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Encyclopedia > Etruscan civilization
Rasna
Rasenna
1200 BC – 100 BC
Extent of Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities.
Capital Velzna- (Orvieto)
Language(s) Etruscan language
Religion Etruscan paganism
Political structure Confederation
Luchume
 - Unknown Tyrrhenus
 - Unknown Tarchon
Legislature Etruscan League
Historical era Ancient
 - Villanovan 1200 BC
 - Roman assimilation 100 BC
Etruscan couple, National Museum at Florence.
Etruscan couple, National Museum at Florence.

Etruscan civilization is the modern English name given to the culture and way of life of a people of ancient Italy and Corsica whom the ancient Romans called Etrusci or Tusci.[1] The Attic Greek word for them was Τυρρήνιοι (Tyrrhēnioi) from which Latin also drew the names Tyrrhēni (Etruscans), Tyrrhēnia (Etruria) and Tyrrhēnum mare (Tyrrhenian Sea).[2] The Etruscans themselves used the term Rasenna, which was syncopated to Rasna or Raśna.[3] (Redirected from 1200 BC) Centuries: 14th century BC - 13th century BC - 12th century BC Decades: 1250s BC 1240s BC 1230s BC 1220s BC 1210s BC - 1200s BC - 1190s BC 1180s BC 1170s BC 1160s BC 1150s BC Events and Trends 1204 BC - Theseus, legendary King of Athens is deposed after... The world in 100 BC. The eastern hemisphere in 100 BC. Consuls: Lucius Valerius Flaccus, Gaius Marius (Mariuss sixth consulship). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 417 pixel Image in higher resolution (1000 × 521 pixel, file size: 46 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Roman Empire Roman... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x971, 405 KB) A map showing the extent of Etruria and the Etruscan civilization. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Orvieto is a city in southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ... The Etruscans were a race of unknown origin from North Italy who were eventually integrated into Rome. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... A confederation is an association of sovereign states or communities, usually created by treaty but often later adopting a common constitution. ... The Two Dancers. ... In Etruscan mythology, Tarchon and his brother, Tyrrhenus were culture heroes who founded the Etruscan Federation of twelve cities. ... In Etruscan mythology, Tarchon and his brother, Tyrrhenus were culture heroes who founded the Etruscan Federation of twelve cities. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... For the span of recorded history starting roughly 5,000-5,500 years ago, see Ancient history. ... The Villanovans were a pre-Indo-European iron age people of northern Italy circa 1100-700 BC. They were followed by the Etruscans who may have evolved from them. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 974 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) statua_funeraria_da_Chianciano,_V_sec. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1200 × 1600 pixel, file size: 974 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) statua_funeraria_da_Chianciano,_V_sec. ... Central New York City. ... For other uses, see Corsica (disambiguation). ... Attic Greek is the ancient dialect of the Greek language that was spoken in Attica, which includes Athens. ... The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek TurrÄ“noi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic TursÄ“noi, Doric Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... Tyrrhenian Sea. ...


As distinguished by its own language, the civilization endured from an unknown prehistoric time prior to the foundation of Rome until its complete assimilation to Italic Rome in the Roman Republic. At its maximum extent during the foundation period of Rome and the Roman kingdom, it flourished in three confederacies of cities: of Etruria, of the Po valley with the eastern Alps, and of Latium and Campania.[4] Rome was sited in Etruscan territory. There is considerable evidence that early Rome was dominated by Etruscans until the Romans sacked Veii in 396 BC. For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... The ancient quarters of Rome. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... PO may stand for: Pareto optimality Parole Officer Per os, Latin for by mouth or orally Perfect Orange a third wave ska based in Knoxville, TN from 2002-2005 Petty Officer, a Non-Commissioned Officer Rank in many Navies Pilkington Optronics, now Thales Optronics Pilot Officer, a junior commissioned rank... Alp redirects here. ... Latium (Lazio in Italian) is a region of central Italy, bordered by Tuscany, Umbria, Abruzzo, Marche, Molise, Campania and the Tyrrhenian Sea. ... For other uses, see Campania (disambiguation). ... Veii - or Veius - was in ancient times, an important Etrurian city 18 km NNW of Rome, Italy. ...


Culture that is identifiably and certainly Etruscan developed in Italy after about 800 BC approximately over the range of the preceding Iron Age Villanovan culture. The latter gave way in the seventh century to a culture that was influenced by Greek traders and Greek neighbors in Magna Graecia, the Hellenic civilization of southern Italy. Centuries: 10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC Decades: 850s BC 840s BC 830s BC 820s BC 810s BC - 800s BC - 790s BC 780s BC 770s BC 760s BC 750s BC Events and Trends 804 BC - Hadad-nirari IV of Assyria conquers Damascus. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Villanovan Culture in 900BC The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by... Magna Graecia around 280 b. ... Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ...

