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Encyclopedia > Eucharistic theologies contrasted
Part of the series on
Communion

also known as
"The Eucharist" or
"The Lord's Supper" The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...

Theology
Consecration
Consubstantiation
Memorialism
Real Presence
Transubstantiation
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1211x1096, 178 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ...

Theologies contrasted

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Cranmer
Luther · Zwingli Saul, also known as Paul, Paulus, and Saint Paul the Apostle, (AD 3–67) is widely considered to be central to the early development and spread of Christianity, particularly westward from Judea. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... St. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Saint John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the protestant Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He wrote two prayerbooks and is considered to be the founder of the Church of England. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Christianity
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic discipline
First Communion
Infant Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification The neutrality and factual accuracy of this section are disputed. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice of the Roman Catholic Church in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in some Lutheran regions which are largely High Church: the main Lutheran service is still known as the... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament, to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...

Contents


Orthodox Christianity

  • the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence.
  • the Church's spiritual sacrifice of praise and the sacrifice of Christ in a mystical way are somehow one during this action of great offering and sacred love-feast.
  • primary theological development from early Church Fathers, esp. the Eastern Fathers
  • Eucharistic theology: The bread and wine truly are the Body and Blood of Christ, but the mechanics are not explored; stops short of the doctrine of Transubstantiation; interprets John 6 as well as 1 Corinthians 11 as applying to the Eucharist. Through the Holy Spirit's action, that which gives meaning to the bread and wine are changed by the mystery, and that which gives meaning to the partakers is changed by the mystery, and the partakers of the elements are commissioned by the mystery to live out the mystery in the world.
  • the Divine Liturgy is never celebrated in private, as it is considered necessarily communal; there must be at least two or three people to receive Holy Communion.
  • Generally closed communion, as determined by each bishop.
  • Frequency: generally celebrated at least weekly and on "great feasts" and on Pascha, but in some places holy communion is only taken as little as four times per year. Members are encouraged to participate as often as it is offered, provided they are properly prepared through prayer, fasting, and recent confession.
  • see Cappadocian Fathers, John Chrysostom, Ignatius of Antioch, Simeon Metaphrastes

Orthodox Christianity is a generalized reference to the Eastern traditions of Christianity, as opposed to the Western traditions (which descend through, or alongside of, the Roman Catholic Church) or the Eastern Rite Catholic churches. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The (Early) Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian Church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. ... The Cappadocian Fathers are the 4th century church fathers Basil the Great, Gregory Nazianzen, and Basils brother Gregory of Nyssa, who made major contributions to the definition of the Trinity finalized at the First Council of Constantinople in 381 and the Nicene Creed. ... Saint John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... Icon of Ignatius being eaten by lions St. ... Symeon Metaphrastes was the most renowned of the Byzantine hagiographers. ...

Roman Catholic Church

  • The Eucharist is a sacrifice in that it re-presents (makes present) the sacrifice of the cross.[1] The sacrifice of Christ and the sacrifice of the Eucharist are one single sacrifice.[2]
  • Christ is really (not just in sign or symbol), truly (not just subjectively or metaphorically) and substantially (not just in his power) present in the Eucharist.
  • Because the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist is indeed real, not merely figurative or virtual, Eucharistic adoration is practised.
  • Theological development: Saint Justin Martyr, the first writer to describe the celebration in Rome of the Eucharist, Saint Augustine of Hippo[3], Saint Thomas Aquinas, the Council of Trent.
  • Transubstantiation as an expression of what is changed when the bread and wine are consecrated, not an explanation of the means or mode by which the Real Presence is effected, since "[t]he signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ."[4]
  • Closed communion, with relaxation of the rule in certain defined circumstances.
  • Frequency: When, in medieval times, deep respect for the sacrament led to very infrequent reception of Holy Communion, a minimum frequency of once a year (at Easter time) was mandated. In the twentieth century, at the urging of Pope Pius X, reception of Holy Communion at almost every Eucharistic liturgy attended became normal for most Catholics. Conditions are freedom from unconfessed mortal sin and observance of the rules of fasting. Priests normally celebrate the Eucharist daily, but are not obliged to. The rules of freedom from unconfessed mortal sin and of Eucharistic fast apply also to celebration of the Eucharist by a priest.
  • Mass celebrated without the people: unless they have a serious reason, priests may not celebrate Mass without the assistance of at least one other person.

Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice of the Roman Catholic Church in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Saint Justin Martyr (Justin the Martyr a. ... St. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... The Council of Trent is reckoned by the Roman Catholic Church to be the Nineteenth Ecumenical Council of the universal church. ... Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Pope Saint Pius X (Latin: ), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto (June 2, 1835 – August 20, 1914), was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903). ... Mass is the term used of the celebration of the Eucharist in the various liturgical rites of the Latin Rite of the Roman Catholic Church, the Anglo-Catholic tradition of Anglicanism, and in some Lutheran regions which are largely High Church: the main Lutheran service is still known as the...

Lutherans and Moravians

Why then should we not much more say in the Supper, "This is my body," even though bread and body are two distinct substances, and the word "this" indicates the bread? Here, too, out of two kinds of objects a union has taken place, which I shall call a "sacramental union," because Christ’s body and the bread are given to us as a sacrament. This is not a natural or personal union, as is the case with God and Christ. It is also perhaps a different union from that which the dove has with the Holy Spirit, and the flame with the angel, but it is also assuredly a sacramental union (WA 26, 442; LW 37, 299-300).
  • Body and Blood are "in, with, and under the forms" of bread and wine:
For the reason why, in addition to the expressions of Christ and St. Paul (the bread in the Supper is the body of Christ or the communion of the body of Christ), also the forms: under the bread, with the bread, in the bread [the body of Christ is present and offered], are employed, is that by means of them the papistical transubstantiation may be rejected and the sacramental union of the unchanged essence of the bread and of the body of Christ indicated (FC SD VII, 35; Triglot Concordia, 983; emphasis added). Lutherans do not seek to explain the change, and reject the designation of their doctrine as consubstantiation in contradistinction to the transubstantiation of the Roman Catholic Church, which they also reject (see also, Smalcald Articles[1]).
  • Lutherans do not believe that the eucharistic sacrifice (sacrifice of praise) of the Lord's Supper is propitiatory or that it "repeats" or "re-presents" Christ's sacrifice on the cross.
  • see Martin Luther, Philipp Melanchthon, Book of Concord

Luthers seal Lutheranism is a Christian tradition based upon the main theological insights of Martin Luther. ... A Moravian can be: an ethnic group a Christian denomination This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... The Book of Concord or Concordia is a compilation of the major theological documents of early Lutheranism. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE– 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... The words of Christ, This is my body. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Luther at age 46 (Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1529) The Luther seal Martin Luther (November 10, 1483–February 18, 1546) was a German theologian, an Augustinian monk, and an ecclesiastical reformer whose teachings inspired the Reformation and deeply influenced the doctrines and culture of the Lutheran and Protestant traditions. ... Portrait of Philipp Melanchthon, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. ... The Book of Concord or Concordia is a compilation of the major theological documents of early Lutheranism. ...

Anglicans and Episcopalians

  • There is a divergence of opinion over eucharistic theology which broadly corresponds to the lines of churchmanship within Anglicanism. Transubstantiation, Real (Bodily) Presence, (Calvinistic) Spiritual Presence and (Zwinglian) Dynamic Memorialism are all represented. Which of these four views represents "authentic" Anglican eucharistic theology depends on wider theological and ecclesiological understandings of Anglicanism, in particular the role of pre-Reformation "catholic" doctrine and practices vis-à-vis Reformational theology in interpreting the Book of Common Prayer and the 39 Articles (the Anglican Reformation formularies).
  • High Church Anglicans tend to believe in the Real (Bodily) Presence. A minority of Anglo-Catholics adhere to transubstantiation (despite its apparent denunciation in Article 28 of the 39 Articles); the majority of High Church Anglicans do not and are content simply to let the mystery of the metousiosis remain a mystery. In practice, High Church parishes tend to celebrate the Eucharist weekly (or more frequently) and prefer the term "Eucharist" or even "Mass". Reservation and adoration of the sacrament are common practice among many High Anglicans.
  • Low Church Anglicans, on the other hand, tend to reject belief in the Real (Bodily) Presence as well as reservation and adoration of the sacrament and adopt a Calvinistic (Spiritual Presence) or Zwinglian (Dynamic Memorialism) view of the Eucharist, resembling views held by other Protestant denominations such as Presbyterians and Baptists. Low Church parishes tend to celebrate the Eucharist less frequently (eg monthly, but this varies from place to place) and prefer the terms "Holy Communion" or "Lord's Supper".
  • Between the High and Low Church positions lies the view that Anglicanism (as a Broad Church) permits a range of theological views, each of which (with the possible exception of the Roman Catholic notion of transubstantiation) is an equally welcome expression of eucharistic theology within the Anglican context.
  • see Book of Common Prayer, 39 Articles, Thomas Cranmer, Churchmanship

