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Encyclopedia > Eubacteria
?Bacterium
Escherichia coli
Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Subgroups

Actinobacteria
Aquificae
Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi
Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia
Chloroflexi
Chrysiogenetes
Cyanobacteria
Deferribacteres
Deinococcus-Thermus
Dictyoglomi
Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria
Firmicutes
Fusobacteria
Gemmatimonadetes
Nitrospirae
Planctomycetes
Proteobacteria
Spirochaetes
Thermodesulfobacteria
Thermomicrobia
Thermotogae Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x861, 165 KB)Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is how biologists group and categorize extinct and living species of organisms. ... Classes Actinobacteria The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Familia Aquificaceae Hydrogenothermaceae The Aquificae phylum is a diverse collection of bacteria that live in harsh environmental settings. ... Classes & orders Class Bacteroides    Bacteroidales Class Flavobacteria    Flavobacteriales Class Sphingobacteria    Sphingobacteriales The phylum Bacteroidetes is composed of three large groups of bacteria. ... Genera Chlorobium Ancalochloris Chloroherpeton Clathrochloris Pelodictyon Prostheochloris The green sulfur bacteria are a family (Chlorobiaceae) of phototrophic bacteria. ... Genera Chlamydia Chlamydophila Parachlamydia Simkania Waddlia The Chlamydiae are a group of bacteria, all of which are intracellular parasites of eukaryotic cells. ... Genera Verrucomicrobium Prosthecobacter Akkermansia Verrucomicrobia is a recently described phylum of bacteria. ... Orders / Families / Genera Order Chloroflexales     Family Chloroflexaceae      Chloroflexus      Chloronema      Heliothrix      Roseiflexus    Family Oscillochloridaceae      Oscillochloris Order Herpetosiphonales      Herpetosiphon The Chloroflexi are a group of bacteria that produce energy through photosynthesis. ... Binomial name Chrysiogenes arsenatis Chrysiogenes arsenatis is a species of bacterium given its own phylum or division, called the Chrysiogenetes. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... Genera Deferribacter Denitrovibrio Flexistipes Geovibrio The Deferribacteraceae are a family of bacteria, given their own phylum (Deferribacteres). ... Orders & Genera Deinococcales     Deinococcus Thermales     Thermus     Meiothermus     Marinithermus     Oceanithermus     Vulcanithermus The Deinococcus-Thermus are a small group of bacteria comprised of cocci highly resistant to environmental hazards. ... Binomial name Dictyoglomus thermophilum Dictyoglomus thermophilum is a species of bacterium, given its own phylum, called the Dictyoglomi. ... Fibrobacteres is a phylum of bacteria. ... Genera Acidobacterium Geothrix Holophaga Acidobacteria form a newly devised division of Bacteria. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive stains. ... Fusobacteria contribute to several diseases, including periodontal diseases, Lemierres syndrome, and tropical skin ulcers. ... Genera Gemmata Isosphera Pirellula Planctomyces Planctomycetes are an order of obligately aerobic aquatic bacteria and are found in field samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water samples. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema The spirochaetes (or spirochetes) are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... Genera Desulfotalea Desulfovirga Thermodesulfobacterium The Thermodesulfobacteria are a small group of thermophilic sulfate-reducing bacteria. ... Classes Thermomicrobia phylum is a phenotype of the green non-sulfur bacteria. ... Species Thermotoga elfii Thermotoga hypogea Thermotoga lettingae Thermotoga maritima Thermotoga naphthophila Thermotoga neapolitana Thermotoga petrophila Thermotoga subterranea Thermotoga thermarum Thermotoga are thermophile or hyperthermophile bacteria whose cell is wrapped in an outer toga membrane. ...

Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are microscopic, unicellular organisms. They are often coccus- (spherical) or rod-shaped and 0.5-5 µm in the longest dimension, although the wide diversity of bacteria can display a huge variety of morphologies. The study of bacteria is known as bacteriology, a branch of microbiology. Microbiology (in Greek micron = small and biologia = studying life) is the study of microorganisms, including unicellular (single-celled) eukaryotes and prokaryotes, fungi, and viruses. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


Bacteria are ubiquitous in the environment, living in every possible habitat on the planet including, but by no means limited to, soil, underwater, deep in the earth's crust, and even such environments as sulfuric acid and nuclear waste. There are typically ten billion bacterial cells in a gram of soil, and one hundred thousand bacterial cells in a millilitre of sea water. Bacteria play an important role in the cycling of nutrients in the environment, and many important steps in the nutrient cycle are catalysed exclusively by bacteria, such as the fixation of nitrogen from the atmosphere. Habitat (from the Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species lives and grows. ... A cycle by which chemical substance are constantly being recycled through the biosphere from the soil, as plant nutrients, to producers (plants), to consumers (animals), to decomposers in the soil, and then back to the producers. ...


There are more bacterial cells on each of our bodies than there are cells of our own and bacteria are a natural component of the human body, particularly on the skin and in the mouth and intestinal tract. Bacteria are important to human health, as they are the causative agent of many infectious diseases, including cholera and tuberculosis. Historically, bacteria have been responsible for such diseases as bubonic plague and leprosy, but after the discovery of antibiotics many bacterial diseases are able to be controlled. Cholera (also called eat crap) is a water-borne disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


Bacteria are also important to numerous industrial processes, such as wastewater treatment and more recently the industrial production of antibiotics and other chemicals. Sewage treatment is the process that removes the majority of the contaminants from waste-water or sewage and produces both a liquid effluent suitable for disposal to the natural environment and a sludge. ...


The term "bacteria" has traditionally been generally applied to all microscopic, single-celled prokaryotes. Although this term remains in everyday use, the scientific nomenclature changed after the discovery that prokaryotic life actually consists of two very different lines of evolution (see three-domain system). Originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria, these evolutionary domains are now called Bacteria and Archaea. In 1832, while travelling on the Voyage of the Beagle, naturalist Charles Darwin collected giant fossils in South America. ... The three-domain system is a biological classification introduced by Carl Woese in 1990 that emphasizes his separation of prokaryotes into two groups, originally called Eubacteria and Archaebacteria. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota Archaea (; from Greek αρχαία, old ones; singular Archaeum, Archaean, or Archaeon), also called Archaebacteria (), is a major division of living organisms. ...

