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Encyclopedia > Eucharist
Part of the series on
Communion

also known as
"The Eucharist" or
"The Lord's Supper"

Theology


Transubstantiation
Consecration
Words of Institution
Real Presence
Impanation
Memorialism
Consubstantiation
Sacramental union
Transignification
Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... The words of institution are the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament used in some forms of Christian liturgy to consecrate the Eucharist. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Impanation is a name employed to denote the union of the body of Christ with the bread of the Eucharist. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Transignification[1] is a doctrine, largely in progressive Roman Catholic circles, which attempts a rational explanation of the Real Presence of Christ at Mass. ...

Theologies contrasted
Eucharist (Catholic Church)
Anglican Eucharistic theology
Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. ...

Important theologians
Paul ·Aquinas
Augustine · Calvin
Chrysostom · Luther
Zwingli Paul of Tarsus (b. ... Aquinas redirects here. ... Augustinus redirects here. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... This article refers to the Christian saint. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ...

Related Articles
Christianity
Christianity and alcohol
Catholic Historic Roots
Closed and Open Table
Divine Liturgy
Eucharistic adoration
Eucharistic discipline
First Communion
Infant Communion
Mass · Sacrament
Sanctification Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Jesus making wine in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monastery. ... The historical roots of Catholic Eucharistic theology are the basis upon which a number of ecclesial communities, or churches, express their faith in the bread of life as given by Jesus, and are to be found in the Church Fathers, Scripture, the writings of Thomas Aquinas, and other early church... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... Infant Communion (also Paedocommunion) refers to the practice of giving the Eucharist, often in the form of consecrated wine, to infants and children. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Sanctification or in its verb form, sanctify, literally means to set apart for special use or purpose, that is to make holy or sacred (compare Latin sanctus holy). Therefore sanctification refers to the state or process of being set apart, i. ...

On Eucharistic liturgies, see the links given in Christian liturgy

The Eucharist, also called Holy Communion or Lord's Supper and other names, is one of the two Christian sacraments said to have been instituted by Jesus of Nazareth. Almost every Christian denomination celebrates in some form this rite or ritual of worship and remembrance, which Christians generally believe Jesus Christ instituted at his last meal with his disciples before being turned over to his executioners.[1] Beginning in the Early Church as a prayer or blessing over bread and wine associated with a common meal that followed the form of earlier Jewish blessings, it evolved into more elaborate liturgies, such as the Roman Catholic Mass and the Eastern Orthodox Divine Liturgy. There are different interpretations of its significance, but "there is more of a consensus among Christians about the meaning of the Eucharist than would appear from the confessional debates over the sacramental presence, the effects of the Eucharist, and the proper auspices under which it may be celebrated."[2] Eucharist can refer to: Eucharist, a rite in Christianity Eucharist (band), a death metal band from Sweden Category: ... Most Precious Blood can refer to: The Eucharist, a rite in Christanity Most Precious Blood (band) Category: ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A liturgy is a... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... This article concerns critical reconstructions of the Historical Jesus. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Taken during a Hindu prayer ceremony on the eve of Diwali. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... The Early Christians is a term used to refer to the early followers of Jesus of Nazareth, before the emergence of established Christian orthodoxy. ... Big and small host tongs for baking hosts detail of tongs for baking hosts jagger for making hosts A host is a thin, round wafer made from bread and used for Holy Communion in many Christian churches. ... Sacramental wine is wine prepared for use in Christian liturgy as part of the celebration of the Eucharist. ... A liturgy is the customary public worship of a religious group, according to their particular traditions. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ...


The phrase "the Eucharist" may refer not only to the rite but also to the "bread" and "cup" used in the rite,[3] and, in this sense, communicants may speak of "receiving the Eucharist", rather than "celebrating the Eucharist".

Contents

History of the Eucharist

Main article: History of the Eucharist

The Eucharist in the Bible

The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci.
The Last Supper in Milan (1498), by Leonardo da Vinci.

The Last Supper appears in all three Synoptic Gospels: Matthew, Mark, and Luke; and in the First Epistle to the Corinthians, while the last-named of these also indicates something of how early Christians celebrated what Paul the Apostle called the Lord's Supper. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1988x1016, 367 KB) Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) - The Last Supper (1495-1498) File links The following pages link to this file: The Last Supper (Leonardo) ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1988x1016, 367 KB) Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) - The Last Supper (1495-1498) File links The following pages link to this file: The Last Supper (Leonardo) ... This article is about the painting by Leonardo da Vinci. ... “Da Vinci” redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... In the New Testament of the Christian Bible, gospels Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar that they are called the synoptic gospels (from Greek, συν, syn, together, and οψις, opsis, seeing). ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... St. ...


Paul the Apostle and the Lord's Supper

The epistles of Paul the Apostle (d. 64-67) are the earliest documents in the New Testament. He recalled for the Corinthians the Last Supper to indicate how they should celebrate the Lord's Supper.

In his First Epistle to the Corinthians (c 54-55), Paul the Apostle gives the earliest recorded description of Jesus' Last Supper: "The Lord Jesus on the night when he was betrayed took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and said, 'This is my body which is for you. Do this in remembrance of me.' In the same way also the cup, after supper, saying, 'This cup is the new covenant in my blood. Do this, as often as you drink it, in remembrance of me'." [4] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x823, 79 KB) Summary St. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (633x823, 79 KB) Summary St. ... The First Epistle to the Corinthians is a book of the Bible in the New Testament. ... St. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ...


Paul recalled this in view of the way in which the Lord's Supper was celebrated at Corinth: middle- and upper-class people, who could come early to the meetings of the Christians, feasted on their better food and drink in a way that shamed the slaves and peasants who could arrive only later. He pointed out that they were all participating in Christ's body and blood, not their own meal, and that to do so in an unworthy manner, with divisions and class distinctions among them, profaned the meal, turning it from the Lord's Supper to a sham.[5] Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ...


Stephen L Harris describes the situation as "a near brawl at which the early arrivals would overeat and overdrink";[6] but commentators generally[7] give a much less lurid description of the Corinthians' celebration of the Lord's Supper: the two abuses that Paul reproved were the divisions of the participants into separate groups and the fact that some selfishly indulged, even to the point of excess, in food and drink that they brought with them, while others remained hungry.[8] Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ...


Last Supper in the Gospels

The synoptic gospels, first Mark,[9] and then Matthew[10] and Luke,[11] depict Jesus as presiding over the Last Supper. References to Jesus' body and blood foreshadow his crucifixion, and he identifies them as a new covenant.[6] In the gospel of John, the account of the Last Supper has no mention of Jesus taking bread and wine and speaking of them as his body and blood; instead it recounts his humble act of washing the disciples' feet, the prophecy of the betrayal, which set in motion the events that would lead to the cross, and his long discourse in response to some questions posed by his followers, in which he went on to speak of the importance of the unity of the disciples with him and each other.[12][6]


The Eucharist in early Christian sources

The Didache (Greek: teaching) is an early Christian church order, including, among other features, instructions for Baptism and the Eucharist. Most scholars date it to the early 2nd century.[13] Two separate eucharistic traditions appear in the Didache, the earlier tradition in chapter 10 and the later one preceding it in chapter 9.[14][15] The Eucharist is mentioned again in chapter 14.[16] The Didache (, Koine Greek for Teaching[1]) is the common name of a brief early Christian treatise ( 70–160), containing instructions for Christian communities. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


Ignatius of Antioch, one of the Apostolic Fathers, mentions the Eucharist,[17] as does Justin Martyr.[18]


View of John Dominic Crossan

Five Preliminary stages to "2000 years of eucharistic theology" and "Last Supper iconography", according to Crossan[19]
1. Graeco-Roman formal meal 2. Jesus' practice 3a. Didache 10 3b. Didache 9 4. 1 Corinthians 5. Mark (copied by Matthew & Luke)
deipnon (supper, main meal), then symposion a last supper Give thanks, no reference to Passover, Last Supper, or Death of Jesus Eucharist, no reference to Passover, Last Supper, or Death of Jesus Lord's Supper Passover Meal
Bread course followed by ritual libation followed by wine course Open Commensality Common Meal followed by Thanks to the Father, no ritual with bread or cup Common meal, ritual with Cup (thanks for the Holy Vine of David) and Bread (thanks for the life and knowledge of Jesus) Bread/body, Thanks, Common Meal, Cup/blood During meal, first Bread/body, then Cup/blood and Thanks
No ritual No mention of the death of Jesus No mention of the death of Jesus Passion Remembrance in both cup and bread No command for repetition and remembrance

Christian theology concerning the Eucharist

Many Christian denominations classify the Eucharist as a sacrament.[20] Some Protestants prefer to call it an ordinance, viewing it not as a specific channel of divine grace but as an expression of faith and of obedience to Christ. In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Ordinance is a Protestant Christian term for baptism, communion and other religious rituals. ... In Christianity, divine grace refers to the sovereign favour of God for humankind — especially in regard to salvation — irrespective of actions (deeds), earned worth, or proven goodness. ...


Most Christians, even those who deny that there is any real change in the bread or wafer and wine or juice used, recognize a special presence of Christ in this rite, though they differ about exactly how, where, and when Christ is present.[21] This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ...


The Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry document of the World Council of Churches, attempting to present the common understanding of the Eucharist on the part of the generality of Christians, describes it as "essentially the sacrament of the gift which God makes to us in Christ through the power of the Holy Spirit", "Thanksgiving to the Father", "Anamnesis or Memorial of Christ", "the sacrament of the unique sacrifice of Christ, who ever lives to make intercession for us", "the sacrament of the body and blood of Christ, the sacrament of his real presence", "Invocation of the Spirit", "Communion of the Faithful", and "Meal of the Kingdom". The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ...


Roman Catholic Church

Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonization of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates the Eucharist at the canonization of Frei Galvão in São Paulo, Brazil on 11 May 2007

In the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church, the Eucharist is one of the seven sacraments. The institution of the Eucharist is one of the Luminous Mysteries of the Rosary. The Eucharist not only commemorates the Passion, Death, and Resurrection of Christ, but also makes it truly present. The priest and victim of the sacrifice are one and the same (Christ). The only difference is how the Eucharist is offered: in an unbloody manner.[22] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... Saint Anthony de Saint Anne Galvão,OFM, popularly known as Frei Galvão (Friar Galvão), (1739 — December 23, 1822) was a Brazilian friar of the Franciscan order. ... This article is about the city. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Our Lady of Lourdes - Mary appearing at Lourdes with Rosary beads. ... The Passion is the theological term used for the suffering, both physical and mental, of Jesus in the hours prior to and including his trial and execution by crucifixion. ... The chronology of Jesus depicts the traditional chronology established for the events of the life of Jesus by the four canonical gospels (which allude to various dates for several events). ... The resurrection of Jesus is an event in the New Testament in which God raised him from the dead[1] after his death by crucifixion. ...