Contents

Language

An Etruscan warrior head figure used as a cippus (grave marker) in the necropolis Crocifisso del Tufo outside Orvieto
An Etruscan warrior head figure used as a cippus (grave marker) in the necropolis Crocifisso del Tufo outside Orvieto
Main article: Etruscan language

Knowledge of the Etruscan language is still far from complete. The Etruscans are believed to have spoken a non-Indo-European language; the majority consensus is that Etruscan is related only to other members of what is called the Tyrsenian language family, which in itself is an isolate family, that is, unrelated to other language groups by any known relationship. Since Rix (1998) it is widely accepted that the Tyrsenian family groups Rhaetic and Lemnian with Etruscan. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 663 KB) Summary Etruscan cippus (grave marker) in the shape of a warrior head. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1200x1600, 663 KB) Summary Etruscan cippus (grave marker) in the shape of a warrior head. ... Orvieto is a city in southwestern Umbria, Italy situated on the flat summit of a large butte of volcanic tuff. ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Etruscan was a language spoken and written in the ancient region of Etruria (current Tuscany plus western Umbria and northern Latium) and in parts of what are now Lombardy, Veneto, and Emilia-Romagna (where the Etruscans were displaced by Gauls), in Italy. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... A close relationship of the Etruscan language and the Rhaetic language has been established by Rix (1998), who together with the Lemnian language classifies them as Tyrsenian (Tyrsenisch, also Tyrrhenian), after the Tyrrhenoi. ... A language isolate, in the absolute sense, is a natural language with no demonstrable genealogical (or genetic) relationship with other living languages; that is, one that has not been demonstrated to descend from an ancestor common to any other language. ... Raetic is an obscure language of antiquity, which used to be spoken in the province of Raetia, in the eastern Alps, to the north and west of Venetic. ... The Lemnian language is the language of a 6th century BC inscription found on a funerary stela on the island of Lemnos (termed the Lemnos stele, discovered in 1885 near Kaminia). ...


Etymology

No etymology exists for Rasna.


The etymology of Tusci is based on a beneficiary phrase in the third Iguvine tablet, which is a major source for the Umbrian language.[5] The phrase is turskum ... nomen, "the Tuscan name", from which a root *Tursci can be reconstructed.[6] A metathesis and a word-initial epenthesis produce E-trus-ci.[7] A common hypothesis is that *Turs- along with Latin turris, "tower", come from Greek τύρσις, "tower."[8]. The Tusci were therefore the "people who build towers"[8] or "the tower builders."[9] This venerable etymology is at least as old as Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who said "And there is no reason why the Greeks should not have called them by this name, both from their living in towers and from the name of one of their rulers."[10] The Iguvine Tables were a series of seven bronze tablets discovered at Iguvium, contemporary Gubbio, in Italy in the year 1444. ... Languages in Iron Age Italy, 6th century BC Umbrian, an Italic language, is a dead language formerly spoken in the ancient Italian region of Umbria. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ...


The Bonfantes (Bonfante 2002) speculate that Etruscan houses seemed like towers to the simple Latins. It is true that the Etruscans preferred to build hill towns on high precipices enhanced by walls. On the other hand if the Tyrrhenian name came from an incursion of sea peoples or later migrants (see below) then it might well be related to the name of Troy, the city of towers in that case. The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ... For other uses of Troy or Ilion, see Troy (disambiguation) and Ilion (disambiguation). ...


Origins

The origins of the Etruscans are lost in prehistory. Several hypotheses exist, some of which are listed below. They are not necessarily mutually exclusive.


Debate over origins was revived in the 17th century. Whether ancient or modern, theorists proceed mainly by looking for pattern matches between cultures; that is, given sets of cultural elements, {a, b, ...} of cultures {A, B, ...}, theorists look for groups of common elements and then hypothesize a connection between the corresponding cultures. The elements might be from any cultural aspects at all, from speech sounds to pot marks.


No complete but many partial matches have been found.


Ethnic formation hypothesis

In his own history of the Etruscan debate, Massimo Pallottino, the dominant Etruscologist of his times, distinguished between "provenance" and "ethnic formation."[11] Theories of the former seek an origin. He divided those into "oriental", "northern" and "autochthonous." Massimo Pallottino (November 9, 1909- February 7, 1995) was an archaeologist specializing in Etruscan civilization and art. ...


Formulating a different point of view on the same evidence, Pallottino says:[12]

... we must consider the concept 'Etruscan' as ... attached to ... a nation that flourished in Etruria between the eighth and first centuries BC .... We may discuss the provenance of each of these elements but a more appropriate concept ... would be that of formation ... the formative process of the nation can only have taken place on the territories of the Etruscans proper; and we are able to witness the final stages of this process. The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ...

