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Zoology


Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1000x700, 1083 KB) La: Vulpes vulpes. ...

Branches of Zoology

Anthrozoology Anthrozoology is the study of human-animal interaction, also described as the science focusing on all aspects of the human-animal bond. ...


Apiology Apiology is the scientific study of bees, a branch of entomology. ...


Arachnology Arachnology is the scientific study of spiders and related organisms such as scorpions, pseudoscorpions, harvestmen, collectively called arachnids. ...


Cetology Cetology is the branch of marine mammal science that studies the approximately eighty species of whales, dolphins, and porpoise in the scientific order Cetacea. ...


Entomology Not to be confused with Etymology, the study of the origin of words. ...


Ethology


Herpetology Herpetology (Greek herpeton = to creep, to ramp and logos = in this context explanation or reason) is the branch of zoology concerned with the study of reptiles and amphibians. ...


Ichthyology Ichthyology is the branch of zoology devoted to the study of fish. ...


Malacology Classes Caudofoveata Aplacophora Polyplacophora - Chitons Monoplacophora Bivalvia - Bivalves Scaphopoda - Tusk shells Gastropoda - Snails and Slugs Cephalopoda - Squids, Octopuses, etc. ...


Mammalogy In zoology, mammalogy is the study of mammals – a class of vertebrates with characteristics such as homeothermic metabolism, fur, four-chambered hearts, and complex nervous systems. ...


Myrmecology It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of notable myrmecologists. ...


Neuroethology Neuroethology (from Greek - neuron meaning from nerves, ethos meaning trait or character, and logos meaning words or study) is the scientific study of animal behaviour with its base in neurology. ...


Ornithology Ornithology (from the Greek ornis = bird and logos = word/science) is the branch of zoology concerned with the scientific study of birds. ...


Paleozoology Paleozoology (Greek: paleon = old and zoon = animal) is the branch of paleontology dealing with the recovery and identification of animal remains from archeological (or even geological) contexts, and their use in the reconstruction of past environments and economies. ...


Primatology Primatology is the study of non-human primates. ...

History

pre-Darwin This article considers the history of zoology before the theory of evolution proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ...

post-Darwin
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Ethology (or Aethology) (from Greek: ήθος, ethos, "custom"; and λόγος, logos, "knowledge") is the scientific study of animal behavior, and a branch of zoology. This article considers the history of zoology in the years up to 1912, since the theory of evolution by natural selection proposed by Charles Darwin in 1859. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Zoology (from Greek: ζῴον, zoion, animal; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the biological discipline which involves the study of animals. ...


Although many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behavior through the centuries, the modern science of ethology is usually considered to have arisen as a discrete discipline with the work in the 1920s of biologists Nikolaas Tinbergen of The Netherlands and Konrad Lorenz of Austria. Ethology is a combination of laboratory and field science, with strong ties to certain other disciplines — e.g., neuroanatomy, ecology, evolution. The ethologist, a scientist who practices ethology, is interested in the behavioral process rather than in a particular animal group and often studies one type of behavior (e.g., aggression) in a number of unrelated animals. Nikolaas Niko Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 – December 21, 1988) was a Dutch ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Neuroanatomy is the anatomy of the nervous system. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The desire to understand the animal world has made ethology a rapidly growing field, and since the turn of the 21st century, many prior understandings related to diverse fields such as animal communication, personal symbolic name use, animal emotions, animal culture and learning, and even sexual conduct, long thought to be well understood, have been revolutionized, as have new fields such as neuroethology. The 21st century is the present century of the Anno Domini (common) era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Emotion in animals considers the question, do animals feel, in the sense we understand it? Different answers have been suggested throughout human history, by animal lovers, scientists, and others who interact with animals, but the core question has proven hard to answer since we can neither obtain spoken answers, nor... Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior considered as a branch of zoology. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ... Neuroethology (from Greek - neuron meaning from nerves, ethos meaning trait or character, and logos meaning words or study) is the scientific study of animal behaviour with its base in neurology. ...

