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Encyclopedia > Etruscan numerals
Numeral systems
Hindu-Arabic system Abjad
Armenian
Attic (Greek)
Babylonian
Brahmi
Chinese
Cyrillic
D'ni (fictitious)
Egyptian
Etruscan
Greek
Hebrew
Ionian (Greek)
Japanese
Khmer
Korean
Mayan
Roman
Bases
1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 16, 20, 24, 26, 27, 30, 32, 36, 60, 64
edit

The Etruscan numerals were used by the ancient Etruscans. The system was adapted from the Greek Attic numerals and formed the inspiration for the later Roman numerals. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... The system of Hindu-Arabic numerals is a positional decimal numeral system that evolved from the Brahmi numeral system in ancient India, from the 9th century documented to have used a positional notation including a zero symbol. ... // Origins The Hindu-Arabic numeral system originated from the Hindu numeral system, which is a pure place value system, that requires a zero. ... Various symbol sets are used to represent numbers in the Hindu-Arabic numeral system, all of which evolved from the Brahmi numerals. ... Arabic numerals (or Hindu-Arabic numerals) are the most common set of symbols used to represent numbers around the world. ... The Eastern Arabic numerals (also called Eastern Arabic numerals, Arabic-Indic numerals, Arabic Eastern Numerals) are the symbols (glyphs) used to represent the Hindu-Arabic numeral system in conjunction with the Arabic alphabet in Egypt, Iran, Pakistan and parts of India, and also in the no longer used Ottoman Turkish... India has produced many numeral systems. ... The Abjad numerals are a numeral system which was used in the Arabic-speaking world prior to the use of the Arabic numerals (which are actually of Indian origin). ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... Babylonian numerals were written in cuneiform, using a wedge-tipped reed stylus to make a mark on a soft clay tablet which would be exposed in the sun to harden to create a permanent record. ... The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). ... Cyrillic numerals was a numbering system derived from the Cyrillic alphabet, used by South and East Slavic peoples. ... Myst franchise Games Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Myst V: End of Ages Uru: Ages Beyond Myst Ages of: Myst Riven Myst III: Exile Myst IV: Revelation Uru Novels Myst: The Book of Atrus   Tiana   Dni Comic Books #0   #1 Miscellaneous Dni Ages   The... The system of Hebrew numerals is a quasi-decimal alphabetic numeral system using the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. ... Ionian numerals were used by the ancient Greeks, possibly before the 7th century BC. They are also known by the names Milesian numerals or Alexandrian numerals. ... Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. ... The Pre-Columbian Maya civilization used a vigesimal (base-twenty) numeral system. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... As it applies to general mathematics, a base is the number of single digits denoting different values in a positional numeral system, including zero. ... The unary numeral system is the simplest numeral system to represent natural numbers: in order to represent a number N, an arbitrarily chosen symbol is repeated N times. ... The binary numeral system represents numeric values using two symbols, typically 0 and 1. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... Quaternary is the base four numeral system. ... Quinary (base-five) is a numeral system with five as the base. ... A senary numeral system is a base-six numeral system. ... The septenary numeral system is the base seven number system, and uses the digits 0-6. ... The octal numeral system is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... Nonary is a base 9 numeral system, typically using the digits 0-8, but not the digit 9. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with decimal representation. ... The undecimal positional notation system is based on the number eleven, rather than ten as in decimal or eight in octal and so on. ... A duodecimal multiplication table The duodecimal (also known as base-twelve or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... Base 13 is a nonstandard positional numeral system. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix or base of 16 usually written using the symbols 0–9 and A–F or a–f. ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... As there are 24 hours in a day a numbering system based upon 24, and as the base 12 is convenient here some examples of the base 24 (quadrovigesimal) system. ... A Hexavigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-six. ... A Septemvigesimal numeral system has a base of twenty-seven. ... Base 30 or trigesimal is a positional numeral system using 30 as the radix. ... Base32 is a derivation of Base64 with the following additional properties: The resulting character set is all uppercase, which can often be beneficial when using a case-sensitive filesystem. ... Base 36 refers to a positional numeral system using 36 as the radix. ... The sexagesimal (base-sixty) is a numeral system with sixty as the base. ... Base 64 literally means a positional numbering system using a base of 64. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ... Attic numerals were used by ancient Greeks, possibly from the 7th century BC. They were also known as Herodianic numerals because they were first described in a 2nd century manuscript by Herodianus. ... The system of Roman numerals is a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, and was adapted from Etruscan numerals. ...

Etruscan Decimal Symbol *
θu 1 I
maχ 5 Λ
šar 10 X
muvalχ 50
? 100 C

(* approximate shape of the symbols, because these are not included in the standard set available on the computer. In addition, a second shape used for 100 is an X with a vertical line going through its center - the symbol for 50 is the bottom half of it) Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 5 (five) is a number, numeral, and glyph. ... 10 (ten) is the natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... 50 (fifty) is the number following 49 and preceding 51. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ...


There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number.


Thanks to the numbers written out on the Tartaria dice, there is agreement about the fact that these are the numbers up to 6 (besides 1 and 5). The assignment depends on the answer to the question whether the numbers on opposite faces on Etruscan dice add up to seven, like nowadays. It is a fact that some dice found don't show this proposed pattern. Rolling dice A die (Old French de, from Latin datum something given or played [1]) is a small polyhedral object (usually a cube) suitable as a gambling device (especially for craps or sic bo). ...


An interesting aspect of the Etruscan numeral system is that some numbers, like in the Roman system, are represented as partial subtractions. So "17" is not written *semφ-šar as English speakers might reason. We instead find <ci-em zaθrum> -- literally, "three away from twenty". The numbers 17, 18 and 19 are all written in this way. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ...


The general consensus

Despite the continuing debate specifically about which of <huθ> and <ša> are "four" and "six", the general agreement among Etruscanologists nowadays is now the following:

                                  
θu one
zal two
ci three
huθ four
maχ five
ša six
semφ seven
cezp eight
nurφ nine
šar ten
*θušar eleven
*zalšar twelve
*cišar thirteen
huθzar fourteen
*maχšar fifteen
*šašar sixteen
ciem zaθrum seventeen
eslem zaθrum eighteen
θunem zaθrum nineteen
zaθrum 20
cealχ 30
*huθalχ 40
muvalχ 50
šealχ 60
semφalχ 70
cezpalχ 80
*nurφalχ 90

External links

  • http://users.tpg.com.au/etr/etrusk/tex/grammar.html#num
  • http://www.lostlanguages.com/etruscan.htm
  • http://www.mysteriousetruscans.com/language.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Roman numerals Totally Explained (4000 words)
Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century).
In chemistry, Roman numerals were used to denote the group in the periodic table of the elements.
In music theory, while scale degrees are typically represented with Arabic numerals, often modified with a caret or circumflex, the triads that have these degrees as their roots are often identified by Roman numerals (as in chord symbols).
NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Base 24 (1074 words)
The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens).
Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia.
The binary or base-two numeral system is a system for representing numbers in which a radix of two is used; that is, each digit in a binary numeral may have either of two different values.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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