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Encyclopedia > Eunuch
European illustration of a Eunuch (1749)
European illustration of a Eunuch (1749)
Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912.
Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912.

A eunuch is a castrated man; the term usually refers to those castrated in order to perform a specific social function, as was common in many societies of the past. The earliest records for intentional castration to produce eunuchs are from the Sumerian cities of Lagash in the 21st century BC.[citation needed] Over the millennia since, they have performed a wide variety of functions in many different cultures such as courtiers or equivalent domestics, treble singers, religious specialists, government officials, military commanders, and guardians of women or harem servants. In some societies, the notion of eunuch has been expanded to include men who are impotent with women or are simply celibate. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (351x684, 65 KB) Summary European eunuch (18th century) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (351x684, 65 KB) Summary European eunuch (18th century) Licensing This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... Abdülhamid II (Ottoman Turkish: عبد الحميد ثانی , Turkish: ) (September 21, 1842 – February 10, 1918) was the 34th sultan of the Ottoman Empire. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Castration, gelding, neutering, orchiectomy or orchidectomy is any action, surgical or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testes. ... Sumer (or Šumer; Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR [1]) was the earliest known civilization of the ancient Near East, located in lower Mesopotamia (modern Iraq), from the time of the earliest records in the mid 4th millennium BC until the rise of Babylonia in the late 3rd millennium BC. The term... Lagash (Akkadian lagaš) or Sirpurla (Sumerian ŠIR.BUR.LAKI; modern Tell al-Hiba), northwest of the junction of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers and east of Uruk, was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ... It has been suggested that servant (domestic) be merged into this article or section. ... A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ... Erectile dysfunction (ED) or impotence is a sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis. ... Celibacy may refer either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ...

Contents

Origins

The English word eunuch is from the Greek eune ("bed") and ekhein ("to keep"), effectively "bed keeper." Servants or slaves were usually castrated in order to make them safer servants of a royal court where physical access to the ruler could wield great influence. Seemingly lowly domestic functions such as making the ruler's bed, bathing him, cutting his hair, carrying him in his litter or even relaying messages could in theory give a eunuch "the ruler's ear" and impart de facto power on the formally humble but trusted servant. Similar instances are reflected in the humble origins and etymology of many high offices (e.g. chancellor started out as a servant guarding the entrance to an official's study). Eunuchs supposedly did not generally have loyalties to the military, the aristocracy, or to a family of their own (having neither offspring nor in-laws, at the very least), and were thus seen as more trustworthy and less interested in establishing a private 'dynasty'. Because their condition usually lowered their social status, they could also be easily replaced or killed without repercussion. In cultures that had both harems and eunuchs, eunuchs were sometimes used as harem servants (compare the female odalisque) or seraglio guards. A double bed A bed is a piece of furniture or location primarily used or intended for sleeping upon, but also commonly used for sexual activities, relaxing, sitting, and reading. ... Slave redirects here. ... The litter is a class of wheelless vehicles for transport of persons. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... In traditional Arab culture, the harîm حريم (cf. ... Odalisque with a slave by Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, painted in 1842 An odalisque was a virgin female slave, who could rise in status to being a concubine or a wife in Ottoman Seraglios, but most of whom tended to the harem of the Turkish sultan. ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. In the context of the turquerie fashion, the seraglio became the subject of works of art, the most famous perhaps being Mozarts...


Ancient Middle East

Eunuchs were familiar figures in the Assyrian Empire (ca. 850 till 622 B.C.), in the court of the Egyptian Pharaohs (down to the Lagid dynasty known as Ptolemies, ending with Cleopatra). This article concerns the ancient Mesopotamian kingdom. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ...


China

In ancient China castration was both a traditional punishment (until the Sui Dynasty) and a means of gaining employment in the Imperial service. At the end of the Ming Dynasty there were about 70,000 eunuchs (宦官 huànguān, or 太監 tàijiān) in the Imperial palace. The value of such employment—certain eunuchs gained immense power that may have superseded that of the prime ministers—was such that self-castration had to be made illegal. The number of eunuchs in Imperial employ had fallen to 470 in 1912, when their employment ceased. The justification of the employment of eunuchs as high-ranking civil servants was that, since they were incapable of having children, they would not be tempted to seize power and start a dynasty. Concurrently, a similar system existed in Vietnam.[1] The Sui Dynasty of China amongst the Asian, African, and European spheres of the world, 600 AD. The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-618 AD[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... For other uses, see Forbidden City (disambiguation). ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


The tension between depraved eunuchs in the service of the emperor and virtuous Confucian officials resisting their tyranny is a familiar theme in Chinese history. In his History of Government, Samuel Finer points out that reality was not always that clear-cut. There were instances of very capable eunuchs, who were valuable advisors to their emperor, and the resistance of the "virtuous" officials often was procrastination on the part of a privileged class which blindly resisted any change, whether it be for the good or the bad of the empire. Ray Huang argues that in reality, eunuchs represented the personal will of the Emperor, while the officials represented the alternate political will of the bureaucracy. The clash between them was a clash of ideologies or political agenda.[2] Samuel E. Finer, 1915-1993, was a British political scientist and historian. ... Ray Huang (Simplified Chinese: 黄仁宇; June 25, 1918–2000) was a Chinese historian. ...