Contents

Etymology

The term "ethology" is derived from the Greek word "ethos" (ήθος), meaning "custom." Other words derived from the Greek word "ethos" include "ethics" and "ethical." The term was first popularized in English by the American myrmecologist William Morton Wheeler in 1902. An earlier, slightly different sense of the term was proposed by John Stuart Mill in his 1843 System of Logic. He recommended the development of a new science, "ethology," whose purpose would be the explanation of individual and national differences in character, on the basis of associationistic psychology. This use of the word for this purpose was never adopted. Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Myrmecology is the branch of entomology dealing with ants. ... William Morton Wheeler William Morton Wheeler (March 19, 1865 - 1937) was an American entomologist, myrmecologist and Harvard Professor. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist civil servant, and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... In the philosophy of mind, associationism began as a theory about how ideas combine in the mind. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


Differences and similarities with comparative psychology

Comparative psychology also studies animal behaviour, but, as opposed to ethology, construes its study as a branch of psychology rather than as one of biology. Thus, where comparative psychology sees the study of animal behaviour in the context of what is known about human psychology, ethology sees the study of animal behaviour in the context of what is known about animal anatomy, physiology, neurobiology, and phylogenetic history. Furthermore, early comparative psychologists concentrated on the study of learning and tended to look at behaviour in artificial situations, whereas early ethologists concentrated on behaviour in natural situations, tending to describe it as instinctive. The two approaches are complementary rather than competitive, but they do lead to different perspectives and sometimes to conflicts of opinion about matters of substance. In addition, for most of the twentieth century, comparative psychology developed most strongly in North America, while ethology was stronger in Europe, and this led to different emphases as well as somewhat differing philosophical underpinnings in the two disciplines. A practical difference is that early comparative psychologists concentrated on gaining extensive knowledge of the behaviour of very few species, while ethologists were more interested in gaining knowledge of behaviour in a wide range of species in order to be able to make principled comparisons across taxonomic groups. Ethologists have made much more use of a truly comparative method than comparative psychologists ever have. Despite the historical divergence, most ethologists (as opposed to behavioural ecologists), at least in North America, teach in psychology departments. It is a strong belief among scientists that the mechanisms on which behavioural processes are based are the same that rule the evolution of the living species: there is therefore a strong connection between these two fields. Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad sense, refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhē, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ... Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Neurobiology is the study of cells of the nervous system and the organization of these cells into functional circuits that process information and mediate behavior. ... A phylogeny (or phylogenesis) is the origin and evolution of a set of organisms, usually of a species. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... Taxonomy, sometimes alpha taxonomy, is the science of finding, describing and naming organisms, thus giving rise to taxa. ... The comparative method (in comparative linguistics) is a technique used by linguists to demonstrate genetic relationships between languages. ... Behavioral ecology (US spelling) or behavioural ecology (UK spelling) is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches. ...


Before Darwin: Scala Naturae and Lamarck's theories

Until the 18th century, the most common theory among scientists was still the Scala Naturae proposed by Aristotle: according to this theory, the living beings were classified on an ideal pyramid in which the simplest animals were occupying the lower floors, and then complexity would raise progressively until the top, which was occupied by the human beings. There was also an avant-garde group of biologists who were refusing the Aristotelian theory for a more anthropocentric one, according to which all living beings were created by God to serve mankind, and would behave accordingly. A well-radicated opinion in the common sense of the time in the Western world was that animal species were eternal and immutable, created with a specific purpose, as this seemed the only possible explanation for the incredible variety of the living beings and their surprising adaptation to their habitat. The first biologist elaborating a complex evolution theory was Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1744-1829). His theory was substantially made of two statements: the first is that animal organs and behaviour can change according to the way they are being used, and that those characteristics are capable of being transmitted from one generation to the next (well-known is the example of the giraffe whose neck becomes longer while trying to reach the upper leaves of a tree). The second affirmation is that each and every living organism, human beings included, tends to reach a greater level of perfection. At the time of his journey for the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin was well aware of Lamarck's theories and was deeply influenced by them. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... 1579 drawing of the great chain of being from Didacus Valades, Rhetorica Christiana The great chain of being or scala naturæ is a classical and western medieval conception of the order of the universe, whose chief characteristic is a strict hierarchical system. ... Aristotle (Greek: AristotélÄ“s) (384 BC – 322 BC) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. ... This article is about architectural pyramids. ... A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... For other uses, see Common sense (disambiguation). ... Jean-Baptiste Lamarck. ... // Events The third French and Indian War, known as King Georges War, breaks out at Port Royal, Nova Scotia The First Saudi State founded by Mohammed Ibn Saud Prague occupied by Prussian armies Ongoing events War of the Austrian Succession (1740-1748) Births January 10 - Thomas Mifflin, fifth President... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis) is an African even-toed ungulate mammal, the tallest of all land-living animal species. ... NASA Satellite photo of the Galápagos archipelago. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ...


