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Encyclopedia > Ethylmorphine

Ethylmorphine is a drug in the class of both opiates (representing a minor synthetic change from morphine) and opioids (being effective in the CNS's opioid reception system) . Its effects in humans mainly stem from its metabolic conversion to morphine. Morphine (INN), the principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ...

Contents

Metabolism

After ingestion, ethylmorphine is converted to morphine in the human liver by the CYP450-isozyme CYP2D6, similarly to codeine. Morphine is an extremely potent analgesic and the main active compound found in naturally occurring opium. Ethylmorphine's metabolism is hindered by ethanol [1]  (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9140136&dopt=Abstract), which, being a CNS depressant, also boosts the drug's sedative effect on the central nervous system - creating a potentially dangerous combination as both drugs cause depression of the respiratory system that can be mutually amplified. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (abbreviated CYP2D6) (EC 1. ... Codeine ( INN) is an opioid used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrhoeal properties. ... An analgesic (colloquially known as painkiller) is any member of the diverse group of drugs used to relieve pain. ... Opium is a narcotic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy . ... Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ...


Medical uses

Ethylmorphine is used as a antitussive to treat dry cough. It is also a strong analgesic. A cough medicine or antitussive is a medication given to people to help them stop coughing. ...


Dosage

Ethylmorphine is 'less potent than morphine' but 'more potent than codeine'. Medical oral dosages vary from 5 to 30, even 50 mg. Naturally, all doses are much lower in intravenous use. Codeine ( INN) is an opioid used for its analgesic, antitussive and antidiarrhoeal properties. ... An intravenous drip in a hospital Intravenous therapy or IV therapy is the administration of liquid substances directly into a vein. ...


The lethal dose is unknown. One source (in Finnish) (http://rain.prohosting.com/robsku/dihkal/etyylimorfiini.html), however, suggests it to be as low as 500 mg.


Problems

Tolerance to the drug's effects develops fast. That is why ethylmorphine is normally used only as a temporary medicine to treat e.g. cough. Patients may develop addiction. Side effects, which are rare for medical doses but normal for recreational doses, include the classical opiate side-effects: nausea, vomiting, urinary retention, miosis and constipation. Also, some people are hypersensitive or allergic to ethylmorphine and should never take it. Additionally, the same dose of ethylmorphine can have completely different effects on two different people because of large individual differences in metabolism. Tolerance is a social, cultural and religious term applied to the collective and individual practice of not persecuting those who may believe, behave or act in ways of which one may not approve. ... Miosis is a medical term for constriction of the pupil. ... Constipation is a condition of the digestive system where a person (or other animal) experiences difficulty in eliminating feces. ... This article needs cleanup. ...


Opioids are known of causing severe physical addiction, in addition to psychological addiction. This type of addiction is hard to treat. The two litmus tests for determining clinical physical addition are: 1) Withdrawal: The absence of an already-habitual regimen has negative physiological consequences on the body. ... Psychological addiction, as opposed to physiological addiction, is a persons need to use a drug out of desire for the effects it produces, rather than to relieve withdrawal symptoms. ...


Taking ethylmorphine in combination with alcohol or other drugs that have a suppressive effect on the central nervous system boosts both drugs' effects, creating a dangerous combination. Possible outcome is death through respiratory arrest. Ethyl alcohol, also known as ethanol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless chemical compound, one of the alcohols that is most often found in alcoholic beverages. ... Respiratory arrest is the cessation of the normal tidal flow of the lungs due to paralysis of the diaphragm, collapse of the lung or any number of respiratory failures. ...


In recreational use the most common problem, however, is liver damage and other effects caused by other compounds besides ethylmorphine. Some analgesics with ethylmorphine also contain indometacin (e.g. Indalgin), which is toxic in big doses. Indomethacin is an indole derived non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. ...


Antidepressants such as fluoxetine (prozac) inhibit the enzyme that metabolizes ethylmorphine. Taking ethylmorphine while using such an antidepressant may therefore lead to major changes in ethylmorphine's effects. Conversely, barbiturate compounds such as Phenobarbitone induce the same enzyme, which rapidly increases the metabolism of ethylmorpine. Other current medications therefore always have to be taken into account when using this compound. Background Fluoxetine hydrochloride (brand names include Prozac®, Symbyax® (compounded with olanzapine), Sarafem®, Fontex® (Sweden), Fluctine (Austria, Germany), Prodep (India), Fludac (India)) is an antidepressant drug used medically in the treatment of depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, bulimia nervosa, premenstrual dysphoric disorder, and many other disorders. ...


Brand names

Analgesics

  • Indalgin (with indometacin)

Antitussives

  • Cocilana

See also

Morphine (INN), the principal active agent in opium, is a powerful opioid analgesic drug. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ... An opioid is any agent that binds to opioid receptors found principally in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract. ...

External links

  • Journal of Analytical Toxicology article on ethylmorphine metabolism (http://www.jatox.com/abstracts/1998/mar-apr/becmiab.htm)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethylmorphine (1064 words)
Ethylmorphine (also known as codethyline, Dionine, and ethyl morphine) is a drug in the class of both opiates (representing a minor synthetic change from morphine) and opioids (being effective in the CNS's opioid reception system).
Ethylmorphine also has a hydromorphone analogue (ethyldihydromorphinone or 3-ethoxy-7,8-dihydro-morphin-6-one), and a dihydromorphine analogue known as ethyldihydromorphine, although none of them appears to be commercially distributed at the current time.
Ethylmorphine's metabolism is hindered by ethanol [1], which, being a CNS depressant, also boosts the drug's sedative effect on the central nervous system - creating a potentially dangerous combination as both drugs cause depression of the respiratory system that can be mutually amplified.
arthritis pain relief - Ethylmorphine (419 words)
Ethylmorphine is a drug in the class of both opiates (representing a minor synthetic change from morphine) and opioids (being effective in the CNS's opioid reception system).
Ethylmorphine's metabolism is hindered by ethanol [1], which, being a CNS depressant, also boosts the drug's sedative effect on the central nervous system - creating a potentially dangerous combination as both drugs cause repression of the respiratory system that can be mutually amplified.
Ethylmorphine is used as a antitussive to treat dry cough.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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