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Encyclopedia > Ethnic group

The term "Ethnicity" redirects here. For the album of the same name by Yanni, see Ethnicity (Yanni album)
Yanni (born Yiannis Chrysomallis, Greek: Γιάννης Χρυσομάλλης, on November 14, 1954) is a Greek keyboardist and composer. ... Ethnicity, is Yannis 13th studio album, released in 2003. ...


An ethnic group or ethnicity is a population of human beings whose members identify with each other, either on the basis of a presumed common genealogy or ancestry[1] or recognition by others as a distinct group,[2] or by common cultural, linguistic, religious, or physical traits.[1] Processes that result in the emergence of such identification are summarized as ethnogenesis. Members of an ethnic group, on the whole, claim cultural continuities over time, although historians and anthropologists have documented that many of the cultural practices on which various ethnic groups are based are of relatively recent invention.[3] This article is about modern humans. ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. ... Various Religious symbols, including (first row) Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Bahai, (second row) Islamic, tribal, Taoist, Shinto (third row) Buddhist, Sikh, Hindu, Jain, (fourth row) Ayyavazhi, Triple Goddess, Maltese cross, pre-Christian Slavonic Religion is the adherence to codified beliefs and rituals that generally involve a faith in a spiritual... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... A historian is an individual who studies history and who writes on history. ... See Anthropology. ...

Contents

Defining ethnicity

The sociologist Max Weber once remarked that "The whole conception of ethnic groups is so complex and so vague that it might be good to abandon it altogether." Nevertheless, Weber proposed a definition of ethnic group that became standard among social scientists:

[T]hose human groups that entertain a subjective belief in their common descent because of similarities of physical type or of customs or both, or because of memories of colonization and migration; this belief must be important for group formation; furthermore it does not matter whether an objective blood relationship exists.[4]

Anthropologist Ronald Cohen, in a review of anthropological and sociological studies of ethnic groups since Weber, confirmed that while many ethnic groups subjectively claimed common descent and cultural continuity, objectively there was often compelling empirical evidence that countered such claims.[5] Harold Isaacs has identified other diacritics (distinguishing markers) of ethnicity, among them physical appearance, name, language, history, and religion;[6] this definition has entered some dictionaries.[7] Social scientists have thus focused on how, when, and why different markers of ethnic identity become salient. Thus, anthropologist Joan Vincent observed that ethnic boundaries often have a mercurial character.[8] Ronald Cohen concluded that ethnicity is "a series of nesting dichotomizations of inclusiveness and exclusiveness".[9] He confirms Joan Vincent's observation that (in Cohen's paraphrase) "Ethnicity ... can be narrowed or broadened in boundary terms in relation to the specific needs of political mobilization.[10] This may be why descent is sometimes a marker of ethnicity, and sometimes not: which diacritic of ethnicity is salient depends on whether people are scaling ethnic bondaries up or down, and whether they are scaling them up or down depends generally on the political situation.


Ethnicity and race

Ethnicity and race are related concepts in that both are usually defined in terms of shared genealogy.[11] Often, ethnicity also connotes shared cultural, linguistic, or religious traits. Race, by contrast, connotes shared biological (genetic or phenotypic) traits.[12] In 1950, the UNESCO statement The Race Question, signed by internationally renowned scholars (including Ashley Montagu, Claude Lévi-Strauss, Gunnar Myrdal, Julian Huxley, etc.), suggested that if people are referring to a group marked by shared religion, geography, language or culture, they should "drop the term 'race' altogether and speak of 'ethnic groups'."[13] Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... The Race Question is a UNESCO statement issued on 18 July 1950 following World War II. Signed by some of the leading researchers of the time, in the field of psychology, biology, cultural anthropology and ethnology, it questioned the foundations of scientific racist theories which had became very popular at... Ashley Montagu (June 28, 1905, London, England - November 26, 1999, Princeton, New Jersey), was an English anthropologist and humanist who popularized issues such as race and gender and their relation to politics and development. ... This article is about the anthropologist. ... Gunnar Myrdal (December 6, 1898 – May 17, 1987) was a Swedish economist and politician. ... Sir Julian Sorell Huxley, FRS (June 22, 1887 – February 14, 1975) was a English biologist, author, Humanist and internationalist, known for his popularisations of science in books and lectures. ...