Autochthonous hypothesis

Dionysius of Halicarnassus asserted:[10] Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ...

Indeed, those probably come nearest to the truth who declare that the nation migrated from nowhere signal, but was native to the country, since it is found to be a very ancient nation and to agree with no other either in its language or in its manner of living.

With this passage Dionysius launched the autochthonous theory, that the core element of the Etruscans, who spoke the Etruscan language, were of "the earth itself"; that is, on location for so long that they appeared to be the original or native inhabitants. They are therefore the owners of the Villanovan culture.[13] The Villanovans were a pre-Indo-European iron age people of northern Italy circa 1100-700 BC. They were followed by the Etruscans who may have evolved from them. ...


Picking up this theme, the Bonfantes (2002) state:[14]

... the history of the Etruscan people extends ... from c. 1200 to c. 100 BC. Many sites of the chief Etruscan cities of historical times were continuously occupied from the Iron Age 'Villanovan period on. Much confusion would have been avoided if archaeologists had used the name 'Proto-Etruscan' .... For in fact the people ... did not appear suddenly. Nor did they suddenly start to speak Etruscan. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... The Villanovans were a pre-Indo-European iron age people of northern Italy circa 1100-700 BC. They were followed by the Etruscans who may have evolved from them. ...

An additional elaboration conjectures that the Etruscans were[15]

... an ethnic island of very ancient peoples isolated by the flood of Indo-European speakers. For other uses, see Indo-European. ...

Lydian immigration hypothesis

Herodotus[16] records the legend that the Etruscans came from Lydia in Asia Minor: Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Lydia (Greek ) is a historic region of western Anatolia, congruent with Turkeys modern provinces of İzmir and Manisa. ...

This is their story: [...] their king divided the people into two groups, and made them draw lots, so that the one group should remain and the other leave the country; he himself was to be the head of those who drew the lot to remain there, and his son, whose name was Tyrrhenus, of those who departed. [...] they came to the Ombrici, where they founded cities and have lived ever since. They no longer called themselves Lydians, but Tyrrhenians, after the name of the king's son who had led them there. The Umbri (or Umbrians) were an ancient Italic tribe. ...

In reply, Dionysius of Halicarnassus, who read Herodotus, states:[10] Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ...

For this reason, therefore, I am persuaded that the Pelasgians are a different people from the Tyrrhenians. And I do not believe, either, that the Tyrrhenians were a colony of the Lydians; for they do not use the same language as the latter, nor can it be alleged that, though they no longer speak a similar tongue, they still retain some other indications of their mother country. For they neither worship the same gods as the Lydians nor make use of similar laws or institutions, but in these very respects they differ more from the Lydians than from the Pelasgians. The name Pelasgians (Ancient Greek: Πελασγοί - Pelasgoí, s. ...

Sea peoples hypothesis

Main article: Tyrrhenians

The Etruscans or Tyrrhenians may have been one of the sea peoples of the 13th-14th century BC. The Tyrrhenians (Attic Greek Turrēnoi) or Tyrsenians (Ionic Tursēnoi, Doric Tursānoi) is an exonym used by Greek authors to refer to a non-Greek people. ... The Budgie People is the term used for a confederacy of seafaring raiders who sailed into the eastern shores of the Mediterranean, caused political unrest, and attempted to enter or control Egyptian territory during the late 19th dynasty, and especially during Year 8 of Ramesses III of the 20th Dynasty. ...


Genetic evidence

A team of geneticists from different universities in Italy and Spain undertook the first genetic studies of the ancient Etruscans, based on mitochondrial DNA from 80 bone samples taken from tombs dating from the seventh century to the third century BC in Etruria.[17] This study finds that they were more related to each other than to the general population of modern Italy. Recent studies suggested a Near East origin. [18] The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ...


This team of scientitsts did not use genetic testing to estimate total population numbers, however they referenced a second work that did give an estimate [19] Based upon that estimate, the pool contained between about 150,000 to 200,000 women. Dividing these numbers by the 36 cities in the three Etruscan leagues obtains an average of between 4167 and 6944 women per community. Selecting an arbitrary family size of four gives a most approximate Etruscan population of 600,000 to 800,000 persons in about 36 communities of an average between 16,668 and 27,776 persons each. These populations are sufficiently dense and sufficiently urban to have accomplished everything the Etruscans were supposed to have accomplished.