Darwinism and the beginnings of ethology

Because ethology is understood as a branch of biology, ethologists have been particularly concerned with the evolution of behaviour and the understanding of behaviour in terms of the theory of natural selection. In one sense, the first modern ethologist was Charles Darwin, whose book, The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals, has influenced many ethologists. He pursued his interest in behaviour by encouraging his protégé George Romanes, who investigated animal learning and intelligence using an anthropomorphic method, anecdotal cognitivism, that did not gain scientific support. Charles Darwin in 1880, as an old gentleman. ... Charles Darwin in 1880, as an old gentleman. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... A 19th century naturalist, George John Romanes (May 19, 1848 - May 23, 1894), coined the term, and laid the foundation of, comparative psychology, and postulated a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and animals. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Other early ethologists, such as Oskar Heinroth and Julian Huxley, instead concentrated on behaviours that can be called instinctive, or natural, in that they occur in all members of a species under specified circumstances. Their first step in studying the behaviour of a new species was to construct an ethogram (a description of the main types of natural behaviour with their frequencies of occurrence). This approach provided an objective, cumulative base of data about behaviour, which subsequent researchers could check and build on. Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ...


The fixed action pattern and animal communication

An important step, associated with the name of Konrad Lorenz though probably due more to his teacher, Oskar Heinroth, was the identification of fixed action patterns (FAPs). Lorenz popularized FAPs as instinctive responses that would occur reliably in the presence of identifiable stimuli (called sign stimuli or releasing stimuli). These FAPs could then be compared across species, and the similarities and differences between behaviour could be easily compared with the similarities and differences in morphology. An important and much quoted study of the Anatidae (ducks and geese) by Heinroth used this technique. The ethologists noted that the stimuli that released FAPs were commonly features of the appearance or behaviour of other members of their own species, and they were able to show how important forms of animal communication could be mediated by a few simple FAPs. The most sophisticated investigation of this kind was the study by Karl von Frisch of the so-called "dance language" underlying bee communication. Lorenz developed an interesting theory of the evolution of animal communication based on his observations of the nature of fixed action patterns and the circumstances in which animals emit them. Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Subfamilies Dendrocygninae Thalassorninae Anserinae Stictonettinae Plectropterinae Tadorninae Anatinae Aythyinae Merginae Oxyurinae and see text Anatidae is the biological family that includes the ducks and most duck-like waterfowl, such as geese and swan. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886-1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... Honey bees learn and communicate in order to find food sources and for other means. ...


Instinct

Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex.

Modern psychoanalysis defines instinct as an impulse which forces an individual to accomplish a task through pre-defined mental schemes, behaviours that are not caused by the usual learning process nor personal choice. In ethology, by instinct we mean a series of rigid and predictable actions and behavioural schemes which go under the term of fixed action patterns. Such schemes are only acted when a precise stimulating signal is present. When such signals act as communication among members of the same species, they go under the name of releasers. Notable examples of releasers are, in many bird species, the beak movements by the newborns, which stimulates the mother's regurgitating process to feed the child. Another well known case is the classic experiments by Tinbergen and Lorenz on the Graylag Goose. Like similar waterfowl, it will roll a displaced egg near its nest back to the others with its beak. The sight of the displaced egg triggers this mechanism. If the egg is taken away, the animal continues with the behavior, pulling its head back as if an imaginary egg is still being maneuvered by the underside of its beak. However, it will also attempt to move other egg shaped objects, such as a golf ball, door knob, or even an egg too large to have possibly been laid by the goose itself (a supernormal stimulus).[1] As made obvious by this last example, however, a behaviour only made of fixed action patterns would result particularly rigid and inefficient, reducing the probabilities of survival and reproduction. The learning process has therefore a great importance, as the ability to change the individual's responses change based on its experience. It can be said that the more the brain is complex and the life of the individual long, the more its behaviour will result "intelligent" (in the sense of guided by experience rather than rigid FAPs). Download high resolution version (1123x842, 213 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1123x842, 213 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Binomial name Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823) The Kelp Gull, Larus dominicanus, breeds on coasts and islands through much of the southern hemisphere. ... Psychoanalysis is a family of psychological theories and methods based on the work of Sigmund Freud. ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Instinct (disambiguation). ... Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. ... Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. ... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Subspecies Western Greylag Goose Eastern Greylag Goose Domesticated goose The Greylag Goose, Anser anser, is a bird with a wide range in the Old World. ... Falcated Duck at Slimbridge Wildfowl and Wetlands centre, Gloucestershire, England Wildfowl or waterfowl, also waterbirds, is the collective term for the approximately 147 species of swans, geese and ducks, classified in the order Anseriformes, family Anatidae. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... A superstimulus or superreleaser is an exaggerated version of a stimulus to which there is an existing response tendency, or any stimulus that elicits a response more strongly than the stimulus that normally releases it. ... Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. ... Survival may refer to: Survival skills Survival kit Survivalism Survival, a studio album by Grand Funk Railroad Survival (album), a Bob Marley reggae album Survival (Doctor Who), an episode of Doctor Who Survival (television), a British wildlife television program Survival International a charity Survival Festival, Australia This is a disambiguation... For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ...