Ethnicity and nation

In some cases, especially involving transnational migration, or colonial expansion, ethnicity is linked to nationality. Many anthropologists and historians, following the work of Ernest Gellner[14] and Benedict Anderson[15] see nations and nationalism as developing with the rise of the modern state system in the seventeenth century, culminating in the rise of "nation-states" in which the presumptive boundaries of the nation coincided (or ideally coincided) with state boundaries.


Thus, in the West, the notion of ethnicity, like race and nation, developed in the context of European colonial expansion, when mercantilism and capitalism were promoting global movements of populations at the same time that state boundaries were being more clearly and rigidly defined. In the nineteenth century, modern states generally sought legitimacy through their claim to represent "nations." Nation-states, however, invariably include populations that have been excluded from national life for one reason or another. Members of excluded groups, consequently, will either demand inclusion on the basis of equality, or seek autonomy, sometimes even to the extent of complete political separation in their own nation-state.[16] Under these conditions - when people moved from one state to another[17], or one state conquored or colonized peoples beyond its national boundaries - ethnic groups formed by people who identified with one nation, but who lived in another state. For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... Mercantile redirects here. ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ...


Ethno-national conflict

Sometimes ethnic groups are subject to prejudicial attitudes and actions by the state or its constituents. In the twentieth century, people began to argue that conflicts among ethnic groups or between members of an ethnic group and the state can and should be resolved in one of two ways. Some, like Jürgen Habermas and Bruce Barry, have argued that the legitimacy of modern states must be based on a notion of political rights of autonomous individual subjects. According to this view the state should not acknowledge ethnic, national or racial identity but rather instead enforce political and legal equality of all individuals. Others, like Charles Taylor and Will Kymlicka argue that the notion of the autonomous individual is itself a cultural construct. According to this view, states must recognize ethnic identity and develop processes through which the particular needs of ethnic groups can be accommodated within the boundaries of the nation-state. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Charles Margrave Taylor, CC, BA, MA, Ph. ... Will Kymlicka is a Canadian political philosopher. ...


The nineteenth century saw the development of the political ideology of ethnic nationalism, when the concept of race was tied to nationalism, first by German theorists including Johann Gottfried von Herder. Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties arguably to the exclusion of history or historical context have resulted in the justification of nationalist goals. Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the nineteenth century consolidation and expansion of the German Empire and the Third (Greater German) Reich, each promoted on the pan-ethnic idea that these governments were only acquiring lands that had always been ethnically German. The history of late-comers to the nation-state model, such as those arising in the Near East and south-eastern Europe out of the dissolution of the Ottoman and Austro-Hungarian Empires, as well as those arising out of the former USSR, is marked by inter-ethnic conflicts that usually occurs within multi-ethnic states, as opposed to between them, in other regions of the world; thus, those other conflicts are often misleadingly labelled and characterized as "civil war." Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolising French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. ...


In last decades of the twentieth century, mass migrations have occurred in most countries of the Northern hemisphere. The legal system as well as the official ideology emphasized race equality, and prohibited ethnic-based discrimination. It has been suggested by The Social Capital Foundation that this new ideology could be regarded as the reversal of the previous racialised ethnocentrism in the form of an ideology of systematic ethnic mixing and cross-breeding. The Social Capital Foundation (TSCF) is an independent non-profit, non-governmental organization, free of any established political or economic interest, that pursues the promotion of social capital and social cohesion. ...


Ethnicity in specific countries

In the United States, collectives of related ethnic groups are typically denoted as "ethnic". Most prominently in the U.S., the various Latin American ethnic groups plus a racial mix of the Spanish or Portuguese are typically collectivized as, depending on the part of the country you are in, either "Hispanics" or "Latinos". The many previously designated 'Oriental' ethnic groups are designated as Asian ethnic groups and similarly lumped together as "Asians". The terms "Black" and "African-American," while different, usually describe the descendants whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. Even the racial term "White Americans" are generally peoples originally from Europe, who now live in North America. "Middle Easterners" are peoples from the Middle-East, i.e. Southwest Asia and North Africa. These countries include Iran, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, et cetera. (For a list of official ethnic categories according to the U.S. Census Bureau, see Ethnicity (United States Census)). For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ... Latino refers to people living in the US of Latin American nationality and their US-born descendants. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Though most indigenous Africans possess relatively dark skin, they exhibit much variation in physical appearance. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... The term white American (often used interchangeably with Caucasian American[3] and within the United States simply white[4]) is an umbrella term that refers to people of European, Middle Eastern, and North African descent residing in the United States. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...  Southwest Asia in most contexts. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... US Hispanic or Latino population The Office of Management and Budget is required to use a minimum of two ethnicities: Hispanic or Latino or not Hispanic or Latino The O.M.B. defines Hispanic or Latino as a person of Cuban, Mexican, Puerto Rican, South or Central American or other...