The studies did show that the areas of historical Etruscan occupation share a relatively high concentration of y-haplogroup G with Anatolians. This evidence is not specific to any period or calendar date, and might reflect contiguous populations or significant migration far back in the stone age. Haplogroup G (Y-DNA) is most frequent in the Caucasus (found at over 60% in ethnic North Ossetian males). ...


Another team of Italian researchers has shown that the mtDNA of cattle (Bos taurus) in modern Tuscany is different from that of cattle normally found elsewhere in Italy, and even in Europe as a whole.[20] Their mtDNA is, in fact, similar to that of cattle typically found in the Near East. Many tribes who have migrated in the past have typically taken their livestock with them as they moved. This bovine mtDNA study suggests that at least some people whose descendants were Etruscans did in fact make their way to Italy from Anatolia or other parts of the Near East. The study gives no clue as to when they might have done so. But this study quickly came under attack. Working with ancient DNA is extremely difficult, because most bones from archaeological sites have been carelessly handled. Extensive contamination with modern human DNA can swamp the signal of what little ancient DNA may still survive.Hans-Jürgen Bandelt, a geneticist at the University of Hamburg in Germany, wrote that the DNA recovered from the Etruscan bones showed clear signs of such problems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is DNA which is not located in the nucleus of the cell but in the mitochondria. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Inhabitants of the Near East, late nineteenth century. ...


Prehistory

Main article: Villanovan culture

As the Villanovan Culture prevailed over the Etruscan range at the dawn of their history, it must have been theirs. That it was exclusively theirs over its time span is less certain, and whether Etruscan culture preceded it is completely unknown. Villanovan Culture in 900BC The Villanovan culture was the earliest Iron Age culture of central and northern Italy, abruptly following the Bronze Age Terramare culture and giving way in the 7th century BC to an increasingly orientalizing culture influenced by Greek traders, which was followed without a severe break by...


History

Etruscan musician, Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia.
Etruscan musician, Tomb of the Triclinium, Tarquinia.
Main article: Etruscan history

Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled mainly by Greek and Roman authors. Apart from their inscriptions, from which information mainly of a sociological character can be extracted, the Etruscans left no surviving history of their own. Remnants of Etruscan writings are often concerned with religion and rituals. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2639, 569 KB) Description: Title: de: Tänzer des Festmahles, Detail Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: de: Höhe 130 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Tarquinia Current location (gallery): de: Tomba del Triclinio Other notes: Source: The... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2024x2639, 569 KB) Description: Title: de: Tänzer des Festmahles, Detail Technique: de: Wandmalerei Dimensions: de: Höhe 130 cm Country of origin: de: Italien Current location (city): de: Tarquinia Current location (gallery): de: Tomba del Triclinio Other notes: Source: The... Tarquinia, formerly Corneto and in Antiquity Tarquinii, is an ancient city in the province of Viterbo, Lazio, Italy. ... Etruscan history is the written record of Etruscan civilization compiled mainly by Greek and Roman authors. ...


Religion

Main article: Etruscan mythology

The Etruscan system of belief was an immanent polytheism; that is, all visible phenomena were considered to be a manifestation of divine power and that power was subdivided into deities that acted continually on the world of man and could be dissuaded or persuaded in favor of human affairs. Three layers are evident in the extensive Etruscan art motifs. One appears to be divinities of an indigenous nature: Catha and Usil, the sun, Tivr, the moon, Selvans, a civil god, Turan, the goddess of love, Laran, the god of war, Leinth, the goddess of death, Maris, Thalna, Turms and the ever-popular Fufluns, whose name is related in some unknown way to the city of Populonia and the populus Romanus. Perhaps he was the god of the people. The Etruscans were a race of unknown origin from North Italy who were eventually integrated into Rome. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Catha may refer to: the shrub Khat the Etruscan goddess Cautha This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... REDIRECT Selvans_(mythology) ... In Etruscan mythology, Turan was the goddess of love and vitality and patroness of Vulci (cur: Volci). ... In Etruscan mythology, Laran was the god of war. ... Maris was the Etruscan god of agriculture later associated with the Roman war/agricultual god Mars. ... In Etruscan mythology, Thalna was the goddess of childbirth and wife of Tinia. ... For other meanings see Hermes (disambiguation) Hermes bearing the infant Dionysus, by Praxiteles Hermēs (Greek: Έρμης: pile of marker stones), in Greek mythology, is the god of boundaries and of the travelers who cross them, of shepherds and cowherds, of orators, literature and poets, of athletics, of weights and measures... In very ancient Etruscan mythology, Fufluns (or Puphluns) was a god of plant life, happiness and health and growth in all things. ... Populonium (Etruscan Pupluna), an ancient seaport town of Etruria, Italy, at the north end of the peninsular of Monte Massoncello, at the south end of which is situated the town of Piombino. ...