The only minister of the Eucharist, that is, one authorized to celebrate the rite and consecrate the Eucharist, is a validly ordained priest (either bishop or presbyter) acting in the person of Christ (in persona Christi). In other words the priest celebrant represents Christ, who is the Head of the Church, and acts before God the Father in the name of the Church. The matter used must be wheaten bread and grape wine; this is essential for validity.[23] This article is about religious workers. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      This article... Presbyter in the New Testament refers to a leader in local Christian congregations, a synonym of episkopos, which has come to mean bishop. ...

At a celebration of the Eucharist at Lourdes, the chalice is shown to the people immediately after the consecration of the wine.

According to the Roman Catholic Church, when the bread and wine are consecrated in the Eucharist, they cease to be bread and wine, and become instead the body and blood of Christ: although the empirical appearances are not changed, the reality is changed by the power of the Holy Spirit who has been called down upon the bread and wine. The consecration of the bread (known as the host) and wine represents the separation of Jesus' body from his blood at Calvary. However, since he has risen, the Church teaches that his body and blood can no longer be truly separated. Where one is, the other must be. Therefore, although the priest (or minister) says "The body of Christ" when administering the host, and "The blood of Christ" when presenting the chalice, the communicant who receives either one receives Christ, whole and entire.[24] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1543x1102, 411 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me on 28 July 2006 Lima 10:04, 3 September 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1543x1102, 411 KB) Summary Photograph taken by me on 28 July 2006 Lima 10:04, 3 September 2006 (UTC) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms... This article is about the French pilgrimage location. ... Big and small host tongs for baking hosts detail of tongs for baking hosts jagger for making hosts A host is a thin, round wafer made from bread and used for Holy Communion in many Christian churches. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ...


The mysterious[25] change of the reality of the bread and wine began to be called "transubstantiation" in the eleventh century. It seems that the first text in which the term appears is of Gilbert of Savardin, Archbishop of Tours, in a sermon from 1079 (Patrologia Latina CLXXI 776). The term first appeared in a papal document in the letter Cum Marthae circa to a certain John, Archbishop of Lyon,29 November 1202,[26] then in the Fourth Lateran Council (1215)[27] and afterward in the book "Iam dudum" sent to the Armenians in the year 1341.[28] An explanation utilizing Aristotle's hylemorphic theory of reality did not appear until the thirteenth Century, with Alexander of Hales (died 1245). Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... (10th century - 11th century - 12th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... Hildebert, Hydalbert, Gildebert or Aldebert, sometimes styled Hildebert of Tours (c. ... This is a list of the bishops and archbishops of Tours: Bishops 1 Gatianus ca 249-301 vacant 301-338 2 Lidorius 338-370 3 St. ... The Patrologia Latina is an enormous work published by Jacques-Paul Migne between 1844 and 1855, with indices published between 1862 and 1865. ... is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events August 1 - Arthur of Brittany captured in Mirebeau, north of Poitiers Beginning of the Fourth Crusade. ... The Fourth Council of the Lateran was summoned by Pope Innocent III with his Bull of April 19, 1213. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Alexander Hales (also Halensis, Alensis, Halesius, Alesius; called Doctor Irrefragabilis and Theologorum Monarcha) was a scholastic theologian. ...


Catholics may receive Holy Communion outside of Mass, but then it is normally given only as the host. The consecrated hosts are kept in a tabernacle after the celebration of the Mass and brought to the sick or dying during the week. Occasionally, the Eucharist is exposed in a monstrance, so that it may be the focus of prayer and adoration.[29] The Tabernacle at St. ... A solar monstrance Monstrance is the vessel used in the Roman Catholic, Old Catholic, and Anglican Churches to display the consecrated Eucharistic Host, during Eucharistic adoration or Benediction of the Blessed Sacrament. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ...


Eastern Orthodoxy

Main article: Divine Liturgy

The Eucharist is at the center of Eastern Orthodox Christianity. Orthodox Christians affirm the Real Presence in the Sacred Mysteries (consecrated bread and wine) which they believe to be the actual Body and Blood of Jesus Christ. The Eucharist is normally received in the context of the Divine Liturgy. The bread and wine are believed to become the genuine Body and Blood of the Christ Jesus through the operation of the Holy Spirit. The Eastern Orthodox Church has never described exactly how this occurs, or gone into the detail that the Roman Catholic Church has with the doctrine of transubstantiation. This doctrine was formulated after the Great Schism took place, and the Eastern Orthodox churches have never formally affirmed or denied it, preferring to state simply that it is a "Mystery",[30] while at the same time using, as in the 1672 Synod of Jerusalem, language very similar to that used by the Roman Catholic Church.[31] The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The term Sacred Mysteries is used in the Eastern Churches to refer to what the Western Church calls Sacraments and Sacramentals. ... To consecrate an inaminate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... The Body of Christ is a term used by Christians to describe believers in Christ. ... The Blood of Christ in Christian theology refers to (a) the physical blood actually shed by Jesus Christ on the Cross, and the salvation which Christianity teaches was accomplished thereby; and (b) the Eucharistic wine used at Holy Communion // Main article: Salvation The New Testament teaches that the Blood of... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ...


Communion is given only to baptized, chrismated Orthodox Christians who have prepared by fasting, prayer, and confession. The priest administers the Gifts with a spoon directly into the recipient's mouth from the chalice.[32] From baptism young infants and children are carried to the chalice to receive Holy Communion.[33]


The holy gifts reserved for the Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts or communion of the sick are specially consecrated as needed, especially on Holy Thursday. They are kept in an elaborately decorated tabernacle, a container on the altar often in the shape of a church. Generally, Eastern Christians do not adore the consecrated bread outside the Liturgy itself. After the Eucharist has been given to the congregation, the priest or the deacon has to eat and drink everything that is left. The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts, or simply (if ungrammatically) Presanctified Liturgy, is an Eastern Orthodox liturgical service for the celebration of the Eucharist on the weekdays of Great Lent. ... In the Christian calendar, Holy Thursday (also called Maundy Thursday) is the Thursday before Easter, the day on which the Last Supper is said to have occurred. ... The Tabernacle at St. ...


Anglicans/Episcopalians: Real Presence with opinion

The historical position of the Anglican Communion is found in the Thirty-Nine Articles of 1571, which state "the Bread which we break is a partaking of the Body of Christ"; and likewise that "the Cup of Blessing is a partaking of the Blood of Christ" (Articles of Religion, Article XXVIII: Of the Lord's Supper) and that "Transubstantiation is repugnant to Holy Writ". The fact that the terms "Bread" and "Wine" and the corresponding words "Body" and "Blood" are all capitalized may reflect the wide range of theological beliefs regarding the Eucharist among Anglicans. However, the Articles also state that adoration, or worship per se, of the consecrated elements was not commanded by Christ and should not be practiced. It also stated that those who receive unworthily do not actually receive Christ but rather their own condemnation. Anglican Eucharistic theology is divergent in practice, reflecting the essential comprehensiveness of the tradition. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Thirty-Nine Articles are the defining statements of Anglican doctrine. ...


Anglicans generally and officially believe in the Real Presence of Christ in the Eucharist, but the specifics of that belief range from transubstantiation, sometimes with Eucharistic adoration (mainly Anglo-Catholics), to something akin to a belief in a "pneumatic" presence, which may or may not be tied to the Eucharistic elements themselves (almost always "Low Church" or Evangelical Anglicans). The normal range of Anglican belief ranges from Objective Reality to Pious Silence, depending on the individual Anglican's theology. There are also small minorities on the one hand who affirm transubstantiation, or on the other hand, reject the doctrine of the Real Presence altogether. The classic Anglican aphorism with regard to this debate is found in a poem by John Donne (sometimes attributed to Elizabeth I): The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... For the Welsh courtier and diplomat, see Sir John Donne. ... Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603 ) was Queen of England and Queen of Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. ...

He was the Word that spake it;
He took the bread and brake it;
and what that Word did make it;
I do believe and take it.[34]

Anglican belief in the Eucharistic Sacrifice ("Sacrifice of the Mass") is set forth in the response Saepius officio of the Archbishops of Canterbury and York to Pope Leo XIII's Papal Encyclical Apostolicae curae. Anglicans and Roman Catholics declared that they had "substantial agreement on the doctrine of the Eucharist" in the Windsor Statement on Eucharistic Doctrine from the Anglican-Roman Catholic International Consultation and the Elucidation of the ARCIC Windsor Statement. Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Count Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest...

Lutherans: Sacramental union: "in, with, and under the forms of bread and wine"

Main article: Sacramental union

Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ...

Manner of the Real Presence

Lutherans believe that the Body and Blood of Christ are "truly and substantially present in, with and under the forms" of the consecrated bread and wine (the elements), so that communicants eat and drink both the elements and the true Body and Blood of Christ Himself (cf. Augsburg Confession, Article 10) in the Sacrament of Holy Communion whether they are believers or unbelievers ("manducatio indignorum": "eating of the unworthy"). The Lutheran doctrine of the Real Presence is more accurately and formally known as "the sacramental union." This theology was first formally and publicly confessed in the Wittenberg Concord. It has been called "consubstantiation" by some, but this term is rejected by Lutheran Churches and theologians as it creates confusion with an earlier doctrine of the same name. Lutherans use the terms "in, with and under the forms of [consecrated] bread and wine" and "sacramental union" to distinguish their understanding of the Lord's Supper from those of the Reformed and other traditions. The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Augsburg Confession The Augsburg Confession, also known as the Augustana from its Latin name, Confessio Augustana, is the primary confession of faith of the Lutheran Church and one of the most important documents of the Lutheran reformation. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Wittenberg Concord (1536), is a religious concordat signed by Reformed and Lutheran theologians and churchmen on May 29, 1536 as an attempted resolution of their differences with respect to the Real Presence of Christs body and blood in the Eucharist. ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ...


