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Encyclopedia > Eucharistic discipline
Part of the series on
Communion

also known as
"The Eucharist" or
"The Lord's Supper" The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ...

Theology
Consecration
Consubstantiation
Impanation
Memorialism
Real Presence
Transignification
Transubstantiation
Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1211x1096, 178 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Impanation is a name employed to denote the union of the body of Christ with the bread of the Eucharist. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Transignification[1] is a doctrine, largely in progressive Roman Catholic circles, which attempts a rational explanation of the Real Presence of Christ at Mass. ... Transubstantiation (from Latin transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into that of the body and blood of Christ, the change that according to the belief of the Roman Catholic Church occurs in the Eucharist. ...

Theologies contrasted
Anglican Eucharistic theology
Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ... Anglican Eucharistic theology is extremely divergent in practice, ranging from transubstantiation to memorialism, with most Anglicans placing themselves somewhere in the middle. ...

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Cranmer
Luther · Zwingli Saul, also known as Paul, Paulus, and Saint Paul the Apostle (c. ... Saint Thomas Aquinas [Thomas of Aquin, or Aquino] (c. ... Aurelius Augustinus, Augustine of Hippo, or Saint Augustine (November 13, 354 – August 28, 430) was one of the most important figures in the development of Western Christianity. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was an important French Christian theologian during the Protestant Reformation and is the namesake of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism. ... Saint John Chrysostom John Chrysostom (347 - 407) was a notable Christian bishop and preacher from the 4th and 5th centuries in Syria and Constantinople. ... An oil painting of Thomas Cranmer by Gerlach Flicke (1545) - National Portrait Gallery, London Thomas Cranmer (July 2, 1489 – March 21, 1556) was the Archbishop of Canterbury during the reigns of the English kings Henry VIII and Edward VI. He is credited with writing and compiling the first two Books... For images related to Martin Luther, his life and times, see also Images of Martin Luther. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Christianity
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic discipline
First Communion
Infant Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as recounted in the Gospels. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and some Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. ... A Medieval Low Mass by a bishop. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. Different traditions require varying degrees of preparation, which may include a period of fasting, prayer, repentance, and confession. The Eucharist or Communion or The Lords Supper, is the rite that Christians perform in fulfillment of Jesus instruction, recorded in the New Testament,[1] to do in memory of him what he did at his Last Supper. ... Fasting is the act of willingly abstaining from some or all food and in some cases drink, for a period of time. ... Maria Magdalene in prayer. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. ...

Contents


Catholic practice

Sufficient spiritual preparation must be made by each Catholic prior to receiving Holy Communion. A Catholic guilty of mortal sin should first make a sacramental confession: otherwise that person commits a sacrilege. A sacrilege is the irreverent treatment of sacred things. Deliberate and irreverent treatment of the Eucharist is the worst of all sacrileges, as this quote from the Council of Trent shows: According to the beliefs of Catholicism, a mortal sin, as distinct from a venial sin, must meet all of the following conditions: its subject must be ‘grave matter’; it must be committed with full knowledge, both of the sin and of the gravity of the offense; it must be committed... Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. ... Sacrilege is in general the violation or injurious treatment of a sacred object. ...


"As of all the sacred mysteries ...none can compare with the ...Eucharist, so likewise for no crime is there heavier punishment to be feared from God than for the unholy or irreligious use by the faithful of that which...contains the very Author and Source of holiness." (De Euch., v.i).


In addition, Catholics must also abstain from food and drink (except water and medicine) for one hour before receiving, and must have a true belief in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist.