Ruling over this pantheon of lesser deities were higher ones that seem to reflect the Indo-European system: Tin or Tinia, the sky, Uni his wife (Juno), and Cel, the earth goddess. In addition the Greek gods were taken into the Etruscan system: Aritimi (Artemis), Menrva (Minerva), Pacha (Bacchus). The Greek heroes taken from Homer also appear extensively in art motifs. For the language group, see Indo-European languages. ... In Etruscan mythology, Tinia was the highest god of the skies, husband to Thalna or Uni. ... IVNO REGINA (Queen Juno) on a coin celebrating Julia Soaemias. ... In Etruscan mythology, Artume or Aritimi was the goddess of night, the moon and death, as well as nature, forests and fertility. ... For other uses, see Artemis (disambiguation). ... In Etruscan mythology, Menrva was the goddess of wisdom, war, art, schools and commerce. ... This article is about the Roman goddess. ... This article is about the ancient deity. ... For other uses, see Homer (disambiguation). ...


Architecture

Main article: Etruscan architecture

The Etruscans made lasting contributions to the architecture of Italy, which were adopted by the Romans and through them became standard to western civilization. Rome itself is a repository of Etruscan architectural features, which perhaps did not originate with the Etruscans, but were channeled by them into Roman civilization. Arched gate, Etruscan lion, Pisa. ...


Some scholars also see in Urartean art, architecture, language and general culture traces of kinship to the Etruscans of the Italian peninsula.[21] Urartu at its greatest extent 743 BC Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in the mountainous plateau between Asia Minor, Mesopotamia, and Caucasus mountains, later known as the Armenian Highland, and it centered around Lake Van (present-day eastern Turkey). ...


Art

Close up detail on a wheel of the monteleone chariot, c. 530 BC.
Close up detail on a wheel of the monteleone chariot, c. 530 BC.
Main article: Etruscan art

The Monteleone chariot, as restored in 1903. ... Map showing the extent of the Etruscan civilization and the twelve Etruscan League cities. ...

Written Records

With the exception of the Liber Linteus, the only written records of Etruscan origin that remain are inscriptions, mainly funerary. The language is written in a script related to the primitive Euboean Greek alphabet.[22] Etruscan literature is evidenced only in references by later Roman authors. The Liber Linteus (Zagrabiensis) (also rarely known as Liber Agramensis) (Latin: Linen Book (of Zagreb) or Book of Agram) is the longest Etruscan text and the only extant linen book. ...


Theatre

Again, only Latin references are left of this area of Etruscan culture. One word is perhaps emblematic of this theatrical work - φersu (persona in Latin, person in English). This word, among others, passed into Latin.


Music

The instruments seen in Etruscan frescoes and bas-reliefs are essentially just different types of pipes, such as the plagiaulos (the pipes of Pan or Syrinx), the alabaster pipe and the famous double pipes, accompanied on percussion instruments such as the tintinnabulum, tympanum and crotales, and later by stringed instruments like the lyre and kithara. A nude youth plays the aulos at a banquet: Attic red-figure cup by the Euaion Painter, ca. ... Pan (Greek , genitive ) is the Greek god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music: paein means to pasture. ... According to Bulfinchs Mythology, Syrinx (Greek Συριγξ) was a nymph and a follower of Artemis, known for her chastity. ... A timpanist in the United States Air Forces in Europe Band. ... Crotales (upper right) are often used with other mallet percussion Crotales, sometimes called antique cymbals, are percussion instruments consisting of small, tuned bronze or brass disks. ... “Lyres” redirects here. ... The kithara was an ancient Greek musical instrument. ...


Heritage at Rome

Those who subscribe to an Italic foundation of Rome, followed by an Etruscan invasion, typically speak of an Etruscan “influence” on Roman culture; that is, cultural objects that were adopted at Rome from neighboring Etruria. The prevalent view today is that Rome was founded by Italics and merged with Etruscans later. In that case Etruscan cultural objects are not a heritage but are influences. Ancient Italic peoples are all those peoples that lived in Italy before the Roman domination. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ...


The main criterion for deciding whether an object originated at Rome and travelled by influence to the Etruscans, or descended to the Romans from the Etruscans, is date. Many, if not most, of the Etruscan cities were older than Rome. If we find that a given feature was there first, it cannot have originated at Rome. A second criterion is the opinion of the ancient sources. They tell us outright that certain institutions and customs came from the Etruscans.


The question of the founding population

In 390 BC the city of Rome was attacked by the Gauls, and as a result may have lost many - though not all - of its earlier records. Certainly, the history of Rome before that date is not as secure as it later becomes, but enough material remains to give a good picture of the development of the city and its institutions. Gallia (in English Gaul) is the Latin name for the region of western Europe occupied by present-day France, Belgium, western Switzerland and the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine river. ...