Use of the sacrament

For Lutherans, there is no sacrament unless the elements are used according to Christ's mandate and institution (consecration, distribution, and reception). This was first formulated in the Wittenberg Concord of 1536 in the formula: Nihil habet rationem sacramenti extra usum a Christo institutum ("Nothing has the character of a sacrament apart from the use instituted by Christ"). As a consequence of their belief in this principle, some Lutherans have opposed in the Christian Church the reservation of the consecrated elements, private masses, the practice of Corpus Christi, and the belief that the presence of Christ's body and blood continue in the "reliquæ" (what remains of the consecrated elements after all have communed in the worship service). This interpretation is not universal among Lutherans. The consecrated elements are treated with respect, and in some areas are reserved as in Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Anglican practice, but eucharistic adoration is not typically practiced. To remove any scruple of doubt or superstition the reliquæ traditionally are either consumed or poured into the earth. In some Lutheran congregations a small amount or the reliquæ may be kept for delivery to those too ill or infirm to attend the service (private communion). In this case, the consecrated elements are to be delivered quickly, preserving the connection between the communion experienced by the ill person, and the communion of the rest of the congregation. In other Lutheran congregations the administration of private communion of the sick and "shut-in" (those too feeble to attend service) involves a completely separate service of Holy Communion for which sacramental elements are consecrated by the administrant.


Close(d) or Open Communion

More liberal Lutheran Churches tend to practice open communion, inviting all who are baptized to participate. Conservative Lutheran Churches such as the Confessional Lutherans are more likely to practice closed communion (or "close communion"), restricting participation to those, who are more or less in doctrinal agreement with them. This might involve the formal declaration of "altar and pulpit fellowship," another term for eucharistic sharing coupled with the acceptance of the ministrations of one another's clergy. Confessional Lutheran is a name used by certain Lutheran Christians to designate themselves as those who accept the doctrines taught in the Book of Concord of 1580 (the Lutheran confessional documents) in their entirety, because they believe them to be completely faithful to the teachings of the Bible. ...


The term "Eucharist"

Lutheran terminology includes simply the Mass or the Holy Sacrament, Holy Communion, Sacrament of the Altar, the Lord's Supper and Holy Eucharist. But some Lutherans, particularly those who reject high church theology, object to the term "Eucharist" on the grounds that it emphasizes human response (thanksgiving), while Lutheran theology emphasizes God's grace and omniscience and minimizes human response and agency.[35] On the other hand, the term "Eucharist", as well as being derived from the original Greek word "εὐχαριστήσας" in the Words of Institution (cf. 1 Cor. 11:24; Mt. 26:27; Mk. 14:23; Lk. 22:19), appears in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession (Article 24, 66)[36] and in catechisms of conservative Lutheran Churches[37] High Church relates to ecclesiology and liturgy in Christian theology and practice. ... The words of institution are the words of Jesus Christ as recorded in the New Testament used in some forms of Christian liturgy to consecrate the Eucharist. ... The Apology of the Augsburg Confession was formulated by Philip Melanchthon as the response to the Roman Confutation against the Augsburg Confession. ...


Methodism: Real Presence as "Holy Mystery"

First and foremost, Methodists understand the eucharist to be an experience of God's grace. God's unconditional love makes the table of God's grace accessible to all.


According to the Articles of Religion in the Book of Discipline of the Methodist Church, The Articles of Religion are an official doctrinal statement of American Methodism. ... The Book of Discipline constitutes the law and doctrine of the United Methodist Church[1]. It follows similar works for its predecessor denominations. ...

A United Methodist Elder presides at the Eucharist, assisted by a Deacon.
A United Methodist Elder presides at the Eucharist, assisted by a Deacon.
The Supper of the Lord is not only a sign of the love that Christians ought to have among themselves one to another, but rather is a sacrament of our redemption by Christ's death; in so much that, to such as rightly, worthily, and with faith receive the same, the bread which we break is a partaking of the body of Christ; and likewise the cup of blessing is a partaking of the blood of Christ.

Transubstantiation, or the change of the substance of bread and wine in the Supper of our Lord, cannot be proved by Holy Writ, but is repugnant to the plain words of Scripture, overthroweth the nature of a sacrament, and hath given occasion to many superstitions. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... An Elder in Methodism -- sometimes called a Presbyter -- is someone who has been ordained by a Bishop to the ministry of Word, Sacrament, Order, and Service. ... For other uses, see Deacon (disambiguation). ...


The body of Christ is given, taken, and eaten in the Supper, only after a heavenly and spiritual manner. And the mean whereby the body of Christ is received and eaten in the Supper is faith.


The Sacrament of the Lord's Supper was not by Christ's ordinance reserved, carried about, lifted up, or worshiped.[38]

Methodists typically kneel at the communion table, sometimes referred to as the altar, to receive, but based on individual need or preference, may stand or be served in the pew. Most Methodist Churches use grape juice for "the Cup", and either leavened yeast bread or unleavened bread. The juice may be distributed in small cups, but the use of a common cup and the practice of communion by intinction (where the bread is dipped into the common cup and both elements are received together) is becoming more common among many Methodists.[39] Grape juice is used rather than alcoholic wine to ensure that persons with alcohol dependency will not be excluded from this central experience of God's redeeming grace. Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Methodist Church believes in the real presence of Jesus Christ in Holy Communion:[39] For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ...

Jesus Christ, who "is the reflection of God's glory and the exact imprint of God's very being" (Hebrews 1:3), is truly present in Holy Communion. Through Jesus Christ and in the power of the Holy Spirit, God meets us at the Table. God, who has given the sacraments to the church, acts in and through Holy Communion. Christ is present through the community gathered in Jesus' name (Matthew 18:20), through the Word proclaimed and enacted, and through the elements of bread and wine shared (1 Corinthians 11:23–26). The divine presence is a living reality and can be experienced by participants; it is not a remembrance of the Last Supper and the Crucifixion only.[39]

The followers of John Wesley, himself an Anglican clergyman, have typically affirmed that the sacrament of Holy Communion is an instrumental Means of Grace through which the real presence of Christ is communicated to the believer,[40] but have otherwise allowed the details to remain a mystery.[39] In particular, Methodists reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of transubstantiation (see "Article XVIII" of the Articles of Religion, Means of Grace). In 2004, the United Methodist Church reaffirmed its view of the sacrament and its belief in the Real Presence in an official document entitled This Holy Mystery. Of particular note here is the Church's unequivocal recognition of the anamnesis as more than just a memorial but, rather, a re-presentation of Christ Jesus: Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Eucharist is either the Christian sacrament of consecrated bread and wine or the ritual surrounding it. ... Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sacrament is a Christian rite that mediates divine grace. ... For other uses, see Bible (disambiguation). ... Concord grapes being cooked down into grape juice for use in making jelly. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... A diagram of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre based on a german documentary, claimed to be the site of Calvary and the Tomb of Jesus. ... For other persons named John Wesley, see John Wesley (disambiguation). ... The Means of Grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives His grace. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... The Articles of Religion are an official doctrinal statement of American Methodism. ... The Means of Grace in Christian theology are those things (the means) through which God gives His grace. ... This article is about the current Christian denomination based in the United States. ... Anamnesis (Greek: αναμνησις = recollection, reminiscence) is a term used in medicine, philosophy, psychoanalysis, and religion. ...

Holy Communion is remembrance, commemoration, and memorial, but this remembrance is much more than simply intellectual recalling. "Do this in remembrance of me" (Luke 22:19; 1 Corinthians 11:24-25) is anamnesis (the biblical Greek word). This dynamic action becomes re-presentation of past gracious acts of God in the present, so powerfully as to make them truly present now. Christ is risen and is alive here and now, not just remembered for what was done in the past.

This affirmation of Real Presence — of what is sometimes called anamnetical real presence — can be seen clearly illustrated in the language of the United Methodist Eucharistic Liturgy (for example: Word and Table 1) where, in the epecletical portion of the Great Thanksgiving, the celebrating minister prays over the elements:

A United Methodist Elder consecrates the elements
A United Methodist Elder consecrates the elements
Pour out your Holy Spirit on us gathered here, and on these gifts of bread and wine. Make them be for us the body and blood of Christ that we may be for the world the body of Christ, redeemed by his blood.

For most United Methodists — and, indeed, for much of Methodism as a whole — this reflects the furthest extent to which they are willing to go in defining Real Presence. They will assert that Jesus is really present, and that the means of this presence is a "Holy Mystery"; the celebrating minister will pray for the Holy Spirit to make the elements "be the body and blood of Christ", and the congregation will even sing, as in the third stanza of Charles Wesley's hymn Come Sinners to the Gospel Feast: Image File history File links Methodistcommunion6. ... Image File history File links Methodistcommunion6. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... Charles Wesley (18 December 1707 - 29 March 1788) was a leader of the Methodist movement, the younger brother of John Wesley. ...

Come and partake the gospel feast,
Be saved from sin, in Jesus rest;
O taste the goodness of our God,
and eat his flesh and drink his blood.[2]

Methodists believe that Holy Communion should not only be available to the clergy in both forms (the Bread and the Cup), but to the layman as well. According to Article XIX of the Articles of Religion in the Book of Discipline of the Methodist Church, An Elder in Methodism -- sometimes called a Presbyter -- is someone who has been ordained by a Bishop to the ministry of Word, Sacrament, Order, and Service. ... Look up Layman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Articles of Religion are an official doctrinal statement of American Methodism. ... Book of Discipline could refer to any of the following: Book of Discipline (Church of Scotland): the Book of Discipline of the Church of Scotland. ...

The cup of the Lord is not to be denied to the lay people; for both the parts of the Lord's Supper, by Christ's ordinance and commandment, ought to be administered to all Christians alike.[41]

Calvinist/Reformed: Spiritual feeding, "Pneumatic" or "Spiritual" presence

Communion service in the Three-kings Church, Frankfurt am Main.
Communion service in the Three-kings Church, Frankfurt am Main.

Many Reformed Christians hold that Christ's body and blood are not actually present in the Eucharist. The elements are only symbols of the reality, which is spiritual nourishment in Christ. Frankfurt am Main [ˈfraŋkfʊrt] is the largest city in the German state of Hessen and the fifth largest city of Germany. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ...

The sum is, that the flesh and blood of Christ feed our souls just as bread and wine maintain and support our corporeal life. For there would be no aptitude in the sign, did not our souls find their nourishment in Christ. [...] I hold...that the sacred mystery of the Supper consists of two things—the corporeal signs, which, presented to the eye, represent invisible things in a manner adapted to our weak capacity, and the spiritual truth, which is at once figured and exhibited by the signs.[42]

Following a phrase of Augustine, the Calvinist view is that "no one bears away from this Sacrament more than is gathered with the vessel of faith." "The flesh and blood of Christ are no less truly given to the unworthy than to God's elect believers", Calvin said. Faith, not a mere mental apprehension, and the work of the Holy Spirit, are necessary for the partaker to behold God incarnate, and in the same sense touch Christ with their hands; so that by eating and drinking of bread and wine Christ's actual presence penetrates to the heart of the believer more nearly than food swallowed with the mouth can enter in.[43] The 'experience' of Eucharist, or the Lord's Supper, has traditionally been spoken of in the following way: the faithful believers are 'lifted up' by the power of the Holy Spirit to feast with Christ in heaven. The Lord's Supper in this way is truly a 'Spiritual' experience as the Holy Spirit is directly involved in the action of 'eucharist'. Augustinus redirects here. ...