In the United Kingdom, the classification of ethnic groups has attracted controversy in the past: particularly at the time of the 2001 Census where the existence and nature of such a classification, which appeared on the Census form, became more widely known than general. Different classifications, both formal and informal, are used in the UK. Perhaps the most accepted is the National Statistics classification, identical to that used in the 2001 Census in England and Wales (for list, see Ethnicity (United Kingdom)). In terms of use as opposed to official policy there is one main difference, the use of the term Oriental is widespread and without negative connotation in the UK and Europe while in the UK Asian is generally reserved for people from the Indian subcontinent (see Oriental and British Asian for more details). The classification of ethnic groups in the United Kingdom has attracted controversy in the past: particularly at the time of the 2001 Census where the existence and nature of such a classification, which appeared on the Census form, became more widely known than general. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... The term British Asian is used to denote a person of Southern Asian ancestry or origin, or sometimes Western Asian origin, who was born in or was an immigrant to the United Kingdom. ...


China officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups of which the most numerous are the Han Chinese. Many of the ethnic minorities maintain their own individual culture and language, although many are also becoming more like the Han Chinese. Some of these groups suffered during the Cultural Revolution. Han Chinese dominate the whole of China with the exception of Tibet and Xinjiang where the Han are still in the minority. Sometimes people are given the choice of which ethnic group they wish to belong to, but 'mixed-race' is not an option. All ID cards in China state which ethnic group the holder belongs to. (For more details, see List of ethnic groups in China and Ethnic minorities in China.) Languages Chinese languages Religions Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution [1] in the Peoples Republic of China was a struggle for power within the Communist Party of China that manifested into wide-scale social, political, and economic chaos, which grew to include large sections of Chinese society and eventually brought the entire country to... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... For the county in Shanxi province, see Xinjiang County. ... The following is a list of ethnic groups in China. ... Ethnolinguistic map of China For a list of ethnic groups in China, see List of ethnic groups in China. ...


Currently, the worlds most ethnically diverse city is Toronto, Ontario, Canada.[citation needed] Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government - Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley - Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 106 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area...


Research

The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) has attempted to map the DNA that varies between humans, which is a less than 1 % difference. This data may shed light on the origin of some ethnic groups.[citation needed] The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was started by Stanford Universitys Morrison Institute and a collaboration of scientists around the world. ... The human genome diversity project (HGDP) was started by Stanford Universitys Morrison Institute and a collaboration of scientists around the world. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ...