The learning process

The learning process may take place in many ways, one of the most elementary is assuefaction. This process consists in ignoring a persistent or useless stimuli. An example of learning by assuefaction is the one observed in squirrels: when one of them feels in danger, the others hear its signal and go to the nearest repair. However, if the signal comes from an individual who has performed a big number of false alarms, his signal will be ignored.
Another common way of learning is by association, where a stimuli is, based on the experience, linked to another one which may not have anything to do with the first one. The first studies of associative learning were made by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. An example of associative behaviour is observed when a common goldfish goes close to the water surface whenever a human is going to feed it, or the excitement of a dog whenever it sees a collar as a prelude for a walk. The associative learning process is linked to the necessity of developing discriminatory capacities, that is, the faculty of making meaningful choices. Being able to discriminate the members of your own species is of fundamental importance for the reproductive success. Such discrimination can be based on a number of factors: in many species (among which birds), however, this important type of learning only takes place in a very limited period of time. This kind of learning is called imprinting. False alarms, also known as nuisance alarms are usually associated with malfunctioning fire and security alarm systems. ... In psychology and marketing, two concepts or stimuli are associated when the experience of one leads to the effects of another, due to repeated pairing. ... Physiology (in Greek physis = nature and logos = word) is the study of the mechanical, physical, and biochemical functions of living organisms. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Generally, a collar is something which goes around the neck. ... For other uses, see Bird (disambiguation). ... Imprinting has different meanings in: Genetics: see imprinting (genetics) Psychology and ethology: see imprinting (psychology) In addition, the term imprint is used in publishing. ...


Imprinting

Example of imprinting in a moose
Example of imprinting in a moose

A second important finding of Lorenz concerned the early learning of young nidifugous birds, a process he called imprinting. Lorenz observed that the young of birds such as geese and chickens spontaneously followed their mothers from almost the first day after they were hatched, and he discovered that this response could be imitated by an arbitrary stimulus if the eggs were incubated artificially and the stimulus was presented during a critical period (a less temporally constrained period is called a sensitive period) that continued for a few days after hatching. Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 103 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kostroma Moose Farm ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x681, 103 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kostroma Moose Farm ... For other uses, see Moose (disambiguation). ... An animal that leaves its nest shortly after birth is said to be nidifugous. ... Imprinting is the term used in psychology and ethology to describe any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. ... “Geese” redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Imitation

Finally, imitation is often a big part of the learning process. A well-documented example of imitative learning is that of macaques in Hachijojima island, Japan. These primates used to live in the inland forest until the 60s, whena group of researchers started giving them some potatoes on the beach: soon they started venturing onto the beach, picking the potatoes from the sand, and cleaning and eating them. About one year later, an individual was observed bringing a potato to the sea, putting it into the water with one hand, and cleaning it with the other. Her behaviour was soon imitated by the individuals living in contact with her; when they gave birth, they taught this practice to their children. Imitation is an advanced animal behaviour whereby an individual observes anothers behaviour and replicates it itself. ... For other uses, see Macaca. ... Hachijojima (八丈島; Hachijo Island) is a Japanese island in the Pacific Ocean, 300km south of Tokyo. ... Families 15, See classification A primate is any member of the biological order Primates, the group that contains all the species commonly related to the lemurs, monkeys, and apes, with the latter category including humans. ...


Mating and the fight for supremacy

The individual reproduction is with no doubt the most important phase in the proliferation of the species: for this reason, we can often observed complex mating ritual, which can reach an high level of complexity even if they are often regarded as FAPs. Sticklebacks complex mating ritual was studied by Niko Tinbergen and is regarded as a notable example of fixed action pattern. Often in social life, males are fighting for the right of reproducing themselves as well as social supremacy. Such behaviours are common among mammals. A common example of fight for social and sexual supremacy is the so-called pecking order among poultry. A pecking order is established every time a group of poultry co-lives for a certain amount of time. In each of these groups, a chicken is dominating among the others and can peck before anyone else without being pecked. A second chicken can peck all the others but the first, and so on. The chicken in the higher levels can be easily distinguished from their well-cured aspect, as opposed to the ones in the lower levels. During the period in which the pecking order is establishing, often and violent fights can happen, but one it is established it is only broken when other individuals are entering the group, in which case the pecking order has to be established from scratch. For other uses, see Reproduction (disambiguation) Reproduction is the biological process by which new individual organisms are produced. ... The word proliferation can refer to: Nuclear proliferation Chemical weapon proliferation the spread in use of other weapons systems Cell proliferation According to Gloria Anzaldúa (1990), the difference between appropriation and proliferation is that the first steals and harms; the second helps heal breaches of knowledge. ... Sevenspotted Lady Beetles mating In biology, mating is the pairing of opposite-sex or hermaphroditic internal fertilization animals for copulation and, in social animals, also to raise their offspring. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Genera Apeltes Culaea Gasterosteus Pungitius Spinachia The Gasterosteidae are a family of fishes including the Sticklebacks. ... Nikolaas Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 - December 21, 1988) was a noted ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl Von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns. ... Kelp Gull chicks peck at red spot on mothers beak to stimulate regurgitating reflex. ... Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Society life

