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Encyclopedia > Euphrates

{{ The Euphrates (pronounced /juːˈfreɪtiːz/) (Arabic: نهر الفرات, Nahr ul-Furāt; Turkish: Fırat; Syriac: ܦܪܬ, Prāṯ; Hebrew: פרת, Pĕrāṯ) is the western of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris) which flows from Anatolia. Surfer Rosa is the debut album by the American alternative rock band Pixies, released in March 1988 on the British independent record label 4AD.[2] The albums unusual and offbeat subject matter includes references to mutilation and voyeurism; this is augmented by experimental recording, low-fidelity production and a... Arabic redirects here. ... Syriac ( Suryāyā) is an Eastern Aramaic language that was once spoken across much of the Fertile Crescent. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Mesopotamia was a cradle of civilization geographically located between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, largely corresponding to modern-day Iraq. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ...

Contents

Etymology

Modern names for the Euphrates may have been derived by popular etymology from the Sumerian and Akkadian names, respectively Buranun and Pu-rat-tu. The former appears in an inscription from the 22nd century BCE[citation needed] associated with King Gudea. A fake etymology is an invented explanation (etymology) for the origin of a word. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Statue of Gudea, British Museum London Gudea was a ruler (ensi) of the city of Lagash in Southern Mesopotamia who ruled ca. ...


Etymologically, the name "Euphrates" is the Greek form of the original name, Phrat, which means "fertilizing" or "fruitful".[1]


Alternatively, the second half of the word Euphrates may also derive from either the Persian Ferat or the Greek φέρω (pronounced [fero]), both of which mean "to carry" or "to bring forward".

Language Name for Euphrates
Akkadian Pu-rat-tu
Arabic الفرات Al-Furāt
Aramaic ܦܪܬ Prāṯ, Froṯ
Armenian Եփրատ Yeṗrat
Greek Ευφράτης Euphrátēs
Hebrew פְּרָת Pĕrāṯ
Kurdish فرهات Firat, Ferat
Persian فرات Ferat
Sumerian Buranun
Turkish Fırat

Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... The Kurdish language (Kurdish: Kurdî or کوردی) is a term used for a range of different dialects of a language spoken by Kurds. ... Farsi redirects here. ... Sumerian ( native tongue) was the language of ancient Sumer, spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BCE. It was gradually replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language in the beginning of the 2nd millenium BCE, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific...

Course of the Euphrates

The river is approximately 2,781 kilometers (1,730 mi) long. It is formed by the union of two branches: the Kara Su rises about 30 km (19 mi) northeast of Erzurum, in the Kargapazari Mountains; and the Murat rises 70 km (43 mi) northeast of Lake Van. The upper reaches of the Euphrates flow through steep canyons and gorges, southeast across Syria, and through Iraq. The Khabur and the Balikh River join the Euphrates in eastern Syria. This article provides a detailed list of the cities and towns along the Euphrates River in order of country. ... Theodosiopolis redirects here; it is also a name of the ancient city of Apros, Thrace. ... The river Murat is also spelled Murad River, Turkish Murat Nehri. ... Lake Van Armenian: ; (Turkish: Van Gölü; Kurdish: ) is the largest lake in Turkey, located in the far east of the country. ... The Khabur River (Kurdish: Çemê Xabûr, Arabic: نهر الخابور; also transliterated as Habor River or Habur River) is a river that begins in southeastern Turkey and flows south to Syria, where it eventually empties into the Euphrates River. ... The Balikh River has its origins in Turkey, and ends up in Syria, on the very western part of Euphrates. ...

A man and woman make their way up the Shatt-al-Arab in Basra, Iraq.
A man and woman make their way up the Shatt-al-Arab in Basra, Iraq.

Both rivers have their origins in Turkey. Downstream, through its whole length, the Euphrates has no other notable tributaries. North of Basra, in southern Iraq, the river merges with the Tigris to form the Shatt al-Arab, this in turn empties into the Persian Gulf. Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1318 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1318 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... The Shatt al-Arab (Arabic: شط العرب, Stream of the Arabs) or Arvand (called اروندرود: arvandrūd in Persian), also called the Shatt-al-Arab waterway, is a river in Southwest Asia of some 200 km in length, formed by the confluence of the Euphrates and the Tigris in the town of al... Map of the Persian Gulf. ...