The term Anglican (from Anglia, the Latin name for England) describes the people and churches that follow the religious traditions developed by the established Church of England. ... The Episcopal Church may refer to several members of the Anglican Communion, including: Episcopal Church in the United States of America Scottish Episcopal Church Episcopal Church in Jerusalem and the Middle East Episcopal Church of Cuba idk of the Sudan Spanish Reformed Episcopal Church ... In Anglican parlance, churchmanship is the general emphasis on doctrine, discipline, political outlook, and liturgical practice by adherents of the Church of England, particularly in certain historical periods. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 10, 1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... This article is in need of attention. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... High Church is a term that may now be used in speaking of viewpoints within a number of denominations of Protestant Christianity in general, but it is one which has traditionally been employed in Churches associated with the Anglican tradition in particular. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Metousiosis is a Greek mystical term that literally means a great change of essence. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England, initially designed to be pejorative. ... In an unadorned church, the 17th century congregation stands to hear the sermon. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 10, 1531) was the leader of the Swiss Reformation and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an Evangelical, Protestant denomination. ... Broad church is a term referring to latitudinarian churches in the Church of England. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... 1979 ECUSABCP The Book of Common Prayer is foundational prayer book of the Church of England and also the name for similar books used in other churches in the Anglican Communion. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ... Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the protestant Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He wrote two prayerbooks and is considered to be the founder of the Church of England. ... In Anglican parlance, churchmanship is the general emphasis on doctrine, discipline, political outlook, and liturgical practice by adherents of the Church of England, particularly in certain historical periods. ...

Methodist

  • primary theological development from John Wesley & Charles Wesley, 18th century
  • Eucharist commonly celebrated on Sundays, but never without a congregation.
  • Eucharistic theology: "Jesus Christ...is truly present in Holy Communion...The divine presence is a living reality and can be experienced by participants; it is not a remembrance of the Last Supper and the Crucifixion only." (from This Holy Mystery), i.e., Real Presence.
  • see John Wesley, Open communion, This Holy Mystery

The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703–March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Charles Wesley (12 December 1707 - 29 March 1788) was a leader of the Methodist movement, the younger brother of John Wesley. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... John Wesley (June 17, 1703–March 2, 1791) was an 18th-century Anglican clergyman and Christian theologian who was an early leader in the Methodist movement. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ...

Calvinist (Presbyterian and Reformed)