Social life is probably the most complex and effective survival strategy. It may be regarded as a sort of symbiosis among individuals of the same species: a society is composed of a group of individuals belonging to the same species living in a well-defined rule on food management, role assignments and reciprocal dependence. The situation is, actually much more complex than it looks. When biologists interested in evolution theory first started examining the social behaviour, some apparently unanswerable questions came up. How could, for istance, the birth of sterile casts, like in bees, be explained through an evolving mechanism which emphasizes the reproductive success of as many individuals as possible? Why, among animals living in small groups like squirrels, would an individual risk its own life to save the rest of the group? These behaviours are examples of altruism. Of course, not all behaviours are altuistic, as shown in the table below. Notably, revengeful behaviour is claimed to have been observed exclusively in Homo Sapiens. Social relation can refer to a multitude of social interactions, regulated by social norms, between two or more people, with each having a social position and performing a social role. ... Meat Ants harvest Leaf Hoppers for their honey dew. ... A commodity metal, historically gold and silver, backing money or currency. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... A biologist is a scientist devoted to and producing results in biology through the study of organisms. ... This article is about biological evolution. ... Sterility is the quality or state of being unable to reproduce. ... Look up Cast in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... This article is about the animal. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man) is the scientific name for the human species. ...

Classification of social behaviours
Type of behaviour Effect on the donor Effect on the receiver
Egoistic Increases fitness Decreases fitness
Cooperative Increases fitness Increases fitness
Altruistic Decreases fitness Increases fitness
Revengeful Decreases fitness Decreases fitness

The existence of egoism through natural selection doesn't pose any question to the evolution theory and is, on the contrary, fully justified by it, as well as for the cooperative behaviour. It is much harder to understand the mechanism through which the altruistic behaviour initially developed. Egoism may refer to any of the following: psychological egoism - the doctrine that holds that individuals are always motivated by self-interest ethical egoism - the ethical doctrine that holds that individuals ought to do what is in their self-interest rational egoism - the belief that it is rational to act... This article is about cooperation as used in the social sciences. ... For the ethical doctrine, see Altruism (ethics). ... For other uses, see Revenge (disambiguation). ... Egoism may refer to any of the following: psychological egoism - the doctrine that holds that individuals are always motivated by self-interest ethical egoism - the ethical doctrine that holds that individuals ought to do what is in their self-interest rational egoism - the belief that it is rational to act... This article is about biological evolution. ... Altruism refers to both a practice or habit (in the view of many, a virtue) as well as an ethical doctrine. ...

An example of social life: bees

Insect societies are among the most ancient and complex. As well as for many other species, it is believed that social insects evolved from solitary ones. Many species of bees and vespidae alive today are solitary and many others have different grades of sociability; it is therefore possible to build a complete picture of the various stages of evolution just by analysing today's living species, much like astronomers study in the sky a picture of the universe in the various stages of its life, depending on the distance of the observed object. Orders Subclass Apterygota Archaeognatha (bristletails) Thysanura (silverfish) Subclass Pterygota Infraclass Paleoptera (Probably paraphyletic) Ephemeroptera (mayflies) Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) Infraclass Neoptera Superorder Exopterygota Grylloblattodea (ice-crawlers) Mantophasmatodea (gladiators) Plecoptera (stoneflies) Embioptera (webspinners) Zoraptera (angel insects) Dermaptera (earwigs) Orthoptera (grasshoppers, etc) Phasmatodea (stick insects) Blattodea (cockroaches) Isoptera (termites) Mantodea (mantids) Psocoptera... Genera The vespids are a family of wasps, including all social wasps and some solitary wasps. ...