Later history relates that some Etruscans lived in the Tuscus vicus, the “Etruscan quarter”, and that there was an Etruscan line of kings (albeit ones descended from a Greek, Demaratus the Corinthian) which succeeded kings of Latin and Sabine origin. Etruscophile historians would argue that this, together with evidence for institutions, religious elements and other cultural elements, prove that Rome was founded by Italics. The true picture is rather more complicated, not least because the Etruscan cities were separate entities which never came together to form a single Etruscan state. Furthermore, there were strong Latin and Italic elements to Roman culture, and later Romans proudly celebrated these multiple, 'multicultural' influences on the city. Demaratus was the father of the fifth king of Rome Lucius Tarquinius Priscus; grandfather of the seventh and last King of Rome Lucius Tarquinius Superbus. ...


Foundation of Rome

Rome is located on the edge of what was Etruscan territory. When Etruscan settlements turned up south of the border, it was presumed that the Etruscans spread there after the foundation of Rome, but the settlements are now known to have preceded Rome.

Etruscan walled town (Civita di Bagnoregio).
Etruscan walled town (Civita di Bagnoregio).

Etruscan settlements were frequently built on a hill—the steeper the better—and surrounded by thick walls. When Romulus and Remus founded Rome, they did so on the Palatine Hill according to Etruscan ritual; that is, they began with a pomoerium or sacred ditch. Then, they proceeded to the walls. Romulus was required to kill Remus when the latter jumped over the wall, breaking its magic spell (see also under Pons Sublicius). Image File history File linksMetadata Civita_di_Bagnoregio. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Civita_di_Bagnoregio. ... Civita di Bangme is a town of Viterbo province in Central Italy, 42°38N 12°06E, a frazione of the comune of Bagnoregio, 2 km (about 1 mile) W. It is about 145 km (90 mi) north of Rome. ... Romulus may refer to any of these articles: Romulus is a mythical founder of Rome, brother of Remus. ... 17th century aviaries on the hill, built by Rainaldi for Odoardo Cardinal Farnese: once wirework cages surmounted them. ... The earliest known bridge of ancient Rome, Italy, the Pons Sublicius, spanned the Tiber River near the Forum Boarium (cattle forum) downstream from the Tiber island, near the foot of the Aventine Hill. ...


The name of Rome is believed by some to be Etruscan, occurring in a standard form stating “place from which”: Velzna-χ, “from Velzna”, Sveama-χ, “from Sveama”, Ruma-χ, “from Ruma”. We do not know what it means however. If Tiberius is from θefarie, then Ruma would have been placed on the Thefar river.


Populus Romanus

Under Romulus and Numa the people were said to have been divided into thirty curiae and three tribes. Very few words of Etruscan entered the Latin language, but the names of at least two of the tribes — Ramnes and Luceres — seem to be Etruscan. The last kings may have borne the Etruscan title lucumo, while the regalia were traditionally considered of Etruscan origin: the golden crown, sceptre, the toga palmata (a special robe), the sella curulis (curule chair), and above all the primary symbol of state power: the fasces. The latter was a bundle of whipping rods surrounding a double-bladed axe, carried by the king's lictors. Chance has thrown an example of the fasces into our possession: remains of bronze rods and the axe come from a tomb in Etruscan Vetulonia. Now that its appearance is known, the depiction of one was identified on the grave stele of Avele Feluske, who is shown as a warrior wielding the fasces. A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Roman fasces. ... The lictor, derived from the Latin ligare (to bind), was a member of a special class of Roman civil servant, with special tasks of attending magistrates of the Roman Republic and Empire who held imperium. ... Vetulonia, formerly called Vetulonium or Vatluna, was an ancient town of Etruria, Italy, the site of which is probably occupied by the modern village of Vetulonia, which up to 1887 bore the name of Colonna. ... This article is about the stone structure. ...


The most telling Etruscan feature is the word populus, which appears as an Etruscan deity, Fufluns. Populus seems to mean the people assembled in a military body, rather than the general populace, however.


