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Encyclopedia > Ethnology

Ethnology (from the Greek ethnos, meaning "people") is the branch of anthropology that compares and analyses the origins, distribution, technology, religion, language, and social structure of the racial or national divisions of humanity.[1] Compared to ethnography, the study of single groups through direct contact with the culture, ethnology takes the research that ethnographers have compiled and then compares and contrasts different cultures. Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... The term race serves to distinguish between populations or groups of people based on different sets of characteristics which are commonly determined through social conventions. ... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = people and graphein = writing) refers to the genre of writing that presents varying degrees of qualitative and quantitative descriptions of human social phenomena, based on fieldwork. ...


Among its goals are the reconstruction of human history, and the formulation of cultural invariants, such as the alleged incest taboo and culture change, and the formulation of generalizations about "human nature", a concept which has been criticized since the 19th century by various philosophers (Hegel, Marx, structuralism, etc.). History is often used as a generic term for information about the past, such as in geologic history of the Earth. When used as the name of a field of study, history refers to the study and interpretation of the record of human societies. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Universals (used as a noun) are either properties, relations, or types, but not classes. ... The incest taboo refers to the prohibition, both formal and unstated, against incest in many societies. ... See also : Human nature (disambiguation) Human nature is the fundamental nature and substance of humans, as well as the range of human behavior that is believed to be invariant over long periods of time and across very different cultural contexts. ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ...


In some parts of the world (like the USA and Great Britain) it is also referred to as cultural or social anthropology, however ethnology is not only a single part of cultural anthropology. Ethnology has been considered as a scientific discipline since the late 18th century but can be generally applied to any comparative study of human groups. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


The 15th century "discovery of America" had an important role in the new Occidental interest toward the Other, often qualified as "savages", which was either seen as a brutal barbarian or as a "noble savage". Thus, civilization was opposed in a dualist manner to barbary, a classic opposition constitutive of the even more commonly-shared ethnocentrism. The progress of ethnology, for example with Claude Lévi-Strauss's structural anthropology, led to the criticism of conceptions of a linear progress, or the pseudo-opposition between "societies with histories" and "societies without histories", judged too dependent on a limited view of history as constituted by accumulative growth. Occident has a number of meanings. ... The Other or constitutive other (also referred to as othering) is a key concept in continental philosophy, opposed to the Same. ... A section of Benjamin Wests The Death of General Wolfe; Wests depiction of this Native American has been considered an idealization in the tradition of the Noble savage (Fryd, 75) In the 18th century culture of Primitivism the noble savage, uncorrupted by the influences of civilization was considered... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... It has been suggested that Combative dualism be merged into this article or section. ... For other meanings, see Barbary Coast (disambiguation). ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Structural anthropology had its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s. ... Historical progress has been a main object of philosophy of history. ... History studies the past in human terms. ...


Lévi-Strauss often referred to Montaigne's essay on anthropophagy as an early example of "ethnology". Lévi-Strauss aimed, through a structural method, at discovering universal invariants in human society, which he thought was the prohibition of the incest. However, the claims of such cultural universalism have been criticized by various 19th and 20th century social thinkers, among the more important include: Marx, Nietzsche, Foucault, Althusser and Deleuze. Michel Eyquem de Montaigne (February 28, 1533 - September 13, 1592) was an influential French Renaissance writer, generally considered to be the inventor of the personal essay. ... Essays is the title of a book written by Michel de Montaigne that was first published in 1580. ... Cannibalism is the act or practice of eating members of the same species, e. ... See also structural analysis and structural functionalism. ... The incest taboo refers to the prohibition, both formal and unstated, against incest in many societies. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Universality (philosophy). ... Marx is a common German surname. ... Friedrich Nietzsche, 1882 Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 - August 25, 1900) was a highly influential German philosopher. ... See: Léon Foucault (physicist) Foucault pendulum Michel Foucault (philosopher) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Louis Althusser (October 19, 1918 _ October 23, 1990) was a Marxist philosopher. ... Gilles Deleuze (January 18, 1925 - November 4, 1995) was a major French philosopher of the late 20th century. ...

Contents

List of scholars of ethnology

Amadou Hampâté Bâ (January or February 1900 or 1901 in Bandiagara, Mali – May 15, 1991 in Abidjan, Ivory Coast) was a Malian writer and ethnologist. ... Portrait of Georg Forster at age 26, by J. H. W. Tischbein, 1781 Johann Georg Adam Forster (November 27, 1754[1] – January 10, 1794) was a German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Pierre Clastres, (1934-1977), was a French anthropologist and ethnographer. ... Horatio Hale (May 3, 1817 - December 28, 1896), American ethnologist, was born in Newport, New Hampshire. ... Yanagita Kunio (柳田 国男 1875-1962) is a scholar who is often known as a father of Japanese ethnology. ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Marcel Mauss (May 10, 1872 – February 10, 1950) was a French sociologist best known for his role in elaborating on and securing the legacy of his uncle Émile Durkheim and the Année Sociologique. ... David Henry Peter Maybury-Lewis (born in Hyderabad, Pakistan 1929-) is a distinguished anthropologist, prominent ethnologist of lowland South America, indefatigable activist for indigenous peoples human rights and professor emeritus of Harvard University. ... Voodoo by Alfred Metraux ALFRED METRAUX (1902-1963), often described as an ethnographers ethnographer, was one of the most significant anthropologists and human rights leaders of the twentieth century. ... James Mooney (1861-1921) was a notable anthropologist who lived for several years among the Cherokee. ... Augustus Henry Lane Fox Pitt Rivers (14th April, 1827– 4 May 1900) was an English army officer, ethnologist, and archaeologist. ... Wilhelm Schmidt (1868-1954) was a German linguist, anthropologist, and ethnologist. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For the Olympic champion athlete see Bronislaw Malinowski (athlete). ... Wilhelm (left) and Jacob Grimm (right) from an 1855 painting by Elisabeth Jerichau-Baumann The Brothers Grimm were Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, German professors who were best known for publishing collections of folk tales and fairy tales,[1] and for their work in linguistics, relating to how the sounds in... Josiah Clark Nott (31 March 1804– 31 March 1873) was an American physician and surgeon; he was a writer on surgery, yellow fever, and a proponent of scientific racist theories. ... Louis Nicolas was a French missionary in Canada in the late-seventeenth and early-eighteenth century. ...