The Calvinist/Reformed view also places great emphasis on the action of the community as the Body of Christ. As the faith community participates in the action of celebrating the Lord's Supper they are 'transformed' into the Body of Christ, or 'reformed' into the Body of Christ each time they participate in this sacrament. In this sense it has been said that the term "transubstantiation" can be applied to the Faith Community (the Church) itself being transformed into the real Body and Blood of Christ truly present in the world.


Although Calvin rejected adoration of the Eucharistic bread and wine as "idolatry" later Reformed Chrisitans have argued otherwise. Leftover elements may be disposed of without ceremony (or reused in later services); they are unchanged, and as such the meal directs attention toward Christ's bodily resurrection and return.[44]


Latter Day Saint movement

Among Latter Day Saints (or Mormons), the Eucharist (in LDS theology it is "The Sacrament") is partaken in remembrance of the blood and body of Jesus Christ. It is viewed as a renewal of the covenant made at baptism, which is to take upon oneself the name of Jesus. As such, it is considered efficacious only for baptized members in good standing. However, the unbaptized are not forbidden from communion, and it is traditional for children not yet baptized (baptism occurs only after the age of eight) to participate in communion in anticipation of baptism. Those who partake of the Sacrament promise always to remember Jesus and keep his commandments. The prayer also asks God the Father that each individual will be blest with the Spirit of Christ.[45] In Mormonism, the sacrament is the Lords Supper, in which participants eat bread and drink wine (or water, in the case of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since the late 1800s). ... A Latter Day Saint (LDS) is a person who identifies with the Latter Day Saint movement and is a follower of Mormonism. ... The term Mormon is a colloquial name, most-often used to refer to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ...


The Sacrament is offered weekly and all active members are taught to prepare to partake of each opportunity. It is considered to be a weekly renewal of a member's commitment to follow Jesus Christ, and a plea for forgiveness of sins.


The Latter Day Saints do not believe in any kind of literal presence. They view the bread and water as symbolic of the body and blood of Christ. Currently The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints uses water instead of wine. Early in their history the Sacrament wine was often purchased from enemies of the church. To remove any opportunity for poisoned or wine unfit for use in the Sacrament, it is believed a revelation from the Lord was given that stated "it mattereth not what ye shall eat or what ye shall drink when ye partake of the sacrament, if it so be that ye do it with an eye single to my glory — remembering unto the Father my body which was laid down for you, and my blood which was shed for the remission of your sins."[46] After this time water became the liquid of choice for all Sacrament uses. For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ...


Zwinglian Reformed: no Real Presence

Main article: Memorialism

Some Protestant groups regard the Eucharist (also called the Lord's Supper or the Lord's Table) as a symbolic meal, a memorial of the Last Supper and the Passion in which nothing miraculous occurs. This view is known as the Zwinglian view, after Huldrych Zwingli, a Church leader in Zurich, Switzerland during the Reformation. It is commonly associated with the United Church of Christ, Baptists, and the Disciples of Christ. As with the Reformed view, elements left over from the service may be discarded without any formal ceremony, or if feasible may be retained for use in future services. Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... Memorialism is the belief held by many Christian denominations that the elements of bread and wine (or juice) in the Eucharist (more often referred to as The Lords Supper by memorialists) are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus, the feast being primarily a memorial meal. ... For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... General view showing Grossmünster church. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ...


Some of the Reformed hold that Calvin actually held this view, and not the Spiritual feeding idea more commonly attributed to him; or that the two views are really the same.


The successor of Zwingli in Zurich, Heinrich Bullinger, came to an agreement theologically with John Calvin. The Consensus Tigurinus lays out an explanation of the doctrine of the Sacraments in general, and specifically, that of Holy Communion, as the view embraced by John Calvin and leaders of the Church of Zurich who followed Zwingli. It demonstrates that at least the successors of Zwingli held to the real spiritual presence view most commonly attributed to Calvin and Reformed Protestantism. Heinrich Bullinger Heinrich Bullinger (July 18, 1504 - September 17, 1575) was a Swiss reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Zurich church. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ...


Some Christian denominations that hold this view include the United Church of Christ, the Baptist Church, the Disciples of Christ, and the Church of the Nazarene. The Plymouth Brethren hold the Lord's Supper, or the Breaking of Bread, instituted in the upper room on Christ's betrayal night, to be the weekly remembrance feast enjoyed on all true christians. They celebrate the supper in utmost simplicity. List of Christian denominations ordered by historical and doctrinal relationships. ... Disambiguation: This article is about the United States denomination known as United Church of Christ. ... Baptist churches are part of a Christian movement often regarded as an evangelical, protestant denomination. ... The insignia of the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ). ... The Church of the Nazarene, more commonly called the Nazarene Church, is an Christian evangelical denomination. ... The Brethren are a Christian Evangelical movement that began in Dublin, London, Plymouth, and the continent of Europe in the late 1820s. ...


Summary of views

Because Jesus Christ is a person, theologies regarding the Eucharist involve consideration of the way in which the communicant's personal relationship with God is fed through this mystical meal. However, debates over Eucharistic theology in the West have centered not on the personal aspects of Christ's presence but on the metaphysical. The opposing views are summarized below.

For more details on this topic, see Real Presence.
  • "Transubstantiation" — the substance (fundamental reality) of the bread and wine is transformed in a way beyond human comprehension into that of the Body, Blood, Soul, and Divinity of Christ, but the accidents (physical traits, including chemical properties) of the bread and wine remain; this view is that taught by the Roman Catholic Church and by the Eastern Orthodox Synod of Jerusalem, and is held by many Anglicans, especially in Anglo-Catholic circles.
  • "Consubstantiation" or "Impanation"— "the bread retains its substance and ... Christ’s glorified body comes down into the bread through the consecration and is found there together with the natural substance of the bread, without quantity but whole and complete in every part of the sacramental bread." It was the position of the medieval scholastic doctor Duns Scotus[47] It is erroneously used to denote the position of the Lutheran Church, although some Lutherans, Anglicans and non-Lutherans identify with this position.
  • "Sacramental union" — in the "use" of the sacrament, according to the words of Jesus Christ and by the power of his speaking of them once for all, the consecrated bread is united with his body and the consecrated wine with his blood for all communicants, whether believing or unbelieving, to eat and drink. This is the position of the Lutheran Church that echoes the next view with its "pious silence about technicalities" in that it objects to philosophical terms like "consubstantiation."
  • "Objective reality, but pious silence about technicalities" — the view of all the ancient Churches of the East, including the Eastern Orthodox, the Oriental Orthodox, the Eastern Catholic Churches) and the Assyrian Church of the East as well as perhaps most Anglicans and Lutherans. These, while agreeing with the Roman Catholic belief that the sacrament is not merely bread and wine but truly the body and blood of Christ, and having historically employed the "substance" and "accidents" terminology to explain what is changed in the transformation,[48] usually avoid this terminology, lest they seem to scrutize the technicalities of the manner in which the transformation occurs.
  • "Real Spiritual presence", also called "pneumatic presence", holds that not only the Spirit of Christ, but also the true body and blood of Jesus Christ (hence "real"), are received by the sovereign, mysterious, and miraculous power of the Holy Spirit (hence "spiritual"), but only by those partakers who have faith. This view approaches the "pious silence" view in its unwillingness to specify how the Holy Spirit makes Christ present, but positively excludes not just symbolism but also trans- and con-substantiation. It is also known as the "mystical presence" view, and is held by most Reformed Christians, such as Presbyterians, as well as some Methodists and some Anglicans, particularly Low Church Reformed Anglicans. See Westminster Confession of Faith, ch. 29. This understanding is often called "receptionism". Some argue that this view can be seen as being suggested — though not by any means clearly — by the "invocation" of the Anglican Rite as found in the American Book of Common Prayer, 1928 and earlier and in Rite I of the American BCP of 1979 as well as in other Anglican formularies:
And we most humbly beseech thee, O merciful Father, to hear us, and of thy almighty goodness, vouchsafe to bless and sanctify, with thy Word and Holy Spirit, these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine; that we, receiving them according to thy Son our Savior Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may be partakers of his most blessed body and blood.
  • "Symbolism" — the bread and wine are symbolic of the body and blood of Jesus Christ, and in partaking of the elements the believer commemorates the sacrificial death of Christ. This view is also known as "memorialism" and "Zwinglianism" after Ulrich Zwingli and is held by several Protestant and Latter-day Saint denominations, including most Baptists.
  • "Suspension" — the partaking of the bread and wine was not intended to be a perpetual ordinance, or was not to be taken as a religious rite or ceremony (also known as adeipnonism, meaning "no supper" or "no meal"). This is the view of Quakers and the Salvation Army, as well as the hyperdispensationalist positions of E. W. Bullinger, Cornelius R. Stam, and others.

The Real Presence is the term various Christian traditions use to express their belief that, in the Eucharist, Jesus the Christ is really (and not merely symbolically, figuratively or by his power) present in what was previously just bread and wine. ... Main article: Eucharist (Catholic Church) Transubstantiation (in Latin, transsubstantiatio) is the change of the substance of bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ occurring in the Eucharist according to the teaching of some Christian Churches, including the Roman Catholic Church. ... Substance theory, or substance attribute theory, is an ontological theory about objecthood, positing that a substance is distinct from its properties. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Accidental property. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... ... Consubstantiation is a theory which (like the competing theory of transubstantiation, with which it is often contrasted) attempts to describe the nature of the Christian Eucharist in terms of philosophical metaphysics. ... Impanation is a name employed to denote the union of the body of Christ with the bread of the Eucharist. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Blessed John Duns Scotus (c. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Sacramental Union (Latin, unio sacramentalis; German, sacramentlich Einigkeit) is the Lutheran theological view of the Real Presence of the body and blood of Christ in the Christian Eucharist. ... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Assyrian Church of the East... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... Low church is a term of distinction in the Church of England or other Anglican churches, initially designed to be pejorative. ... In Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, and Eastern-rite Catholic churches, and formerly in Latin-rite (i. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Huldrych (or Ulrich) Zwingli or Ulricus Zuinglius (January 1, 1484 – October 11, 1531) was the leader of the Protestant Reformation in Switzerland, and founder of the Swiss Reformed Churches. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... A Latter-day Saint is a member of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Quaker redirects here. ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Hyper-dispensationalism... Ethelbert William Bullinger (December 15, 1837 - June 6, 1913) was an ordained Anglican clergyman, Biblical scholar, and dispensationalist theologian. ...