Greco-Roman practice

The practice was also well established in Europe among the Greeks and Romans, although more rarely as court functionaries than in Asia. The third sex Galli of Cybele were considered by some to be eunuchs. In late Rome, emperors such as Constantine were surrounded by eunuchs for such functions as bathing, hair cutting, dressing, and bureaucratic functions, in effect acting as a shield between the emperor and his administrators from physical contact. Eunuchs were believed loyal and dispensable. Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... Galli was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which can be regarded as transgendered in todays terms. ... Head of Constantines colossal statue at Musei Capitolini Gaius Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus[1] (February 27, 272–May 22, 337), commonly known as Constantine I, Constantine the Great, or (among Eastern Orthodox and Eastern Catholic[2] Christians) Saint Constantine, was a Roman Emperor, proclaimed Augustus by his troops on...


At the Byzantine imperial court, there were a great number of eunuchs employed in domestic and administrative functions, actually organized as a separate hierarchy, following a parallel career of their own. Archieunuchs—each in charge of a group of eunuchs—were among the principal officers in Constantinople, under the emperors.[3] Byzantine redirects here. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... This is a list of the Emperors of the late Eastern Roman Empire, called Byzantine by modern historians. ...


It was only after the Muslim Arabs conquered parts of the Roman Empire that they acquired eunuchs from the Romans, and not knowing what else to do with them, made them into harem guards. For the Eunuchs in the Ottoman Great Sultan's harem and wider palace service, see the (Topkapi) Seraglio.[4] Ottoman redirects here. ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ... A seraglio is the sequestered living quarters used by wives and concubines in a Turkish household, from an Italian variant of Turkish saray, meaning palace, enclosed courts. In the context of the turquerie fashion, the seraglio became the subject of works of art, the most famous perhaps being Mozarts...


The hijra of India

Main article: Hijra (South Asia)

The Ancient Indian Kama Sutra refers to people of a "third sex" (trtyaprakrti), who can be dressed either in men's or in women's clothes and perform fellatio on men. The term has been translated as "eunuchs" (as in Sir Richard Burton's translation of the book), but these persons have also been considered to be the equivalent of the modern hijra of India. For other uses, see Hijra. ... Ancient India may refer to: The ancient History of India, which generally includes the ancient history of the whole Indian subcontinent (South Asia) Indus Valley Civilization — during the Bronze Age Vedic period — the period of Vedic Sanskrit, spanning the late Bronze Age and the earlier Iron Age Mahajanapadas — during the... For other uses, see Kama Sutra (disambiguation). ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... Fellatio is oral sex performed upon the male human penis. ... Richard Burton, portrait by Frederic Leighton, National Portrait Gallery, London Sir Richard Francis Burton (March 19, 1821 - October 19, 1890), British consul, explorer, translator, and Orientalist, was born at Barham House, Hertfordshire, England. ...


Hijra, a Hindi term traditionally translated into English as "eunuch", actually refers to what modern Westerners would call male-to-female transgender people and effeminate homosexuals (although some of them reportedly identify as belonging to a third sex). Some of them undergo ritual castration, but the majority do not. They usually dress in saris (traditional Indian garb worn by women) and wear heavy make-up. They typically live in the margins of society, face discrimination[5] and earn their living in various ways, e.g., by coming uninvited at weddings, births, new shop openings and other major family events and singing until they are paid or given gifts to go away.[6] The ceremony is supposed to bring good luck and fertility, while the curse of an unappeased hijra is feared by many. Other sources of income for the hijra are begging and prostitution. The begging is accompanied by singing and dancing and the hijras usually get the money easily. Some Indian provincial officials have used the assistance of hijras to collect taxes in the same fashion; they knock on the doors of shopkeepers, while dancing and singing, and embarrass them into paying.[7] Recently, hijras have started to found organizations to improve their social condition and fight discrimination. There has even been a wave of hijra entering politics and being elected to high political positions. Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is also used for central government administrative purposes , along with English. ... A transgender woman at New York Citys gay pride parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English)) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... Effeminacy is character trait of a male showing femininity, unmanliness, womanliness, weakness, softness and/or a delicacy, which contradicts traditional masculine, male gender roles. ... Third gender was used from the late 19th century to describe people who did not fit into the then existing gender categories: female genitalia = female identity = female behavior = desire male partner male genitalia = male identity = male behavior = desires female partner Today this scheme is also known as binary gender system... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ...


Religious castration

Among the earliest records of human religion are accounts of castration as an act of devotion, and sacred eunuchs are found in spiritual roles. Archaeological finds at Çatalhöyük, a large Neolithic town of southern Anatolia, suggest that such practises were common in the worship as far back as 7500 BCE of a goddess similar perhaps to the Cybele of historical records. The Galli, later Roman followers of Cybele, also practiced ritual self-castration, known as sanguinaria. The practice is said to have continued throughout Christian times, with many of the early church castrating themselves as an act of devotion, although the extent and even the existence of this practice among Christians is controversial.[8] Excavations at the South Area of Çatal Höyük Çatalhöyük (also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük, or any of the three without diacritics; çatal is Turkish for fork, höyük for mound) was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic settlement in southern... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Originally a Phrygian goddess, Cybele (Greek: Κυβέλη) was a deification of the Earth Mother who was worshipped in Anatolia from Neolithic times. ... Galli was the Roman name for castrated followers of the Phrygian goddess Cybele, which can be regarded as transgendered in todays terms. ...