Contents

History

The first bacteria were observed by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1674 using a single-lens microscope of his own design. The name bacterium was introduced much later, by Ehrenberg in 1828, derived from the Greek word βακτηριον meaning "small stick". Because of the difficulty in describing individual bacteria and the importance of their discovery to fields such as medicine, biochemistry, and geochemistry, the history of bacteriology is generally described as the history of microbiology. Anton van Leeuwenhoek Anton van Leeuwenhoek (October 24, 1632 - August 30, 1723, full name Thonius Philips van Leeuwenhoek (pronounced Layewenhook) was a Dutch tradesman and scientist from Delft, Netherlands. ... A microscope (Greek: micron = small and scopos = aim) is an instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye. ... Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg (April 19, 1795 – June 27, 1876), German naturalist, zoologist, comparative anatomist and microscopist, was one of the most famous and productive scientists of his time. ... The Greek language (Greek Ελληνικά, IPA // – Hellenic) is an Indo-European language with a documented history of some 3,000 years. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ...


Cell Structure

Bacteria display a large diversity of cell morphologies and arrangements
Bacteria display a large diversity of cell morphologies and arrangements

Bacteria, despite their apparent simplicity contain a well developed cell structure which is resonsible for many of their unique biological properties. ... Image File history File links Bacterial_morphology_diagram. ... Image File history File links Bacterial_morphology_diagram. ...

Cell Morphology and Arrangement

Bacteria display a wide diversity of shapes and sizes, called morphologies. Bacterial cells are typically 0.5-5 μm in length, however some species, for example Thiomargarita namibiensis and Epulopiscium fishelsoni, may be up to 500 µm (0.5 mm) long and are visible to the unaided eye. Among the smallest bacteria are members of the genus Mycoplasma which measure just 0.2 µm; approximately the same size as the largest viruses. A micrometre (American spelling: micrometer, symbol µm) is an SI unit of length. ... Binomial name Thiomargarita namibiensis Schulz , 1999 Thiomargarita namibiensis (Sulfur pearl of Namibia) is the largest bacterium ever discovered, with a width up to 750 μm (0. ... Binomial name Epulopiscium fischelsoni Schulz , 1999 Epulopiscium fishelsoni is a giant rod-shaped bacterium, about 80 μm in diameter and between 200 and 700 μm in length, making it one of the largest bacteria. ... Species M. genitalium M. hominis M. pneumoniae etc. ... Stop editing pages god ...


Despite this diversity, each bacterial species tends to display a characteristic morphology. Most bacteria are either spherical, called coccus (pl. cocci, from Greek kókkos, grain, seed) or rod-shaped, called bacillus (pl. baccili, from Latin baculus, stick). Some rod-shaped bacteria, called vibrio, are slightly curved or comma-shaped, while others, called spirilla, form twisted spirals. Staphylococcus Cocci (singular - coccus, from the latin word kokkus meaning a berry) are any spherical or near spherical bacteria. ...


Many bacterial species exist simply as single cells, while others tend to associate in diploids (pairs), characteristic for example Neisseria, or chains, such as Streptococcus, while members of the genus Staphylococcus, form a characteristic "bunch of grapes" clusters. Bacteria can also be elongated to form filaments, for example the Actinomycetes. Filamentous bacteria are often surrounded by a sheath which contains many individual cells, and certain species, such as the genus Nocardia, form complex, branched filaments, similar in appearance to fungal mycelia. Neisseria is a genus of bacteria, included among the proteobacteria, a large group of gram-negative forms. ... Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of gram-positive bacteria. ... Actinomycetales, commonly referred to as Actinomycetes, is an order of bacteria in the class Actinobacteria. ... Nocardia is a partially acid-fast organism. ... Mycelium is the vegetative part of a fungus consisting of a mass of branching threadlike hyphae that exists below the ground or within another substrate. ...


Despite their apparent simplicity bacteria can also form more complex associations.


Bacteria also attach to surfaces and form dense aggregations or biofilms. Bacteria living in biofilms can display a complex arrangement cells, forming secondary structures such as microcolonies, through which there are networks of channels to enable better diffusion of nutrients. In natural environments a majority of bacteria are found associated with surfaces in biofilms. Longest raised mat area is about half a meter long. ...


Under nutrient starvation, Myxobacteria aggregate and form multicellular fruiting bodies which can be up to 500 µm long and contain in the order of 100,000 cells. Cells in these fruiting bodies differentiate into a dormant state to become myxospores, which are more resistant to desiccation and other adverse environmental conditions than the ordinary cells. Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ...


Certain bacteria form close spatial associations that are essential for their survival. One such association, called interspecies hydrogen transfer, occurs between clusters of anaerobic bacteria that consume organic acids and produce hydrogen, and methanogenic Archaea that consume hydrogen. These bacteria are unable to consume the organic acids and grow when all but the smallest concentration of hydrogen is present in their surroundings. Only the intimate spatial association with the hydrogen-consuming Archaea can keep the hydrogen concentration low enough to enable them to grow. An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... Methanogens are Archaea that produce methane as a metabolic by-product. ...


In some instances bacteria have become so closely associated with another cell that they actually inside another cell. Such intracellular symbioses are the origin of the mitochondria and chloroplasts, which are descended from bacteria that entered into symbiotic associations with eukaryotic cells early in the evolution of life. Chlamydia are a phylum of bacteria that have evolved such that they can grow and reproduce only as symbionts in the cells of other organisms. Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae which conduct photosynthesis. ... Chlamydia is a common term for infection with any bacteria belonging to the phylum Chlamydiae. ...


Cellular structure

Diagram of the cellular structure of a typical bacterial cell
Diagram of the cellular structure of a typical bacterial cell

The bacterial cell is bound by a lipid membrane, or plasma membrane, which encompasses the contents of the cell, or cytoplasm, and acts as a barrier that holds nutrients, proteins and other essential molecules within the cell. Bacteria do not have membrane-bound organelles in the cytoplasm and thus contain few intracellular structures (see prokaryotes). They lack mitochondria, chloroplasts and the other organelles present in eukaryotic cells, such as the golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum. Image File history File links Prokaryote_cell_diagram. ... Image File history File links Prokaryote_cell_diagram. ... Lipids are a class of hydrocarbon-containing organic compounds. ... Drawing of a cell membrane A component of every biological cell, the cell membrane (or plasma membrane) is a thin and structured bilayer of phospholipid and protein molecules that envelopes the cell. ... Organelles. ... In cell biology, an organelle is one of several structures with specialized functions, suspended in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell. ... Prokaryotes are unicellular (in rare cases, multicellular) organisms without a nucleus. ... Diagram of the endomembrane system in a typical eukaryote cell Micrograph of Golgi apparatus, visible as a stack of semicircular black rings near the bottom. ... The endoplasmic reticulum (endoplasmic meaning within the cytoplasm, reticulum meaning little net in Latin) or ER is an organelle found in all eukaryotic cells that is an interconnected network of tubules, vesicles and cisternae that is responsible for several specialized functions: Protein translation, folding, and transport (e. ...