References

  • Johann Georg Adam Forster Voyage round the World in His Britannic Majesty’s Sloop, Resolution, Commanded by Capt. James Cook, during the Years 1772, 3, 4, and 5 (2 vols), London (1777)
  • Lévi-Strauss, Claude, The Elementary Structurs of Kinship, (1949), [1], Structural Anthropology' (1958)[2]
  • Mauss, Marcel, originally published as Essai sur le don. Forme et raison de l'échange dans les sociétés archaïques in 1925, this classic text on gift economy appears in the English edition as The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies[3].
  • Maybury-Lewis, David, Akwe-Shavante society. (1967) [4], The Politics of Ethnicity: Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States (2003)[5].
  • Clastres, Pierre, Society Against the State (1974), [6]
  1. ^ Newman, Garfield, et al (2001). Echoes from the past: world history to the 16th century. Toronto: McGraw-Hill Ryerson Ltd. ISBN 0-07-088739-X. 

Portrait of Georg Forster at age 26, by J. H. W. Tischbein, 1781 Johann Georg Adam Forster (November 27, 1754[1] – January 10, 1794) was a German naturalist, ethnologist, travel writer, journalist, and revolutionary. ... Claude Lévi-Strauss Claude Lévi-Strauss (IPA pronunciation ); born November 28, 1908) is a Jewish-French anthropologist who developed structuralism as a method of understanding human society and culture. ... Marcel Mauss (May 10, 1872 - February 10, 1950) was a French sociologist best known for his role in elaborating on and securing the legacy of his uncle, Émile Durkheim and the Année Sociologique. ... A gift economy is an economic system in which the prevalent mode of exchange is for goods and services to be given without explicit agreement upon a quid pro quo (the Latin term for the concept of a favor for a favor). Typically, this occurs in a cultural context where... David Henry Peter Maybury-Lewis (born in Hyderabad, Pakistan 1929-) is a distinguished anthropologist, prominent ethnologist of lowland South America, indefatigable activist for indigenous peoples human rights and professor emeritus of Harvard University. ... Pierre Clastres, (1934-1977), was a French anthropologist and ethnographer. ...

See also

Anthropology is the study of the physical and social characteristics of humanity through the examination of historical and present geographical distribution, cultural history, acculturation, and cultural relationships. ... Cultural Survival (founded 1972) is a nonprofit group based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA which is dedicated to defending the human rights of indigenous peoples. ... Culture (from the Latin cultura stemming from colere, meaning to cultivate), generally refers to patterns of human activity and the symbolic structures that give such activity significance. ... Ethnocentrism is the tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of ones own culture. ... Ethnophilosophy is an approach to the study of philosophy. ... Evolutionism, from the Latin evolutio, unrolling, refers to theories that certain things develop or change as natural (unplanned) outgrowths of those that existed before, in contrast to beliefs that these things are fixed and immutable. ... Functionalism is a term with several senses: For functionalism in sociology, see Functionalism (sociology). ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Marxismtakes its name from the praxis — the synthesis of philosophy and political action — of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... For Modernism in an American context, see American modernism. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated pomo) is a term applied to a wide-ranging set of developments in critical theory, philosophy, architecture, art, literature, and culture, which are generally characterized as either emerging from, in reaction to, or superseding, modernism. ... Postcolonial theory is a literary theory or critical approach that deals with literature produced in countries that were once, or are now, colonies of other countries. ... In older anthropology texts and discussions, a primitive culture is one that lacks major signs of economic development or modernity. ... Primitivism is an artistic movement which originated as a reaction to the Enlightenment. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights Gays/Transsexes/Intersexes rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Feminism Mens/Fathers rights... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... Structural anthropology had its heyday in the 1960s and 1970s. ...

Websites relating to ethnology

  • http://www.ethnologue.com/ describes the languages and ethnic groups found worldwide, grouped by host nation-state.
  • http://www.movinganthropology.org - The Moving Anthropology Student Network/Moving Anthropology Social Network connects young anthropologists and anthropology students from European and other countries
  • Division of Anthropology, American Museum of Natural History - Over 160,000 objects from Pacific, North American, African, Asian ethnographic collections with images and detailed description, linked to the original catalogue pages, field notebooks, and photographs are available online.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethnology in SIL (479 words)
Ethnology in SIL focuses on developing cultural awareness through training and research.
Training in ethnology is designed to encourage cultural awareness and to develop practical field research skills.
Research is fostered by providing consultant help to SIL fieldworkers, by producing regional and international ethnography publications, and by developing research software tools and support.
Programme Specification for MA(HONS)in Scottish Ethnology (1764 words)
Ethnology is the discipline that studies the traditional and popular cultures of a community, region or nation.
The Scottish Ethnology programme aims to develop the analytic, critical, communication and creative skills of students by engaging with a broad range of cultural forms and ethnographic materials relating primarily, although by no means exclusively, to Scotland.
The Scottish Ethnology components of each of these joint degrees offer the same educational aims and programme outcomes as the single honours programme, and all joint degree students are required to complete both the level 2 project and the Honours dissertation (or 'Long Essay' in the joint degrees with English or Scottish Literature).
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