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Encyclopedia > Eugenio Espejo
Eugenio Espejo
Born February 21, 1747
Quito
Died December 28, 1795
Quito
Occupation Writer, lawyer, physician

Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo (born Luis Chuzhig)[a] (Royal Audience of Quito, 1747-1795) was a medical pioneer, writer and lawyer of mestizo origin in colonial Ecuador. Although he was a notable scientist and writer, he stands out as a polemicist who inspired the separatist movement in Quito. During most of his lifetime, he wrote many satirical works, which mainly dealt with the way education was being handled in the Presidency of Quito, against the establishment of his time. Because of this works he was persecuted and finally imprisoned shortly before his death. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... February 21 is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... Nickname: Luz de América Map of Ecuador showing location of Quito Coordinates: Country Ecuador Province Pichincha Canton Quito  - Mayor Paco Moncayo Area approx    - City 290 km²  - Land 290 km²  - Water 0 km² Elevation 2,800 m Population (2005, estimation)  - City 1,865,541 (canton)  - Density ~4,800/km² Time... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Luz de América Map of Ecuador showing location of Quito Coordinates: Country Ecuador Province Pichincha Canton Quito  - Mayor Paco Moncayo Area approx    - City 290 km²  - Land 290 km²  - Water 0 km² Elevation 2,800 m Population (2005, estimation)  - City 1,865,541 (canton)  - Density ~4,800/km² Time... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Motto: Dios, patria y libertad(Spanish) God, homeland and liberty Anthem: Salve, Oh Patria We Salute You, Our Homeland Capital  Quito Largest city  Guayaquil Official languages Spanish Government Republic  -  President Rafael Correa  -  Vice-President Lenín Moreno Independence  -  from Spain May 24, 1822   -  from Gran Colombia May 13, 1830  Area... // Events January 31 - The first venereal diseases clinic opens at London Dock Hospital April 9 - The Scottish Jacobite Lord Lovat was beheaded by axe on Tower Hill, London, for high treason; he was the last man to be executed in this way in Britain May 14 - First battle of Cape... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... English barrister 16th century painting of a civil law notary, by Flemish painter Quentin Massys. ... Mestizo (Portuguese, Mestiço; French, Métis: from Late Latin mixticius, from Latin mixtus, past participle of miscere, to mix) is a term of Spanish origin used to designate people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up Polemic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Polemic is the art or practice of inciting disputation or causing controversy, for example in religious, philosophical, or political matters. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ... The Establishment is a pejorative slang term to refer to the traditional and usually conservative ruling class elite and the structures of society which they control. ...


He is regarded as one of the most important figures in colonial Ecuador. He was Quito's first journalist and hygienist. As a journalist he spread libertarian ideas in the Royal Audience, and as a hygienist he composed an important treatise about sanitarian conditions in colonial Ecuador, that included interesting remarks about microorganisms and the spreading of disease.

Contents

Biography

Early life

He was baptized Francisco Javier Eugenio of Santa Cruz and Espejo in El Sagrario parish, on February 21. His father was Luis de la Cruz Chuzhig, a Quichua Indian from Cajamarca, who arrived in Quito as assistant to the priest and physician José del Rosario. His mother was Maria Catalina Aldás, a mulatta born in the city. Espejo had two younger siblings, Juan Pablo and Maria Manuela. Despite the fact that his family's economic situation was somewhat unstable, he had a good education. He instructed himself in medicine by working alongside his father at the Hospital de la Misericordia. According to Espejo, he learned "by experience, which cannot be known without studying with pen in hand."[1] A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Quechua (also Runasimi language of people) is a Native American language of South America. ... Aerial view of Cajamarca, with Santa Appollonia hill in foreground Cajamarca is located in the northern highlands of Peru, and is the capital of the Cajamarca region. ... Nickname: Luz de América Map of Ecuador showing location of Quito Coordinates: Country Ecuador Province Pichincha Canton Quito  - Mayor Paco Moncayo Area approx    - City 290 km²  - Land 290 km²  - Water 0 km² Elevation 2,800 m Population (2005, estimation)  - City 1,865,541 (canton)  - Density ~4,800/km² Time... . ... The Doctor by Samuel Luke Fildes This article is about the term physician, one type of doctor; for other uses of the word doctor see Doctor. ... Representation of Mulattos during the Latin American colonial period Mulatto (also Mulato) is a term of Spanish and/or Portuguese origin describing the first generation offspring of a Sub-Saharan African and a European. ... This article is about the domestic group. ...


Overcoming racial discrimination, he graduated from medical school on July 10, 1767, and shortly after in jurisprudence and canon law (he studied law under the direction of Dr. Ramón Yépez from 1780 to 1793). On November 28, 1772, he was authorized to practice medicine in Quito.[2] Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... July 10 is the 191st day (192nd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 174 days remaining. ... 1767 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jurisprudence is the theory and philosophy of law. ... Canon law is the term used for the internal ecclesiastical law which governs various churches, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Churches and the Anglican Communion of churches. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Luz de América Map of Ecuador showing location of Quito Coordinates: Country Ecuador Province Pichincha Canton Quito  - Mayor Paco Moncayo Area approx    - City 290 km²  - Land 290 km²  - Water 0 km² Elevation 2,800 m Population (2005, estimation)  - City 1,865,541 (canton)  - Density ~4,800/km² Time...


