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Encyclopedia > Euripides
A statue of Euripides.
A statue of Euripides.

Euripides (Ancient Greek: Εὐριπίδης) (ca. 480 BC406 BC) was the last of the three great tragedians of classical Athens (the other two being Aeschylus and Sophocles). Ancient scholars thought that Euripides had written ninety-five plays, although four of those were probably written by Critias. Eighteen of Euripides' plays have survived complete. It is now widely believed that what was thought to be a nineteenth, Rhesus, was probably not by Euripides.[1] Fragments, some substantial, of most of the other plays also survive. More of his plays have survived than those of Aeschylus and Sophocles together, partly because of the chance preservation of a manuscript that was probably part of a complete collection of his works in alphabetical order. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1610x2630, 2499 KB) Description Description: Statuette of Euripides, identified by an inscription on the base. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1610x2630, 2499 KB) Description Description: Statuette of Euripides, identified by an inscription on the base. ... Greek ( IPA: or simply IPA: — Hellenic) has a documented history of 3,500 years, the longest of any single language in the Indo-European language family. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC 407 BC - 406 BC - 405 BC 404 BC... For other uses, see Tragedy (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Critias (Greek , 460-403 BC), was born in Athens, son of Callaeschrus, was the uncle of Plato, leading member of the Thirty Tyrants, and one of the most violent. ... Rhesus, possibly 450 BC, was once thought to be the earliest play by Euripides. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ...


Euripides is known primarily for having reshaped the formal structure of traditional Attic tragedy by showing strong women characters and intelligent slaves, and by satirizing many heroes of Greek mythology. His plays seem modern by comparison with those of his contemporaries, focusing on the inner lives and motives of his characters in a way previously unknown to Greek audiences. Look up attic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Slavery as an institution in Mediterranean cultures of the ancient world comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... The bust of Zeus found at Otricoli (Sala Rotonda, Museo Pio-Clementino, Vatican) Greek mythology is the body of stories belonging to the Ancient Greeks concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices. ...


Perhaps one of his more famous quotes is "Whom the gods would destroy, they first make mad".

Contents

Life

Euripides, Vatican Museum.
Euripides, Vatican Museum.

According to legend, Euripides was born in Salamís on September 23, 480 BC, the day of the Persian War's greatest naval battle. Other sources estimate that he was born as early as 485 BC. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (250x643, 63 KB) Euripides Source: Bibliothek des allgemeinen und praktischen Wissens. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (250x643, 63 KB) Euripides Source: Bibliothek des allgemeinen und praktischen Wissens. ... Categories: Stub | Vatican City ... Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Persian invasion of Greece in 480-479 BC May — King Xerxes I of Persia marches from Sardis and onto Thrace and Macedonia. ... Persian Wars redirects here. ... Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 530s BC 520s BC 510s BC 500s BC 490s BC - 480s BC - 470s BC 460s BC 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC Years: 490 BC 489 BC 488 BC 487 BC 486 BC - 485 BC - 484 BC - 483 BC...


His father's name was either Mnesarchus or Mnesarchides and his mother's name Cleito. [1] Evidence suggests that the family was wealthy and influential. It is recorded that he served as a cup-bearer for Apollo's dancers, but he grew to question the religion he grew up with, exposed as he was to thinkers such as Protagoras, Socrates, and Anaxagoras. For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... Protagoras (in Greek Πρωταγόρας) was born around 481 BC in Abdera, Thrace in Ancient Greece. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Anaxagoras Anaxagoras (Greek: Αναξαγόρας, c. ...


He was married twice, to Choerile and Melito, though sources disagree as to which woman he married first. [1] [2] [citation needed]He had three sons, and it is rumored that he also had a daughter who was killed after a rabid dog attacked her. (Some say this was merely a joke made by Aristophanes, who often poked fun at Euripides.) Melito could refer to one of two things: Saint Melito of Sardis, a second century Christian bishop; or Melito di Porto Salvo, Italy, a town in Calabria. ... Rabies (Latin: , madness, rage, fury) is a viral zoonotic disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in mammals. ... This article is about the 5-4th century BC dramatist. ...