A famous alleged example is the early theologian Origen, who is said to have found scriptural justification in the Matthew 19:12. In this passage, Jesus stated: "For there are some eunuchs, which were so born from their mother's womb: and there are some eunuchs, which were made eunuchs of men: and there be eunuchs, which have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven's sake. He that is able to receive it, let him receive it." (King James Version) Origen Origen (Greek: Ōrigénēs, 185–ca. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ...


Tertullian, a 2nd century Church Father, described Jesus himself and Paul of Tarsus as spadones, which is translated as "eunuchs" in some contexts.[9] However, these statements can be interpreted as a metaphor for celibacy, especially given the broad meaning of the term spado in Late Antiquity (see Non-castrated eunuchs below). Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Paul of Tarsus (b. ... This article is about metaphor in literature and rhetoric. ... Celibacy refers either to being unmarried or to sexual abstinence. ... European illustration of a Eunuch (1749) Chief Eunuch of Ottoman Sultan Abdul Hamid II at the Imperial Palace, 1912. ...


Eunuch priests have served various goddesses from India for many centuries. Similar phenomena are exemplified by some modern Indian communities of the hijra type, which are associated with a deity and with certain rituals and festivals - notably the devotees of Yellammadevi, or jogappas, who are not castrated[10] and the Ali of southern India, of whom at least some are.[11] Godess Yellamma (Shri Renuka devi ), was the daughter of the king Renuka raja . ...


The 18th-century Russian Skoptzy (скопцы) sect was an example of a castration cult, where its members regarded castration as a way of renouncing the sins of the flesh. Several members of the 20th century Heaven's Gate cult were found to have been castrated, apparently voluntarily and for the same reasons. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A number of religious cults have included castration as a central theme of their beliefs. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ... The logo used by the Heavens Gate group Heavens Gate was the name of a cult co-led by Marshall Applewhite and Bonnie Nettles. ...


Castrato singers

Main article: Castrato

Eunuchs castrated before puberty were also valued and trained in several cultures for their exceptional voices, which retained a childlike and other-worldly flexibility and treble pitch. Such eunuchs were known as castrati. Unfortunately the choice had to be made at an age when the boy would not yet be able to consciously choose whether to sacrifice his sexual potency, and there was no guarantee that the voice would remain of musical excellence after the operation. A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ... Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a childs body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. ... A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ...


As women were sometimes forbidden to sing in Church, their place was taken by castrati. The practice, known as castratism, remained popular until the 18th century and was known into the 19th century. The last famous Italian castrato, Giovanni Velluti, died in 1861. The sole existing recording of a castrato singer documents the voice of Alessandro Moreschi, the last eunuch in the Sistine Chapel choir, who died in 1922. Unfortunately, the early 20th century recording is of poor quality and Moreschi, who was never trained for the stage, is not considered a great singer. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Giambattista Velluti. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Sistine Chapel (Italian: ) is a chapel in the Apostolic Palace, the official residence of the Pope, in the Vatican City. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Non-castrated "eunuchs"

According to Byzantine historian Kathryn Ringrose,[12] while the pagans of Classical Antiquity based their notions of gender in general and eunuchs in particular on physiology (the genitalia), the Byzantine Christians based them on behaviour and more specifically procreation. Hence, by Late Antiquity the term "eunuch" had come to be applied not only to castrated men, but also to a wide range of men with comparable behavior, who had "chosen to withdraw from worldly activities and thus refused to procreate".[13] The broad sense of the term "eunuch" is reflected in the compendium of Roman law created by Justinian I in the 6th century known as the Digest or Pandects. That text distinguishes between two types of "eunuchs" - spadones (a general term denoting "one who has no generative power, an impotent person, whether by nature or by castration",[14] D 50.16.128) and castrati (castrated males, physically incapable of procreation). Spadones are eligible to marry women (D 23.3.39.1), institute posthumous heirs (D 28.2.6), and adopt children (Institutions of Justinian 1.11.9), unless they are castrati. The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, narrowly defined, is any of those parts of the body (which are not always bodily organs according to the strict definition) which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in an complex organism; namely: Male: penis (notably the glans penis... Using the term Roman law in a broader sense, one may say that Roman law is not only the legal system of ancient Rome but the law that was applied throughout most of Europe until the end of the 18th century. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Pandects (Lat. ...


Historically significant eunuchs

In chronological order.