Activities in the Royal Audience

Work as a polemicist

Between 1772 and 1779, Espejo provoked the colonial authorities, who regarded him as responsible for severalsatirical and mocking posters. These posters were attached to the doors of churches and other buildings, and their anonymous author had a tendency to attack the colonial authorities, the clergy or any other subject he deemed convenient. Although no surviving posters have been found, there is evidence that he wrote them, from comments Espejo made in his writings.[3] 1867 edition of the satirical magazine Punch, a British satirical magazine, ground-breaking on popular literature satire. ... Poster from the Spanish Revolution A poster is any large piece of printed paper which hangs from a wall or other such surface. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ...


In 1779, a reproachful and satirical manuscript was circulatedon, the El nuevo Luciano de Quito (The New Lucian of Quito),[b] signed by "don Javier de Cía, Apéstegui y Perochena", a pseudonym for Espejo. This work imitated the satire of Lucian, and was especially unsympathetic to the Jesuits. It also showed the extensive culture of its author, who lived in the isolated and intellectually backward city of Quito. A pseudonym (Greek pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons true name. ... Lucian Lucian of Samosata (Greek, Λουκιανὸς Σαμοσατεύς, Latin, Lucianus; c. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


The use of a pseudonym, a common practice in Europe and the Americas during the Age of Enlightenment, was of significant importance for Espejo. Not only did it provide him anonymity, but it also showed his efforts to remove any vestige of his crossbreeding, in a culture in which being white granted any person importance and prestige. By his pseudonym, he wanted to establish that he had white or European relatives in his mother’s lineage.[c] This article is 150 kilobytes or more in size. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: Siècle des Lumières, German: Aufklärung) refers to the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ... Look up anon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Beginning in 1779, Espejo continued writing satires against the government of the Royal Audience, stirred by the condition of society. In June, 1780, Espejo wrote Marco Porcio Catón (Marcus Porcius Cato),[d] with the intention of “condemning” his own work Nuevo Luciano. Once again, Espejo used a pseudonym, “Moisés Blancardo”. In this work, giving censorship as a pretext and using street jargon (with its exaggerations and pointlessness), he scorned the notions and ideas of the censors of Nuevo Luciano. In 1781 he wrote La ciencia blancardina, which he referred to as the second part of Nuevo Luciano, as an answer to the criticism of a Mercedarian priest from Quito.[4] Marcus Porcius Cato (Latin: M·PORCIVS·M·F·CATO[1]) (234 BC, Tusculum–149 BC) was a Roman statesman, surnamed the Censor (Censorius), Sapiens, Priscus, or the Elder (Major), to distinguish him from Cato the Younger (his great-grandson). ... Censorship is the removal or withholding of information from the public by a controlling group or body. ... Our Lady of Mercy - From the Generalate of the Mercedarian Order The Order of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mercy (or the Order of Merced or Mercedarians or the Order of Captives) is a Religious Order established in 1218 by Peter Nolasco in Barcelona, Spain for the redemption of Christian...


Because of this, by 1783 he was labelled as "restive and subversive",[5]. To get rid of him, he was designated head physician for the scientific expedition of Francisco de Requena to the Pará and Marañon rivers to set the limits of the Royal Audience. Espejo tried to decline the appointment, and after that failed, he tried unsuccessfully to flee. His arrest order has one of the few physical descriptions we have of him.[e] Captured, he was sent back as a "criminal of serious offense", but he was not prosecuted, and so it didn't have any real consequences. Flag of Pará See other Brazilian States Capital Belém Largest City Belém Area 1. ... The river Marañón rises about 100 miles to the north-east of Lima, Peru. ...


Short Exile

Current depiction of Quito
Current depiction of Quito

In 1785, he was asked by the Town council to write on the worst medical problem the Audience faced, smallpox. Espejo made use of this to create his most complete and best written work,[6] [7] Reflexiones acerca de un método para preservar a los pueblos de las viruelas (Reflections about a method to preserve the people from smallpox), denouncing the way the Audience handled sanitation. This work is a valuable description of the hygienic and sanitary conditions of colonial America. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 318 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: Martin Zeise, Berlin Date: 16. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 318 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photographer: Martin Zeise, Berlin Date: 16. ... In the United Kingdom, town councils are civil parish councils, where the civil parish is a town. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a highly contagious disease unique to humans. ...


Reflexiones was sent to Madrid where it was added as an appendix to the second edition of the medical treatise Disertación médica (1786) by Francisco Gil, member of the Real Academia Médica Matritense.[8] Instead of recognition, Espejo gained enemies, as his work criticized the physicians and priests in charge of public health in the Royal Audience for their negligence, and he was forced to leave Quito. Motto: De Madrid al Cielo (From Madrid to Heaven) Location Coordinates: Country Spain Autonomous Community Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid Province Madrid Administrative Divisions 21 Neighborhoods 127 Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Alberto Ruiz-Gallardón (PP) Area  - Land 607 km² (234. ... Appendix can mean: Appendix (see Book design), part of the content of some books vermiform appendix, a human internal organ, physically part of the digestive system but which function is a matter of controversy See also Look up appendix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A treatise is a formal, systematic written analysis of a certain subject, more lengthy than an essay. ...