Many important biochemical reactions, such as energy generation, occur due to concentration gradients of certain molecules across membranes that create a potential difference, analogous to a battery. The absence of internal membranes in bacteria means that these reactions, such as electron transport occur across the plasma membrane, between the cytoplasm and the periplasmic space. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Electron Transport Chain. ...


Bacteria do not have a membrane-bound nucleus and their genetic material is typically a single chromosome located in the cytoplasm as an irregularly-shaped body called the nucleoid. The nucleoid consists mainly of the chromosome but has also associated proteins and RNA. Like all living organisms bacteria contain ribosomes for the production of proteins, but the structure of the ribosome is uniquely different from Eukarya and Archaea. The order Planctomycetes are an exception to the general absence of internal membranes in bacteria. This lineage of bacteria have a membrane bound nucleoid and other membrane-bound structures that give them unique capabilities. Nucleus usually refers to the center of something, but can mean: In science: Atomic nucleus, the collection of protons and neutrons in the center of an atom that carries the bulk of the atoms mass and positive charge Cell nucleus, the membrane-bound subcellular organelle found in eukaryotes, visible... In prokaryotes, the nucleoid (meaning nucleus-like and also known as the nuclear region, nuclear body or chromatin body) is an irregularly shaped region within the cell where the genetic material is localised. ... Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a nucleic acid polymer consisting of nucleotide monomers. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Kingdoms Eukaryotes are organisms with complex cells, in which the genetic material is organized into membrane-bound nuclei. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota Archaea (; from Greek αρχαία, old ones; singular Archaeum, Archaean, or Archaeon), also called Archaebacteria (), is a major division of living organisms. ... Genera Gemmata Isosphera Pirellula Planctomyces Planctomycetes are an order of obligately aerobic aquatic bacteria and are found in field samples of brackish, and marine and fresh water samples. ...


External to the cell membrane is the bacterial cell wall. Bacterial cell walls are composed of peptidoglycan (called Murein in older sources), are are thus different from the cell walls of plants and fungi which have cell walls of cellulose and chitin, respectively. The cell wall of bacteria is also distinct from that of Archaea, which do not contain peptidoglycan. The cell wall is essential to the survival of bacteria; the antibiotic penicillin is able to effectively kill bacteria by inhibiting a step in the synthesis of peptidoglycan and stopping the production of the cell wall. A cell wall is a fairly rigid layer surrounding a cell located outside of the plasma membrane that provides additional support and protection. ... Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a substance that forms a homogeneous layer lying outside the plasma membrane in bacteria. ... u fuck in ua ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ... Structure of chitin molecule Chitin (IPA: ) is one of the main components in the cell walls of fungi, the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods, and in some other animals. ... Penicillin nucleus Penicillin (sometimes abbreviated PCN) refers to a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ...


There are broadly speaking two different arrangements of the cell wall in bacteria, called Gram positive and Gram negative. The names originate from the reaction of cells to the Gram stain, a test long employed for the laboratory classification of bacterial species. Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to Gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Gram-negative bacteria are those that do not retain crystal violet dye in the Gram staining protocol. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ...


Gram positive bacteria possess a thick cell wall containing many layers of peptidoglycan and teichoic acids. In contrast, Gram negative bacteria have a relatively thin cell wall consisting of a few layers of peptidoglycan surrounded by an outer lipid membrane containing lipopolysaccharides and lipoproteins. Most bacteria have the Gram negative cell wall; only organisms from the Phyla Firmicutes and Actinobacteria (previously known as the low G+C and high G+C Gram positive bacteria, respectively) have the other arrangement. Teichoic acids are polymers of glycerol or ribitol linked via phosphodiester bonds. ... Classes Bacilli Clostridia Mollicutes The Firmicutes are a division of bacteria, most of which have Gram-positive stains. ... Classes Actinobacteria The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ...


Flagella are rigid protein structures, about 20 nm in diameter and up to 20 µm in length, that are used for motility (see Motility, below). Bacterial species differ in the number and arrangement of flagella on their surface; some have a single flagellum (monotrichous), a flagellum at each end (amphitrichous), clusters of flagella at the poles of the cell (lophotrichous), while others have flagella distributed over the entire surface of the cell (peritrichous). A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... NM may stand for: Neurofiber Mitosis, a nerve disease, sometimes confused with Neurofibromatosis nm (Unix), a computer program Nautical mile (nm) New Mexico (NM) Newton metre (N m or N·m), a unit of moment Nanometre (nm, 10-9 m), a thousand-millionth of a metre Never mind or not...


Fimbriae are fine appendages of protein, just 2-10 nm in diameter and up to several micrometers in length. They are distributed over the surface of the cell and resemble fine hairs when the cells are visualised under the electron microscope. Fimbriae are believed to be involved in attachment to solid surfaces or to other cells. Pili (sing. pilus) are cellular appendages, slightly larger than fimbriae, that enable the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells, called conjugation (see Bacterial Genetics, below). A fimbria (plural fimbriae) is an appendage in many gram-negative bacteria that is thinner than a flagellum. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Image of bacteriological pili or fimbriae A pilus (Latin; plural : pili) is a hairlike structure on the surface of a cell, especially Gram-negative bacteria, a protein appendage required for bacterial conjugation. ... Bacterial conjugation is the often regarded as the bacterial equivalent of sexual reproduction or mating; however it is not actually sexual as it does not involve the fusing of gametes and the creation of a zygote, it is merely the exchange of genetic information. ...


Capsules or slime layers are produced by many bacteria to surround their cells and have differing degrees of structural complexity; from disorganised slime layers of extra-cellular polymer to the highly structured capsule or glycocalyx. These structures can protect cells from environmental conditions such as predation by eukaryotic cells, they can act as antigens and be involved in cell recognition, they can resit the infection of bacterial cells by viruses and they can also play a role in bacterial attachment to surfaces and biofilm formation. The term capsule in microbiology refers to a layer that lies outside the cell wall of bacteria. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Glycocalix. ...