The river used to divide into many channels at Basra, forming an extensive marshland, but the marshes were largely drained by the Saddam Hussein government in the 1990s as a means of driving out the rebellious Marsh Arabs. Since the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the drainage policy has been reversed, but it remains to be seen whether the marshes will recover. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... The Marsh Arabs are the inhabitants of the lowlands of southern Iraq, the former Mesopotamia, whose families have lived in the area for thousands of years. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


The Euphrates is only navigable by very shallow-draft boats, which can reach as far as the Iraqi city of Hit, located 1,930 kilometers (1,200 mi) upstream and only 60 meters (200 ft) above sea level. Above Hit, however, shoals and rapids make the river commercially unnavigable. Its annual inundation, caused by snow melt in the mountains of northeastern Turkey, has been partly checked by new dams and reservoirs in the upper reaches. An 885-kilometer (550 mi) canal links the Euphrates to the Tigris to serve as a route for river barges.:-[citation needed] The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic Al-Furat الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the...

The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah, Syria.
The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah, Syria.

Download high resolution version (1260x840, 61 KB)The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah File links The following pages link to this file: Euphrates User:Zeledi ... Download high resolution version (1260x840, 61 KB)The Euphrates River near Ar Raqqah File links The following pages link to this file: Euphrates User:Zeledi ... Ar Raqqah (ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ; also spelled Rakka), city in north central Syria, capital of the Raqqah province, located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo. ...

Euphrates in the Bible

A river named Perath (Hebrew for Euphrates) is one of the four rivers that flow from the Garden of Eden according to Genesis 2:14. This Hebrew word, derived from either the word "stream" or "to break forth", has been translated as Euphrates[1]. It is the fourth river, after the Pishon, the Gihon, and the Tigris, (Hebrew name is Hiddekel) to form from the river flowing out of the garden. The river of the same name marked one of the boundaries of the land promised by God to Abraham and his descendants (Isaac, Jacob, etc). In the Hebrew Bible, it is often referred to simply as "The River" (ha-nahar). (Genesis 15:18). For other uses, see Garden of Eden (disambiguation). ... Genesis (Greek: Γένεσις, having the meanings of birth, creation, cause, beginning, source and origin) is the first book of the Torah (five books of Moses) and hence the first book of the Tanakh, part of the Hebrew Bible; it is also the first book of the Christian Old Testament. ... The Pishon is mentioned in the Biblical Genesis (2:11) as one of four rivers branching off from a single river within Eden. ... Gihon is the title of a river first mentioned in the second chapter of the Biblical book of Genesis. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Sacrifice of Isaac, a detail from the sarcophagus of the Roman consul Junius Bassus, ca. ... This article is about Jacob in the Hebrew Bible. ... This article is about the term Hebrew Bible. For the Jewish scriptures see Tanakh. ...

  • God creates the Euphrates: "The name of the third river is Tigris, the one that flows east of Asshur. And the fourth river is the Euphrates" (Genesis 2:14).
  • The Euphrates marks the north-eastern border of the land God promises to Abram: "To your descendants I give this land from the wadi of Egypt to the Great River, the river Euphrates" (Genesis 15:18 in the Jerusalem Bible)
  • God tells the Israelites to go to the Promised Land: "Start out and make your way to the hill country of the Amorites and to all their neighbors in the Arabah, the hill country, the Shephelah, the Negeb, the seacoast, the land of the Canaanites, and the Lebanon, as far as the Great River, the river Euphrates" (Deuteronomy 1:7).
  • God (through Moses) promises the Israelites the Promised Land: "Every place where you set the soles of your feet shall be yours. Your borders shall run from the wilderness to the Lebanon and from the River, the river Euphrates, to the western sea" (Deuteronomy 11:24).
  • In Revelation 16:12, it is prophesied that the Euphrates will dry up in preparation for the Battle of Armageddon: "And the sixth angel poured out his vial upon the great river Euphrates; and the water thereof was dried up, that the way of the kings of the east might be prepared."
    • See below in the section Controversial Issueskrap

This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... The Tigris is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Abram is a village in the Metropolitan Borough of Wigan, Greater Manchester, England. ... Map of the Land of Israel as defined in the Bible The Promised Land (Hebrew: הארץ המובטחת, translit. ... Deuteronomy (Greek deuteronomium, second, from to deuteronomium touto, this second law, pronounced ) is the fifth book of the Torah of the Hebrew bible and the Old Testament. ... In Christian apocalyptic literature (the Book of Revelation), Armageddon or Har-Mageddon is the site of the final battle between the kings of the earth (incited by Satan) and the Christian God. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...

