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Encyclopedia > Eugenius
Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the "(military) value of the Romans".
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Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the "(military) value of the Romans".

Flavius Eugenius (d. September 6, 394) was a Roman usurper (392-394) against Emperor Theodosius I. He represented the last standing of the Pagan tradition against prevailing Christianity as official faith of the State. Image File history File links Siliqua_Eugenius-_trier_RIC_0106d. ... Image File history File links Siliqua_Eugenius-_trier_RIC_0106d. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Events September 6 - Battle of the Frigidus: The christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the pagan usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. ... Usurpers were a common feature of the late Roman Empire, especially from the so-called crisis of the third century onwards, when political instability became the rule. ... Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. ... Roman Emperor is the term historians use to refer to rulers of the Roman Empire, after the epoch conventionally named the Roman Republic. ... On the reverse of this coin minted under Valentinian II, both Valentinian and Theodosius are depicted with halos. ...

Contents


Life

A former teacher of grammar and rhetoric, as well as magister scrinorum, Eugenius was an acquaintance of the Frank magister militum and de facto ruler of the Western Roman Empire Arbogast. Look up Frank, frank in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... Flavius Arbogastes (d. ...


Rise to power

Following the death of Valentinian II, Arbogast, who had probably been the cause of Valentinian's murder or suicide, elevated Eugenius to purple (22 August 392). The choice of Eugenius over proclaiming himself, offered to Arbogast two strong advantages: Eugenius, a Roman, was more suitable than Arbogast, a Frank, as an emperor; furthermore, the Roman Senate would have been more likely to have supported Eugenius than Arbogast. A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... Arbogast refers to: Arbogast, a Frankish general in the late Roman Empire Antoine Arbogast, a French mathematician Arbogast, an Irish saint This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... August 22 is the 234th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (235th in leap years), with 131 days remaining. ... Events August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Roman Emperor. ... The Roman Senate (Latin, Senatus) was a deliberative body which was important in the government of both the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. ...


Civil, religious, and military policies

Upon his election, Eugenius changed the imperial administrators. When Theodosius had left the western half of the empire to Valentinian, he had put his own men in the highest civil offices, to keep a strong grasp on the whole empire. Eugenius replaced these administrators with others loyal to himself, coming from the senatorial class. Nichomacus Flavianus the Elder became Praetorian Prefect of Italy, his son Nichomachus Flavianus the Younger received the title of Prefect of Rome, while the new praefectus annonae was Numerius Proiectus. Praetorian prefect (Latin Praefectus praetorio) was the constant title of a high office in the Roman state that changed fundamentally in nature. ... The megalopolis of ancient Rome could never be fed entirely from its own surrounding countryside. ...


Eugenius was nominally a Christian, and therefore was reluctant to accept a program of imperial support to Paganism. His men, however, convinced Eugenius to use public money to fund Pagan projects, such as the rededication of the Temple of Venus and Rome and the restoration of the Altar of Victory within the Curia (removed by Emperor Gratian). This religious policy created tension with Theodosius and the powerful and influent Bishop Ambrose, who left his see in Milan when the imperial court of Eugenius arrived. Paganism (from Latin paganus, meaning a country dweller or civilian) is a blanket term which has come to connote a broad set of spiritual or religious beliefs and practices of natural or polytheistic religions, as opposed to the Abrahamic monotheistic religions. ... The Temple apsis by night. ... The Altar of Victory was located in the Roman Senate House (the Curia) bearing a gold statue of the goddess Victory. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... A coin of Gratian. ... Saint Ambrose, mosaic in church St. ... Milan (Italian: Milano; Milanese: Milán) is the main city of northern Italy, and is located in the plains of Lombardy, the most populated and developed region in Italy, being often mistaken with the capital of the country. ...


Eugenius was also successful in the military field, notably in the renovation of old alliances with Alamanni and Franks. Arbogast, who was Frank and had also Alamanni and Frank soldiers in his ranks, marched to the Rhine frontier, where he impressed and pacified the Germanic tribes by parading his army in front of them. The Alamanni, Allemanni, or Alemanni were an alliance of warbands formed from Germanic tribes, first mentioned by Dio Cassius when they fought Caracalla in 213. ... Loreley At 1,320 kilometres (820 miles) and an average discharge of more than 2,000 cubic meters per second, the Rhine (Dutch Rijn, French Rhin, German Rhein, Italian: Reno, Romansch: Rein, ) is one of the longest and most important rivers in Europe. ...


Fall of Eugenius

When he was elected emperor, Eugenius sent ambassadors to Theodosius's court, asking for recognition of his election. Theodosius received them, but started to gather troops to defeat Eugenius. Theodosius also promoted his two-year-old son Honorius to the rank of Augustus of the West in January 393. Bronze coin bearing the profile of Honorius Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Emperor of the Western Roman Empire from 395 until his death. ... Augustus (plural augusti) is Latin for majestic, the increaser, or venerable. The feminine form is Augusta. ...


Theodosius then moved from Constantinople with his army, and met Eugenius and Arbogast in the Battle of the Frigidus (on the modern Italy-Slovenia border) on September 6, 394. The bloody battle lasted two days, and was marked by unusual astronomical and meteorological events, but in the end Theodosius won. Arbogast immediately committed suicide after the defeat, while Eugenius was held for execution as a criminal, his head afterward being displayed in Theodosius' camp. Combatants Roman Empire (Theodosius), Visigoths Roman Empire (Eugenius), Franks Commanders Theodosius I, Stilicho, Alaric Eugenius†, Arbogast† Strength Casualties Unknown Eugenius killed, Arbogast commits suicide The Battle of the Frigidus (sometimes called the Battle of the Frigid River), which was fought between September 5-6, 394, was perhaps one of the... This article is about the day of the year. ... Events September 6 - Battle of the Frigidus: The christian Roman Emperor Theodosius I defeats and kills the pagan usurper Eugenius and his Frankish magister militum Arbogast. ...


Importance of Eugenius' reign

The reign of Eugenius marked the end of an era and the beginning of a new one. A year later Theodosius died, dividing his empire between his two sons. The Roman Empire never reunited, and the Western half soon fell.


Eugenius also represented the last opportunity for the Pagans and the senatorial class to oppose the Christianization of the Empire. The Battle of the Frigidus was part of a trend towards using increasing percentages of barbarian troops, especially in the west, where it led to the weakening of the empire itself.


References

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eugenius - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (616 words)
A former teacher of grammar and rhetoric, as well as magister scrinorum, Eugenius was an acquaintance of the Frank magister militum and de facto ruler of the Western Roman Empire Arbogast.
Eugenius was nominally a Christian, and therefore was reluctant to accept a program of imperial support to Paganism.
Eugenius was also successful in the military field, notably in the renovation of old alliances with Alamanni and Franks.
Eugenius IV - LoveToKnow 1911 (768 words)
Eugenius at length convened a rival council at Ferrara on the 8th of January 1438 and excommunicated the prelates assembled at Basel.
Eugenius signed an agreement with the Armenians on the 22nd of November 1439, and with a part of the Jacobites in 1443; and in 1445 he received the Nestorians and Maronites.
Eugenius was dignified in demeanour, but inexperienced and vacillating in action and excitable in temper.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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