On his way to Lima, he stopped in Riobamba, where a group of priests asked him to write a reply to a report written by Ignacio Barreto, chief tax collector. The report accused the priests of Riobamba of various abuses against the Indians in order to take their money. Espejo gladly accepted the task because he wanted to settle accounts with Barreto and other citizens of Riobamba, among them José Miguel Vallejo, who was the man who turned him in to the authorities when he tried to flee Requena’s expedition to the Marañón river.[9] He wrote a Defensa de los curas de Riobamba (Defense of the clergy of Riobamba), a detailed study of the way of life of the Indians from Riobamba, and at the same time a powerful attack on Barreto’s report. Nickname: City of the Kings Location within Lima Region Coordinates: Country Peru Region Lima Region Province Lima Province Settled 1535 Government  - Mayor Luis Castañeda Lossio Area  - City 804. ... Riobamba is a city in Ecuador, capital of the Chimborazo Province. ... In writing, a report is a document characterized by information or other content reflective of inquiry or investigation, tailored to the context of a given situation and audience. ...


On March 1787, he continued his attack against his enemies from Riobamba with a series of eight satirical letters which he called Cartas riobambenses. In response, his enemies denounced Espejo before the President of the Royal Audience, Juan José De Villalengua. On August 24, 1787, Villalengua requested him either to go to Lima or to return to Quito to occupy a post in the government.[10] The same year Villalengua arrested him because Espejo was accused of writing El retrato de Golilla, a satire against King Charles III and the Marquis de la Sonora, colonial minister of the Indies. August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... Year 1787 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Charles III of Spain - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Marquis has many different meanings: The French spelling of the title known in English as Marquess and Margrave. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ...


He was taken to Quito, and from prison he sent three petitions to the Court in Madrid, which decreed, on Charles III's behalf, that the case was to be taken to the Viceroy of Bogotá. President Villalengua feigned ignorance of the matter and sent Espejo to Bogotá to defend his own cause.[11] There he met Antonio Nariño and Francisco Antonio Zea, and started to work out his ideas on liberty. In 1789, one of his followers, Juan Pio Montufar, arrived in Bogotá, and both men got the approval of various important members of the government for the creation of the Escuela de la Concordia, called later the Sociedad Patriótica de Amigos del País de Quito (Patriotic Society of Friends of the Country of Quito).[12] The Sociedades Económicas de Amigos del País (Economic Societies of Friends of the Country) were private associations established in various cities throughout Enlightenment Spain, and to a lesser degree in some of her colonies. A viceroy is a royal official who governs a country or province in the name of and as representative of the monarch. ... Nickname: Athens of Latin America Motto: Bogotá, 2600 metros más cerca de las estrellas Bogotá, 2600 meters closer to the stars Municipalities of Bogotá Country Colombia Department Bogotá, D.C.* Foundation August 6, 1538  - Mayor Luís Eduardo Garzón, PDA Area    - City 1,587 km²  (Expression error: Unrecognised... Antonio Nariño was a precursor and one of the early political and military leaders of the independence movement in Colombia, then known as New Granada. ... The Sociedades Económicas de Amigos del País (Economic Societies of Friends of the Country) were private associations established in various cities throughout Enlightenment Spain, and to a lesser degree in some of her colonies (the Philippines, Cuba, Chile, and elsewhere). ...


Espejo successfully defended himself on the charges against him, and on October 2, 1789, he was set free. On December 2 he was notified he could return to Quito.[13] October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... 1789 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... December 2 is the 336th day (337th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Final Years

In 1790, Espejo returned to Quito to promote the "Sociedad Patriótica" (Patriotic Society), and on November 30, 1791, it was established in the Colegio de los Jesuitas; he was elected its director, and formed four commissions. The same year, he became director of the first public library, the National Library, originally composed with the forty thousand volumes left by the Jesuits after their expulsion from Ecuador.[14] The Sociedades Económicas de Amigos del País (Economic Societies of Friends of the Country) were private associations established in various cities throughout Enlightenment Spain, and to a lesser degree in some of her colonies (the Philippines, Cuba, Chile, and elsewhere). ... November 30 is the 334th day (335th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 31 days remaining. ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ...


The main duty of the Society was improving the city of Quito. Its 24 members came together weekly to discuss agricultural, educative, political and social problems, and as well they promoted the physical and natural sciences. The Society founded Quito's first newspaper, Primicias de la Cultura de Quito, published by Espejo starting on January 5, 1792. Through this newspaper liberal ideas, already somewhat known in other parts of Hispanic America, were spread among the people of Quito.[15] January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Hispanic America (Hispanoamérica in Spanish) refers to those parts of the Americas inhabited by Spanish-speaking peoples. ...


On November 11, 1793, Charles IV dissolved the society. Soon the newspaper disappeared as well. Espejo had no choice but to work as a librarian in the National Library. November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Charles IV (November 11, 1748 - January 20, 1819) was King of Spain from December 14, 1788 until his abdication on March 19, 1808. ...