Ritual and liturgy

Anglican

In many of the provinces and national jurisdictions of the Anglican Church, the Eucharist is designated as the principal service of the Church. The service for Holy Eucharist is found in the Book of Common Prayer for each national Church in the Anglican Communion. The Anglican Church holds the Eucharist as the highest form of worship, the Church's main service. Daily celebrations are now the case in most cathedrals and many parish churches, and there are few churches with a priest where Holy Communion is not celebrated at least once every Sunday. The nature of the ritual with which it is celebrated, however, varies according to the orientation of the individual parish, diocese or national Church. The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... The Anglican Communion is a world-wide organisation of Anglican Churches. ... For other uses, see Cathedral (disambiguation). ... Pope Pius XI blesses Bishop Stephen Alencastre as fifth Apostolic Vicar of the Hawaiian Islands in a Cathedral of Our Lady of Peace window. ...


See Book of Common Prayer and Ritualism. For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. ... In general, the term, Ritualism can be used to describe an outlook which places a great (or even exaggerated) emphasis on ritual. ...


Baptist

The bread and "fruit of the vine" indicated in Matthew, Mark and Luke as the elements of the Lord's Supper[49] are interpreted by Baptists as unleavened bread and, in line with their historical stance (since the mid-19th century) against partaking of alcoholic beverages, grape juice, which they commonly refer to simply as "the Cup".[50] Concord grapes being cooked down into grape juice for use in making jelly. ...


Eastern Christianity

Main article: Divine Liturgy

Among Eastern Christians, the Eucharistic service is called the Divine Liturgy. It comprises two main divisions: the first is the Liturgy of the Catechumens which consists of introductory litanies, antiphons and scripture readings, culminating in a reading from one of the Gospels and often, a sermon; the second is the Liturgy of the Faithful in which the Eucharist is offered, consecrated, and received as Holy Communion. Within the latter, the actual Eucharistic prayer is called the anaphora, literally: "offering" or "carrying up" (ἀνα- + φέρω). In the Byzantine Rite, two different anaphoras are currently used: one is attributed to St. John Chrysostom, and the other to St. Basil the Great. Among the Oriental Orthodox, a variety of anaphoras are used, but all are similar in structure to those of the Byzantine Rite. In the Byzantine Rite, the Anaphora of St. John Chrysostom is used most days of the year; St. Basil's is offered on the Sundays of Great Lent, the eves of Christmas and Theophany, Holy Thursday, Holy Saturday, and upon his feast day (January 1). At the conclusion of the Anaphora the bread and wine are held to be the Body and Blood of Christ. The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... For the genre of Christian-themed music, see gospel music. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... In the Eastern Christian liturgy, the anaphora is that part of the Liturgy having to do specifically with the consecration and offering of the Eucharist, as opposed to scripture readings, etc. ... This article refers to the Christian saint. ... Basil (ca. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Great Lent is the greatest fasting period in the church year in Eastern Christianity, which prepares Christians for the greatest feast of the church year, Easter (or Holy Pascha). Although it is in many ways similar to Lent in Western Christianity, there are important differences in the timing of Lent... For other uses, see Christmas (disambiguation). ... Look up theophany in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In the Christian calendar, Holy Thursday (also called Maundy Thursday) is the Thursday before Easter, the day on which the Last Supper is said to have occurred. ... Holy Saturday is the day before Easter in the Christian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Conventionally this change in the elements is understood to occur at the Epiklesis (Greek: "invocation") by which the Holy Spirit is invoked and the consecration of the bread and wine as the Body and Blood of Christ is specifically requested, but since the anaphora as a whole is considered a unitary (albeit lengthy) prayer, no one moment within it can be readily singled out. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      In mainstream...


Jehovah's Witnesses

Jehovah's Witnesses commemorate Christ's death as a ransom or propitiatory sacrifice by observing The Lord's Evening Meal, or Memorial, each year on Nisan 14 according to the ancient Jewish calendar. They believe that this is the only celebration commanded for Christians in the Bible. Of those who attend the Memorial a small minority worldwide will partake of the eating of the unleavened bread and the drinking of the wine. Quartodecimanism (fourteenism) was the practice of fixing the date of Easter (in the Bible called Pesach) to the 14th day of Nisan in the Bibles Hebrew Calendar which, according to the Gospels, was the time Jesus was crucified in Jerusalem. ...


Jehovah's Witnesses believe that144,000 people will receive heavenly salvation and thus spend eternity with God in heaven. They are called the "anointed" and are the only ones who should partake of the bread and wine. 144,000 is a positive whole integer between 100,000 and 200,000. ...


The celebration of the Memorial of Christ's Death proceeds as follows: In advance of the Memorial, Jehovah's Witnesses invite anyone that may be interested to attend this special night. The week of the Memorial is generally filled with special activity in the ministry, such as door-to-door work. A suitable hall, for example a Kingdom Hall, is prepared for the occasion. The Memorial begins with a song and a prayer. The prayer is followed by a discourse on the importance of the evening. A table is set with wine and unleavened bread. Jehovah's Witnesses believe the bread stands for Jesus Christ's body which he gave on behalf of mankind, and that the wine stands for his blood which redeems from sin. They do not believe in transubstantiation or consubstantiation. Hence, the wine and the bread are merely symbols (sometimes referred to as "emblems"), but they have a very deep and profound meaning for Jehovah's Witnesses. A prayer is offered and the bread is circulated among the audience. Only those who are "anointed" partake. Then another prayer is offered, and the wine is circulated in the same manner. After that, the evening concludes with a final song and prayer. Kingdom Hall is the name of meeting places for Jehovahs Witnesses. ...


It is common for the bread and wine to be passed in a local Kingdom Hall and have no partakers.


Latter Day Saint movement

In the Latter Day Saint movement (also known as Mormonism), the "Holy Sacrament of the Lord's Supper",[51] more simply referred to as the Sacrament, is held at the beginning of Sacrament meeting. The Sacrament, both bread and water, is prepared by priesthood holders prior to the beginning of the meeting. At the beginning of the Sacrament priests say individual prayers to bless the bread and water. The bread is passed first after the priests have broken slices of bread into small pieces. All in attendance are provided an opportunity to partake of the Sacrament as it is passed from row to row by priesthood holders. After all have who desire partake, the bread is returned to the priests, who then replace the bread trays and cover them, while uncovering the water held in trays. The priests then say the second prayer and the water is then passed in small individual cups, just as the bread was. The Latter Day Saint movement (a subset of Restorationism) is a group of religious denominations and adherents who follow at least some of the teachings and revelations of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ...


Lutheran

In the Lutheran Book of Concord, in the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, article 24, paragraph 1 it is asserted that among Lutherans in 1531 the eucharist was celebrated weekly: "In our churches Mass is celebrated every Sunday and on other festivals, when the sacrament is offered to those who wish for it after they have been examined and absolved." This was the Lutheran response to those who accused them of abolishing the eucharist. Strict adherence to this assertion varies in present day Lutheranism as does the manner of manner of sacramental practice. Some congregations celebrate the eucharist in formal rites similar to the Roman Catholic and "high" Anglican services. Other congregations may celebrate the sacrament outside of traditional liturgical worship services, such as during in-home meetings and services. Administration of the sacrament varies between congregations. The bread can be a thin wafer, or leavened or unleavened. The wine may be administered via a common cup (the "chalice"), or through individual cups that may be either prefilled or filled from the chalice during the distribution of the sacrament. Intinction is acceptable, but rarely used. Some congregations that use wine, make grape juice available for those who are abstaining from alcohol, and some will accommodate those with an allergy to wheat or grapes. Title Page from 1580 German Edition of the Book of Concord The Book of Concord or Concordia (1580) is the historic doctrinal standard of the Lutheran Church, consisting of ten credal documents recognized as authoritative in Lutheranism since the 16th century. ... The Apology of the Augsburg Confession was formulated by Philip Melanchthon as the response to the Roman Confutation against the Augsburg Confession. ...


Reformed/Presbyterian

In the Reformed Churches the Eucharist is variously administered. Acknowledging that the bread at the Passover celebration was almost certainly unleavened, some Churches use bread without any raising agent (whether leaven or yeast). The Presbyterian Church (USA), for instance, prescribes "bread common to the culture". The wine served might be true alcoholic red wine or grape juice, from either a chalice or from individual cups. Hearkening back to the regulative principle of worship, the Reformed tradition had long eschewed coming forward to receive communion, preferring to have the elements distributed throughout the congregation by the presbyters (elders) more in the style of a shared meal, but some Churches have reappropriated a High Church liturgy in the spirit of Philip Schaff's Mercersburg theology, which held ancient traditions of the Church in higher esteem than did much of the Reformed world. The elements may be found served separately with "consecration" for each element or together. Communion is usually open to all baptized believers, and although often it is reserved for those who are members in good standing of a Bible-believing Church, participation is left as a matter of conscience.-1... Leaven is a raising agent for bread. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Emblem of the PC(USA) The Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) or PC(USA) is a mainline Protestant Christian denomination in the United States. ... The regulative principle of worship is a Christian theological doctrine teaching that the public worship of God should include those and only those elements that are instituted, commanded, or appointed by command or example in the Bible; that God institutes in Scripture everything he requires for worship in the Church... Philip Schaff (January 1, 1819-1893), was a Swiss-born, German-educated theologian and a historian of the Christian church, who, after his education, lived and taught in the United States. ...


Roman Catholicism

See Mass (Catholic Church) for Catholic worship in the Latin Rite and Divine Liturgy for worship in the Eastern Catholic Churches. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For an explanation of the specific reforms of the Second Vatican Council, see Mass of Paul VI. For the Mass of the Council of Trent, see Tridentine Mass. ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The...

In the Latin Church, the administration of the Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation so that they understand the mystery of Christ according to their capacity and are able to receive the Body and Blood of Christ with appropriate faith and devotion.
In the Latin Church, the administration of the Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation so that they understand the mystery of Christ according to their capacity and are able to receive the Body and Blood of Christ with appropriate faith and devotion.