In solitary species, the female builds a nest, deposits her eggs and food reserves in it and then abandons it forever. The mother dies shortly after. In the so-called presocial (or subsocial) species, the mother comes back to feed the larvae for a certain amount of time, and the next generation then deposit their eggs in the same nest. However, the colony is not permanent (it will often be destroyed by winter), there are no assigned roles and all females are fertile. Eusocial (from Greek, very social) insects cooperate completely in caring for larvae and each individual has a clear task to complete in life; among these there are sterile individuals working to the advantage of fertile ones. Most species of ant sand termites are classified as eusocial, as well as many common species of bees and vespidae. Look up Solitary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A basket style nest A nest is place of refuge built to hold an animals eggs and/or provide a place to raise their offspring. ... Look up egg in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... wolfs live and hunt in presocial packs A wasp from the family Sphecidae, which includes a number of primitively social species Presociality is a phenomenon in which animals exhibit more than just sexual interactions with members of the same species; however, they fall short of qualifying as eusocial. ... Subsociality among insects means parental behaviour. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. ... Fertile may be used in the following conrtext: Fertility, a term used to describe the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ... Sterility is the quality or state of being unable to reproduce. ... Fertile may be used in the following conrtext: Fertility, a term used to describe the ability of people or animals to produce healthy offspring. ... For other uses, see Ant (disambiguation). ... Families Mastotermitidae Kalotermitidae Termopsidae Hodotermitidae Rhinotermitidae Serritermitidae Termitidae Wikispecies has information related to: Isoptera Termites, sometimes known as white ants, are a group of social insects usually classified at the taxonomic rank of order Isoptera. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... Genera The vespids are a family of wasps, including all social wasps and some solitary wasps. ...


A colony of eusocial bees typically includes 30,000 to 40,000 individuals and an adult queen. Every working bee is born from an egg laid by the queen. The egg hatches into a larva, which is continuously fed by dedicated bees. When the larva fills the whole cell, the cell is sealed with wax. After two weeks, during which the larva transforms into an adult be, the individual leaves the cell and rests for a day or two. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ... The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... The queen bee is an adult, mated female in a honeybee colony or hive; she is usually the mother of all the bees in the hive. ... A larval insect A larva (Latin; plural larvae) is a juvenile form of animal with indirect development, undergoing metamorphosis (for example, insects or amphibians). ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ...

A bee in its third and last stage of life
A bee in its third and last stage of life

After this short resting period, the bee will have to accomplish a series of tasks. The first is to feed larvae, the queen and the males. This period lasts about one week, but duration varies depending on the needs of the colony. The bee then starts producing wax, used to enlarge the honeycomb. During this stage, the bee can also dispose of dead or ill bees, clean cells and make short excursions to familarize itself with the local surroundings. It is only in the last part of its life that the bee will go in search of nectar, and the bee will be dead by the sixth week. Queens are grown in larger cells than usual. Although all the eggs have the genetic potential to become queen, they only develop under very precise conditions. According to recent studies, such bees would become queens thanks to a more substantial alimentation -- rich with proteins -- already in the larval state, in contrast with the alimentation mainly based on carbohydrates (honey) which normal bees are fed. The queen bee keeps the control of her servants be releasing specific chemical substances which inhibit the sexual maturation of the normal bees. If the queen is lost, the bees notice immediately and start building larger cells to host the larva of a new queen. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1229 pixel, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A bee flying If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 781 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1600 × 1229 pixel, file size: 489 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) A bee flying If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... candle wax This page is about the substance. ... Honeycomb Honeycombs on a Sacred fig tree A honeycomb is a mass of hexagonal wax cells built by honey bees in their nests to contain their larvae and stores of honey and pollen. ... In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... An inhibitor is a type of effector that decreases or prevents a chemical reaction. ...


One of the main differences between subsocial and eusocial bees is that the second survive during the winter: they keep the hive temperature constant by getting close to each other. Subsociality among insects means parental behaviour. ... Eusociality is the phenomenon of reproductive specialisation found in some species of animal, whereby a specialised caste carries out reproduction in a colony of non-reproductive animals. ... For other uses, see Western honey bee and Bee (disambiguation). ...


During the spring, when the big quantity of nectar makes it possible, the hive splits in two separate colonies, where the queen guides her half hive to a new location. The new queen, which is grown as soon as the original queen leaves, mates. The reproduction is the only contribute by the male to the social life of the hive, which, not being able to feed autonomously, are eventually killed in autumn, when food reserves start getting smaller. In Greek mythology, nectar and ambrosia are the food of the gods. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Tinbergen's four questions for ethologists

Lorenz's collaborator, Niko Tinbergen, argued that ethology always needed to pay attention to four kinds of explanation in any instance of behaviour: When asked questions of animal behavior such as why animals see, even grade school children can answer that vision helps animals find food and avoid danger. ... Nikolaas Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 - December 21, 1988) was a noted ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl Von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns. ...

  • Function: how does the behaviour impact on the animal's chances of survival and reproduction?
  • Causation: what are the stimuli that elicit the response, and how has it been modified by recent learning?
  • Development: how does the behaviour change with age, and what early experiences are necessary for the behaviour to be shown?
  • Evolutionary history: how does the behaviour compare with similar behaviour in related species, and how might it have arisen through the process of phylogeny?