The record of Euripides' public life, other than his involvement in dramatic competitions, is almost non-existent. The only reliable story of note is one by Aristotle about Euripides being involved in a dispute over a liturgy - a story which offers strong proof to Euripides being a wealthy man. It has been said that he travelled to Syracuse, Sicily; that he engaged in various public or political activities during his lifetime; that he wrote his tragedies in a sanctuary, The Cave of Euripides on Salamis Island; and that he left Athens at the invitation of king Archelaus I of Macedon and stayed with him in Macedonia after 408 BC. According to Pausanias, Euripides was buried in Macedonia. For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... Syracuse (Italian, Siracusa, ancient Syracusa - see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a city on the eastern coast of Sicily and the capital of the province of Syracuse, Italy. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The Cave of Euripides is a ten-chamber cave in Peristeria on Salamis Island, Greece, and the subject of archaeological investigation. ... Salamis (Greek, Modern: Σαλαμίνα Salamína, Ancient/Katharevousa: Σαλαμίς Salamís) is the largest Greek island in the Saronic Gulf, about 1 nautical mile (2 km) off-coast from Piraeus. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Archelaus I was king of Macedon from 413 to 399 BC, following the death of Perdiccas II. The son of Perdiccas by a slave woman, Archelaus obtained the throne by murdering his uncle, his cousin, and his half-brother, the legitimate heir, but proved a capable and beneficent ruler, known... Pausanias (Greek: ) was a Greek traveller and geographer of the 2nd century A.D., who lived in the times of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. ...


Plays

Euripides first competed in the Dionysia, the famous Athenian dramatic festival, in 455 BC, one year after the death of Aeschylus. He came in third, reportedly because he refused to cater to the fancies of the judges. It was not until 441 BC that he won first prize, and over the course of his lifetime, Euripides claimed a mere four victories. He also won one posthumous victory. The Dionysia was a large religious festival in ancient Athens in honour of the god Dionysus, the central event of which was the performance of tragedies and comedies. ...


He was a frequent target of Aristophanes' humour. He appears as a character in The Acharnians, Thesmophoriazusae, and most memorably in The Frogs, where Dionysus travels to Hades to bring Euripides back from the dead. After a competition of poetry, the god opts to bring Aeschylus instead. This article is about the 5-4th century BC dramatist. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Acharnians in Greek The Acharnians (Ancient Greek: / Akharneĩs) is a comedic play by the ancient Greek satirist Aristophanes. ... Thesmophoriazusae (Women Celebrating the Thesmophoria) is a comedy written by the Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... Greek Wikisource has original text related to this article: The Frogs Frogs (Βάτραχοι (Bátrachoi)) is a comedy written by the Ancient Greek playwright Aristophanes. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... Hades, Greek god of the underworld, enthroned, with his bird-headed staff, on a red-figure Apulian vase made in the 4th century BC. For other uses, see Hades (disambiguation). ...


Euripides' final competition in Athens was in 408 BC; there is a story that he left Athens embittered over his defeats. He accepted an invitation by the king of Macedon in 408 or 407 BC, and once there he wrote Archelaus in honour of his host. He is believed to have died there in winter 407/6 BC; ancient biographers have told many stories about his death, but the simple truth was that it was probably his first exposure to the harsh Macedonia winter which killed him. (Rutherford 1996). The Bacchae was performed after his death in 405 BC and won first prize. Centuries: 6th century BC - 5th century BC - 4th century BC Decades: 450s BC 440s BC 430s BC 420s BC 410s BC - 400s BC - 390s BC 380s BC 370s BC 360s BC 350s BC Years: 412 BC 411 BC 410 BC 409 BC 408 BC - 407 BC - 406 BC 405 BC... The Bacchae (also known as The Bacchantes) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. ...


When compared with Aeschylus, who won thirteen times, and Sophocles, with eighteen victories, Euripides was the least honoured of the three—at least in his lifetime. Later in the 4th century BC, the dramas of Euripides became the most popular. His works influenced New Comedy and Roman drama, and were later idolized by the French classicists; his influence on drama reaches modern times. For other uses, see Drama (disambiguation). ... Greek comedy is the name given to a wide genre of theatrical plays written, and performed, in Ancient Greece. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Classicism, in the arts, refers generally to a high regard for classical antiquity as setting standards for taste which the classicist seeks to emulate. ...


Euripides' greatest works include Alcestis, Medea, Electra, and The Bacchae. Also considered notable is Cyclops, the only complete satyr play currently in existence. Alcestis is one of the earliest surviving works of the Greek playwright Euripides. ... Medea is a tragedy written by Euripides, based on the myth of Jason and Medea and first produced in 431 BC. Along with the plays Philoctetes, Dictys and Theristai, which were all entered as a group, it won the third prize (out of three) at the Dionysia festival. ... Euripides Electra was probably written in the mid 410s BC, likely after 413 BC. It is unclear whether it was first produced before or after Sophocles version of the Electra story. ... The Bacchae (also known as The Bacchantes) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. ... Papposilenus playing the crotals, theatrical type of the satyr play, Louvre Satyr plays were an ancient Greek form of tragicomedy, similar to the modern-day burlesque style. ...


The manuscript, apparently part of a multiple volume, alphabetically-arranged collection of Euripides' works, whose preservation accounts for the comparatively large number of extant plays of Euripides, was rediscovered after lying in a monastic collection for approximately eight hundred years.