Certain genera of gram-positive bacteria bacteria, such as Bacillus and Clostridium, are capable of forming highly resistant dormant structures called endospores. Endospores have a distinct structure which is different from plant and fungal spores. Endospores can survive extreme environmental and chemical stresses. When we step on a rusty nail, for example, we receive an immunization shot for tetanus. This disease is caused by infection of the bacterium Clostridium tetani, which produce endospores which can survive in the environment on surfaces, like rusty nails, and cause infection to wounds when the skin surface is pierced and the endospores can enter and germinate. Species Bacillus anthracis Bacillus cereus Bacillus coagulans Bacillus natto Bacillus subtilis Bacillus thuringiensis etc. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... The term spore has several different meanings in biology. ... Immunization, or immunisation, is the process by which an individual is exposed to an agent that is designed to fortify his or her immune system against that agent. ... Tetanus is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin which is produced by the Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. ...


Some bacteria also produce nutrient storage granules, such as glycogen, polyphosphate, sulfur or polyhydroxyalkanoates. These storage compounds enable bacteria to store compounds for later use. Certain bacterial species, such as the photosynthetic Cyanobacteria, produce internal gas vesicles which they use to regulate their buoyancy to regulate the optimal light intensity or nutrient levels. Electron micrograph of a section of a liver cell showing glycogen deposits as accumulations of electron dense particles (arrows). ... Polyphosphates are phosphate polymers linked between hydroxyl groups and hydrogen atoms. ... Polyhydroxyalkanoates or PHAs are linear polyesters produced in nature by bacterial fermentation of sugar or lipids. ... The leaf is the primary site of photosynthesis in plants. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ...


Metabolism

Main article: Microbial metabolism Microbial metabolism is the means by which a microbe obtains energy and the nutrients (e. ...


In contrast to higher organisms, bacteria exhibit an extremely wide variety of metabolic types. In fact, it is widely accepted that eukaryotic metabolism is largely a derivative of bacterial metabolism with mitochondria having descended from a lineage within the α-Proteobacteria and chloroplasts from the Cyanobacteria by ancient endosymbiotic events. Kingdoms Animalia - Animals Fungi Plantae - Plants Protista An eukaryote (yoo-KAR-ee-ot) is an organism with a complex cell or cells, in which the genetic material is organized into a membrane-bound nucleus or nuclei. ... In cell biology, a mitochondrion is an organelle found in the cells of most eukaryotes. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Chloroplasts are organelles found in plant cells and eukaryotic algae that conduct photosynthesis. ... Orders The taxonomy of the Cyanobacteria is currently under revision. ... The endosymbiotic theory, now generally accepted by biologists, concerns the origins of mitochondria and plastids (e. ...


Bacterial metabolism can be divided broadly on the basis of the kind of energy used for growth, electron donors and electron acceptors and by the source of carbon used. Most bacteria are heterotrophic; using organic carbon compounds as both carbon and energy sources. In aerobic organisms, oxygen is used as the terminal electron acceptor. In anaerobic organisms other inorganic compounds, such as nitrate, sulfate or carbon dioxide as terminal electron acceptors leading to the environmentally important processes of denitrification, sulfate reduction and acetogenesis, respectively. Non-respiratory anaerobes use fermentation to generate energy and reducing power, secreting metabolic by-products (such as ethanol in brewing) as waste. Facultative anaerobes can switch between fermentation and different terminal electron acceptors depending on the environmental conditions in which they find themselves. As an alternative to heterotrophy many bacteria are autotrophic, fixing carbon dioxide into cell mass. An electron donor is a compound that gives up or donates an electron during cellular respiration, resulting in the release of energy. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrtion) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... Benzene An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon. ... An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... An electrostatic potential map of the nitrate ion. ... In inorganic chemistry, a sulfate (IUPAC-recommended spelling; also sulphate in British English) is a salt of sulfuric acid. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ... Denitrification is the process of reducing nitrate, a form of nitrogen available for consumption by many groups of organisms, into gaseous nitrogen, which is far less accessible to life forms but makes up the bulk of our atmosphere. ... Acetogenesis is a process through which acetate is produced by anaerobic bacteria from a variety of energy (for example, hydrogen) and carbon (for example, carbon dioxide) sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Anaerobic respiration. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, mildly toxic chemical compound with a distinctive perfume-like odor, and is the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... A facultative anaerobe is an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ... Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype A heterotroph (Greek heterone = (an)other and trophe = nutrtion) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ... An autotroph (in Greek eauton = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces its own cell mass and organic compounds from carbon dioxide as sole carbon source, using either light or chemical compounds as a source of energy. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ...


Energy metabolism of bacteria is either based on phototrophy or chemotrophy, i. e. the use of either light or exergonic chemical reactions for fueling life processes. Lithotrophic bacteria use inorganic electron donors for respiration (chemolithotrophs) or biosynthesis and carbon dioxide fixation (photolithotrophs), opposed by organotrophs which need organic compounds as electron donors for biosynthetic reactions (and mostly as well as carbon sources). Common inorganic electron donors are hydrogen, carbon monoxide, ammonia (leading to nitrification), ferrous iron, other reduced metal ions or even elemental iron and several reduced sulfur compounds. Additionally, methane metabolism, although formally counted as organotrophic, is actually more related to lithotrophic metabolic pathways. In both aerobic phototrophy and chemolithotrophy oxygen is used as a terminal electron acceptor, while under anaerobic conditions inorganic compounds (see above) are used instead. Most photolithotrophic and chemolithotrophic organisms are autotrophic, meaning that they obtain cellular carbon by fixation of carbon dioxide, whereas photoorganotrophic and chemoorganotrophic organisms are heterotrophic. Phototrophs or photoautotrophs are photosynthetic algae, fungi, bacteria and cyanobacteria which build up carbon dioxide and water into organic cell materials using energy from sunlight. ... Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain food (and therefore energy) from breaking down chemicals in their environments. ... A lithotroph is a microorganism which uses an inorganic substrate to synthesize all its organic molecules. ... An electron donor is a compound that gives up or donates an electron during cellular respiration, resulting in the release of energy. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An electron donor is a compound that gives up or donates an electron during cellular respiration, resulting in the release of energy. ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ... Carbon monoxide,with the chemical formula CO, is a colourless, odourless and tasteless gas. ... Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3. ... Nitrogen cycle Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite followed by the oxidation of these nitrites into nitrates. ... Iron(II) oxide, also known as ferrous oxide or ferrous iron, is one of the iron oxides. ... General Name, Symbol, Number sulfur, S, 16 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 16, 3, p Appearance lemon yellow Atomic mass 32. ... The simplest hydrocarbon, methane, is a gas (at standard temperature and pressure, STP) with a chemical formula of CH4. ... An aerobic organism or aerobe is an organism that has an oxygen based metabolism. ... Phototrophs or photoautotrophs are photosynthetic algae, fungi, bacteria and cyanobacteria which build up carbon dioxide and water into organic cell materials using energy from sunlight. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series Nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Atomic mass 15. ... An electron acceptor is a chemical entity that accepts electrons transferred to it from another compound. ... An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Green (from chlorophyll) fronds of a maidenhair fern: a photoautotroph Flowchart to determine if a species is autotroph, heterotroph, or a subtype An autotroph (from the Greek autos = self and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that produces organic compounds from carbon dioxide as a carbon source, using either light or... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of one carbon and two oxygen atoms. ... Chemoorganotrophs utilize organic compounds as their energy source. ... A heterotroph (Greek heteron = (an)other and trophe = nutrition) is an organism that requires organic substrates to get its carbon for growth and development. ...