Etruscan cities

Main article: Etruscan cities

The range of Etruscan civilization is marked by its cities. They were entirely assimilated by Italic, Celtic or Roman ethnic groups, but the names survive from inscriptions and their ruins are of aesthetic and historic interest in most of the cities of central Italy. The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... Look up Italic, italic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the European people. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Notes

  1. ^ According to Félix Gaffiot's Dictionnaire Illustré Latin Français, Tusci was used by the major authors of the Roman Republic: Livy, Cicero, Horace, etc. A number of cognate words developed: Tuscia, Tusculanensis, etc. This was clearly the major word used for things Etruscan. Etrusci and Etrūria were used less often, mainly by Cicero and Horace, and without cognates. According to the Online Etymological Dictionary, the English use of Etruscan dates from 1706.
  2. ^ Gaffiot's.
  3. ^ Rasenna comes from Dionysius of Halicarnassus I.30.3. The syncopated form, Rasna, is inscriptional and is inflected. The topic is covered in Pallottino, page 133. Some inscriptions, such as the cippus of Cortona, feature the Raśna (pronounced Rashna) alternative, as is described in Gabor Z. Bodroghy's site, The Palaeolinguistic Connection, under Origins.
  4. ^ A good map of the Italian range and cities of the culture at the beginning of its history can be found at [1], the mysteriousetruscans.com site. The topic of the "League of Etruria" is covered in Freeman, pages 562-565. The league in northern Italy is mentioned in Livy, Book V, Section 33. The passage also identifies the Raetii as a remnant of the 12 cities "beyond the Apennines." The Campanian Etruscans are mentioned (among many sources) by Polybius, (II.17). The entire subject with complete ancient sources in footnotes was worked up by George Dennis in his Introduction. In the LacusCurtius transcription, the references in Dennis's footnotes link to the texts in English or Latin; the reader may also find the English of some of them on WikiSource or other Internet sites. As the work has already been done by Dennis and Thayer, the complete work-up is not repeated here.
  5. ^ Paper entitled Cui Bono? The Beneficiary Phrases of the Third Iguvine Table by Michael Weiss and published on-line by Cornell University at [2].
  6. ^ Carl Darling Buck (1904), A Grammar of Oscan and Umbian, Boston: Gibb & Company, Introduction, available online at [3], the forumromanum.org site.
  7. ^ Eric Partridge (1983), Origins, New York: Greenwich House, under "tower."
  8. ^ a b The Bonfantes (2003), Page 51.
  9. ^ Partridge.
  10. ^ a b c Book I, Section 30.
  11. ^ Pallottino [date] Chapter 2.
  12. ^ Pages 68-69.
  13. ^ Page 52. Pallottino attributes this theory in modern times to the historian, Eduard Meyer, with Ugo Antonielli later associating the Villanovan and the natives. But Mayer soon adopted the oriental theory and Antonielli the northern. Drews in The End of the Bronze Age, page 59, available as a preview on Google Books at [4], reports on Meyer and the views of Antonielli are stated in a review by R. A. L. Fell of Studi Etruschi. Vol. I. Rassegna di Etruscologia by A. Neppi Modona, the first page of which is found at [5].
  14. ^ Page 3.
  15. ^ Pallottino, page 52, who says that he relies on Alfredo Trombetti and Giacomo Devoto.
  16. ^ Histories 1.94
  17. ^ Cristiano Vernesi and others, "The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study", The American Journal of Human Genetics, 2004 April; 74(4): 694–704, published online at [6], the PubMed Central site.
  18. ^ DNA Boosts Herodotus’ Account of Etruscans as Migrants to Italy
  19. ^ Rasmussen T (2004) "Urbanisation in Etruria." In: Osborne R (ed) Mediterranean urbanisation, 800–600 B.C. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.
  20. ^ M. Pellecchia and others including Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA, Proceedings of the Royal Society, February 2007, summary available online at [7] on the PubMed Central site.
  21. ^ A History of Armenia by Vahan M. Kurkjian p.19
  22. ^ http://www.theculturedtraveler.com/Museums/Archives/U_Penn.htm

This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... A portrait of Titus Livius made long after his death. ... For other uses, see Cicero (disambiguation). ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... Polybius (c. ... LacusCurtius is a website specializing in ancient Rome, currently hosted on a server at the University of Chicago. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Cornell redirects here. ... Carl Darling Buck (October 2, 1866 _ 1955), American philologist, was born at Bucksport, Maine. ... Eduard Meyer (January 25, 1855 - August 31, 1930) was a German historian, born at Hamburg and educated at the universities of Bonn and Leipzig. ... R[oland] A[rthur] L[onsdale] Fell (1895‑1973) was a British classical scholar educated at Cambridge, the author of Etruria and Rome, an important work on the Etruscan civilization for which he won the 1923 Thirlwall Prize; and co-author with Thomas Ashby of a widely cited paper, The... Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza (born January 25, 1922) is an Italian population geneticist born in Genoa, who has been a professor at Stanford University since 1970 (now emeritus). ... For other uses, see Royal Society (disambiguation). ...