  • Aspamistres or Mithridates (5th century BC) Bodyguard of Xerxes I of Persia, and (with Artabanus) his murderer.
  • Artoxares: A of Artaxerxes I and Darius II of Persia.
  • Bagoas (4th century BC) Prime minister of king Artaxerxes III of Persia, and his murderer. (Bagoas is an old Persian/Farsai word meaning Eunuch.)
  • Bagoas (4th century BC) A favorite of Alexander the Great. Influential in changing Alexander's attitude toward Persians and therefore in the king's policy decision to try to integrate the conquered peoples fully into his Empire as loyal subjects. He thereby paved the way for the relative success of Alexander's Seleucid successors and greatly enhanced the penetration of Greek culture to the East.
  • Sima Qian - old romanization: Ssu-ma Chi'en (2nd/1st century BC) Was the first person to have practiced modern historiography - gathering and analyzing both primary and secondary sources in order to write his monumental history of the Chinese empire.
  • Ganymedes (1st century BC) Highly capable adviser and general of Cleopatra VII's sister & rival, Princess Arsinoe. Unsuccessfully attacked Julius Caesar three times at Alexandria.
  • Pothinus (1st century BC) Regent for pharaoh Ptolemy XII.
  • Cai Lun - Ts'ai Lun in the old romanization (1st/2nd century AD) Reasonable evidence exists to suggest that he was truly the inventor of paper. At the very least, he established the importance of paper and standardized its manufacture in the Chinese empire.
  • Origen - early Christian theologian, allegedly castrated himself based on his reading of the Gospel of Matthew 19:12 (For there are eunuchs, who were born so from their mother's womb: and there are eunuchs, who were made so by men: and there are eunuchs, who have made themselves eunuchs for the kingdom of heaven. He that can take, let him take it.). Despite the fact that the early Christian theologian Tertullian wrote that Jesus was a eunuch, there is no corroboration in any other early source. (The Skoptsy did, however, believe it to be true.) Tertullian also wrote that he knew, personally, the author of the Gospel of Matthew, and that he was a eunuch. Again, this is not attested elsewhere, nor is the account of Origen's self-castration.
  • Eutropius (5th century AD) Only eunuch known to have attained the highly distinguished and very influential position of Roman Consul.
  • Narses (478-573) General of Byzantine Emperor, Justinian I, responsible for destroying the Ostrogoths in 552 at the Battle of Taginae in Italy and saving Rome for the empire.
  • Ignatius of Constantinople (799-877). Twice Patriarch of Constantinople during troubled political times [847-858 and 867-877]. First absolutely unquestioned eunuch saint, recognized by both the Orthodox and Roman Churches. (There are a great many early saints who were probably eunuchs, though few either as influential nor unquestioned as to their castration.)
  • Ly Thuong Kiet (1019-1105), general during the Ly Dynasty in Vietnam. Penned what is considered the first Vietnamese declaration of independence. Regarded as a Vietnamese national hero.
  • Pierre Abélard (1079-1142), French scholastic philosopher and theologian. Forcibly castrated while in bed by his lover's uncle.
  • Shikhandi - In the ancient Hindu legend of Mahabharata, he fought the war with the Pandavas, against Kauravas.
  • Zheng He (1371-1433), famous admiral who led huge Chinese fleets of exploration around the Indian Ocean.
  • Judar Pasha (late 16th century) A blond, blue-eyed Spanish eunuch who became the head of the Moroccan invasion force into the Songhai Empire. In 1591, despite overwhelming odds, his forces conquered a large swath of sub-Saharan Africa for the Saadi Dynasty and firmly entrenched Islam in the region.
  • Carlo Broschi, called Farinelli (1705-82), the most famous Italian castrato.