In addition to carbon, some organisms also fix nitrogen gas (nitrogen fixation). This environmentally important trait can be found in bacteria of nearly all the metabolic types listed above but is not universal. General Name, Symbol, Number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless Atomic mass 14. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide). ...


The distribution of metabolic traits within a group of organisms has traditionally been used to define their taxonomy, although these traits often do not correspond with genetic techniques (see groups and identification below). Look up taxonomy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Growth and reproduction

All bacteria reproduce through asexual reproduction (one parent) binary fission, which results in cell division. Two identical clone daughter cells are produced. Some bacteria, while still reproducing asexually, form more complex reproductive structures that facilitate the dispersal of the newly-formed daughter cells. Examples include fruiting body formation by Myxococcus and arial hyphae formation by Streptomyces, or budding. Budding is resulted of a 'bud' of a cell growing from another cell, and then finally breaking away. Asexual reproduction in liverworts: a caducuous phylloid germinating Asexual reproduction (also known as agamogenesis) is a form of reproduction which does not involve meiosis, gamete formation, or fertilization. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... In genetics, a clone is a replica of all or part of a macromolecule (eg. ... Hyphae as seen under a log A hypha (plural hyphae) is a long, branching filament found primarily in fungi, but also in fungus-like bacteria such as Actinomyces and Streptomyces. ... Streptomyces is a genus of Actinobacteria. ... Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ...

Solid agar plate with bacterial colonies
Solid agar plate with bacterial colonies

In the laboratory, bacteria are usually grown using two methods, solid and liquid. Solid growth media such as agar plates are used to isolate pure cultures of a bacterial strain. When quantitation of growth or large volumes of cells are required liquid growth media are generally used. Growth in liquid media, with stirring, most often occurs as an even cell suspension making the cultures easier to divide and transfer compared to solid media, although the isolation of individual cells from liquid media is extremely difficult. In both liquid and solid media there exist a finite amount of nutrients, which allows for the study of the bacterial cell cycle. These limitations can be avoided by the use of a chemostat, which maintains a bacterial culture under steady-state conditions by the continuous addition of nutrients and the removal of waste products and cells. Large chemostats are often used for industrial-scale microbial processes. Image File history File links An agar plate with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... Image File history File links An agar plate with microorganisms isolated from a deep-water sponge. ... An agar plate is a sterile Petri dish that contains agar plus nutrients, and is used to culture bacteria or fungi. ... Bacterial growth is process in which two clone daughter cells are produced by the cell division of one bacterium. ... A chemostat is a device used in microbiology for growing and harvesting bacteria. ... A chemostat is a device used in microbiology for growing and harvesting bacteria. ...


Most techniques commonly used to grow bacteria are designed to optimise the amount of cells produced, the amount of time needed to produce them, and the cost to produce them. In a bacterium's natural environment nutrients are limited, meaning that bacteria cannot continue to reproduce indefinitely. This constant limitation of nutrients has led the evolution of many different growth strategies in different types of organisms (see R/K selection theory). Some possess the ability to grow extremely rapidly when nutrients become available, such as the formation of algal (and cyanobacterial) blooms that often occur in lakes during the summer. Other organisms have devised more specialized strategies to make them more successful in a harsh environment, such as the production of antibiotics by Streptomyces; often at the expense of a slower growth rate. In a natural environment, many organisms live in communities (e.g. biofilms) which may allow for increased supply of nutrients and protection of environmental stresses. Often these relationships are essential for growth of a particular organism or group of organisms (syntrophy). These evolutionary tactics to overcome nutrient limitation must be accounted for in an industrial/laboratory bacterial growth experiment. For instance bacteria that tend to agglutinate may need more vigorous stirring to break apart any large bacterial masses. The main growth attribute that must be understood for controlled growth is that bacteria have defined growth phases. In ecology, r/K selection theory relates to the selection of traits (in organisms) that allow success in particular environments. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Streptomyces is a genus of Actinobacteria. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Syntrophy is the phenomenon that one species lives of the products of another species. ...


A controlled bacterial growth will follow three distinct phases. Nearly all cultures start from taking a relatively old stock of bacteria and diluting them in to fresh media; these cells need to adapt to the nutrient rich environment. The first phase of growth is the lag phase, a period of slow growth most often attributed to the need for cells to adapt to fast growth. The lag phase has high biosynthesis rates; enzymes needed to metabolise a variety of substrates are produced. The second phase of growth is the logarithmic phase (log phase), also known as the exponential phase. The log phase is marked by rapid exponential growth. The rate at which cells grow during this phase is known as the growth rate (k). The time it takes the cells to double during the log phase is known as the generation time (g). During the log phase, nutrients are metabolised at maximum speed until one of the nutrients is depleted and starts limiting growth. The final phase of growth is the stationary phase. This phase of growth is caused by depleted nutrients. The cells begin to shut down their metabolic activity, as well as break-down their own non-essential proteins. The stationary phase is a transition from rapid growth to dormancy. Without positive signals from the environment transcription of many non-essential genes are no longer promoted to conserve ATP. Latent period (also known as incubatory period) is the interval between exposure to an infectious organism, toxin or carcinogen and the onset of clinical symptoms of disease. ... In mathematics, if two variables of bn = x are known, the third can be found. ... Chromatography is a family of analytical chemistry techniques for the separation of mixtures. ...


