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Encyclopedia > Eumetazoan
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Eumetazoa
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Subkingdom: Eumetazoa
Branch

The Eumetazoa are a major group of animals, comprising the Radiata and Bilateria - all animals except the sponges (Parazoa or Porifera) and mesozoans. When treated as a formal taxon it is typically ranked as a subkingdom. The name Metazoa has also been used to refer to this group, but more often refers to the Animalia as a whole. Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anenomes) Placozoa (trichoplax) Subregnum Bilateria (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (flatworms, echinoderms, etc. ... Phyla Cnidaria Ctenophora The Radiata are the radially symmetric animals of the Metazoa subregnum. ... Illustration of the different types of symmetry of Life Forms On Earth. ... Phyla Porifera (sponges) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anenomes) Placozoa (trichoplax) Subregnum Bilateria (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Orthonectida (flatworms, echinoderms, etc. ... Phyla Cnidaria Ctenophora The Radiata are the radially symmetric animals of the Metazoa subregnum. ... Illustration of the different types of symmetry of Life Forms On Earth. ... It has been suggested that Porifera/Temp be merged into this article or section. ... The Mesozoa are animals without a full metazoan organization. ...


The eumetazoans are distinguished primarily by the presence of true tissues and organs developed from germ layers. Some phylogenists have speculated the sponges and eumetazoans evolved separately from single-celled organisms, which would mean that the animal kingdom does not form a complete grouping of organisms descended from a common ancestor. However, genetic studies and some morphological characteristics, like the common presence of choanocytes, support a common origin. Biological tissue is a substance made up of cells that perform a similar function. ... In biology, an organ (Latin: organum, instrument, tool) is a group of tissues, which perform a specific function or group of functions. ... It has been suggested that endoderm be merged into this article or section. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... Category: Cell biology stubs ...


Taxonomy

Over the last decade, the work of developmental biologists and molecular phylogeneticists spawned new ideas about bilaterian relationships resulting in a paradigm shift. Developmental biology is the study of the process by which organisms grow and develop. ... In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ... A paradigm shift is the term first used by Thomas Kuhn in his famous 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions to describe the process and result of a change in basic assumptions within the ruling theory of science. ...


The current widely accepted hypothesis, based on molecular data (mostly 18S rRNA sequences) divides bilateria into the following four groups: Deuterostomia, Ecdysozoa, Lophotrochozoa, and Platyzoa (sometimes included in Lophotrochozoa). A non-coding RNA (ncRNA) is any RNA molecule that functions without being translated into a protein. ... Phyla Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata Chaetognatha Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; from the Greek: other mouth) are a superphylum of animals. ... The Ecdysozoa are a large group of protostomian animals, erected by Aguinaldo in 1997 primarily based on 18s rRNA data. ... The Lophotrochozoa or Spiralia are one of three major divisions of bilaterian animals, together with the Ecdysozoa and Deuterostomia. ... The Platyzoa are a group of protostome animals. ...


However, many skeptics emphasize the pitfalls and inconsistencies associated with the new data. Clause Nielsen, a professor of evolutionary invertebrate embryology at the Zoological Museum University of Copenhagen champions one of the most prominent alternative views based on morphological evidence. In his 2001 book Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, he maintains the traditional divisions of Protostomia and Deuterostomia. Buildings in the H. C. Ørsted Institute Niels Bohr Institute for Astronomy, Physics and Geophysics Institute for Mathematical Sciences August Krogh Institute The Faculty of Science (Det naturvidenskabelige fakultet in Danish) at the University of Copenhagen consists of both mathematical and natural sciences, and is divided into 11 institutes including... Protostomes (from the Greek: first the mouth) are a taxon of animals. ... Phyla Echinodermata Hemichordata Chordata Chaetognatha Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; from the Greek: other mouth) are a superphylum of animals. ...


References

Wikispecies
Wikispecies has information on:
  • Bilateria. Tree of Life web project, US National Science Foundation. 2002. 6 Jan 2006.
  • Invertebrates and the Origin of Animal Diversity
  • Evers, Christine A., Lisa Starr. Biology:Concepts and Applications. 6th ed. United States:Thomson, 2006. ISBN 0-534-46224-3.
  • Metazoa: the Animals
  • Nielsen, C. 2001. Animal Evolution: Interrelationships of the Living Phyla, 2nd edition, 563 pp. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford. ISBN 0198506813

 
 

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