Bibliography

Ancient sources
Modern sources
  • Barker, G.; T. Rasmussen (1998). The Etruscans. London: Blackwell. 
  • Bloch, Raymond (1969). The ancient civilization of the Etruscans. New York: Cowles Book. 
  • Bonfante, Larissa; et al. ed. (1986). Etruscan Life and Afterlife: a Handbook of Etruscan Studies. Warminster: Aris and Phillips. 
  • Bonfante, Larissa (1990). Etruscan. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-07118-2. 
  • Bonfante, G.; L. Bonfante (2002). The Etruscan Language. An Introduction. Manchester University Press. 
  • Bram, L. (editor) (1975). Funk & Wagnalls New Encyclopedia. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. 
  • Brendel (1995). Etruscan art. New Haven: Yale University Press. 
  • Dennis, George (1848). The Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria. London: John Murray.  Available in the Gazeteer of Bill Thayer's Website at [8]
  • Freeman, Edward Augustus (1893). History of Federal Government in Greece and Italy. London, New York: Macmillan and Co. 
  • Greenidge, A. H. J. (2003). A History of Rome During the Later Republic and Early Principate. 
  • de Grummond, Nancy & Erika Simon(editors) (2006). The Religion of the Etruscans. University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-70687-1. 
  • Hampton, C. (1969). The Etruscans and the survival of Etruria. London: Victor Gollancz. 
  • Haynes, S. (2000). Etruscan Civilization. Los Angeles: The J. Paul Getty Trust. 
  • Maetzke, Guglielmo [1969]. The Art of the Etruscans. 
  • Macnamara, E. (1973). Everyday Life of the Etruscans. London: B. T. Batsford. 
  • Massa, Aldo (1989). The Etruscans. Editions Minerva. 
  • Pallottino, M. (1975). The Etruscans. London: Penguin Books. 
  • Richardson, Emeline (1964). The Etruscans: Their Art and Civilization. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 
  • Roldán Hervás, José Manuel (2000). Historia de Roma. Salamanca: Ediciones Universidad de Salamanca. 
  • Spivy, N.; S. Stoddart (1990). Etruscan Italy. London: Batsford. 
  • Stillwell, Richard, ed. (1976). Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites. 
  • Torelli, Mario, ed. (2000). Gli Etruschi. Milan: Bompiani. 

Dionysius Halicarnassensis (of Halicarnassus), Greek historian and teacher of rhetoric, flourished during the reign of Augustus. ... LacusCurtius is a website specializing in ancient Rome, currently hosted on a server at the University of Chicago. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Herodotus of Halicarnassus (Greek: Hēródotos Halikarnāsseús) was a Greek historian who lived in the 5th century BC (ca. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Polybius (c. ... LacusCurtius is a website specializing in ancient Rome, currently hosted on a server at the University of Chicago. ... George Dennis (b. ... Edward Augustus Freeman (August 2, 1823 - March 16, 1892) was an English historian. ... Massimo Pallottino (November 9, 1909- February 7, 1995) was an archaeologist specializing in Etruscan civilization and art. ... Emeline Hill Richardson (6 June 1910 in Buffalo, New York, USA - 29 August 1999 in Durham, North Carolina) was a notable classical archaeologist and Etruscan scholar. ... Mario Torelli is a contemporary scholar of Italic archaeology and the culture of the Etruscans. ...

See also

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Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The Etruscan Chimera of Arezzo The bronze Chimera of Arezzo is one of the best known examples of the art of the Etruscans. ... The area covered by the Etruscan civilzation. ... This page is on the museum itself, for the architectural history of the house see Villa Giulia. ... Sarcophagus of the spouses, at the Villa Giulia Sarcophagus of the Spouses, late 6th century BC terracotta Etruscan anthropoid sarcophagus, 1. ... The Tomb of the Roaring Lions is an archaeological site at the ancient city of Veii, Italy. ...

External links

General

  • Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria, the book by George Dennis at LacusCurtius
  • Etruscan News Online, the Newsletter of the American Section of the Institute for Etruscan and Italic Studies.
  • Mysterious Etruscans, community dedicated to the preservation of Etruscan culture.

George Dennis (b. ... LacusCurtius is a website specializing in ancient Rome, currently hosted on a server at the University of Chicago. ...

Genetics

  • The Etruscans: A Population-Genetic Study
  • DNA Boosts Herodotus’ Account of Etruscans as Migrants to Italy

Cities and sites

  • (Soprintendenza per i Beni Archeologici dell'Umbria) "The Cai Cutu Etruscan tomb" An undisturbed late Etruscan family tomb, reused between the 3rd and 1st century BC, reassembled in the National Archeological Museum of Perugia
  • Etruscan Splendors from Volterra in Tuscany

Art

  • Etruscan Lion Plaque Pendant, article on a piece of Etruscan art.

 
 

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