Genetic variation

Bacteria, as asexual organisms, inherit an identical copy of their parent's genes (i.e. are clonal). All bacteria, however, have the ability to evolve through selection on changes to their genetic material (DNA) which arise either through mutation or genetic recombination. Mutation occurs as a result of errors made during the replication of DNA. It occurs naturally and as a result of the presence of mutagens. Mutation rates can vary among different species of bacteria. The most frequent genetic changes in bacterial genomes come from random mutation. Some bacteria can also undergo genetic recombination. This can occur when bacteria take-up exogenous environmental DNA from closely related genera in a process called transformation. In the process of transduction, a virus can alter the DNA of a bacterium by becoming lysogenic and introducing foreign DNA into the host chromosome, which can then be transcribed and replicated. The generic term for gene acquisition from the environment is horizontal gene transfer. In genetics, a clone is a replica of all or part of a macromolecule (eg. ... In biology, mutations are changes to the genetic material (either DNA or RNA). ... Genetic recombination is the transmission-genetic process by which the combinations of alleles observed at different loci (plural of locus) in two parental individuals become shuffled in offspring individuals. ... In biology, mutations are changes to the genetic material (either DNA or RNA). ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is an agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... In biology, mutations are changes to the genetic material (either DNA or RNA). ... Transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the introduction, uptake and expression of foreign genetic material (DNA or RNA). ... Transduction is the process in which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a bacterial virus (a bacteriophage, commonly called a phage). ... A bacteriophage (from bacteria and Greek phagein, to eat) is a virus that infects bacteria. ... The general structure of a section of DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions for the biological development of a cellular form of life or a virus. ... It has been suggested that Lysogenic cycle be merged into this article or section. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material (i. ...


Because of their ability to quickly grow, and the relative ease with which they can be manipulated, bacteria have historically been the workhorses for the fields of molecular biology, genetics and biochemistry. By making mutations in bacterial DNA and examining the resulting phenotypes, scientists have been able to determine the function of many different genes and enzymes. Lessons learned from bacteria can then be applied to more complex organisms which are often more difficult to study. Molecular biology is the study of biology at a molecular level. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemical processes and transformations in living organisms. ...


Movement

 A-Monotrichous; B-Lophotrichous; C-Amphitrichous; D-Peritrichous;
A-Monotrichous; B-Lophotrichous; C-Amphitrichous; D-Peritrichous;

Motile bacteria can move about, using flagella, bacterial gliding, or changes of buoyancy. A unique group of bacteria, the spirochaetes, have structures similar to flagella, called axial filaments, between two membranes in the periplasmic space. They have a distinctive helical body that twists about as it moves. Image File history File links Flagella. ... Image File history File links Flagella. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Bacterial gliding is a process whereby a bacterium can move under its own power. ... Families Spirochaetaceae Brachyspiraceae    Brachyspira    Serpulina Leptospiraceae    Leptospira    Leptonema The spirochaetes (or spirochetes) are a phylum of distinctive bacteria, which have long, helically coiled cells. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... A helix (pl: helices), from the Greek word έλικας/έλιξ, is a twisted shape like a spring, screw or a spiral staircase. ...


Bacterial flagella are arranged in many different ways. Bacteria can have a single polar flagellum at one end of a cell, clusters of many flagella at one end or flagella scattered all over the cell, as with peritrichous. Often in the close vicinity of the flagella a specialized region of the cell membrane the polar membrane can be discerned in ultrathin sections. Many bacteria (such as E. coli) have two distinct modes of movement: forward movement (swimming) and tumbling. The tumbling allows them to reorient and introduces an important element of randomness in their forward movement. (See external links below for link to videos.) A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ... Polar Membrane In the scientific literature this compound term has acquired two separate meanings. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... // About Bees This article is about completely random and illogical things. ...


Motile bacteria are attracted or repelled by certain stimuli, behaviors called taxes - for instance, chemotaxis, phototaxis, mechanotaxis, and magnetotaxis. In one peculiar group, the myxobacteria, individual bacteria attract to form swarms and may differentiate to form fruiting bodies. The myxobacteria move only when on solid surfaces, unlike E. coli which is motile in liquid or solid media. In physiology, a stimulus is a detectable change in the internal or external environment. ... Chemotaxis is a kind of taxis, in which bodily cells, bacteria, and other single-cell or multicellular organisms direct their movements according to certain chemicals in their environment. ... Phototaxis is an organisms automatic movement toward or away from light. ... Mechanotaxis is the directed movement of cell motility or outgrowth, e. ... Magnetotaxis is the ability of certain cells to sense the polarity or the inclination of the earths magnetic field, as an aid to navigation. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Families & Genera Archangiaceae    Archangium Cystobacteraceae    Cystobacter    Melittangium    Stigmatella Myxoccaceae    Myxococcus    Angiococcus Polyangiaceae    Chondromyces    Nannocystis    Polyangium The myxobacteria are a group of bacteria that predominantly live in the soil. ... Motile A term to describe Intelligent Mobile Applications. ...


Groups and identification

Historically, bacteria as originally studied by botanists were classified in the same way as plants, that is, mainly by shape. Bacteria come in a variety of different cell morphologies (shapes), including bacillus (rod-shape), coccus (spherical), spirillum (helical), and vibrio (curved bacillus). However, because of their small size bacteria are relatively uniform in shape and therefore classification based on morphology was unsuccessful. The first formal classification scheme was developed following the development of the Gram stain by Hans Christian Gram which separates bacteria based on the structural characteristics of their cell walls. This scheme included: Pinguicula grandiflora Botany is the scientific study of plantlife. ... Staphylococcus Cocci (singular - coccus, from the latin word kokkus meaning a berry) are any spherical or near spherical bacteria. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... Professor Hans Christian Gram Hans Christian Joachim Gram (September 13, 1853 - November 14, 1938) was a Danish bacteriologist. ...

  • Gracilicutes - Gram negative staining bacteria with a second cell membrane
  • Firmicutes - Gram positive staining bacteria with a thick peptidoglycan wall
  • Mollicutes - Gram negative staining bacteria with no cell wall or second membrane
  • Mendosicutes - atypically staining strains now known to belong to the Archaea