See also Eunuchs The name Mithridates (more accurately, Mithradates) is helenized form of a Indo-Aryan Mithra-Datt, which means One given by Mithra. Mithra is the Indo-Aryan sun-god and Datt (Given by) derives from the Indo-European root da, to give. That name was borne by a large number of... Xerxes I (خشایارشاه), was a Persian king (reigned 485 - 465 BC) of the Achaemenid dynasty. ... For other uses of this term see: Persia (disambiguation) The Persian Empire is the name used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). ... Artabanus the Hyrcanian was a Persian political figure during the Achaemenid Dynasty who was reportedly Regent of Persia for a few months (465 BC - 464 BC). ... Artoxares (Old Persian *ArtaxÅ¡ara) (c. ... Artaxerxes I was king of Persia from 464 BC to 424 BC. He belonged to the Achaemenid dynasty and was the successor of Xerxes I. He is mentioned in two books of the Bible, Ezra and Nehemiah. ... Darius II, originally called Ochus and often surnamed Nothus (from Greek νοθος, meaning bastard), was emperor of Persia from 423 BC to 404 BC. Artaxerxes I, who died shortly after December 24, 424 BC, was followed by his son Xerxes II. After a month and a... Bagoas (in Old Persian Bagoi; died 336 BC) was a eunuch who became the confidential minister of Artaxerxes III. He threw in his lot with the Rhodian condottiere Mentor, and with his help succeeded in subjecting Egypt again to the Persian empire (probably 342 BC). ... Artaxerxes III ruled Persia from 358 BC to 338 BC. He was the son of Artaxerxes II and was succeeded by Arses of Persia (also known as Artaxerxes IV). ... Bagoas (in Old Persian Bagoi) was a eunuch in the Persian Empire in the 4th Century BCE. He was reportedly the lover of Alexander the Great. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Seleucid Empire was one of several political states founded after the death of Alexander the Great, whose generals squabbled over the division of Alexanders empire. ... Sima Qian Si Ma Qian (司馬遷) (c. ... Historiography studies the processes by which historical knowledge is obtained and transmitted. ... Ganymedes was an eunuch in the court of Cleopatra VII who proved an able adversary against Julius Caesar. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Pothinus (early 1st Century BC - 48 or 47 BC) was regent for Pharaoh Ptolemy XIII of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Ancient Egypt. ... Ptolemy XII Neos Dionysos Theos Philopator Theos Philadelphos (117 BCE - 51 BCE) was son of Ptolemy IX Soter II. His mother is unknown. ... Cài Lún (Wade-Giles: Tsai Lun, 蔡倫) (c. ... For other uses, see Paper (disambiguation). ... Origen Origen (Greek: ÅŒrigénÄ“s, 185–ca. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Quintus Septimius Florens Tertullianus, anglicised as Tertullian, (ca. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... As of 1911, the Skoptzy (скопцы, also transliterated as Skoptzi, Skoptsi, Scoptsy and other spellings) were a secret sect of Russia. ... The Gospel of Matthew (literally, according to Matthew; Greek, Κατά Μαθθαίον or Κατά Ματθαίον, Kata Maththaion or Kata Matthaion) is a synoptic gospel in the New Testament, one of four canonical gospels. ... Eutropius (d. ... This article is about the Roman rank. ... Narses (478-573) was, along with Belisarius, one of the two great generals in the service of the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. during the so-called Reconquest that took place during the Justinians reign. ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ... Combatants Byzantine Empire Ostrogoths Commanders Narses Totila† Strength 20,000 unknown infantry 2,000 horsemen Casualties unknown 6,000 At the battle of Taginae (also known as the battle of Busta Gallorum) in July of 552, the Byzantine Empire under General Narses broke the power of the Ostrogoths in Italy... Bishops of Byzantium (until 330) St. ... The Patriarch of Constantinople is the Ecumenical Patriarch, ranking as the first among equals in the Eastern Orthodox communion. ... The Lý Dynasty (Vietnamese: nhà Lý, pronounced like Lee), sometimes known as the Posterior Lý Dynasty (nhà Hậu Lý), was a Vietnamese dynasty that began in 1009 when Lý Thái Tổ overthrew the Anterior Lê Dynasty (nhà Tiền Lê) and ended in 1225 when the queen L... Abaelardus and Heloïse surprised by Master Fulbert, by Romanticist painter Jean Vignaud (1819) Pierre Abélard (in English, Peter Abelard) or Abailard (1079 – April 21, 1142) was a French scholastic philosopher. ... Shikandi (born Shikhandini) is a character in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharata. ... For the film by Peter Brook, see The Mahabharata (1989 film). ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... The term Kaurava is a Sanskrit term, that means the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... Judar Pasha was a military leader of Moroccos Saadi Dynasty and the conqueror of the Songhai Empire. ... The Songhai Empire, (ca. ... The Saadi Dynasty of Saadi Empire began with the reign of Sultan Mohammed I in 1554, and ended in 1659 with the end of the reign of Sultan Ahmad II. The Saadi family claimed descent from the Islamic prophet Muhammad, through the line of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatima... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Farinelli, by Wagner after Amigoni 1735 Farinelli (January 24, 1705 – September 16, 1782), was the stage name of Carlo Broschi, one of the most famous Italian soprano castrato singers of the 18th century. ... A castrato is a male soprano, mezzo-soprano, or alto voice produced either by castration of the singer before puberty or one who, because of an endocrinological condition, never reaches sexual maturity. ...


