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Encyclopedia > Etruscan numerals
Numeral systems
Hindu-Arabic system
• History
• Symbol sets:
Armenian
Attic (Greek)
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D'ni (fictitious)
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Etruscan Decimal Symbol *
θu 1 I
maχ 5 Λ
šar 10 X
muvalχ 50
? 100 C

(* approximate shape of the symbols, because these are not included in the standard set available on the computer. In addition, a second shape used for 100 is an X with a vertical line going through its center - the symbol for 50 is the bottom half of it) Look up one in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 5 (five) is a number, numeral, and glyph. ... 10 (ten) is the natural number following 9 and preceding 11. ... 50 (fifty) is the number following 49 and preceding 51. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ...

There is very little surviving evidence of these numerals. Examples are known of the symbols for larger numbers, but it is unknown which symbol represents which number.

Thanks to the numbers written out on the Tartaria dice, there is agreement about the fact that these are the numbers up to 6 (besides 1 and 5). The assignment depends on the answer to the question whether the numbers on opposite faces on Etruscan dice add up to seven, like nowadays. It is a fact that some dice found don't show this proposed pattern. Rolling dice A die (Old French de, from Latin datum something given or played [1]) is a small polyhedral object (usually a cube) suitable as a gambling device (especially for craps or sic bo). ...

An interesting aspect of the Etruscan numeral system is that some numbers, like in the Roman system, are represented as partial subtractions. So "17" is not written *semφ-šar as English speakers might reason. We instead find <ci-em zaθrum> -- literally, "three away from twenty". The numbers 17, 18 and 19 are all written in this way. A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ...

Despite the continuing debate specifically about which of <huθ> and <ša> are "four" and "six", the general agreement among Etruscanologists nowadays is now the following:

 θu one zal two ci three huθ four maχ five ša six semφ seven cezp eight nurφ nine šar ten *θušar eleven *zalšar twelve *cišar thirteen huθzar fourteen *maχšar fifteen *šašar sixteen ciem zaθrum seventeen eslem zaθrum eighteen θunem zaθrum nineteen zaθrum 20 cealχ 30 *huθalχ 40 muvalχ 50 šealχ 60 semφalχ 70 cezpalχ 80 *nurφalχ 90

Results from FactBites:

 Roman numerals Totally Explained (4000 words) Roman numerals remained in common use until about the 14th century, when they were replaced by Arabic numerals (thought to have been introduced to Europe from al-Andalus, by way of Arab traders and arithmetic treatises, around the 11th century). In chemistry, Roman numerals were used to denote the group in the periodic table of the elements. In music theory, while scale degrees are typically represented with Arabic numerals, often modified with a caret or circumflex, the triads that have these degrees as their roots are often identified by Roman numerals (as in chord symbols).
 NationMaster - Encyclopedia: Base 24 (1074 words) The Brahmi numerals are an indigenous Indian numeral system attested from the 3rd century BCE (somewhat later in the case of most of the tens). Khmer numerals are the numerals used in the Khmer language of Cambodia. The binary or base-two numeral system is a system for representing numbers in which a radix of two is used; that is, each digit in a binary numeral may have either of two different values.
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