 Eugenio Espejo's signature
Eugenio Espejo's signature

Because of his libertarian ideas, he was imprisoned[f] on January 30, 1795, being allowed to leave his cell only to treat his patients as a doctor, and on December 23, to die in his home place. Eugenio Espejo died on December 28. His death certificate was registered in the book for Indians, mestizos, blacks and mulattoes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 187 pixel Image in higher resolution (815 × 190 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Signature of Eugenio Espejo. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 187 pixel Image in higher resolution (815 × 190 pixel, file size: 17 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Signature of Eugenio Espejo. ... John Hancocks signature is one of the most prominent on the United States Declaration of Independence. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... December 23 is the 357th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (358th in leap years). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... Death Certificate is the critically acclaimed second solo album from rapper Ice Cube, released on October 29, 1991. ... Look up black in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Character

Espejo was an autodidact, and he claimed with pride that he never had left any book that he had in his hands unread, and if he did, he would made up for it by his observation of nature. However, his desire to read everything indiscriminately sometimes led him to precipitate judgments, which appear in his manuscripts.[16] [g] Autodidacticism (also autodidactism) is self-education or self-directed learning. ... Galunggung in 1982, showing a combination of natural events. ...


Through his manuscripts, it can be inferred that Eugenio Espejo considered education as the main means for popular development. He understood that reading was basic in the formation of the self. Espejo had a denunciatory conscience, based on observation and in the application of the law of his time.[17] Lady Justice or Justitia is a personification of the moral force that underlies the legal system (particularly in Western art). ...


He considered that knowledge was necessary for social, political and economic struggle in defense of the criollos, who were aspiring to achieve political power against the monarchy (in the long term, that struggle gave place to sovereign republics). By his writing, Espejo wanted to educate the people and to awake a rebellious spirit in them. He embraced equality between Indians and criollos, an ideal that was ignored during the future processes of independence.[h] He also favored women's rights, but did not really develop this.[i] He had an advanced understanding of science. Considering the circumstances in which he lived, and that he never visited Europe, he already understood the relation between microorganisms and the spreading of disease.[18][j] Criollo, in the Spanish colonial Castas (caste system) of Latin America, was a person born in the Spanish colonies deemed to have Pureza de Sangre (Spanish for Purity of Blood) in respect to the individuals European ancestry. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A monarchy, from the Greek μονος, one, and αρχειν, to rule, is a form of government that has a monarch as head of state(KING)In most monarchies the monarch usually reigns as head of state for life; this is... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme political (e. ... A republic in its basic sense, is constitutional government. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ... A microorganism or microbe is an organism that is so small that it is microscopic (invisible to the naked eye). ... A disease or medical condition is an abnormality that causes discomfort, dysfunction, distress, or death to the person afflicted or those in contact with the person. ...


When he was arrested, it was rumored that his detention was because of his support of the "impieties" of the French Revolution.[19] However, Espejo was one of the few persons who, in those times, distinguished between the actual deeds of the French Revolution and the irreligious spirit connected to it, while his contemporaries in Spain and the colonies erroneously identified the emancipation of the Americas with loss of the Catholic faith. The accusation of impiety was calculated to incite popular hatred against him. It must be noted that Espejo was a believing Catholic throughout his lifetime. He condemned the decadence of the clergy, but he never criticized the Church itself.[20] The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... This section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Eugenio Espejo had a restless desire for knowledge, and was anxious to reform a state that in every order seemed to be barbarian to him, as he was influenced by the Enlightenment Movement. Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Age of Enlightenment (French: Siècle des Lumières, German: Aufklärung) refers to the eighteenth century in European and American philosophy, or the longer period including the Age of Reason. ...


Thought

Image File history File links Information_icon. ...

Views on Education

Espejo was influenced by several European scholars, such as Benito Jerónimo Feijóo

Espejo’s first three works goal was the intellectual improvement of Quito. El Nuevo Luciano de Quito ridiculed the outdated educational system kept up by the clergy. Marco Porcio Catón exposed the profound ignorance of the pseudointellectuals of Quito. La ciencia blancardina, work in which he claimed to be the author of the first two, condemned the results of the educational system of the clergy: ignorance and affectation.[21] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Benito Jerónimo Feijóo e Montenegro Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Galician monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Galicia and Spain. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Look up ignorance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By means of this three works Espejo reiterated the ideas of European and American scholars such as Feijoo, and the Jesuits Verney and Guevara, among others. As a result, diverse religious orders modified their study programs. Benito Jerónimo Feijóo e Montenegro Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 - 26 September 1764) was a Galician monk and scholar noted for encouraging scientific thought in Galicia and Spain. ...


