar (currency code SRD) has been the currency of Suriname since 2004. ... USD redirects here. ... The peso uruguayo (ISO 4217 code: UYU) is the official currency of Uruguay. ... ISO 4217 Code VEB User(s) Venezuela Inflation 16% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... The afghani is the official currency used in Afghanistan. ... ISO 4217 Code KZT User(s) Kazakhstan Inflation 8. ... Five Kyrgyzstani Som Note (1997) 100 Kyrgystani Som Notes (2002) The Kyrgyzstani Som (sometimes transliterated Sum or Soum) is the currency of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia. ... ISO 4217 Code MNT User(s) Mongolia Inflation 9. ... ISO 4217 Code RUB User(s) Russia and self-proclaimed Abkhazia and South Ossetia Inflation 7% Source Rosstat, 2007 Subunit 1/100 kopek (копейка) Symbol руб kopek (копейка) к Plural The language(s) of this currency is of the Slavic languages. ... The Somoni (Tajik: ) is the currency of Tajikistan. ... The manat is the currency unit of Turkmenistan. ... The som (so‘m in Uzbek) is the currency of Uzbekistan in Central Asia. ... CNY and RMB redirect here. ... ISO 4217 Code HKD User(s) Hong Kong Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code JPY User(s) Japan Inflation -0. ... The pataca is the monetary unit of Macau (currency code MOP; Chinese: 澳門圓), made up of 100 avos. ... 5000 KPW issued in 2002 The won is the currency of North Korea. ... ISO 4217 Code TWD User(s) Republic of China Inflation 0. ... ISO 4217 Code KRW User(s) Republic of Korea Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code BND User(s) Brunei, Singapore Inflation 0. ... Riel (Khmer: , Symbol ) is the national currency of Cambodia. ... ISO 4217 Code IDR User(s) Indonesia Inflation 6. ... Kip is the currency of Laos. ... ISO 4217 Code MYR User(s) Malaysia Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code MMK User(s) Myanmar Inflation 21. ... ISO 4217 Code PHP User(s) Philippines Inflation 2. ... ISO 4217 Code SGD User(s) Singapore, Brunei Inflation 1% Source The World Factbook, 2006 est. ... ISO 4217 Code THB User(s) Thailand Inflation 4. ... USD redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code VND User(s) Vietnam Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code BDT User(s) Bangladesh Inflation 7% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... The ngultrum (BTN) is the currency of Bhutan, subdivided into 100 chertrums. ... “INR” redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code MVR User(s) Maldives Inflation 6% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code NPR User(s) Nepal Inflation 7. ... PKR redirects here. ... ISO 4217 Code LKR User(s) Sri Lanka Inflation rate 11. ... ISO 4217 Code AMD User(s) Armenia and the self proclaimed Nagorno Karabakh Republic Inflation -0. ... ISO 4217 Code AZN User(s) Azerbaijan except Nagorno-Karabakh Inflation 11. ... ISO 4217 Code BHD User(s) Bahrain Inflation 2. ... Georgian 1 lari Georgian 2 lari Georgian 5 lari Georgian 10 lari Georgian 50 lari Georgian 100 lari The lari (Georgian: ლარი ; ISO 4217:GEL) is the national currency of Georgia. ... ISO 4217 Code IRR User(s) Iran Inflation 15. ... ISO 4217 Code IQD User(s) Iraq Inflation rate 33% Source The World Factbook, 2005 est. ... ISO 4217 Code ILS User(s) Israel, The West Bank, Gaza Strip Inflation -0. ... The Jordanian dinar (ISO 4217 code JOD) is the official currency of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the first official one in the State of Palestine. ... ISO 4217 Code KWD User(s) Kuwait Inflation 3. ... The Lebanese pound (Arabic lira, French livre, ISO 4217: LBP) is the currency unit of Lebanon. ... ISO 4217 Code OMR User(s) Oman Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code QAR User(s) Qatar Inflation 7. ... ISO 4217 Code SAR User(s) Saudi Arabia Inflation 1. ... ISO 4217 Code SYP User(s) Syria Subunit 1/100 piastre Symbol S£ [] Coins 1, 2, 5, 10, 25 pounds Banknotes 1, 5, 10, 25, 50, 100, 200, 500, 1000 pounds Central bank Central Bank of Syria Website www. ... TRY banknotes and coins The Turkish new lira is the current currency of Turkey and of the de facto state Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. ... ISO 4217 Code AED User(s) United Arab Emirates Inflation 4. ... 1000 Yemeni Rial The rial or riyal is the currency of Yemen. ...


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Euro - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6511 words)
The euro coins are €2, €1, 50c, 20c, 10c, 5c, 2c and 1c (known as tinies for their small size), though the latter two are not minted in Finland or the Netherlands (but are still legal tender).
The euro was established by the provisions in the 1992 Maastricht Treaty on European Union that was used to establish an economic and monetary union.
The euro is the sole currency in Austria, Belgium, France, Finland, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain.
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