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Encyclopedia > Etiology

Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation. Derived from the Greek αίτιολογία, "giving a reason for" (αἰτία "cause" + -λογία).[1] Aetiology is a web log, or blog that is written by Tara C. Smith, PhD, a faculty member with an expertise in epidemiology working in the College of Public Health at the University of Iowa. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... The English suffix -ology or -logy denotes a field of study or academic discipline, and -ologist describes a person who studies that field. ...


The word is most commonly used in medical and philosophical theories, where it is used to refer to the study of why things occur, or even the reasons behind the way that things act, and is used in philosophy, physics, psychology, government, and medicine, and biology in reference to the causes of various phenomena. An etiological myth is a myth intended to explain a name or create a mythic history for a place or family. The philosopher Socrates about to take poison hemlock as ordered by the court. ... This is a discussion of a present category of science. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Medicine is the science and art of maintaining andor restoring human health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of patients. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and...

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Medicine

In medicine in particular, the term refers to the causes of diseases or pathologies.[2] Etiological discovery in medicine has a history in Robert Koch's demonstration that the tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex) causes the disease tuberculosis, that Bacillus anthracis causes anthrax, and that cholera is caused by Vibrio cholerae. This line of thinking and evidence is summarised in Koch's postulates. Proof of causation in infectious diseases is limited, however, to individual cases that provide experimental evidence of etiology. The term disease refers to an abnormal condition of an organism that impairs function. ... Pathology (from Greek pathos, feeling, pain, suffering; and logos, study of; see also -ology) is the study of the processes underlying disease and other forms of illness, harmful abnormality, or dysfunction. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Binomial name Mycobacterium tuberculosis Zopf 1883 Mycobacterium tuberculosis is the bacterium that causes most cases of tuberculosis[1]. It was first described on March 24, 1882 by Robert Koch, who subsequently received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine for this discovery in 1905. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ... Binomial name Bacillus anthracis Cohn 1872 Bacillus anthracis is a Gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium of the genus Bacillus. ... Cholera (or Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera) is a severe diarrheal disease caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Binomial name Vibrio cholerae Pacini 1854 Vibrio cholerae is a gram negative bacterium with a curved-rod shape that causes cholera in humans. ... Kochs postulates (or Henle-Koch postulates) are four criteria designed to establish a causal relationship between a causative microbe and a disease. ...


In epidemiology, several lines of evidence taken in aggregate are required to infer causation. Sir Adrian Bradford-Hill demonstrated a causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer, and summarised the line of reasoning in the epidemiological criteria for causation. Dr. Al Evans, a US epidemiologist, put forward the Unified Concept of Causation, a synthesis of the predecessors' ideas.


Etiological research in medicine has required further thinking in epidemiology - we may distinguish what is seen to be associated or statistically correlated, as due to several possible relationships. Things may be associated in observation due to chance, or due to bias or confounding, as well as due to causation (or reverse causation). Careful sampling and measurement are more important in teasing out causation from chance, bias or confounding than sophisticated statistical analyses. Experimental evidence, involving interventions (providing or removing the supposed cause) gives the most compelling evidence of etiology.


Thus etiology may be one part of a chain of causation. An etiological agent (sine qua non) of disease may require an independent co-factor (necessary but not sufficient), and be subject to a promoter (increases expression) in producing a disease. An example of all the above would be the late recognition that peptic ulcer disease may be induced by stress, requires the presence of acid secretion in the stomach, and have primary etiology in Helicobacter pylori infection. Many chronic diseases of unknown cause may be studied in this frame of reference to explain multiple epidemiological associations or risk factors which may or may not be causally related, and to seek the actual etiology. Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ... Binomial name Helicobacter pylori ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) Helicobacter pylori is a helical shaped Gram-negative bacterium that colonises the mucus layer of gastric epithelium in the stomach, and also the duodenum when it has undergone gastric metaplasia. ...


Some diseases, such as diabetes, are defined by their symptoms and therefore can have more than one etiology. This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... The term symptom (from the Greek meaning chance, mishap or casualty, itself derived from συμπιπτω meaning to fall upon or to happen to) has two similar meanings in the context of physical and mental health: Strictly, a symptom is a sensation or change in health function experienced by a patient. ...