Espejo especially criticized the Jesuits, along with other things, for teaching ethics not as a science, but as a guide of good manners to its students, and their adoption of Probabilism as a moral.[22] Regarding the formation of the priests of Quito, he complained about the lack of exigency of their educational system, which assisted slothful students on their way to priesthood. As a result, clerics were people with a minor comprehension of their duties towards society and God, and with slight or none inclination to proceed on their studies. Ethics (from the Ancient Greek ēthikos, the adjective of ēthos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group and covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. ... In sociology, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct which show the actor to be cultured, polite, and refined. ... The Roman Catholic view of probabilism[1] is that in the absence of certainty – particularly in the case of moral judgments – probability is the best criterion. ... A moral is a one sentence remark made at the end of many childrens stories that expresses the intended meaning, or the moral message, of the tale. ...


In El Nuevo Luciano de Quito he lamented the ascending number of quacks that pretended to be doctors. In La ciencia blancardina he continued his attack on them while he also attacked the members of the clergy that worked as physicians without an adequate instruction.


Views on Theology

In 1780, as his first attempt to treat a purely religious matter, Espejo wrote a theological letter, Carta al Padre la Graña sobre indulgencias (Letter to Father la Graña about indulgences).[k] In that work he studied the history and purpose of Indulgences in the Catholic Church. The letter showed the profound knowledge that his author had about theology and dogmas. It analyzes the historical beginnings of the Indulgence and its development through a succession of popes. It also mentions that, to contain the abuses that emerged because of them, the Church promulgated several decrees and bulls, which were cited by Espejo.[23] In this work Espejo supported the authority of the Pope. Theology (Greek θεος, theos, God, + λογια, logia, words, sayings, or discourse) is reasoned discourse concerning religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... In Latin Catholic theology, an indulgence is the remission granted by the Church of the temporal punishment due to sins already forgiven by God. ... For the film Dogma, see Dogma (film) Dogma (the plural is either dogmata or dogmas, Greek , plural ) is the established belief or doctrine held by a religion, ideology or any kind of organization, thought to be authoritative and not to be disputed or doubted. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... The current Pope is Benedict XVI (born Joseph Alois Ratzinger), who was elected at the age of 78 on 19 April 2005. ...


On July 19, 1792, Espejo wrote his second letter, Segunda carta teológica sobre la Inmaculada Concepción de María (Second theological letter about Mary's Immaculate Conception), under the request of the inspector of the Holy Office.[l] The work dealt with Blessed Virgin Mary's Immaculate Conception. Once again, this work proved its author's deep knowledge of this religious subject and its situation in the 18th century, as well as his capability to deal with such a complicated matter.[24] July 19 is the 200th day (201st in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 165 days remaining. ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... Mary, mother of Jesus as the Immaculate Conception. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Espejo also wrote a range of sermons, which were different of the ones of his contemporaries because of their simplicity. Ecuadorian historian and cleric Federico González Suárez considered those sermons as worthy of study, even though he mentioned that they lacked of "evangelic spirit".[25] Nevertheless, Espejo can be considered a deeply religious man.[26]


Views on Economics

Since 1785, Espejo began to take interest in the welfare of his community and the prosperity of Quito. His works between that year and 1792 clearly show theories taken from Enlightenment philosophers adapted to local reality. As many thinkers began to see Economy as a powerful social force, Espejo, influenced by Feijoo, and Adam Smith, among others, revealed his concern for the implementation of commercial and agricultural reforms, specially the conservation and good use of the land. Because of this motives he promoted the foundation of the Society (Escuela de la Concordia).[27] Adam Smith (baptised June 5, 1723 O.S. / June 16 N.S. – July 17, 1790) was a Scottish moral philosopher and a pioneering political economist. ... A LAND attack is a DoS (Denial of Service) attack that consists of sending a special poison spoofed packet to a computer, causing it to lock up. ...


His works Voto de un ministro togado de la Audiencia de Quito and Memorias sobre el corte de quinas reject the proposed monopoly of quinine by the Crown, intended to prevent the destruction of the cinchona tree and to expand the Royal Treasury’s income. Memorias was entrusted to Espejo by the functionary Fernando Cuadrado, who opposed to the monopoly.[28] In economics, a monopoly (from the Latin word monopolium - Greek language monos, one + polein, to sell) is defined as a persistent market situation where there is only one provider of a product or service. ... Quinine is a natural white crystalline alkaloid having antipyretic, anti-malarial with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties and a bitter taste. ... Species See text Cinchona L., is the name of a genus in Rubiaceae family, large evergreens that can grow over 10 metres tall. ...


Espejo divided his study into four sections. In the first one, he argued that the monopoly would leave workers without a job, and that it would also mean the loss of the capital invested in the use of the cinchona tree. In the second part he made suggestions, such as the assignation of the land to certain “natural” products of a region with the aim of exporting them. For instance, in Chile the production of wines could be prioritized, in Argentina the production of leather, etc. In the third part he mentioned that many workers benefited from the industry of quinine, that without it there would be unemployment and agitation, and the best the Crown could do was to designate functionaries to regulate the correct cultivation of the cinchona tree, taking into account reforestation. Finally, in the fourth part he made observations and recommendations, such as the need to repress indigenous hostility in the cinchona tree region.[29]


Work as a lawyer

 Eugenio Espejo, anonymous oil painting.
Eugenio Espejo, anonymous oil painting.