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Open and closed communion

Christian denominations differ in their understanding of whether they may receive the Eucharist with those with whom they are not in full communion. The famed apologist St. Justin Martyr (c. 150) wrote: "No one else is permitted to partake of it, except one who believes our teaching to be true...." For the first several hundred years, non-members were forbidden even to be present at the sacramental ritual; visitors and catechumens (those still undergoing instruction) were dismissed halfway through the Liturgy, after the Bible readings and sermon but before the Eucharistic rite. The Divine Liturgy of St. John Chrysostom, used in the Byzantine Churches, still has a formula of dismissal of catechumens (not usually followed by any action) at this point. The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Closed communion is the practice of restricting the serving of the elements of communion (also called Eucharist, The Lords Supper) to those who are members of a particular church, denomination, sect, or congregation. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... Saints redirects here. ... Justin Martyr (also Justin the Martyr, Justin of Caesarea, Justin the Philosopher) (100–165) was an early Christian apologist and saint. ... In ecclesiology, a catechumen (from Latin catechumenus, Greek κατηχουμενος, instructed) is one receiving instruction in the principles of the Christian religion with a view to baptism. ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ...


The ancient Churches, such as the Roman Catholic and the Eastern Orthodox exclude non-members from Communion under normal circumstances, though they may allow exceptions, e.g., for non-members in danger of death who share their faith in the reality of the Eucharist and who are unable to have access to a minister of their own religion. Many conservative Protestant communities also practice closed communion, including conservative Lutheran Churches like the Old Lutheran Church. The Landmark Baptist Churches also practices closed communion, as a symbol of exclusive membership and loyalty to the distinctive doctrines of their fellowship. Catholic Church redirects here. ... ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Old Lutheran Church an orthodox Lutheran Church holding to the teachings of the Unaltered Augsburg Confession (UAC). ... Though numerous churches and some organizations use the terms Landmark and Landmark Baptist in their name, there is no identifiable sub-group of Baptists known as the Landmark Baptist Church. ...


Most Protestant communities practice open communion, including some Anglican, Reformed, Evangelical, Methodist, and more-liberal Lutherans (such as the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America and the Church of Sweden). Some open communion communities adhere to a symbolic or spiritual understanding of the Eucharist, so that they have no fear of sacrilege against the literal body and blood of Christ if someone receives inappropriately. Others feel that Christ calls all of his children to his table, regardless of their denominational affiliation. Many Churches that practice open communion offer it only to baptized Christians (regardless of denomination), although this requirement is typically only enforced by the recipients' honesty. Some Progressive Christian congregations offer communion to any individual who wishes to commemorate the life and teachings of Christ, regardless of religious affiliation.[52] Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... The term Anglican describes those people and churches following the religious traditions of the Church of England, especially following the Reformation. ... The Reformed churches are a group of Protestant denominations historically related by a similar Zwinglian or Calvinist system of doctrine but organizationally independent. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Evangelicalism is a theological perspective in Protestant Christianity which identifies with the gospel. ... For other uses, see Methodism (disambiguation). ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America (ELCA) is a mainline Protestant denomination headquartered in Chicago, Illinois. ... Bishop Lennart Koskinen with some young people. ... Baptism is a water purification ritual practiced in certain religions such as Christianity, Mandaeanism, Sikhism, and some historic sects of Judaism. ...


The Eucharist and health issues

Roman Catholic Church

The Roman Catholic Church believes that the matter for the Eucharist must be wheaten bread and wine from grapes: it holds that, if the gluten has been entirely removed, the result is not true wheaten bread,[53] and that grape juice that has not begun even minimally to ferment cannot be accepted as wine. It allows in certain circumstances low-gluten bread and mustum (grape juice in which fermentation has begun but has been suspended without altering the nature of the juice).[54] Besides, except for the priest, those who participate in Mass may receive Holy Communion in the form of either bread alone or wine alone. For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ...


Other traditions

Alternatives to wine

Many churches allow alcoholic priests and communicants to take mustum instead of wine. Some churches offer grape juice in which fermentation has not even begun or water as an alternative to wine.[55] Jesus making wine in The Marriage at Cana, a 14th century fresco from the Visoki Dečani monastery. ... King Alcohol and his Prime Minister circa 1820 Alcoholism is the consumption of or preoccupation with alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the alcoholics normal personal, family, social, or work life. ...


Alternatives to wheaten bread

Main article: Celiac_disease#Social_and_religious_issues

With exception of the Roman Catholic Church, most[citation needed] mainline Christian churches offer their communicants gluten-free alternatives to wheaten bread, usually in the form of a rice-based cracker or gluten-free bread.[56] Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ...


Names by which the Eucharist is known

  • "The Lord's Supper", the term used in 1 Corinthians 11:20. "The Lord's Supper" is also a common term among Lutherans, as is "The Sacrament of the Altar". Other Churches and denominations also use the term, but generally not as their basic, routine term. The use is predominant among Baptist groups, who generally avoid using the term "Communion", due to its use (though in a more limited sense) by the Roman Catholic Church.
  • "The Breaking of Bread", a phrase that appears in the New Testament in contexts in which, according to some, it may refer to celebration of the Eucharist: Luke 24:35;Acts 2:42, 2:46, 20:7; 1 Corinthians 10:16.
  • "Communion" (from Latin communio, "sharing in common") or "Holy Communion",[57] used, with different meanings, by Catholics, Orthodox Christians, Anglicans, and many Protestants, including Lutherans. Catholics and Orthodox apply this term not to the Eucharistic rite as a whole, but only to the partaking of the consecrated bread and wine, and to these consecrated elements themselves. In their understanding, it is possible to participate in the celebration of the Eucharistic rite without necessarily "receiving Holy Communion" (partaking of the consecrated elements. Groups that originated in the Protestant Reformation usually apply this term instead to the whole rite. The meaning of the term "Communion" here is multivocal in that it also refers to the relationship of the participating Christians, as individuals or as Church, with God and with other Christians (see Communion (Christian)).
  • In Oriental Orthodoxy the terms "Oblation" (Syriac, Coptic and Armenian Churches) and "Consecration" (Ethiopian Church) are used. Likewise, in the Gaelic language of Ireland and Scotland the word "Aifreann", usually translated into English as "Mass", is derived from Late Latin "Offerendum", meaning "oblation", "offering".
  • The many other expressions used include "Table of the Lord" (cf. 1 Corinthians 10:16), the "Lord's Body" (cf. 1 Corinthians 11:29), "Holy of Holies".

Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... This box:      Anglicanism most commonly refers to the beliefs and practices of the Anglican Communion, a world-wide affiliation of Christian Churches, most of which have historical connections with the Church of England. ... The United Methodist Church is the largest Methodist denomination, and the second-largest Protestant one, in the United States. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Baptist is... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Reformation redirects here. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... For other uses of Mass, see Mass (disambiguation). ... The Latin Rite is one of the 23 sui iuris particular Churches within the Catholic Church. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... The terms Anglo-Catholic and Anglo-Catholicism describe people, groups, ideas, customs and practices within Anglicanism that emphasise continuity with Catholic tradition. ... Bishop Lennart Koskinen with some young people. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... The Tabernacle at St. ... For other uses, see The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (disambiguation). ... In Mormonism, the Sacrament is the Lords Supper, in which participants eat bread and drink wine (or water, in the case of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since the late 1800s). ... The Divine Liturgy is the common term for the Eucharistic service of the Byzantine tradition of Christian liturgy. ... The Byzantine Rite, sometimes called Constantinopolitan, is the liturgical rite used (in various languages) by all the Eastern Orthodox Churches and by several Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Athanasius · Augustine · Constantine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Calvin · Luther · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... The Goidelic languages (also sometimes called, particularly in colloquial situations, the Gaelic languages or collectively Gaelic) have historically been part of a dialect continuum stretching from the south of Ireland, the Isle of Man, to the north of Scotland. ...

See also

This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Eucharistic discipline is the term applied to the regulations and practices associated with an individual preparing for the reception of the Eucharist. ... A Eucharistic miracle is a miracle when, during consecration during the Catholic Mass, the bread and wine physically become the body and blood of Jesus Christ. ... Ecclesial communities contrasted in relation to Eucharistic theology: // Orthodox Christianity the Eucharistic mystery bears an objective, Real Presence, par excellence. ... Eucharistic theology treats doctrines of the Holy Eucharist. ... Eucharistic adoration is a practice in the Roman Catholic and in Anglican Churches, in which the Blessed Sacrament is exposed to and adored by the faithful. ... In the Roman Catholic Church, Holy Communion may be given to the faithful who wish to receive either during Mass (the Eucharist) or outside of Mass; this is called the administration of Holy Communion. ... Intinction is the Eucharistic practice of dipping the consecrated bread, or host, into the consecrated wine before distributing it to the communicant. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... For other uses, see Osiris (disambiguation). ... In Mormonism, the sacrament is the Lords Supper, in which participants eat bread and drink wine (or water, in the case of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints since the late 1800s). ... In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite that mediates divine grace, constituting a sacred mystery. ... Sacramental wine is wine prepared for use in Christian liturgy as part of the celebration of the Eucharist. ... Benedict XVI:The precious time of thanksgiving after communion should not be neglected. ... The Year of the Eucharist is the name of the liturgical year from October 2004 to October 2005, as celebrated by Catholics worldwide. ... The Fraction is the ceremonial act of breaking the bread during Communion in some Christian denominations. ... Marburg Colloquy, a colored woodcut, 1557 The Marburg Colloquy was a meeting which attempted to solve a dispute between Martin Luther and Huldrych Zwingli over the Real Presence of Christ in the Lords Supper. ... The First Communion (First Holy Communion) is a Roman Catholic ceremony. ... The Adoration of the Sacrament (1523) (German: Vom Anbeten des Sakraments des heiligen leichnams Christi) is Martin Luthers treatise, written to Bohemian Brethren to defend the adoration of the of the body and blood of Christ in the Eucharist. ... The Ubiquitarians, also called called Ubiquists, were a Protestant sect started at the Lutheran synod of Stuttgart, 19 December 1559, by John Brenz, a Swabian (1499-1570). ...