Further developments (essentially) based on this scheme included comparisons of bacteria based on differences in cellular metabolism as determined by a wide variety of specific tests. Bacteria were also classified based on differences in cellular chemical compounds such as fatty acids, pigments, and quinones for example. While these schemes allowed for the differentiation between bacterial strains, it was unclear whether these differences represented variation between distinct species or between strains of the same species. It was not until the utilization of genome-based techniques such as guanine cytosine ratio determination, genome-genome hybridization and gene sequencing (in particular the rRNA gene) that microbial taxonomy developed (or at least is developing) into a stable, accurate classification system. It should be noted, however, that due to the existence numerous historical classification schemes and our current poor understanding of microbial diversity, bacterial taxonomy remains a changing and expanding field. Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a substance that forms a homogeneous layer lying outside the plasma membrane in bacteria. ... Phyla / Classes Phylum Crenarchaeota Phylum Euryarchaeota     Halobacteria     Methanobacteria     Methanococci     Methanopyri     Archaeoglobi     Thermoplasmata     Thermococci Phylum Korarchaeota Phylum Nanoarchaeota Archaea (; from Greek αρχαία, old ones; singular Archaeum, Archaean, or Archaeon), also called Archaebacteria (), is a major division of living organisms. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic tail (chain), which is either saturated or unsaturated. ... A quinone or benzoquinone is generally defined as an aromatic benzene molecule containing a double ketone functional group. ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... In genetics, the guanine-cytosine content (GC content) is the ratio of guanine and cytosine to the total number of nucleotides of a given genome. ... Ribosomal DNA (rDNA) are sequences encoding ribosomal RNA. These sequences regulate amplification and transcription initiation and contain transcribed and nontranscribed spacer segments. ...


Benefits and dangers

Bacteria are both harmful and useful to the environment and animals, including humans. The role of bacteria in disease and infection is important. Some bacteria act as pathogens and cause tetanus, typhoid fever, pneumonia, syphilis, cholera, food-borne illness, leprosy, and tuberculosis(TB). Sepsis, a systemic infectious syndrome characterized by shock and massive vasodilation, or localized infection, can be caused by bacteria such as Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, or many gram-negative bacteria. Some bacterial infections can spread throughout the host's body and become systemic. In plants, bacteria cause leaf spot, fireblight, and wilts. The mode of infection includes contact, air, food, water, and insect-borne microorganisms. The hosts infected with the pathogens may be treated with antibiotics, which can be classified as bacteriocidal and bacteriostatic, which at concentrations that can be reached in bodily fluids either kill bacteria or hamper their growth, respectively. Antiseptic measures may be taken to prevent infection by bacteria, for example, by swabbing skin with alcohol prior to piercing the skin with the needle of a syringe. Sterilization of surgical and dental instruments is done to make them sterile or pathogen-free to prevent contamination and infection by bacteria. Sanitizers and disinfectants are used to kill bacteria or other pathogens to prevent contamination and risk of infection. Phyla Placozoa (trichoplax) Orthonectida (orthonectids) Rhombozoa (dicyemids) Subregnum Parazoa Porifera (sponges) Subregnum Eumetazoa Radiata (unranked) (radial symmetry) Ctenophora (comb jellies) Cnidaria (coral, jellyfish, anemones) Bilateria (unranked) (bilateral symmetry) Acoelomorpha (basal) Myxozoa (slime animals) Superphylum Deuterostomia (blastopore becomes anus) Chordata (vertebrates, etc. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (known as the great apes). ... A pathogen or infectious agent is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ... Tetanus is a serious and often fatal disease caused by the neurotoxin tetanospasmin which is produced by the Gram-positive, obligate anaerobic bacterium Clostridium tetani. ... Typhoid fever (or enteric fever) is an illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. ... Pneumonia is an illness of the lungs and respiratory system in which the alveoli (microscopic air-filled sacs of the lung responsible for absorbing oxygen from the atmosphere) become inflamed and flooded with fluid. ... Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection (STI) caused by a spirochaete bacterium, Treponema pallidum. ... Cholera (also called eat crap) is a water-borne disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae, which is typically ingested by drinking contaminated water, or by eating improperly cooked fish, especially shellfish. ... A foodborne illness or food poisoning is any illness resulting from the consumption of food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... Leprosy, also known as Hansens disease,[1] is an infectious disease caused by a DNA plasmid (transposon, or ultravirus, a small circle of DNA) carried in Hansens bacillus (the Mycobacterium leprae bacterium) which is thus the vector. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... Streptococcus, a genus of spherical, Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. ... Species S. aureus S. caprae S. epidermidis S. haemolyticus S. hominis S. lugdunensis S. saprophyticus S. warneri S. xylosus Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of gram-positive bacteria. ... Divisions Green algae Chlorophyta Charophyta Land plants (embryophytes) Non-vascular plants (bryophytes) Marchantiophyta - liverworts Anthocerotophyta - hornworts Bryophyta - mosses Vascular plants (tracheophytes) †Rhyniophyta - rhyniophytes †Zosterophyllophyta - zosterophylls Lycopodiophyta - clubmosses †Trimerophytophyta - trimerophytes Equisetophyta - horsetails Pteridophyta - true ferns Psilotophyta - whisk ferns Ophioglossophyta - adderstongues Seed plants (spermatophytes) †Pteridospermatophyta - seed ferns Pinophyta - conifers Cycadophyta - cycads Ginkgophyta... Leaf Spot - A cosmetic disease of oaks and elms. ... Binomial name Erwinia amylovora The causal pathogen is Erwinia amylovora, a Gram-negative bacterium in the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... When bacteria or fungi clog a plants water-conducting or vascular system, they can cause permanent wilting and death. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... A bacteriocide or bactericide is a substance that kills bacteria and, preferably, nothing else. ... Bacteriostatic antibiotics hamper the growth of bacteria by interfering with bacteria protein production, interfering with bacteria DNA production interfering with bacteria cellular metabolism Bacteriostatic antibiotics inhibit growth and repoduction of the bacteria, though do not kill it, while bactericidal antibiotics kill bacteria. ... An antiseptic solution of iodine applied to a cut An antiseptic (Greek αντι, against, and σηπτικος, putrefactive) is a substance that prevents the growth and reproduction of various microorganisms (such as bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses). ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Sterilization (or sterilisation) is the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria, prions and viruses) from a surface, a piece of equipment, food or biological culture medium. ... Disinfection The destruction of pathogenic and other kinds of microorganisms by physical or chemical means Disinfectants are chemical substances used to kill viruses and microbes (germs), such as bacteria and fungi. ...


In soil, microorganisms which reside in the rhizosphere (a zone that includes the root surface and the soil that adheres to the root after gentle shaking) help in the transformation of molecular dinitrogen gas as their source of nitrogen, converting it to nitrogenous compounds in a process known as nitrogen fixation. This serves to provide an easily absorbable form of nitrogen for many plants, which cannot fix nitrogen themselves. Many other bacteria are found as symbionts in humans and other organisms. For example, the presence of the gut flora in the large intestine can help prevent the growth of potentially harmful microbes. Rhizosphere, the zone that surrounds the roots of plants. ... Nitrogen fixation is the process by which nitrogen is taken from its relatively inert molecular form (N2) in the atmosphere and converted into nitrogen compounds useful for other chemical processes (such as, notably, ammonia, nitrate and nitrogen dioxide). ... Common Clownfish (Amphiprion ocellaris) in their Magnificent Sea Anemone (Heteractis magnifica) home. ... The human body contains a large number of bacteria, most of them performing tasks that are useful or even essential to human survival. ... Gut flora, or intestinal bacteria, are the bacteria that normally live in the digestive tract and perform a number of useful functions involving digestion for their hosts. ...