In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: phylon = tribe, race and genetikos = relative to birth, from genesis = birth) is the study of evolutionary relatedness among various groups of organisms (e. ...

The flowering of ethology

Through the work of Lorenz and Tinbergen, ethology developed strongly in continental Europe in the years before World War II. After the war, Tinbergen moved to the University of Oxford, and ethology became stronger in the UK, with the additional influence of William Thorpe, Robert Hinde, and Patrick Bateson at the Sub-department of Animal Behaviour of the University of Cambridge, located in the village of Madingley. In this period, too, ethology began to develop strongly in North America. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The University of Oxford (usually abbreviated as Oxon. ... William Homan Thorpe FRS (* April 1, † 1902 to April 7, 1986) was Professor of Animal Ethnology at the University of Cambridge, and a significant British zoologist, ethologist and ornithologist. ... Robert Hinde CBE FRS FBA is an Emeritus Professor of Zoology at the University of Cambridge. ... Sir Patrick Bateson, FRS (b. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Madingley is a village near Coton on the western outskirts of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


Lorenz, Tinbergen, and von Frisch were jointly awarded the Nobel Prize in 1973 for their work in developing ethology. The Nobel Prizes (Swedish: ) are awarded for Physics, Chemistry, Literature, Peace, and Physiology or Medicine. ...


Ethology is now a well recognised scientific discipline, and has a number of journals covering developments in the subject, such as the Ethology journal.


Social ethology and recent developments

In 1970, the English ethologist John H. Crook published an important paper in which he distinguished comparative ethology from social ethology, and argued that much of the ethology that had existed so far was really comparative ethology--looking at animals as individuals--whereas in the future ethologists would need to concentrate on the behaviour of social groups of animals and the social structure within them. For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ...


Indeed, E. O. Wilson's book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis appeared in 1975, and since that time the study of behaviour has been much more concerned with social aspects. It has also been driven by the stronger, but more sophisticated, Darwinism associated with Wilson and Richard Dawkins. The related development of behavioural ecology has also helped transform ethology. Furthermore, a substantial rapprochement with comparative psychology has occurred, so the modern scientific study of behaviour offers a more or less seamless spectrum of approaches – from animal cognition to more traditional comparative psychology, ethology, sociobiology and behavioural ecology. Sociobiology has more recently developed into evolutionary psychology. Edward Osborne Wilson (b. ... Sociobiology: The New Synthesis was a 1975 book by E. O. Wilson. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Behavioral ecology (US spelling) or behavioural ecology (UK spelling) is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Comparative psychology, taken in its most usual, broad sense, refers to the study of the behavior and mental life of animals other than human beings. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Behavioral ecology (US spelling) or behavioural ecology (UK spelling) is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling animals to adapt to their ecological niches. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


Notes

  • There are often mismatches between human senses and those of the organisms they are observing. To compensate, ethologists often reach all the way back to epistemology to give them the tools to predict and avoid misinterpretation of data.
  • "Super-real object" is an object that causes an abnormally strong response in an animal. An example of this is the design of dummies that mimic and over-stress the key characteristics of individuals in certain species causing animals to direct behaviour to the super-real object and ignore the real object. A super-real object may cause pathologies and we can see many examples in humans (super-sweet food, super-big female traits, super-relaxing drugs, etc.). See the book, Foundations of Ethology by Konrad Lorenz.

It has been suggested that Meta-epistemology be merged into this article or section. ...

List of ethologists

People who have made notable contributions to the field of ethology (many are comparative psychologists):