Islamic prophecies

Euphrates River in Iraq.
Euphrates River in Iraq.

In Islam, some of the hadiths of the Prophet Muhammad, suggest that the Euphrates will dry up, revealing unknown treasures that will be the cause of strife and war. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...

  • Soon the river Euphrates will disclose the treasure [the mountain] of gold. So, whoever will be present at that time should not take anything of it.Sahih Bukhari.
  • The Prophet Muhammad said: "The Hour will not come to pass before the river Euphrates dries up to unveil the mountain of gold, for which people will fight. Ninety-nine out of one hundred will die [in the fighting], and every man among them will say: 'Perhaps I may be the only one to remain alive'." Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim.
  • The Prophet Muhammad said: "The Euphrates reveals the treasures within itself. Whoever sees it should not take anything from it". — Al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, Al-Burhan fi `Alamat al-Mahdi Akhir az-Zaman, p. 28.
  • It [the Euphrates] will uncover a mountain of gold [under it].Sunan Abi Da'ud.

The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... The authentic collection (Arabic: الجامع الصحيح, al-Jaami al-Sahih [1]) or popularly al-Bukharis authentic (Arabic: صحيح البخاري, Sahih al-Bukhari) is one of the Sunni six major Hadith collections (Hadith are oral traditions recounting events in the lives of the Islamic prophet Muhammad ). Sunni view this as their most trusted collection. ... Sahih Muslim (Arabic: صحيح مسلم, ṣaḥīḥ muslim) is one of the Sunni Six Major Hadith collections, collected by Imam Muslim. ... Sunan Abi Daud is the one of Sunni Islams six canonical hadith collections, compiled by Abu Daud. ...

Euphrates in history

The Euphrates provided the water that led to the first flowering of civilization in Sumer, dating from about the 4th millennium BCE. Many important ancient cities were located on or near the riverside, including Mari, Sippar, Nippur, Shuruppak, Uruk, Ur and Eridu. The river valley formed the heartlands of the later empires of Babylonia and Assyria. For several centuries, the river formed the eastern limit of effective Egyptian and Roman control and western regions of the Persian Empire. Also, the Battle of Karbala occurred at the banks of Euphrates river, where Imam Hussain, along with his family and friends, were killed. Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Sippara (Zimbir in Sumerian, Sippar in Assyro-Babylonian) was an ancient Babylonian city on the east bank of the Euphrates, north of Babylon. ... The city of Nippur (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) (now it is in Afak town,Al Qadisyah Governorate) was one of the most ancient (some historians date it back to 5262 B.C. [1][2]) of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the... Ancient sumerian city. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic وركاء Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles (230 km) SSE from Baghdad. ... For other uses, see Ur (disambiguation). ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Babylonia was a state in southern Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq, combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Persia redirects here. ... Combatants Banu Hashim Commanders Umar ibn Saad Husayn ibn Ali Strength over 40 000 72 Casualties 5000+ 123 (72 Adult Men (Tabari)and 51 Children including a sixmonth old infant) The Battle of Karbala took place on Muharram 10, 61 AH (October 9 or 10, 680 CE)[1][2...


Controversial issues

An Iraqi city by the Euphrates river.
An Iraqi city by the Euphrates river.