The ability of bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds is remarkable. Highly specialized groups of microorganisms play important roles in the mineralization of specific classes of organic compounds. For example, the decomposition of cellulose, which is one of the most abundant constituents of plant tissues, is mainly brought about by aerobic bacteria that belong to the genus Cytophaga. This ability has also been utilized by humans in industry, waste processing, and bioremediation. Bacteria capable of digesting the hydrocarbons in petroleum are often used to clean up oil spills. Some beaches in Prince William Sound were fertilized in an attempt to facilitate the growth of such bacteria after the infamous 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. These efforts were effective on beaches that were not too thickly covered in oil. Mineralization is the process of depositing minerals or naturally occuring inorganic chemicals. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a long-chain polymeric polysaccharide carbohydrate, of beta-glucose [1][2]. It forms the primary structural component of green plants. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... In chemistry, a hydrocarbon is a cleaning solution consisting only of carbon (C) and hydrogen (H). ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Volunteers cleaning up the aftermath of the Prestige oil spill An oil spill (or slick) is the intentional or unintentional release of oil (generally, petroleum) into the natural environment as a result of human activity. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... The Exxon Valdez oil spill was one of the most devastating environmental disasters ever to occur at sea, seriously affecting plants and wildlife. ...


Bacteria, often in combination with yeasts and molds, are used in the preparation of fermented foods such as cheese, pickles, soy sauce, sauerkraut, vinegar, wine, and yogurt. Using biotechnology techniques, bacteria can be bioengineered for the production of therapeutic drugs, such as insulin, or for the bioremediation of toxic wastes. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mold is Gross to many people and some types of mold are deadly . ... Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Look up pickle in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Soy sauce (US) or soya sauce is a fermented sauce made from soybeans (soya beans), roasted grain, water and salt. ... Sauerkraut and sausage on a plate Percentages are relative to US RDI values for adults. ... Vinegar is often infused with spices or herbs—as here, with oregano. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of the juice of fruits, usually grapes. ... Yoghurt Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt, is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Biological engineering (a. ... It has been suggested that Oral insulin be merged into this article or section. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Toxic waste is a hazardous waste that is toxic (poisonous or hazardous) for a variety of reasons. ...


"Friendly bacteria" is a term used to refer to those bacteria that offer some benefit to human hosts, such as Lactobacillus species, which convert milk protein to lactic acid in the gut. The presence of such bacterial colonies also inhibits the growth of potentially pathogenic bacteria (usually through competitive exclusion). Other bacteria that are helpful inside the body are many strains of E. coli, which are harmless in healthy individuals and provide Vitamin K. The competitive exclusion principle, sometimes referred to as Gauses Law of competitive exclusion or just Gauses Law, states that two species that compete for the exact same resources cannot stably coexist. ...


Trivia

  • The number of Bacteria in the world is estimated to be around five million trillion trillion , or 5 × 1030.[1]

See also

Bacterial growth is process in which two clone daughter cells are produced by the cell division of one bacterium. ... Bacteriocins are proteinaceous toxins produced by bacteria to inhibit the growth of similar bacterial strain(s). ... The economic importance of bacteria derives from the fact that bacteria can be deliberately exploited by humans in a number of beneficial ways. ... Magnetotactic bacteria are a class of bacteria discovered in the 1970s that are characterised by being able to orient themselves in response to the Earths magnetic field (magnetotaxis). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Structures found on meteorite fragment ALH84001 Nanobacteria are said to be cell walled microorganisms with a diameter well below the generally accepted lower limit (about 200 nanometres) for bacteria. ... Transgenic bacteria, refers to bacteria which have been genetically engineered. ...

Sources

  1. ^ University of Georgia Campus News
  • Some text in this entry was merged with the Nupedia article entitled Bacteria, written by Nagina Parmar; reviewed and approved by the Biology group (editor: Gaytha Langlois, lead reviewer: Gaytha Langlois, lead copyeditors: Ruth Ifcher and Jan Hogle)
  • This article contains material from the Science Primer published by the NCBI, which, as a US government publication, is in the public domain

Nupedia was a Web-based encyclopedia whose articles were written by experts and licensed as free content. ... The National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is part of the US National Library of Medicine (NLM), which is a branch of the US National Institutes of Health. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Further reading

  • Alcamo, I. Edward. Fundamentals of Microbiology. 5th ed. Menlo Park, California: Benjamin Cumming, 1997.
  • Atlas, Ronald M. Principles of Microbiology. St. Louis, Missouri: Mosby, 1995.
  • Holt, John.G. Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. 9th ed. Baltimore, Maryland: Williams and Wilkins, 1994.
  • Hugenholtz P, Goebel BM, Pace NR (1998). "Impact of culture-independent studies on the emerging phylogenetic view of bacterial diversity". J Bacteriol 180 (18): 4765-74. PMID 9733676.
  • Koshland, Daniel E., Jr. (1977). "A Response Regulator Model in a Simple Sensory System". Science 196: 1055-1063. PMID 870969.
  • Stanier, R.Y., J. L. Ingraham, M. L. Wheelis, and P. R. Painter. General Microbiology. 5th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1986.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Eubacteria - Search Results - MSN Encarta (109 words)
Eubacteria, former name of one of the two major groups of prokaryotes (cells in which the genetic material is not contained within a nuclear...
The simplest types of living organism are viruses, but with only a few genes they are unable to grow and reproduce without a supply of numerous...
Genetic studies have revealed that prokaryotes are composed of two very different groups, initially named eubacteria and archaebacteria.
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The Eubacteria, in their hundreds of trillions, are the reasons you weren't allowed to pick up the candy you dropped on the floor or eat that egg salad that looked so good a week ago.
However, in the Eubacteria, every second sugar residue is linked at the 3-position with an amino acid, threonine, which in turn leads on to a strange and unique chain of amino acids (i.e., a peptide chain).
So, the moral of this story may be that Eubacteria are not primitive forms at all, but specialized organisms which have been co-evolving with the eukaryotes for a very long time.
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