The official regulations of the Catholic Church are to be found in Book IV, Part I, Title III, Chapter I, Article 2 (Participation in the Holy Eucharist) of the Code of Canon Law: Canon Law is the ecclesiastical law of the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Can. 916: A person who is conscious of grave sin is not to celebrate Mass or receive the body of the Lord without previous sacramental confession unless there is a grave reason and there is no opportunity to confess; in this case the person is to remember the obligation to make an act of perfect contrition which includes the resolution of confessing as soon as possible.
Can. 919: §1. A person who is to receive the Most Holy Eucharist is to abstain for at least one hour before holy communion from any food and drink, except for only water and medicine.
§2. A priest who celebrates the Most Holy Eucharist two or three times on the same day can take something before the second or third celebration even if there is less than one hour between them.
§3. The elderly, the infirm, and those who care for them can receive the Most Holy Eucharist even if they have eaten something within the preceding hour. [1]

Orthodox practice

Orthodox Christians are required to fast from all food and drink before receiving the Eucharist. This fast typically begins from Vespers or sunset the night before, midnight the night before, or from the time that the individual wakes up in the morning, depending on local tradition. Monastic practice can be even more strict, requiring a strict fast for the previous day as well. During this fasting period, many faithful will keep a period of quiet reflection; for example, by limiting or turning off their television and by reading devotional literature. Vespers is the evening prayer service in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox liturgies of the canonical hours. ... Link title For other uses, see Sunset (disambiguation). ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Piety; To show honour and respect. ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ...


Fasting regulations are often relaxed for pregnant women, the ill, and young children. Whether menstruating women should be permitted to receive the Eucharist is a matter of some controversy[2]. A pregnant woman Pregnancy is the process by which a mammalian female carries a live offspring from conception until it develops to the point where the offspring is capable of living outside the womb. ... The menstrual cycle is the periodic change in a womans body that occurs every month between puberty and menopause and that relates to reproduction. ...


Orthodox Christians typically receive the Sacrament of Confession before receiving the Eucharist. Those receiving the Eucharist infrequently will usually go to confession before each time, while those receiving on a regular basis will go to confession more frequently—typically once a month. However, for those who are either mentally incapable of recognizing or recalling their sins, or who are mentally or physically incapable of communicating their sins to a priest, this requirement is dispensed with, just as it is for very young children. Confession of sins is an integral part of the Christian faith and practice. ... SiN is a computer game developed by Ritual Entertainment and published by Activision in late 1998. ... Roman Catholic priests in traditional clerical clothing. ...


Special pre- and post-Communion prayers are recited by the faithful before and after the Eucharist. In current practice, the pre-Communion prayers are usually recited collectively by the entire congregation during the Divine Liturgy. These prayers express humility and the communicants' sense of unworthiness for the gift they are about to receive. The post-Communion prayers are read aloud by a single member of the congregation (often a Reader) after the end of the Liturgy and during the Veneration of the Cross. These prayers of thanksgiving express the communicants' joy at having received Christ "for the healing of soul and body." The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Humility is the state of being humble. ... In some Christian churches, the Reader is responsible for reading aloud excerpts of the scripture at a liturgy. ... It has been suggested that Crouchmas be merged into this article or section. ... Thanksgiving, or Thanksgiving Day, is an annual holiday observed in the United States and Canada to celebrate being thankful for the things one has. ...


Anglican/Episcopalian practice

From the Book of Common Prayer 1979


The Holy Eucharist is the sacrament commanded by Christ for the continual remembrance of his life, death, and resurrection, until his coming again. Because the Eucharist, the Church's sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving, is the way by which the sacrifice of Christ is made present, and in which he unites us to his one offering of himself. The Holy Eucharist is called the Lord's Supper, and Holy Communion; it is also known as the Divine Liturgy, the Mass, and the Great Offering.


The outward and visible sign in the Eucharist is bread and wine, give and received according to Christ's command. The inward and spiritual grace in the Holy Communion is the Body and Blood of Christ given to his people, and received by faith. The benefits we receive are the forgiveness of our sins, the strengthening of our union with Christ and one another, and the foretaste of the heavenly banquet which is our nourishment in eternal life.


Prior to receiving the Eucharist, it is required that we should examine our lives, repent of our sins, and be in love and charity with all people.