Some other famous eunuchs

State of Qi (small seal script, 220 BC) See Qi (disambiguation) for other meanings of Qi. Qi (齊; pinyin: qi2) was a relatively powerful state during the Spring and Autumn Period and Period of the Warring States. ... Zhao Gao 趙高 (died end of October 207 BC) was the chief eunuch during the Qin Dynasty of China, who played an instrumental role in the downfall of the Qin Dynasty. ... Li Si (Chinese: 李斯; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Li Ssu) (ca. ... Zhang Rang (張讓) (d. ... The Ten Attendants (also known as the Ten Eunuchs) (Traditional Chinese: 十常侍, pinyin: shí chángshì) were a group of eunuchs from the Eunuch Faction of the Han Imperial Court in China. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (202 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–190 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication to Cao Wei 220... Huang Hao was a eunuch serving Liu Shan, second and last emperor of the Kingdom of Shu during the Three Kingdoms era in ancient China. ... For other uses, see Romance of the Three Kingdoms (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and to make a clear distinction between fact and fiction, this article may require cleanup. ... Gao Lishi (高力士) (684-762) was a eunuch official during Emperor Xuanzong of Tang Chinas reign, reaching high ranks like Biaoqi Grand General (驃騎大將軍) and Jinkai Fu Yitong Sansi (進開府儀同三司). He is believed to have run much of the empire during Xuanzongs inattentive later years, and is known to have been... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Emperor Tang Xuanzong (唐玄宗) (685 - 762), born Li Longji (李隆基), was the sixth emperor of the Tang dynasty of China reigining from 712 to 756. ... Li Fuguo李輔國(704-762) was a eunuch official during the reign of Emperor Suzong of Tang Dynasty. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ... Tong Guan is a character in the epic Chinese tale, the Water Margin. ... Northern Song in 1111 AD Capital Bianjing (汴京) (960–1127) Linan (臨安) (1127–1276) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 960–976 Emperor Taizu  - 1126–1127 Emperor Qinzong  - 1127–1162 Emperor Gaozong  - 1278–1279 Emperor Bing History  - Zhao Kuangyin taking over the throne of the Later Zhou... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Ming. ... The Tumu Crisis (Chinese: 土木之變; pinyin: TÅ­mù zhÄ« bìan); also called Crisis of Tumubao (土木堡之變); or Battle of Tumu (土木之役), was a frontier conflict between Mongolia and the Chinese Ming Dynasty which led to the capture of the Zhengtong Emperor on September 8, 1449. ... Gang Bing (Pinyin; Wade-Giles: Kang Ping) was a Chinese general and eunuch who served under Emperor Yongle of the Ming Dynasty. ... The Yongle Emperor (May 2, 1360–August 12, 1424), born Zhu Di, was the third emperor of the Ming Dynasty of China from 1402 to 1424. ... Liu Jin (劉瑾), (?-1510), was a well-known Chinese eunuch during the Ming Dynasty. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Wei Zhongxian (魏忠賢) (1568-October 19, 1627) is considered by most historians as the most powerful and notorious eunuch in Chinese history. ... The history of China is told in traditional historical records that refer as far back as the Three Sovereigns and Five Emperors about 5,000 years ago, supplemented by archaeological records dating to the 16th century BC. China is one of the worlds oldest continuous civilizations. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-Hsi Tai-hou) (November 29, 1835 – November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the West Empress Dowager (Chinese: 西太后), was from the Manchu Yehe Nara Clan. ... Li Lianying (Chinese: 李莲英; pinyin: Lǐ LiányÄ«ng) was a royal eunuch during the Qing Dynasty, and was a favorite of the Empress Dowager Cixi, who was the de facto ruler of China for forty years from 1869–1909. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Sun Yaoting (Traditional Chinese: 孫耀庭, Simplified Chinese: 孙耀庭, Hanyu Pinyin: SÅ«n Yàotíng, Wade-Giles: Sun Yao-ting; December 29, 1902 – December 17, 1996) was the last surviving imperial eunuch of Chinese history. ... Boston Corbett Thomas P. Boston Corbett (1832 – presumed dead 1894) was the Union Army soldier who shot and killed Abraham Lincolns assassin, John Wilkes Booth. ... John Wilkes Booth (May 10, 1838 – April 26, 1865) assassinated Abraham Lincoln the 16th President of the United States at Fords Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865. ...

Eunuchs in Fiction

  • The Pardoner in Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales" is referred to in the General Prologue as either a "geldynge" or a "mare" (a gelding is a castrated male horse; a mare is a female horse). In other words, neither the literary pilgrims, nor modern scholars know whether he is a eunuch or a homosexual. The text can be interpreted either way, however.
  • In Sondheim's musical, ''A Funny Thing Happened on the Way to the Forum, there are several eunuch characters as guards to the local house of Courtesans.
  • In Shakespeare's Antony and Cleopatra, the character Mardian is a eunuch, in attendance on Cleopatra. She tells him: "I take no pleasure in aught an eunuch has."[15]
  • Eunuchs appear often as villains in Hong Kong kung fu and wuxia films set in ancient China. For example, the films "Dragon Inn (Xin long men ke zhan)", "Butterfly Sword (Xin liu xing hu die jian)", and "A Touch of Zen (Hsia nu)" all feature a eunuch or a group of eunuchs as the main villain. A popular eunuch villain used in ancient China stories is Eunuch Wei, who is based on a historical figure named Wei Zhongxian. Eunuch villains are usually in charge of powerful political posts, such as being the leader of the East Chamber.
  • The Queen Salmissra, in David Edding's The Belgariad and The Malloreon, is only allowed to be served by eunuchs. Her Chief Eunuch Sadi becomes a principal character in the Mallorean, and is referred to in "The Prophecy" as "The Man who is no Man."
  • The character and narrator Taita in Wilbur Smith's "Egyptian" (1991-) series of novels is a eunuch (performed as a punishment while a slave).
  • Bagoas was the eunuch favorite of Alexander the Great (referenced above). Bagoas is the main character and narrator of The Persian Boy, a 1972 historical novel by Mary Renault.
  • In the Dune series, Count Hasimir Fenring was a genetic eunuch and the Emperor's closest friend and adviser.
  • Eunuchs feature prominently in Montesqieu's 1722 novel Lettres persanes, supposedly about Persian visitors to eighteenth-century France.
  • Anne Rice wrote of castrati in her 1982 novel "Cry To Heaven". The story is centered on the castrati characters of Guido Maffeo and Tonio Treschi, teacher and student.
  • In Pirates of the Caribbean: Curse of the Black Pearl (2003), and Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man's Chest (2006), Johnny Depp's character Jack Sparrow refers to Orlando Bloom's character Will as being a eunuch several times. These lines were apparently improvised by Johnny Depp.
  • Fiona McIntosh's "Percheron" series centers on a harem, guarded by Eunuchs.
  • In the book "Everworld: Realm of the Reaper" which is the fourth book in the Everworld series by K.A. Applegate Eunuchs guard the City of Hel (also known as "Her City").
  • In the 1981 film written, produced and directed by Mel Brooks, History of the World, Part I, during The Roman Empire segment, Josephus and Comicus are assisted in their escape from Caesar's Palace by Miriam and Empress Nympho, who hides Josephus as a eunuch in her rooms, but he is foiled by an erotic dance performed by the priestess of Venus.
  • In the book Candide by Voltaire one of the characters Candide encounters is a eunuch who was castrated and made to become a singer.
  • In the Bollywood film "Taal", the main character is played by actor Anubhav Saxena, who is a eunuch.
  • Olympia, WA band Frumpies have a song called "Eunuch Nights".