Robert Ardrey (b. ... Sir Patrick Bateson, FRS (b. ... John Bowlby (1907 - 1990) was a British developmental psychologist in the psychoanalytic tradition, notable for his pioneering work in attachment theory. ... Marian E. Stamp Dawkins is professor for animal behaviour at the University of Oxford, where she heads the Animal Behaviour Research Group. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Irenäus Eibl-Eibesfeld (born June 15, 1928 in Vienna, Austria) is an ethologist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Karl von Frisch 1961 Karl Ritter von Frisch (1886-1982) was an Austrian ethologist who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1973 with Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz. ... Dame Dr. Jane Goodall, DBE, UN Messenger of Peace, (born April 3, 1934) is an English primatologist, ethologist, and anthropologist. ... Robert Hinde CBE FRS FBA is an Emeritus Professor of Zoology at the University of Cambridge. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ... Julian Jaynes Julian Jaynes (February 27, 1920 - November 21, 1997) was an American psychologist, best known for his book The Origin of Consciousness in the Breakdown of the Bicameral Mind (1976), in which he argues that ancient peoples were not conscious as we consider the term today, and that the... Lorenz being followed by his imprinted geese Konrad Zacharias Lorenz (November 7, 1903 in Vienna – February 27, 1989 in Vienna) was an Austrian zoologist, animal psychologist, and ornithologist. ... Presenting the BBC Two program Landscape Mysteries - Secrets of the Flood on 27 May 2004 Professor Aubrey William George Manning OBE FRSE FIBiol (born 24 April 1930 in London, UK) is a distinguished English zoologist and broadcaster. ... Eugène Nielen Marais (9 January, 1871 – 29 March, 1936) was a South African lawyer, naturalist, poet and writer Eugene Marais – writer, lawyer and naturalist // His early years, before and during the Boer War Marais (Ma-RARE; second part rhymes with chair) was born near Pretoria. ... Patricia McConnell is an ethologist, author, advice columnist, and radio host. ... Dr Desmond Morris (born 24 January 1928 in the village of Purton, UK) is most famous for his work as a zoologist and ethologist. ... A 19th century naturalist, George John Romanes (May 19, 1848 - May 23, 1894), coined the term, and laid the foundation of, comparative psychology, and postulated a similarity of cognitive processes and mechanisms between humans and animals. ... Burrhus Frederic Fred Skinner (March 20, 1904 – August 18, 1990), Ph. ... William Homan Thorpe FRS (* April 1, † 1902 to April 7, 1986) was Professor of Animal Ethnology at the University of Cambridge, and a significant British zoologist, ethologist and ornithologist. ... Nikolaas Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 - December 21, 1988) was a noted ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl Von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns. ... Jakob von Uexküll (September 8, 1864 - July 25, 1944) was an Estonian biologist who had important achievements in the fields of muscular physiology and the cybernetics of life. ... Frans B.M. de Waal, PhD (b. ... William Morton Wheeler William Morton Wheeler (March 19, 1865 - 1937) was an American entomologist, myrmecologist and Harvard Professor. ... Edward Osborne Wilson (b. ...

See also

Altruism is a well-documented animal behaviour, which appears most obviously in kin relationships but may also be evident amongst wider social groups. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Animal communication is any behaviour on the part of one animal that has an effect on the current or future behaviour of another animal. ... Anthrozoology is the study of human-animal interaction, also described as the science focusing on all aspects of the human-animal bond. ... Behavioral ecology is the study of the ecological and evolutionary basis for animal behavior, and the roles of behavior in enabling an animal to adapt to its environment (both intrinsic and extrinsic). ... The fusion of cognitive science and classical ethology into cognitive ethology emphasizes observing animals under more-or-less natural conditions, with the objective of understanding the evolution, adaptation (function), causation, and development of the species-specific behavioral repertoire - (Tinbergen 1963). ... Emotion in animals considers the question, do animals feel, in the sense we understand it? Different answers have been suggested throughout human history, by animal lovers, scientists, and others who interact with animals, but the core question has proven hard to answer since we can neither obtain spoken answers, nor... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Animal sexual behavior takes many different forms, even within the same species. ... // When applied to comparative data, conventional statistical methods assume, in effect, that all species are completely unrelated, as if they descended from a big bang of special creation. ... Sociophysiology is the “interplay between society and physical functioning” (Freund 1988: 856) involving “collaboration of two neighboring sciences: physiology and sociology” (Mauss 1936: 373). ...

Further reading

  • Klein, Z. (2000). The ethological approach to the study of human behaviour. Neuroendocrinology Letters, 21, 477-481. Full text

References

  1. ^ Tinbergen, N. (1951) The Study of Instinct. Oxford University Press, New York.

Nikolaas Tinbergen (April 15, 1907 - December 21, 1988) was a noted ethologist and ornithologist who shared the 1973 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Karl Von Frisch and Konrad Lorenz for their discoveries concerning organization and elicitation of individual and social behaviour patterns. ...

External links

General
Diagrams on Tinbergen's four questions

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethology - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1166 words)
Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior considered as a branch of zoology.
He recommended the development of a new science, "ethology," whose purpose would be the explanation of individual and national differences in character, on the basis of associationistic psychology.
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It is a fundamental axiom of ethology that each organism's brain is armed with genetically determined programs of action which, in their own way, are as predictable and controlled as the genetic programs for developing anatomical structures such as a brain or a face.
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Though many naturalists have studied aspects of animal behaviour through the centuries, the modern science of ethology is considered to have arisen as a discrete discipline with the work in the 1920s of Nikolaas Tinbergen and Konrad Lorenz.
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