In June 2005, classicists at Oxford University worked on a joint project with Brigham Young University, using multi-spectral imaging technology to recover previously illegible writing (see References). Some of this work employed infrared technology—previously used for satellite imaging—to detect previously unknown material by Euripides in fragments of the Oxyrhynchus papyri, [3] a collection of ancient manuscripts held by the university. Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Satellite (disambiguation). ... Oxyrhynchus (Greek: Οξύρυγχος; sharp-nosed; ancient Egyptian Per-Medjed; modern Egyptian Arabic el-Bahnasa) is an archaeological site in Egypt, considered one of the most important ever discovered. ...


Commentary

Euripides has been compared to Rousseau in being too modern for his time. Unlike other playwrights of his time, Euripides focused on the realism of his characters. While Aeschylus’ Clytemnestra is a stock evil woman, for example, Euripides’ Medea is a more realistic woman with recognizable emotions. In Hippolytus, Euripides writes in a particularly modern style, using the theater to demonstrate how neither language nor sight (the main elements of theater) aids in understanding in a civilization on its last leg. Euripides makes his point about vision both through the plot (Phaedra makes repeated references to her inability to see clearly and her wish to have her eyes covered), and through the sparseness of his staging, which lacked the dazzling elements that other plays often had. The same was true of his commentary on the use of language. The misuse of words played an important role in the storyline (Phaedra's letter, the nurse's betrayal of Phaedra's secret, Hippolytus' refusal to break his oath to save his own life, and his refusal to pay lip-service to Aphrodite), but in addition, the actual language of the play was often purposefully verbose and ungainly, again to show the ineffectual nature of language in comprehension in Euripides' age. [2] Rousseau is a French surname. ... After the murder (1882 painting) Clytemnestra (or Clytaemestra) ‘‘(Eng. ... In Greek mythology, Hippolytus was a son of Theseus and either Antiope or Hippolyte. ...


According to Aristotle, Euripides's colleague and contemporary Sophocles said: "I portray men as they ought to be, and Euripides portrays them as they are."[3] For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ...


Euripides' realistic characterisations were sometimes at the expense of a realistic plot; he frequently relied upon the deus ex machina to resolve his plays, as in Alcestis and Medea. According to Aristotle's Poetics, this is the worst way to end a play. Many classicists cite this as a reason why Euripides was less popular in his own time. For other uses, see Deus ex machina (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ...


Bibliography

Tragedies

  1. Alcestis (438 BC, second prize)
  2. Medea (431 BC, third prize)
  3. Heracleidae (c. 430 BC)
  4. Hippolytus (428 BC, first prize)
  5. Andromache (c. 425 BC)
  6. Hecuba (c. 424 BC)
  7. The Suppliants (c. 423 BC)
  8. Electra (c. 420 BC)
  9. Heracles (c. 416 BC)
  10. The Trojan Women (415 BC, second prize)
  11. Iphigeneia in Tauris (c. 414 BC)
  12. Ion (c. 414 BC)
  13. Helen (412 BC)
  14. Phoenician Women (c. 410 BC)
  15. Orestes (408 BC)
  16. Bacchae and Iphigeneia at Aulis (405 BC, posthumous, first prize)

Alcestis is one of the earliest surviving works of the Greek playwright Euripides. ... Medea is a tragedy written by Euripides, based on the myth of Jason and Medea and first produced in 431 BC. Along with the plays Philoctetes, Dictys and Theristai, which were all entered as a group, it won the third prize (out of three) at the Dionysia festival. ... Heracleidae is a play by Euripides c. ... Hippolytus (also known as Hippolytos) is an Ancient Greek tragedy by Euripides, based on the myth of Hippolytus, son of Theseus. ... Andromache (c. ... Hecuba is a tragedy by Euripides written c. ... The Suppliants (also known as The Suppliant Women) 423 BC, is an ancient Greek play by Euripides. ... Euripides Electra was probably written in the mid 410s BC, likely after 413 BC. It is unclear whether it was first produced before or after Sophocles version of the Electra story. ... Heracles or Hercules Furens is a play by Euripides (c. ... The Trojan Women (in Greek, Troiades) is a tragedy by the Greek playwright Euripides. ... Iphigeneia in Tauris (in Greek: ) is a drama by the playwright Euripides, written sometime between 414 BC and 412 BC. It bears much in common with another of Euripides plays, Helen, and is often described as a romance, a melodrama, or an escape play. ... Ion is an ancient Greek play by Euripides, thought to be wrtten between 414 and 412 BC. It follows the orphan Ion in the discovery of his origins. ... Helen is a drama by Euripides, probably first produced in 412 BC for the Dionysia. ... The Phoenician Women (Also known by the Greek title, Phoenissae) is a tragedy by Euripides based on the same story as Aeschylus play Seven Against Thebes. ... Orestes (408 BCE) is an Ancient Greek play by Euripides that follows the events of Orestes after he had murdered his mother. ... The Bacchae (also known as The Bacchantes) is a tragedy by the ancient Greek playwright Euripides. ... Iphigeneia at Aulis, written in 410 BC, is the last surviving work of the playwright Euripides. ...