Eunuchus (The Eunuch) is a comedy written by the Roman playwright Terence featuring a complex plot of familial misunderstanding. ... Publius Terentius Afer, better known as Terence, was a comic playwright of the Roman Republic. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... Twelfth Night has at least three meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday), celebrated by some Christians Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare Twelfth Night (band), a progressive rock band This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share... Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. ... WÇ”xiá (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: , Mandarin IPA: , Cantonese Pinyin: mou5 hap6), literally meaning martial (arts) heroes, is a distinct quasi-fantasy sub-genre of the martial arts genre in literature, television and cinema. ... Wei Zhongxian (魏忠賢) (1568-October 19, 1627) is considered by most historians as the most powerful and notorious eunuch in Chinese history. ... The Belgariad is a five-book fantasy epic written by David Eddings. ... The Malloreon is a five part fantasy book series written by David Eddings, which follows The Belgariad. ... The Mars Volta is an American progressive rock group founded by Cedric Bixler-Zavala, Omar Rodriguez-Lopez, Isaiah Ikey Owens and Jeremy Michael Ward. ... Tremulant EP is the first EP release by the progressive rock band The Mars Volta. ... Wilbur Addison Smith (born January 9, 1933 in Broken Hill, Northern Rhodesia (now Zambia)) is an author of fiction. ... Varys, called the Spider by some and the eunuch by others, is perhaps the single most enigmatic character in aSoIaF. In GoT, he serves on King Roberts small council as master of whisperers, and aids Ned Stark in discovering the true identity of Cersei Lannisters children. ... George R. R. Martin, circa 1986 George Raymond Richard Martin (born September 20, 1948 in Bayonne, New Jersey) is an American writer of science fiction and fantasy, and also a screenwriter and producer. ... A Song of Ice and Fire (commonly abbreviated as ASoIaF) is a series of epic fantasy novels by American author George R. R. Martin. ... The fictional world of George R.R. Martins fantasy epic A Song of Ice and Fire includes a number of organizations, societies, and mercenary companies. ... Daenerys Targaryen is a fictional character from George R. R. Martins A Song of Ice and Fire. ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Mary Renault (pronounced Ren-olt[1]) (4 September 1905 – 13 December 1983) born Mary Challans, was an English writer best known for her historical novels set in Ancient Greece. ... The fictional Dune universe, or Duniverse, is the political, scientific, and social setting of author Frank Herberts six-book Dune series of science fantasy novels. ... Hasimir Fenring is a fictional character in the Dune universe created by Frank Herbert. ... Montesquieu in 1728. ... Persian Letters is a satirical story of two Persian brothers travelling through France by Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu. ... Anne Rice (born on October 4, 1941) is a best-selling American author of gothic and later religious themed books. ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... Orlando Jonathan Blanchard Bloom[1] (born 13 January 1977) is an English actor. ... John Christopher Depp II[1] (born June 9, 1963) is an American actor, best known for his frequent portrayals of offbeat and eccentric characters such as Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy and the titular character of Tim Burtons Edward Scissorhands. ... For other uses, see Aladdin (disambiguation). ... Queen Scheherazade tells her stories to King Shahryar. ... Badroulbadour (Arabic بدر البدور, badru l-budÅ«r, full moon of full moons) is an Arabian princess whom Aladdin married in the story of Aladdin And The Magic Lamp. ... Everworld #1: Search for Senna Everworld is a fantasy book series written by K.A. Applegate and published by Scholastic. ... K.A. Applegate is the author of the Animorphs, Remnants, and Everworld book series. ... In Norse mythology, Hel (sometimes Anglicized or Latinized as Hela) is the queen of Hel, the Norse underworld. ... The Adventures of Baron Munchausen is a 1988 film directed by Terry Gilliam, starring John Neville (as the Baron), Sarah Polley, Eric Idle, Jonathan Pryce, Oliver Reed, Uma Thurman, Robin Williams and a great many more. ... For other uses, see Blackadder (disambiguation). ... Born to be King is the second episode of the first season of the BBC sitcom Blackadder (The Black Adder). ... Dougal McAngus, 4th Duke of Argyll is a fictional character in the first series of the British sitcom Blackadder. ... Arms of the Duke of Argyll since 1406 The title Duke of Argyll was created in the peerage of Scotland in 1701 and in the peerage of the United Kingdom in 1892. ... History of the World, Part I is a 1981 film written, produced and directed by Mel Brooks. ... The Ice Pirates is a 1984 comedy/science-fiction film, directed by Stewart Raffill and starring Robert Urich and Mary Crosby. ... Robert Urich (December 19, 1946 – April 16, 2002) was an Emmy-winning actor, best known for playing private investigators on the television series Spenser: For Hire (1985-1988) and Vega$ (1978-1981). ... Michael D. Roberts (b. ... One Night with the King is a film that was released in 2006 in the United States. ... Esther (1865), by John Everett Millais Esther (Hebrew: , Standard  Tiberian ), born Hadassah, was a woman in the Hebrew Bible, the queen of Ahasuerus (commonly identified with either Xerxes I or Artaxerxes II), and heroine of the Biblical Book of Esther which is named after her. ... Family Guy is an Emmy Award-winning American animated television series about a dysfunctional family in the fictional town of Quahog, Rhode Island. ... “Chitty Chitty Death Bang” is the third episode from season one of the FOX animated television series Family Guy. ... For the Bernstein operetta based on the book, see Candide (operetta). ... For the singer of the same name, see Voltaire (musician). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... The Years of Rice and Salt (2002, ISBN 0553580078) is an alternate history novel written by science fiction author Kim Stanley Robinson, a thought experiment about a world without Christianity. ... A modern illustration of Zheng He, by an unidentified artist. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ... For the origami historian, see David Lister (Origami Historian). ... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... The Frumpies was a punk rock band formed in 1992 Olympia, Washington. ...