References

  1. ^ "a Christian sacrament commemorating the action of Jesus at his Last Supper with his disciples, when he gave them bread saying, 'This is my body', and wine saying, 'This is my blood' (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online
  2. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online
  3. ^ cf. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition 2000
  4. ^ (1 Corinthians 11:23-25
  5. ^ Tyndale Bible Dictionary / editors, Philip W. Comfort, Walter A. Elwell, 2001 ISBN 0-8423-7089-7, article, Corinthians, First Letter to the
  6. ^ a b c Harris, Stephen L., Understanding the Bible. Palo Alto: Mayfield. 1985.
  7. ^ For instance, Matthew Henry's Concise Commentary on the Bible, Adam Clarke's Commentary, Jamieson-Fausset-Brown, Commentary Critical and Explanatory on the Whole Bible Coffman Commentaries on the Old and New Testament; cf. Gerd Theissen. See, especially, A Andrew Das, 1 Corinthians 11:17-34 Revisited in Concordia Theological Quarterly, July 1998.
  8. ^ In the following instructions I do not commend you, because when you come together it is not for the better but for the worse. For, in the first place, when you assemble as a church, I hear that there are divisions among you; and I partly believe it, for there must be factions among you in order that those who are genuine among you may be recognized. When you meet together, it is not the Lord's supper that you eat. For in eating, each one goes ahead with his own meal, and one is hungry and another is drunk. What! Do you not have houses to eat and drink in? Or do you despise the church of God and humiliate those who have nothing? What shall I say to you? Shall I commend you in this? No, I will not. … For as often as you eat this bread and drink the cup, you proclaim the Lord's death until he comes. Whoever, therefore, eats the bread or drinks the cup of the Lord in an unworthy manner will be guilty of profaning the body and blood of the Lord. Let a man examine himself, and so eat of the bread and drink of the cup. For any one who eats and drinks without discerning the body eats and drinks judgment upon himself. That is why many of you are weak and ill, and some have died. But if we judged ourselves truly, we should not be judged. But when we are judged by the Lord, we are chastened so that we may not be condemned along with the world. So then, my brethren, when you come together to eat, wait for one another - if any one is hungry, let him eat at home - lest you come together to be condemned. (27-34&src=! 1 Corinthians 11:17-22, 27-34).
  9. ^ And as they were eating, he took bread, and blessed (εὐλογήσας - eulogēsas), and broke it, and gave it to them, and said, "Take; this is my body." And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks (εὐχαριστήσας - eucharistēsas) he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. And he said to them, "This is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many. Truly, I say to you, I shall not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God." Mark 14:22-25
  10. ^ Now as they were eating, Jesus took bread, and blessed (εὐλογήσας - eulogēsas), and broke it, and gave it to the disciples and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks (εὐχαριστήσας – eucharistēsas) he gave it to them, saying, "Drink of it, all of you; for this is my blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the forgiveness of sins. I tell you I shall not drink again of this fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new with you in my Father's kingdom." Matthew 26:26-29
  11. ^ They prepared the passover. And when the hour came, he sat at table, and the apostles with him. And he said to them, "I have earnestly desired to eat this passover with you before I suffer; for I tell you I shall not eat it until it is fulfilled in the kingdom of God." And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks (εὐχαριστήσας – eucharistēsas) he said, "Take this, and divide it among yourselves; for I tell you that from now on I shall not drink of the fruit of the vine until the kingdom of God comes." And he took bread, and when he had given thanks (εὐχαριστήσας – eucharistēsas) he broke it and gave it to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in remembrance of me." And likewise the cup after supper, saying, "This cup which is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. ..." Luke 22:13-20
  12. ^ Tyndale Bible Dictionary / editors, Philip W. Comfort, Walter A. Elwell, 2001 ISBN 0-8423-7089-7, article: "John, Gospel of
  13. ^ Bruce Metzger. The canon of the New Testament. 1997
  14. ^ "There are now two quite separate eucharistic celebrations given in Didache 9-10, with the earlier one now put in second place." Crossan. The historical Jesus. Citing Riggs, John W. 1984
  15. ^ 9.1 Concerning the thanksgiving (tēs eucharistias) give thanks thus: 9.2 First, concerning the cup: "We give thanks to you, our Father, For the holy vine of David your servant which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. To you be glory for ever." 9.3 And concerning the fragment: "We give thanks to you, our Father, For the life and knowledge, which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant." But let no one eat or drink of your Eucharist, unless they have been baptized into the name of the Lord; for concerning this also the Lord has said, "Give not that which is holy to the dogs." 10.1 After you have had your fill, give thanks thus: 10.2 We give thanks to you holy Father for your holy Name which you have made to dwell in our hearts and for the knowledge, faith and immortality which you have revealed to us through Jesus your servant. To you be glory for ever. 10.3 You Lord almighty have created everything for the sake of your Name; you have given human beings food and drink to partake with enjoyment so that they might give thanks; but to us you have given the grace of spiritual food and drink and of eternal life through Jesus your servant. 10.4 Above all we give you thanks because you are mighty. To you be glory for ever. 10.5 Remember Lord your Church, to preserve it from all evil and to make it perfect in your love. And, sanctified, gather it from the four winds into your kingdom which you have prepared for it. Because yours is the power and the glory for ever. ...
  16. ^ 14.1 But every Lord's day do ye gather yourselves together, and break bread, and give thanksgiving after having confessed your transgressions, that your sacrifice may be pure. 14.2. But let no one that is at variance with his fellow come together with you, until they be reconciled, that your sacrifice may not be profaned. 14.3. For this is that which was spoken by the Lord: In every place and time offer to me a pure sacrifice; for I am a great King, saith the Lord, and my name is wonderful among the nations.
  17. ^ " ... (t)he eucharist is the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which flesh suffered for our sins, and which in His loving-kindness the Father raised up. ... Let that eucharist alone be considered valid which is under the bishop or him to whom he commits it. ... It is not lawful apart from the bishop either to baptize, or to hold a love-feast. But whatsoever he approves, that also is well-pleasing to God, that everything which you do may be secure and valid." Letter to the Smyrnaeans, 6, 8 "Give heed to keep one Eucharist. For there is one flesh of our Lord Jesus Christ, and one cup unto union with His blood. There is one altar, as there is one bishop, together with the presbytery and deacons, my fellow-servants; that whatsoever you do, you may do according unto God."Letter to the Philadelphians, 4
  18. ^ There is then brought to the president of the brethren bread and a cup of wine mixed with water; and he taking them, gives praise and glory to the Father of the universe, through the name of the Son and of the Holy Ghost, and offers thanks at considerable length for our being counted worthy to receive these things at His hands. And when he has concluded the prayers and thanksgivings, all the people present express their assent by saying Amen. This word Amen answers in the Hebrew language to γένοιτο [so be it]. And when the president has given thanks, and all the people have expressed their assent, those who are called by us deacons give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine mixed with water over which the thanksgiving was pronounced, and to those who are absent they carry away a portion. And this food is called among us Εὐχαριστία [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Saviour, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh. For the apostles in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them; that Jesus took bread, and when He had given thanks, said, "This do ye in remembrance of Me, this is My body"; and that, after the same manner, having taken the cup and given thanks, He said, "This is My blood"; and gave it to them alone. Which the wicked devils have imitated in the mysteries of Mithras, commanding the same thing to be done. For, that bread and a cup of water are placed with certain incantations in the mystic rites of one who is being initiated, you either know or can learn. ... And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given. First Apology, 65-67]
  19. ^ Crossan, John Dominic, The Historical Jesus," pp 360-367
  20. ^ For example, Roman Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglo-Catholics, Old Catholics; and cf. the presentation of the Eucharist as a sacrament in the Baptism, Eucharist and Ministry document of the World Council of Churches
  21. ^ "Most Christian traditions also teach that Jesus is present in the Eucharist in some special way, though they disagree about the mode, the locus, and the time of that presence" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online).
  22. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1367; Council of Trent: Session XXII, chapter 2
  23. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1412; Code of Canon Law, canon 924; Code of Canons of the Eastern Churches, canon 705
  24. ^ Council of Trent, Session XIII, canon 3;Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1390; Catholic Encyclopedia, Communion under Both Kinds
  25. ^ The Roman Catholic Church gives no explanation whatever about how the change is affected, limiting itself to teaching what is changed: "the signs of bread and wine become, in a way surpassing understanding, the Body and Blood of Christ" (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1333, emphasis added).
  26. ^ [http://www.catecheticsonline.com/SourcesofDogma5.html Denzinger 416
  27. ^ [http://www.catecheticsonline.com/SourcesofDogma5.html Denzinger 430
  28. ^ [http://www.catecheticsonline.com/SourcesofDogma6.html Denzinger 544
  29. ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1378-1380, 1418
  30. ^ Ware pp. 283-285
  31. ^ For instance, "after the consecration of the bread and of the wine, there no longer remaineth the substance of the bread and of the wine, but the Body Itself and the Blood of the Lord, under the species and form of bread and wine; that is to say, under the accidents of the bread" (Chapter VI of Acts and Decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem).
  32. ^ Ware p. 287
  33. ^ Ware p. 279
  34. ^ Donne, John. Divine Poems — On the Sacrament, (Flesher's Edition) http://www.giga-usa.com/quotes/topics/doctrine_t001.htm
  35. ^ Cf., e.g., "Lift Up Your Hearts website": "But I like 'Holy Communion'; I actually prefer it, even over the now-almost-universally familiar 'Eucharist.' Why? 'Eucharist' (Greek for "Thanksgiving") suggests, to its credit, the aspect of joy too often missing (Lord knows!) in our so-called 'celebrations' of the Supper. But it's one-directional: it spells out nicely what we do: that is, give thanks. But the term 'Holy Communion' is multi-directional: me toward God, God toward me, me toward you, you toward me. 'Holy Communion,' that is, suggests a mutuality and a relationship lacking in the term 'Eucharist.'"
  36. ^ "But they openly testify that they are speaking of thanksgiving. Accordingly they call it a eucharist."
  37. ^ A Short Exposition of Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism, (St. Louis: CPH, 1912), 141, q. 320; A Short Explanation of Dr. Martin Luther's Small Catechism: A Handbook of Christian Doctrine, (St. Louis: CPH, 1943), 193.
  38. ^ The United Methodist Church: The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church — Article XVIII — Of the Lord's Supper
  39. ^ a b c d This Holy Mystery: Part Two. The United Methodist Church GBOD. Retrieved on 2007–07–10.
  40. ^ This Holy Mystery: Part One. The United Methodist Church GBOD. Retrieved on 2007–07–10.
  41. ^ The United Methodist Church: The Articles of Religion of the Methodist Church — Article XIX — Of Both Kinds
  42. ^ Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, book 4, chapter 17, points 10-11 [1].
  43. ^ Calvin, idem.
  44. ^ Calvin, idem.
  45. ^ Doctrine & Covenants 20:75-79 (see also Moroni 4:3, Moroni 5:2)
  46. ^ Doctrine & Covenants 27:2
  47. ^ Bengt Hägglund, History of Theology, Gene J. Lund, trans., (St. Louis: CPH, 1968), 194
  48. ^ "after the consecration of the bread and of the wine, there no longer remaineth the substance of the bread and of the wine, but the Body Itself and the Blood of the Lord, under the species and form of bread and wine; that is to say, under the accidents of the bread" (Confession of Dositheus, Synod of Jerusalem); "the word transubstantiation is not to be taken to define the manner in which the bread and wine are changed into the Body and Blood of the Lord; for this none can understand but God; but only thus much is signified, that the bread truly, really, and substantially becomes the very true Body of the Lord, and the wine the very Blood of the Lord" (The Longer Catechism of the Orthodox, Catholic, Eastern Church. Augsburg Confession of Lutheran Church); the Catechism of the Eastern Orthodox Church also uses the term transubstantiation.
  49. ^ Matthew 26:26–29, Mark 14:22–25, Luke 22:19
  50. ^ See, e.g., Graves, J. R. (1928). What is It to Eat and Drink Unworthily. Baptist Sunday School Committee. OCLC 6323560. 
  51. ^ See, e.g., Roberts, B. H. (1938). Comprehensive History of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Deseret News Press. OCLC 0842503005. 
  52. ^ In most United Church of Christ local churches, the Communion Table is "open to all Christians who wish to know the presence of Christ and to share in the community of God's people." (Book of Worship). Holy Communion: A Practice of Faith in the United Church of Christ
  53. ^ McNamara, Father Edward (2004-09-14). Gluten-free Hosts. ZENIT International News Agency. Retrieved on 2008-04-22.
  54. ^ A 24 July 2003 letter of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith details the circumstances in which low-gluten bread and mustum are permitted.
  55. ^ John Howard Spahr, I Smell the Cup, Christian Century, March 12, 1974, pp. 257-259.
  56. ^ Jax Peter Lowell, The Gluten-Free Bible, p. 279.
  57. ^ Many, especially Anglicans, prefer the fuller term "Holy Communion" rather than just "Communion".
  58. ^ Pope Benedict XVI (2006). Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. USCCB, 275. , and Catholic Church (200). Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1328–1332, Second Edition. ISBN 0–385–50819–0. 