His work Defensa de los curas de Riobamba was written as a response to a report published by Ignacio Barreto, that accused the clergy in Riobamba of various unethical practices. The report specifically mentioned that: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • The great amount of religious celebrations in Riobamba were prejudicial to Catholic faith.
  • Priests demanded money to the Indians in order to enter into churches and to make certain prayers.
  • Priests in Riobamba were indecent.
  • Masses were celebrated with sermons that were incomprehensible to the Indians.
  • The great amount of religious celebrations were prejudicial to agriculture, industry and the interests of the Crown.

Espejo’s defense, attacked Barreto’s report from three different viewpoints:

  • Barreto, supposed author of the report, was not capable of writing it.
  • The alleged charges were exaggerated, semi truths or rotund lies.
  • The solution to the economical problems of the Presidency of Quito could not be accomplished by the exploitation of its human resources (the Indians) but by planning and taking advantage of the natural resources of the region.

Espejo realized that the charges against the clergy were so grave that he had to focus in destroying Barreto’s credibility. Therefore, through evidence, he implied that Barreto’s moral conduct was outrageous, because of his excesses in the collection of taxes, and the misspend of public finances with licentious women. Additionally, he declared that the true author of the report was José Miguel Vallejo, whom he too referred as an immoral person, and as a man that despised the clergy. Consequently, because of these motives Espejo claimed the report did not deserve any credit.[30] Credibility is the believability of a statement, action, or source, and the propensity of the observer to believe that statement. ... For other senses of this word, see evidence (disambiguation). ...


It seems it was more important to Espejo to attack his personal enemies in this work rather than to analyze the case and defend the clergy of Riobamba. Still, his talent as a lawyer can be noticed in his Representaciones (Representations), which allowed him to be freed after being arrested in 1787 accused of writing El Retrato de Golilla.[31]


In those documents, he defended his loyalty to the Crown, while he commented how unfair was his captivity (by mentioning the indignation that many distinguished men felt by his arrest) and exposed the intention he had when writing his works. This served him as a prelude to his main subject: denying being the author of El retrato de Golilla.


Scientific work

The Spanish Crown was deeply concerned with public health. Diseases often troubled the government of the colonies since its early beginnings. Town councils were accustomed to employ money to bring physicians or sanitary equipment from other places of the Americas. Presentation of reports about the sanitary and hygienic conditions of various neighborhoods of the cities were a common practice among doctors.[32] Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


As a man of science, Eugenio Espejo demonstrated that he knew about the latest scientific advances in Europe and the Americas. The majority of the arguments and recommendations he made in his medical works can be found in several contemporary sources, such as the Mémoires of the French Academy of Sciences.[33] Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ...


The Presidency of Quito was intensely concerned with the prevention of smallpox. Villalengua, the president of the Royal Audience, reunited all of Quito’s physicians to discuss the possibility of the application of the methods suggested by the Spanish scientist Francisco Gil, and therefore Espejo was authorized to write his work Reflexiones acerca de un método para preservar a los pueblos de las viruelas".[m]


Reflexiones, completed on November 11, 1785, was divided in two parts: the first dealt with the prevention of smallpox in Quito, while the second dealt with the obstacles on the way to its eradication. The knowledge of its author about inoculations and isolation of the victims of smallpox and other contagious diseases was advanced and unique in that period".[34] November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Reflexiones recommended the implementation of proved methods supported by Spanish –and foreign- doctors. It also refuted the common belief that the separation and destruction of contaminated clothes was unpractical, and promoted personal hygiene among the people of Quito. Hygiene is commonly understood as preventing infections in personal places through cleanliness. ...


Espejo tried to convice people of how dangerous was smallpox. He understood many medical theories about contagious diseases that where dominant in Europe. He warned about the incorrect belief that smallpox was not transmitted by physical contact, but by polluted air: air was no the immediate cause of the contagion but an intermediary factor for some organism. Citing English doctor Thomas Sydenham, he suggested the construction of an isolated country house in order to use it as a hospital.[35] Thomas Sydenham. ...


Dealing with sanitation, Espejo observed that the Hospital (Hospital de la Misericordia) of the city, monasteries and places of worship were deposits of grime and that some of those place would surely contribute to create future epidemics. He disapproved of the custom of burying the dead inside churches, and thus he suggested to bury the dead outside the limits of the city, in a graveyard chosen by the Church and owned by the Town Council.


Finally, he condemned the way the Hospital was managed by the Bethlehemites. He said it was outdated and that provided deficient services. This remarks generated an bad reaction of the employees of the hospital and provoked the loss of the friendship Espejo had with his mentor, José del Rosario.[36] Bethlehemites is a name borne at different times by three orders dedicated to Our Lady of Bethlehem in the Roman Catholic Church. ...


Legacy

Espejo is considered the precursor of the separatist movement in Quito. In secrecy, he projected emancipation not only for the Presidency of Quito but for all of Hispanic America. Once free of the Spanish tutelage, regions would become independent nations under a republican and democratic government. In order to achieve that goal, he proposed that every viceroyalty and presidency, under close union and mutual help, rise simultaneously against the Crown.[37] Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Republic (disambiguation). ... Democracy (literally rule by the people, from the Greek demos, people, and kratos, rule[1]) is a form of government. ... A viceroy is somebody who governs a country or province as a substitute for the monarch. ...