See also

Genital modification and genital mutilation both can refer to permanent or temporary changes to the human genitals. ... Female genital cutting (FGC), female genital mutilation (FGM), or female circumcision (FC), is the excision or tissue removal of any part of the female genitalia for cultural, religious or other non-medical reasons. ...

Notes

  1. ^ For an extended discussion see Mitamura Taisuke,Chinese Eunuchs: The Structure of Intimate Politics tr.Charles A.Pomeroy,Tokyo 1970, a short, condensed version of Mitamura's original book =三田村泰助, 宦官, Chuko Shinsho, Tokyo 1963
  2. ^ Huang, Ray (1981). 1587, A Year of No Significance: The Ming Dynasty in Decline. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-02518-1. . They also have their penises taken away
  3. ^ This article incorporates content from the 1728 Cyclopaedia, a publication in the public domain. [1]
  4. ^ Lad, Jateen. "Panoptic Bodies. Black Eunuchs in the Topkapi Palace", Scroope: Cambridge Architecture Journal, No.15, 2003, pp.16-20.
  5. ^ Ravaging the Vulnerable: Abuses Against Persons at High Risk of HIV Infection in Bangladesh, Human Rights Watch, August 2003. Report online.
    See also: Peoples Union of Civil Liberties (Karnataka) Report on Human Rights Violations Against the Transgender Community, released in September 2003. Reported in Being a Eunuch, By Siddarth Narrain, for Frontline, 14 October, 2003.
  6. ^ [2] Eunuchs 'cut off man's penis'. By Baldev Chauhan BBC correspondent in Himachal Pradesh. BBC News. Thursday, 24 July 2003.
  7. ^ Dancing eunuchs taxing red-faced shopkeepers. Reuters. November 10, 2006.
  8. ^ Hester, J. David (2005), Eunuchs and the Postgender Jesus: Matthew 19:12 and Transgressive Sexualities. Journal for the Study of the New Testament, Vol. 28, No. 1, 13-40 (2005)
  9. ^ Tertullian, On Monogamy, 3: “...He stands before you, if you are willing to copy him, as a voluntary spado (eunuch) in the flesh.” And elsewhere: "The Lord Himself opened the kingdom of heaven to eunuchs and He Himself lived as a eunuch. The apostle [Paul] also, following His example, made himself a eunuch..." Tertullian also declared: "The kingdom of heaven is thrown open to eunuchs."
  10. ^ Yellamma cult of India
  11. ^ The Mystery of the Threshold: "Ali" of Southern India
  12. ^ Wells, Collin. Review of The Perfect Servant: Eunuchs and the Social Construction of Gender in Byzantium, 2003 by Kathryn M. Ringrose. Retrieved on 2006-10-21..
  13. ^ Review of Herdt, Gilbert (ed.) (1994) Third Sex, Third Gender: Beyond Sexual Dimorphism in Culture and History. Retrieved on 2006-10-21.
  14. ^ Charlton T. Lewis, Charles Short, A Latin Dictionary. Retrieved on 2006-10-21..
  15. ^ Act 1, scene 5, lines 10-11, John Wilders ed. "Antony and Cleopatra" (3rd edition Arden, Thomson Publishing, 1995) p.120

Table of Trigonometry, 1728 Cyclopaedia Cyclopaedia, or, A Universal Dictionary of Arts and Sciences (folio, 2 vols. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Sources and references

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eunuch Ministry in India (1705 words)
In some case by knowing that their son is a Eunuch, the parents themselves ill treat him and send him out of the house as having a eunuch in the family is an abomination to their family prestige.
NOTE: The Eunuchs are forbidden to enter in to the Temple and they were not considered as equal citizens with others and officially their names were not included in the list of families.
The Eunuchs also have the body, soul and spirit; they are fully human and need to be reached with the love of Christ by all means and at any cost.
EUNUCH (1144 words)
Three provisions in the Code of Hammurabi refer to adoption involving "the son of a girsequ" (eunuch) or "the son of a salzikrum" (a compound word from woman and male).
Therefore the child is the natural child of the eunuch or of the male woman, which means the eunuch and the male woman are able to procreate.
The law states that, unlike the case for some other children, the adoption of a son of a eunuch or male woman is irreversible, and it places severe corporal punishments on adoptees who attempt to circumvent these laws by contesting their adoptions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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