  • primary theological development from John Calvin, 16th century
  • Eucharistic theology: historically, real spiritual presence, i.e., pneumatic presence.
  • Reformed theology has taught that Jesus' body is seated in heaven at the right hand of God and therefore is not present in the elements nor do the elements turn into his body. When the eucharist is received, however, not only the spirit, but also the true body and blood of Jesus Christ (hence "real") are received in a pneumatic (ghostly) sense, but these are only received by those partakers who eat worthily (i.e., repentantly) with faith. The Holy Spirit unites the Christian with Jesus though they are separated by a great distance.
  • See, e.g., Westminster Confession of Faith, ch. 19; Belgic Confession, Article 35; open communion.
  • Theology in this tradition is in flux, and recent agreements, especially A Formula for Agreement, between these denominations and the Lutherans have stressed that: "The theological diversity within our common confession provides both the complementarity needed for a full and adequate witness to the gospel (mutual affirmation) and the corrective reminder that every theological approach is a partial and incomplete witness to the Gospel (mutual admonition) (A Common Calling, page 66)." Hence, in seeking to come to consensus about the Real Presence, the churches have written:
"During the Reformation both Reformed and Lutheran Churches exhibited an evangelical intention when they understood the Lord's Supper in the light of the saving act of God in Christ. Despite this common intention, different terms and concepts were employed which. . . led to mutual misunderstanding and misrepresentation. Properly interpreted, the differing terms and concepts were often complementary rather than contradictory (Marburg Revisited, pp. 103-104);"
and further:
"In the Lord's Supper the risen Christ imparts himself in body and blood, given up for all, through his word of promise with bread and wine....we proclaim the death of Christ through which God has reconciled the world with himself. We proclaim the presence of the risen Lord in our midst. Rejoicing that the Lord has come to us, we await his future coming in glory....Both of our communions, we maintain, need to grow in appreciation of our diverse eucharistic traditions, finding mutual enrichment in them. At the same time both need to grow toward a further deepening of our common experience and expression of the mystery of our Lord's Supper (A Formula for Agreement)."

Calvinism is a system of Christian theology and an approach to Christian life and thought, articulated by John Calvin, a Protestant Reformer in the 16th century, and subsequently by successors, associates, followers and admirers of Calvin and his interpretation of Scripture. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Look up Mystery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In common usage, a mystery is a description for something which is unknown or yet unexplained. ...

Baptist and other related Evangelicals

  • primary theological development from 16th & 17th centuries
  • Eucharistic theology: Memorialism
  • "The bread and cup that symbolize the broken body and shed blood offered by Christ remind us today of God's great love for us..." [2]
  • see Huldrych Zwingli, open communion

A Baptist is a member of a Baptist church. ... The word evangelicalism usually refers to a tendency in diverse branches of Protestantism, typified by an emphasis on evangelism, a personal experience of conversion, biblically-oriented faith, and a belief in the relevance of Christian faith to cultural issues. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ...

Quaker

  • primary theological development from 17th century
  • Eucharistic theology: suspension/Memorialism
  • "The bread and wine remind us of Jesus' body and blood." [3]
  • see George Fox
  • Quakers understand all of life as being sacramental and thus do not practice baptism or holy communion. "We believe in the baptism of the Holy Spirit and in communion with that Spirit. If the believer experiences such spiritual baptism and communion, then no rite or ritual is necessary. ...The Quaker ideal is to make every meal at every table a Lord's Supper." [4]

The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... 19th-century engraving of George Fox, based on a painting of unknown date. ...

External links

  • Lutheran full communion with United Church of Christ

  Results from FactBites:
 
Eucharist information - Search.com (4999 words)
In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eucharist is one of the seven sacraments, but is also considered the "queen of the sacraments" and "the blessed sacrament", and the institution of the Eucharist is one of the Luminous Mysteries of the Rosary.
The Eucharist is a commemoration, or, in Greek, anamnesis [8] of the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ (called the Paschal Mystery), understood in the fullest sense given to it in Biblical tradition.
The Eucharist is therefore understood to be not simply a representation of Christ's presence, or a remembrance of his Passion and Death, but an actual participation in the Sacrifice of Christ, the manifestation, in the present, of an event that occurred once for all in time.
Eucharistic - definition of Eucharistic in Encyclopedia (2918 words)
The Eucharist is one of the seven Catholic sacraments which assist the believer in the progression toward union with God, and is deemed the "source and summit of Christian life".
Eucharistic union with God is a primary component in the Catholic conception of prayer life, in which one progresses first along the purgative way, e.g., confessing sins before receiving communion, a tradition dating from the earliest period of the church.
The Eucharist is consecrated and received in the context of a ritual (known as the Mass in Western Catholic or Anglican tradition or the Divine Liturgy in Eastern tradition, which includes Eastern Rite Catholics, the Oriental Orthodox and the Eastern Orthodox).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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