As with the Tigris there is much controversy over rights and use of the river. The Southeastern Anatolia Project in Turkey involves the construction of 22 dams and 19 power plants by 2005, the biggest development project ever undertaken by Turkey. The first of the dams was completed in 1990, but attacks of the PKK terrorist organization has slowed down the project and caused significant delays. Southeast Turkey is still struggling economically, adding fuel to the discontent expressed by Turkey's Kurdish minority centered there. The Turkish authorities hope that the project will provide a boost to the region's economy, but domestic and foreign critics have disputed its benefits as well as attacking the social and environmental costs of the scheme. Other Turkish Topics Culture - Education Geography - History - Politics Turkey Portal The Southeastern Anatolia Project (Turkish: GüneydoÄŸu Anadolu Projesi, GAP) is a multi-sector integrated regional development project based on the concept of sustainable development for the 9 million people[1] living in a region. ... The Congress for Freedom and Democracy in Kurdistan (Kadek), formerly known as the Kurdistan Workers Party (Kurdish: Partiya Karkerên Kurdistan, PKK ) was one of several militant groups fighting for the creation of an independent Kurdish state in southern Turkey, northern Iraq, Northern Syria and western Iran. ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...


In Syria the Tabaqah Dam (completed in 1973 and sometimes known simply as the Euphrates Dam) forms a reservoir, Lake Assad that is used for irrigating cotton. Syria has dammed its two tributaries and is in the process of constructing another dam. Iraq has seven dams in operation, but water control lost priority during Saddam Hussein's regime. Since the collapse of Ba'ath Iraq in 2003, water use has come once again to the fore. The scarcity of water in the Middle East leaves Iraq in constant fear that Syria and Turkey will use up most of the water before it reaches Iraq. As it is, irrigation in southern Iraq leaves little water to join the Tigris at the Shatt-al-Arab. The potential for war over these waters is the subject of much diplomacy, and bears consideration of the Biblical prophecies.[2] Tabaqah Dam and Lake Assad from space, June 1996 The Tabaqah Dam (sometimes called the Euphrates Dam) is an earth filled dam nearly 197 feet (60 meters) high and 3 miles (5 km) long (located at 36°0′N 38°35′E) in Syria. ... For the song River Euphrates by the Pixies, see Surfer Rosa. ...


See also

This map shows the extent of the Fertile Crescent. ... This is a list of places in Iraq. ... ecoregion : Tigris-Euphrates alluvial salt marsh (Ref PA0906). ...

References

  1. ^ From Harry Thurston Peck. Harpers Dictionary of Classical Antiquities. New York. Harper and Brothers. 1898. Perseus Digital Library. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0062%3Aid%3Deuphrates2
  2. ^ UK Telegraph article "Government still stalling on UN waters treaty"

External links

  • Bibliography on Water Resources and International Law See Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. Peace Palace Libray
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Euphrates; discusses the Old Testament references to the river
  • Tigris-Euphrates River dispute, details of conflict and cooperation
  • The Turkish National Policy for Utilizing the Waters of Euphrates-Tigris Basin (THE THREE-STAGED PLAN) (Turkish)
  • Here is a link to a collection of pictures of the Euphrates river shot nearby Ar Raqqah
  • Archaeology Channel documentary film "Damming the Euphrates" [2]
Ar Raqqah (ﺍﻟﺮﻗﺔ; also spelled Rakka), city in north central Syria, capital of the Raqqah province, located on the north bank of the Euphrates River, about 160 km east of Aleppo. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Euphrates - definition of Euphrates in Encyclopedia (742 words)
The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Aramaic Prâth/Frot, Old Persian Ufrat, in Arabic الفرات;, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (Bethnahrin in Aramaic), the other being the Tigris.
It is formed by the union of two branches, the Kara (the western Euphrates), which rises in the highlands of eastern Turkey north of Erzerum and the Murat (the eastern Euphrates), which issues from Lake Van.
The river Euphrates is one of the four rivers that flow from the Garden of Eden according to Book of Genesis 2:14.
Euphrates - MSN Encarta (786 words)
Euphrates (Arabic Al Furāt, Turkish Firāt), river in southwest Asia, rising in Turkey and flowing through Syria and Iraq before joining the Tigris to form the Shatt al Arab.
The Euphrates has an average annual flow of 28 billion cu m (990 billion cu ft); the flow is heaviest in the months of April and May. Major cities on the Euphrates include Ar Raqqah and Dayr az Zawr in Syria, and Karbalā’, Al Hillah, and An Najaf in Iraq.
Downstream, the decrease in the flow of the Euphrates is of serious concern to Syria, which has invested heavily in power generation and irrigation from its Euphrates dam, the Al Thawrah, or Revolution, Dam.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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