Only people born in America (criollos) would participate in the new government. Concerning foreigners, he did not support their expulsion, but encouraged the idea of let them return to Spain if they wanted. However, they couldn’t be part of the government. Regarding religion, he believed that religious reform was essential, but sustained that it had to be done by the highest ecclesiastical authorities by request of the civil government. He also mentioned that clerics should serve only in their place of origin; in other words, there shouldn’t be foreign priests in the local ecclesiastical system.[38]


Espejo died in 1795, but these ideas had a powerful influence in three close friends of his: Juan Pío Montúfar, Juan de Dios Morales and Juan de Salinas. They, along with Manuel Rodriguez Quiroga, promoted the revolutionary movement of August 10 in Quito, when the city declared independence from Spain.[39] August 10 is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


As a writer, he published Quito's first newspaper, and therefore he is regarded as a precursor of Ecuadorian journalism. He is also considered Ecuador's first literary critic; according to Spanish scholar Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo Espejo's Nuevo Luciano is the oldest critical work written in South America.[40] The word critic comes from the Greek κριτικός, kritikós - one who discerns, which itself arises from the Ancient Greek word κριτής, krités, meaning a person who offers reasoned judgement or analysis, value judgement, interpretation, or observation. ... Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (November 3, 1856 - May 2, 1912) was a Spanish scholar and critic. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


His influence can also be appreciated in the fields of Ecuadorian thought, as his work has been one of its principal sources; Ecuadorian education, as he promoted the renewal of pedagogical ideas, such as the formation of good citizens instead of just divulging knowledge,[41] and finally Ecuadorian science, as he was, along with Pedro Vicente Maldonado, one of the most important scientists of colonial Ecuador.[42] Pedro Vicente Maldonado, (Riobamba, Ecuador, November 24, 1704 – London, England, November 17, 1748) was an Ecuadorian scientist who collaborated with the members of the French Geodesic Mission. ...


Works

  • Nuevo Luciano de Quito (1779)
  • Marco Porcio Catón o Memorias para la impugnación del nuevo Luciano de Quito (1780)
  • Carta al Padre la Graña sobre indulgencias (1780)
  • Sermón de San Pedro (1780)
  • La Ciencia Blancardina (1781)
  • El Retrato de Golilla (Attributed, 1781)
  • Reflexiones acerca de un método para preservar a los pueblos de las viruelas (1785) Online version (Spanish)
  • Defensa de los curas de Riobamba (1787)
  • Cartas riobambenses (1787)
  • Representaciones al presidente Villalengua (1787)
  • Discurso sobre la necesidad de establecer una sociedad patriótica con el nombre de "Escuela de la Concordia" (1789)
  • Segunda carta teológica sobre la Inmaculada Concepción de María (1792)
  • Memorias sobre el corte de quinas (1792)
  • Voto de un ministro togado de la Audiencia de Quito (1792) Online version (Spanish)

Notes

a. ^  There are discrepancies about the origin of the surnames "Santa Cruz y Espejo"; José del Rosario declared that his father, Luis Espejo, was first named Benítez, then he changed his surname to Chusig and finally to Espejo. Ecuadorian researcher Alberto Muñoz Vernaza claimed that his real surname was Espejo, and that the name Chusig (owl) was a nickname Espejo had in Cajamarca. According to José del Rosario, the surname "Santa Cruz" was added "because of devotion". (Astuto, Philip L., Eugenio Espejo (1747 - 1795). Reformador ecuatoriano de la Ilustración, p.73)


b. ^  Its full name is El nuevo Luciano de Quito o Despertador de los ingenios quiteños en nueve conversaciones eruditas para el estímulo de la literatura


c. ^  Aware of the prejudices of the society of his time, Espejo requested for a dossier that proved his Spanish lineage. The dossier mentioned that Espejo's mother was born from a noble Navarrese family. When he asked for the post of librarian, in 1781, he showed that certificate (Astuto, 78-79)


d. ^  Its full name is Marco Porcio Catón o Memorias para la impugnación del nuevo Luciano de Quito


e. ^  "Tiene una estatura regular, largo de cara, nariz larga, color moreno, y en el lado izquierdo del rostro un hoyo bien visible" (Herrera, Pablo, Ensayo sobre la historia de la literatura ecuatoriana, pp. 125, 145)


f. ^  The authorities finally found evidence against Espejo when his brother, Juan Pablo, told his lover, Francisca Navarrete, about the plans of Eugenio. He was charged of treachery to the Crown (Astuto, 94)


g. ^  One of his characters thought it paradoxical to live in what he called "the era of idiocy and...the century of ignorance" and yet refer to it as the Age of Enlightenment. (Weber, David J., Spaniards and Their Savages in the Age of Enlightenment, p.5)


h. ^  "Los miserables indios, en tanto que no tengan, por patrimonio y bienes de fortuna, más que sólo sus brazos, no han de tener nada que perder. Mientras no los traten mejor; no les paguen con más puntualidad, su cortísimo salario; no les aumenten el que deben llevar por su trabajo; no les introduzcan el gusto de vestir, de comer, y de la policía en general; no les hagan sentir que son hermanos, nuestros estimables y nobilísimos siervos, nada han de tener que ganar, y por consiguiente la pérdida ha de ser ninguna" (Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel, 24)