For other uses, see The Last Supper (disambiguation). ... Stephen L Harris is Professor and Chair, Department of Humanities and Religious Studies at California State University, Sacramento. ... Bruce Metzger pictured on the cover of his autobiography Reminiscences of an Octogenarian Bruce Manning Metzger (born 1914) is a professor emeritus at Princeton Theological Seminary and Bible editor who serves on the board of the American Bible Society. ... The World Council of Churches (WCC) is an international Christian ecumenical organization. ... Institutes of the Christian Religion is John Calvins seminal work on Protestant theology. ... By far the most important of the many synods held at Jerusalem (see Wetzer and Welte, Kirchenlexikon, 2nd ed. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... The Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) was founded in 1967 and originally named the Ohio College Library Center. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) (Congregatio pro Doctrina Fidei) is the oldest of the nine congregations of the Roman Curia. ... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ...

Books

  • 1963 edition of The New Saint Joseph: First Communion Catechism, Baltimore Catechism
  • Anderson, S. E. The First Communion
  • Chemnitz, Martin. The Lord's Supper. J. A. O. Preus, trans. St. Louis: Concordia, 1979. ISBN 057003275X
  • Dix, Dom Gregory. The Shape of the Liturgy. London: Continuum International, 2005. ISBN 0826479421
  • Elert, Werner. Eucharist and Church Fellowship in the First Four Centuries. N. E. Nagel, trans. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1966. ISBN 0570042704
  • Felton, Gayle. This Holy Mystery. Nashville: Discipleship Resources, 2005. ISBN 088177457X
  • Father Gabriel. Divine Intimacy. Rockford, IL: Tan Books and Publishers, Inc., 1996 reprint ed. ISBN 0895555042
  • Grime, J. H. Close Communion and Baptists
  • Hahn, Scott. The Lamb's Supper — Mass as Heaven on Earth. Darton, Longman, Todd. 1999. ISBN 0232525005
  • Henke, Frederick Goodrich A Study in the Psychology of Ritualism. University of Chicago Press 1910
  • Jurgens, William A. The Faith of the Early Fathers. Collegeville, MN: The Liturgical Press, 1970. ISBN 0814604323
  • Kolb, Robert and Timothy J. Wengert, eds. The Book of Concord: The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church. Minneapolis: Fortress Press, 2000. (ISBN 0800627407)
  • Lefebvre, Gaspar. The Saint Andrew Daily Missal. Reprint. Great Falls, MT: St. Bonaventure Publications, Inc., 1999
  • Macy, Gary. The Banquet's Wisdom: A Short History of the Theologies of the Lord's Supper. (2005, ISBN 1878009508)
  • Magni, JA The Ethnological Background of the Eucharist — Clark University. American Journal of Religious Psychology and Education, IV (No. 1–2), March, 1910.
  • McBride, Alfred, O.Praem. Celebrating the Mass. Our Sunday Visitor, 1999.
  • Neal, Gregory. Grace Upon Grace 2000. ISBN 0967907403
  • Nevin, John Williamson. The Mystical Presence: A Vindication of the Reformed or Calvinistic Doctrine of the Holy Eucharist. 1846; Wipf & Stock reprint, 2000. ISBN 1579103480.
  • Oden, Thomas C. Corrective Love: The Power of Communion Discipline. St. Louis: Concordia Publishing House, 1995. ISBN 0570048036
  • Sasse, Hermann. This Is My Body: Luther's Contention for the Real Presence in the Sacrament of the Altar. Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock, 2001. ISBN 1579107664
  • Schmemann, Alexander. The Eucharist. St Vladimir's Seminary Press, 1997. ISBN 0881410187
  • Stoffer, Dale R. The Lord's Supper: Believers Church Perspectives
  • Stookey, L.H. Eucharist: Christ's Feast with the Church. Nashville: Abingdon, 1993 ISBN 0687120179
  • Tissot, The Very Rev. J. The Interior Life. 1916, pp. 347–9.
  • Wright, N. T. The Meal Jesus Gave Us
  • Christopher ( Christophorus, Christoph, Christophoro, Christophe ) Rasperger (Raspergero), Two hundred interpretations of the words: This is my Body, Ingolstadt, 1577 [3]Latin text
  • Latin title: Ducentae paucorum istorum et quidem clarissimorum Christi verborum: Hoc est Corpus meum; interpretationes, [4]
  • German title: Zweihundert Auslegungen der Worte das ist mein Leib [5]

Martin Chemnitz (1522-1586) was an eminent Lutheran theologian, churchman, and confessor, born in Treuenbrietzen, Brandenburg on November 9, 1522, the day before Martin Luther had been born in 1483. ... Scott Hahn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Book of Concord was published in 1580 and is a compilation of Lutheran beliefs. ... John Williamson Nevin (February 20, 1803 - June 6, 1886), American theologian and educationalist, was born on Herrons Branch, near Shippensburg, Franklin county, Pennsylvania. ... Dr. Thomas C. Oden Thomas Clark Oden (October 21, 1931 - ) is an American Christian theologian associated with Drew University in New Jersey. ... Hermann Sasse (1895-1976) was a German Lutheran theologian and author. ... Alexander Schmemann (13 May 1921 - 13 December 1983) was a prominent 20th century Orthodox Christian priest, theologian, and writer. ... Tom (N.T.) Wright, Bishop of Durham Tom (N.T.) Wright is the Bishop of Durham of the Anglican Church and a leading British New Testament scholar. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Eucharist
  • [6] — Network of Eucharistic Adoration
  • http://www.savior.org/ — Live Video Stream of the Eucharist
  • The Lord's Supper: What Is Its Scriptural Extent?
  • [7] — Eucharistic Miracles
  • http://www.revneal.org/onlinecommunion.html — Streaming Video of a United Methodist Celebration of the Holy Eucharist
  • Jewish Encyclopedia: Lord's Supper

Liturgical texts & services

  • The Ordinary of the Mass, Roman Rite according to current edition of the Roman Missal
  • The Ordinary of the Sacred Liturgy according to the Roman Missal of 1962
  • The Priest's Service Book Orthodox Divine Liturgy.
  • The Book of Common Prayer, used by the Episcopal Church (ECUSA). Contains the liturgy for the Eucharist and other rites.
  • Word and Table I, The Eucharistic Liturgy of The United Methodist Church.

History, theology, practice, etc.

  • Eucharist @ the Catholic Encyclopedia and @ the Catholic Dictionary
  • EWTN — The Holy Eucharist — Easy yet comprehensive website with Catholic Teaching on the Eucharist
  • Paragraph 1376 of the Catechism of the Catholic Church
  • Celebrating Eucharist — A contemporary online guide to Eucharistic practice starting from current Anglican rites
  • This Holy Mystery: A United Methodist Understanding of Holy Communion
  • The Duty of Constant Communion by John Wesley
  • Holy Communion as a Means of Grace by Gregory S. Neal
  • Online Holy Communion: Theological Reflections Regarding The Internet and The Means of Grace by Gregory S. Neal
  • Typology and the Real Presence of Jesus in Holy Communion by Gregory S. Neal
  • Christians and Alcohol by Hermano Cisco of babylonfalls.org. Considers the symbolism of the wine.
  • The Lord's Supper — by Ralph Waldo Emerson, rejecting the Lord's supper as a perpetual rite.
  • My Brethren — Studies — The Lord's Supper and the Service of God
  • A Baptist viewpoint
  • A Church of Christ viewpoint
  • A Mennonite viewpoint
  • A Reformed (Presbyterian) viewpoint
  • Pilgram Marpeck's defense of continuing to practice Lord's Supper (1531)
  • Scholarly articles on the Lord's Supper from the Wisconsin Lutheran Seminary Library

Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eucharist - LoveToKnow 1911 (9343 words)
Kneeling with a view to adoration of the elements was unheard of in the primitive church, and the Armenian Fathers of the 12th century insist that the sacrament was intended by Christ to be eaten and not gazed at (Nerses, op.
Eucharistic or any other liturgical vestments were unknown until late in the 5th century, when certain bishops were honoured with the same gallium worn by civil officials (see Vestments).
In the Latin and in the Monophysite churches of Armenia and Egypt unleavened bread is used in the Eucharist on the somewhat uncertain ground that the Last Supper was the Paschal meal.
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Eucharist (799 words)
Eucharistic Species, He might deliver Himself to His Church, who, as a tender mother, mystically cares for and nurtures in her own bosom this, her greatest treasure, and daily places it before her children as the spiritual food of their souls.
Eucharistic mystery does transcend reason, no rationalistic explanation of it, based on a merely natural hypothesis and seeking to comprehend one of the sublimest truths of the Christian religion as the spontaneous conclusion of logical processes, may be attempted by a Catholic theologian.
Eucharist has nothing at all in common with these pagan foods, whose origin is to be found in the crassest idol- and nature-worship.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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