Mythology

An etiological myth is a myth intended to explain the origins of cult practices, natural phenomena, proper names and the like. For example, the name Delphi and its associated deity, Apollon Delphinios, are explained in the Homeric Hymn which tells how Apollo carried Cretans over the sea in the shape of a dolphin ("delphis") to make them his priests. While Delphi is actually related to the word delphys ("womb"), many etiological myths are similarly based on folk etymology (the term "Amazon", for example). In the Aeneid (published circa 17 BC), Vergil claims the descent of Augustus Caesar's Julian clan from the hero Aeneas through his son Ascanius, also called Julus. Other examples of etiological myth come from the Bible, such as the setting of the rainbow in the heavens as a sign of God's covenant with Noah (Genesis 9); or the story of Lot's wife in Genesis 19 (specifically 26), which explains why there are pillars of salt in the area of the Dead Sea.[3] The story of Prometheus' sacrifice-trick in Hesiod's Theogony relates how Prometheus tricked Zeus into choosing the bones and fat of the first sacrificial animal rather than the meat to justify why, after a sacrifice, the Greeks offered the bones wrapped in fat to the gods while keeping the meat for themselves. The word mythology (from the Greek μυολογία mythología, from mythologein to relate myths, from mythos, meaning a narrative, and logos, meaning speech or argument) literally means the (oral) retelling of myths – stories that a particular culture believes to be true and that use the supernatural to interpret natural events and... Delphi (Greek , [ðeÌžlˈfi]) is an archaeological site and a modern town in Greece on the south-western spur of Mount Parnassus in a valley of Phocis. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The anonymous Homeric Hymns are a collection of ancient Greek hymns. ... Crete (Greek Κρήτη — classical transliteration KrÄ“tÄ“, modern Greek transliteration Kríti; Ottoman Turkish گريد (Girit); Classical Latin CrÄ“ta, Vulgar Latin Candia) is the largest of the Greek islands at 8,336 km² (3,219 square miles) and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean. ... Genera See article below. ... Folk etymology is a term used in two distinct ways: A commonly held misunderstanding of the origin of a particular word, a false etymology. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598 Galleria Borghese, Rome The Aeneid (IPA English pronunciation: ; in Latin Aeneis, pronounced — the title is Greek in form: genitive case Aeneidos): is a Latin epic written by Virgil in the 1st century BCE (between 29 and 19 BCE) that tells the legendary story... For other uses see Virgil (disambiguation). ... Augustus Caesar Caesar Augustus (Latin: IMP·CAESAR·DIVI·F·AVGVSTVS)¹ (23 September 63 BC – 19 August AD 14), known earlier in his life as Gaius Octavius or Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus, was the first Roman Emperor and is traditionally considered the greatest. ... Aeneas flees burning Troy, Federico Barocci, 1598. ... A covenant, in its most general sense, is a solemn promise to do or not do something specified. ... This article is about the biblical Noah. ... It has been suggested that Lut be merged into this article or section. ... The Dead Sea (‎, yam ha-melaħ, Sea of Salt; Quranic Arabic: , baħrᵘ l- mayitⁱ [3], Death Sea) is a salt lake between the West Bank and Israel to the west, and Jordan to the east. ... In Greek mythology, Prometheus (Greek: forethought) is the Titan chiefly honored for stealing fire from Zeus in the stalk of a fennel plant and giving it to mortals for their use. ... Roman bronze bust, the so-called Pseudo-Seneca, now identified by some as possibly Hesiod Hesiod (Hesiodos, ) was an early Greek poet and rhapsode, who presumably lived around 700 BC. Hesiod and Homer, with whom Hesiod is often paired, have been considered the earliest Greek poets whose work has survived... Theogony is a poem by Hesiod describing the origins of the gods of the ancient Greeks, ca 700 BC. // Hesiods Theogony a large-scale synthesis of a vast variety of local Greek traditions concerning the gods, organized as a narrative that tells how they came to be and how... The Statue of Zeus at Olympia Phidias created the 12-m (40-ft) tall statue of Zeus at Olympia about 435 BC. The statue was perhaps the most famous sculpture in Ancient Greece, imagined here in a 16th century engraving Zeus (in Greek: nominative: Zeús, genitive: Diós), is...


See also

For the book by Pope Benedict XVI, see Eschatology (book). ... Geomythology is the study of alleged referencees to geological events in mythology. ... A just-so story is a term used in academic anthropology, biological sciences, and social sciences for a narrative explanation for a cultural practice or a biological trait or behavior of humans or animals which is unverifiable and unfalsifiable. ...

References

  1. ^ (2002) Aetiology, 2nd ed., Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195219422. 
  2. ^ Greene J (1996). The three C's of etiology. Wide Smiles. Retrieved on 2007-08-20. Discusses several examples of the medical usage of the term etiology in the context of cleft lips and explains methods used to study causation.
  3. ^ (1973) Oxford Annotated Edition, Revised Standard Version of the Bible. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Look up etiology in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Etiology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (464 words)
Etiology (alternately aetiology, aitiology) is the study of causation.
In this instance the episode is included in the mythic story of the flood: a myth common in mesopotamian influenced civilizations.
In this case the etiology is incidental to the myth.
ETIOLOGY OF TEMPOROMANDIBULAR DISORDERS (701 words)
It is apparent that the inconsistencies in the etiology of TMD lie in the classification and definition of "an event" which triggers the onset of symptoms.
A perfect example of the inconsistency regarding the etiology of TMD can be seen in a comparison of studies as reported by Okeson.
Thus, the etiology of TMD will depend on the specific case at hand and be revealed only after systemic evaluation and subsequent elimination of other possible etiologic factors.
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