However, some Anglicans and Episcopalians, especially Anglo-Catholics and those of the High Church party, observe the Roman Catholic rules of fasting for one hour before receiving mass while others abstain from any food or drink from midnight until the time of communion.


Lutheran practice

In the Lutheran tradition, the Body and Blood of Jesus Christ is really present in Sacrament of Holy Communion. Those who believe this, trusting that their sins are forgiven when they receive it, are worthy communicants. They are given the forgiveness of sins, life and salvation through this Means of Grace. The word tradition, comes from the Latin word traditio which means to hand down or to hand over. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace—a holy mystery. ... The Means of Grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives His grace. ...


Lutherans are taught to prepare to receive this sacrament through prayerful reflection upon their sinful nature, their need for a Savior, the promise that their sins are forgiven for the sake of Jesus' death on the Cross, and that Holy Communion gives this forgiveness to them. "Fasting and bodily preparation are indeed a fine outward training," Martin Luther said, "but he is truly worthy and well prepared who has faith in these words, "given and shed for you for the forgiveness of sins." [1] For images related to Martin Luther, his life and times, see also Images of Martin Luther. ...

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Methodist practice

In Methodism, the table is made available to all people, and none are turned away. This practice is referred to as keeping an "Open table". The general invitation is typically made in the ritual, "Christ our Lord invites to his table all who love him, who earnestly repent of their sin and seek to live in peace with one another." All are free to commune at the appropriate time. Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ...


Presbyterian practice

Among Presbyterians, there is neither requirement, nor prohibition, of any of the traditional understandings of what it means to "make ready": it is left to local custom. In modern times, there is no uniform practice of earlier patterns of fasting, public or private prayer, or the preparatory service (Vespers).


However, the Westminster Larger Catechism has rather extensive instructions on how those who "receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper are, before they come, to prepare themselves unto . . . ." Specifically, they are to prepare "by examining themselves of their being in Christ, of their sins and wants; of the truth and measure of their knowledge, faith, repentance; love to God and the brethren, charity to all men, forgiving those that have done them wrong; of their desires after Christ, and of their new obedience; and by renewing the exercise of these graces, by serious meditation, and fervent prayer." Westminster Larger Catechism, Q. 171.


Therefore, the Presbyterian Church in America's Directory for the Worship of God advises that a week's notice be given to the congregation prior to the administration of the Lord's supper: "It is proper that public notice should be given to the congregation, at least the Sabbath before the administration of this ordinance, and that, either then, or on some day of the week, the people be instructed in its nature, and a due preparation for it, that all may come in a suitable manner to this holy feast." PCA Book of Church Order, Directory for the Worship of God, ch. 58, para. 3.; see also Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) Book of Order, Directory for Worship, W-3.3609 (requiring one week's notice if the sacrament is not observed weekly); Orthodox Presbyterian Church Book of Church Order, Directory for the Public Worship of God, ch. IV, para. 1. (requiring "adequate preparation").


The Westminster Larger Catechism also provides extensive instructions on "what is required of them that receive the sacrament of the Lord's supper" during and after its administration. [3]


Other Protestant practice

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Notes

  1. ^ Martin Luther, Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism (St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1971), 21, Small Catechism 6.3. Hereafter cited in notes as Small Catechism

See also

Open communion Open communion refers to Christian churches that allow individuals other than members of that church to receive communion (also called the Eucharist or the Lords Supper). ...


Closed communion Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ...


External links

Orthodox


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eucharist - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (5347 words)
In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eucharist is one of the seven sacraments, but is also considered the "queen of the sacraments" and "the blessed sacrament", and the institution of the Eucharist is one of the Luminous Mysteries of the Rosary.
The Eucharist is a commemoration, or, in Greek, anamnesis [8] of the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ (called the Paschal Mystery), understood in the fullest sense given to it in Biblical tradition.
The Eucharist is therefore understood to be not simply a representation of Christ's presence, or a remembrance of his Passion and Death, but an actual participation in the Sacrifice of Christ, the manifestation, in the present, of an event that occurred once for all in time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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