i. ^  According to Philip Astuto, "He thought that the solution to such plain ignorance was the construction of schools and the education of youth without excluding women" (Astuto, 93)


j. ^  "Si se pudieran apurar más las observaciones microscópicas, aún más allá a lo que las adelantaron Malpigio, Reaumur, Buffon y Needham, quizá encontraríamos en la incubación, desarrollamiento, situación, figura, movimiento y duración de estos corpúsculos móvibles, la regla que podría servir a explicar toda la naturaleza, grados, propiedades y síntomas de todas las fiebres epidémicas, y en particular de la Viruela" (Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel, 22)


k. ^  Its full name is Carta del padre La Graña del orden de San Francisco, sobre indulgencias escrita por el mismo doctor Espejo, tomando el nombre de este padre que fue sabio y de gran erudición.


l. ^  In 1792, the Dominicans of the Convento Máximo de Quito published a series of theological thesis. One of them stated that original sin was transmitted to every single descendant of Adam, without exception. As it was never mentioned the privilege in that matter of Virgin Mary, it was rumoured that the Dominicans sustained that Mary was born with original sin. The Inspector denounced the thesis, and in face of the protest of the Dominicans, entrusted Espejo the letter to justify and explain himself. (Astuto, 138)


m. ^  Its full name is Reflexiones sobre la virtud, importancia y conveniencias que propone don Francisco Gil, cirujano del Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo y su sitio, e individuo de la Real Academia Médica de Madrid, en su Disertación físico-médica, acerca de un método seguro para preservar a los pueblos de las viruelas

Citations

  1. ^ Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel, #56, Tome I, p.12. (citation from La ciencia blancardina, pp. 333-334)
  2. ^ Enciclopedia del Ecuador, 746
  3. ^ Astuto, 76-77
  4. ^ Astuto, 82
  5. ^ Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel, 15
  6. ^ Astuto, 177
  7. ^ Garcés, 110
  8. ^ Astuto, 84
  9. ^ Astuto, 85
  10. ^ Astuto, 86
  11. ^ Astuto, 86-87
  12. ^ Astuto, 88
  13. ^ Astuto, 88
  14. ^ Enciclopedia del Ecuador, 747
  15. ^ Astuto, 92-93
  16. ^ Astuto, 75
  17. ^ Enciclopedia del Ecuador, 747
  18. ^ Eugenio Espejo, Bacteriólogo
  19. ^ Astuto, 95
  20. ^ Confront with Astuto, 95
  21. ^ Astuto, 99
  22. ^ Astuto, 114-115
  23. ^ Astuto, 137
  24. ^ Astuto, 138
  25. ^ Astuto, 139
  26. ^ Astuto, 143
  27. ^ Astuto, 145-146
  28. ^ Astuto, 150
  29. ^ Astuto, 151-155
  30. ^ Astuto, 157
  31. ^ Astuto, 171
  32. ^ Astuto, 175-176
  33. ^ Astuto, 176
  34. ^ Astuto, 177
  35. ^ Astuto, 178
  36. ^ Astuto, 182
  37. ^ Astuto, 207
  38. ^ Astuto, 208
  39. ^ Hurtado, 50
  40. ^ Enciclopedia del Ecuador, 509
  41. ^ Enciclopedia del Ecuador, 642
  42. ^ Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel, 10

References

  • Astuto, Philip L. (2003). Eugenio Espejo (1747 - 1795). Reformador ecuatoriano de la Ilustración. Campaña Nacional Eugenio Espejo por el Libro y la Lectura. ISBN 9978-92-241-5. 
  • Hurtado, Osvaldo (2003). El Poder Político en el Ecuador, 15th Edition, Planeta. ISBN 84-344-42310. 
  • Various (2002). Enciclopedia del Ecuador. Océano. ISBN 84-494-1448-2. 
  • Garcés, Enrique (1996). Eugenio Espejo: Médico y duende. Octavio Peláez Editores. ISBN 9978-95-008-7. 
  • Herrera, Pablo (1960). Ensayo sobre la historia de la literatura ecuatoriana. Imprenta del Gobierno. 
  • Biblioteca de Autores Ecuatorianos de Clásicos Ariel,n.d., #56, Tome I
  • Eugenio Espejo, Bacteriólogo (PDF). Retrieved on 2006 August 11.
  • Weber, David J. : Spaniards and Their Savages in the Age of Enlightenment (PDF). Yale University Press. Retrieved on 2007 April 4.
Ecuador Portal


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The Enlightenment
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Eugenio Espejo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (251 words)
Eugenio Espejo (1747-1795) was born in the Royal Audience of Quito of Mestizo heritage.
He was baptized Francisco Javier Eugenio of Santa Cruz and Espejo in Quito.
Perhaps the greatest quality of Eugenio Espejo is that was an "autodidacta" a self-thaught person, after learning how to read, because of available resources and his willingness to learn he became a doctor, an attorney, a journalist and a writer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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