Fragmentary tragedies

The following plays have come down to us today only in fragmentary form; some consist of only a handful of lines, but with some the fragments are extensive enough to allow tentative reconstruction: see Euripides: Selected Fragmentary Plays (Aris and Phillips 1995) ed. C. Collard, M.J. Cropp and K.H. Lee.

  1. Telephus (438 BC)
  2. Cretans (c. 435 BC)
  3. Stheneboea (before 429 BC)
  4. Bellerophon (c. 430 BC)
  5. Cresphontes (ca. 425 BC)
  6. Erecteus (422 BC)
  7. Phaethon (c. 420 BC)
  8. Wise Melanippe (c. 420 BC)
  9. Alexandros (415 BC)
  10. Palamedes (415 BC)
  11. Sisyphus (415 BC)
  12. Captive Melanippe (412 BC)
  13. Andromeda (412 BC with Euripides' Helen)
  14. Antiope (c. 410 BC)
  15. Archelaus (c. 410 BC)
  16. Hypsipyle (c. 410 BC)
  17. Philoctetes (c. 410 BC)

A Greek mythological figure, Telephus referred to two different people. ... For other uses, see Bellerophon (disambiguation). ... This article or section should be merged with Phaëton Phaethon A Greek god who the phrase a boy Doing a mans job comes from. ... The Sisyphus fragment is an 42-line excerpt in iambic trimeter from an ancient Greek satyr play written either by Euripides or Critias. ... See Andromeda (disambiguation) for other uses of Andromeda. Andromeda Chained to the Rock by the Nereids (1840) Théodore Chassériau, Louvre Andromeda was a Greek mythological figure who was chained to a rock to be eaten by a sea monster and was saved by Perseus, whom she later married. ...

Satyr play

  1. Cyclops (uncertain date)

The Cyclops is an Ancient Greek satyr play by Euripides, the only complete satyr play that has survived. ...

Spurious plays

  1. Rhesus (most modern scholars maintain that the play was probably not by Euripides, shows many indications of mid 4th century BC contamination)

Rhesus, possibly 450 BC, was once thought to be the earliest play by Euripides. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Halsall, Paul. Ancient History Sourcebook: 11th Britannica: Euripides.
  2. ^ A Further Note on the Modernity of "Hippolytus" Robert Skloot. The Classical Journal, Vol. 64, No. 5. (Feb., 1969), pp. 226-227. Stable URL: http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0009-8353%28196902%2964%3A5%3C226%3AAFNOTM%3E2.0.CO%3B2-B
  3. ^ Aristotle, de Arte Poetica, 1460b 33-34
  • Croally, N.T. Euripidean Polemic: The Trojan Women and the Function of Tragedy. Cambridge University Press, 1994.
  • Ippolito, P. La vita di Euripide. Napoli: Dipartimento di Filologia Classica dell'Universit'a degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, 1999.
  • Kovacs, D. Euripidea. Leiden: Brill, 1994.
  • Lefkowitz, M.R. The Lives of the Greek Poets. London: Duckworth, 1981.
  • Rutherford, Richard. Euripides: Medea and other plays. Penguin, 1996.
  • Scullion, S. Euripides and Macedon, or the silence of the Frogs. The Classical Quarterly, Oxford, v. 53, n. 2, p. 389-400, 2003.
  • Sommerstein, Alan H. Greek Drama and Dramatists, Routledge, 2002.
  • Webster, T.B.L., The Tragedies of Euripides, Methuen, 1967.
  • ^ Multispectral imaging. Oxyrhynchos online. [4] Retrieved on 28 Oct 2007.

Mary R. Lefkowitz (born 1935) and Professor Emerita of Classical Studies at Wellesley College in Massachusetts, USA. She earned her B.A. from Wellesley College in 1957, and received her Ph. ...

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Euripides (736 words)
The Language of Euripides - An essay examining the use of language in the plays of Euripides.
The Moral and Religious Ideas of Euripides - A study of the religious and ethical convictions of Euripides as suggested by his dramas.
The Political and Social Opinions of Euripides - A study of the political and social convictions of Euripides as suggested by his dramas.
Euripides - MSN Encarta (780 words)
Euripides was austere and considered himself misunderstood by his contemporaries—a conclusion not without foundation, for he was constantly the object of attack by Athenian writers of comedy.
Euripides’ plays were criticized for their unconventionality, for their natural dialogue (his heroes and princes spoke the language of everyday life), and for their independence from traditional religious and moral values.
Euripides shared in the intellectual skepticism of the day, and his plays challenged the religious and moral dogmas of the past, which had not yet fallen into general discredit.
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