See also

Look up ethnicity in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... For other uses, see Clan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Defined as regions with limited to full self governance within sovereign countries which were created based on the demographic or ethnic composition of the particular area. ... Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically pure society. ... This article is about the concept of a minority. ... Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. ... Ethnicity is a major factor affecting the health of individuals and communities. ... Ethnogenesis is the process by which a group of human beings comes to be understood or to understand themselves as ethnically distinct from the wider social landscape from which their grouping emerges. ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... Genetic genealogy is the application of genetics to traditional genealogy. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... The Human Genome Diversity Project (HGDP) was started by Stanford Universitys Morrison Institute and a collaboration of scientists around the world. ... The human genome diversity project (HGDP) was started by Stanford Universitys Morrison Institute and a collaboration of scientists around the world. ... Identity politics is the political activity of various social movements for self-determination. ... Kinship and descent is one of the major concepts of cultural anthropology. ... This is a list of ethnic groups. ... Main article: indigenous peoples This is a selected list of the worlds indigenous peoples. ... The list of stateless ethnic groups covers those ethnic groups which may be diaspora, or which may live within an ethnic homeland that is not under ethnic state control. ... Meta-ethnicity is a term that arises relatively rarely in literature or public discourse, but when it does, seems to be an attempt to describe a level of commonality that is wider and more general (i. ... The multicultural national representation of the countries of origin at the student union of San Francisco City College. ... For other uses, see Nation (disambiguation). ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that forms less than half of the population. ... National symbols are symbols of states, nations and countries in the world. ... A non-exclusive ethnic group is an ethnic group with a means for people from other ethnic groups to obtain ethnic status within it. ... Passing refers to the ability of a person to be regarded as a member of a combination of sociological groups other than his or her own, such as a different race, ethnicity, social class, gender, and/or disability status, generally with the purpose of gaining social acceptance. ... Population genetics is the study of the distribution of and change in allele frequencies under the influence of the four evolutionary forces: natural selection, genetic drift, mutation, and migration. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... A stateless nation is a political term used to imply that a group, usually a minority ethnic group is a nation, and is entitled to its own state, specifically a nation-state for that nation. ... http://www. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Smith 1987
  2. ^ "Anthropology. The study of ethnicity, minority groups, and identity," Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2007.
  3. ^ Friedlander 1975 Being Indian in Hueyapan, Hobsbawm and Ranger 1983 The Invention of Tradition, Sider 1993 Lumbee Indian Histories.
  4. ^ Max Weber [1922]1978 Economy and Society eds. Guenther Roth and Claus Wittich, trans. Ephraim Fischof, vol. 2 Berkeley: University of California Press, 389
  5. ^ Ronald Cohen 1978 "Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology" in Annual Review of Anthropology 7: 385 Palo Alto: Stanford University Press
  6. ^ Isaacs, H. 1975 Idols of the Tribe: Group Identity and Political Change New York: Harper
  7. ^ 2006 The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition Boston:Houghton Mifflin
  8. ^ Joan Vincent 1974 "The Structure of Ethnicity" in Human Organization 33(4): 375-379
  9. ^ Ronald Cohen 1978 "Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology" in Annual Review of Anthropology 7: 387 Palo Alto: Stanford University Press
  10. ^ Ronald Cohen 1978 "Ethnicity: Problem and Focus in Anthropology" in Annual Review of Anthropology 7: 386 Palo Alto: Stanford University Press
  11. ^ Abizadeh 2001
  12. ^ A. Metraux (1950) "United nations Economic and Security Council Statement by Experts on Problems of Race" in American Anthropologist 53(1): 142-145)
  13. ^ A. Metraux (1950) "United nations Economic and Security Council Statement by Experts on Problems of Race" in American Anthropologist 53(1): 142-145)
  14. ^ Gellner 2006 Nations and Nationalism Blackwell Publishing
  15. ^ Anderson 2006 Imagined Communities Verson
  16. ^ Walter Pohl, "Conceptions of Ethnicity in Early Medieval Studies" Debating the Middle Ages: Issues and Readings, ed. Lester K. Little and Barbara H. Rosenwein, (Blackwell), 1998, pp 13-24, notes that historians have projected the nineteenth-century conceptions of the nation-state backwards in time, employing biological metaphors of birth and growth: "that the peoples in the Migration Period had little to do with those heroic (or sometimes brutish) clichés is now generally accepted among historians," he remarked. Early medieval peoples were far less homogeneous than often thought, and Pohl follows Reinhard Wenskus,Stammesbildung und Verfassung. (Cologne and Graz) 1961, whose researches into the "ethnogenesis" of the German peoples convinced him that the idea of common origin, as expressed by Isidore of Seville Gens est multitude ab uno principle orta ("a people is a multitude stemming from one origin") which continues in the original Etymologiae IX.2.i) "sive ab alia natione secundum propriam collectionem distincta ("or distinguished from another people by its proper ties") was a myth.
  17. ^ Aihway Ong 1996 "Cultural Citizenship in the Making" in Current Anthropology 37(5)

Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Saint Isidore of Seville (Spanish: or ) (c. ...

References

  • Abizadeh, Arash, "Ethnicity, Race, and a Possible Humanity" World Order, 33.1 (2001): 23-34. (Article that explores the social construction of ethnicity and race.)
  • Billinger, Michael S. (2007), "Another Look at Ethnicity as a Biological Concept: Moving Anthropology Beyond the Race Concept" Critique of Anthropology 27,1:5–35.
  • Dunnhaupt, Gerhard, "The Bewildering German Boundaries", in: Festschrift for P. M. Mitchell (Heidelberg: Winter 1989).
  • Eysenck, H.J., Race, Education and Intelligence (London: Temple Smith, 1971) (ISBN 0-8511-7009-9)
  • Friedlander, Judith, Being Indian in Hueyapan: A Study of Forced Identity in Contemporary Mexico (New York: Saint Martin's Press, 1975).
  • Hobsbawm, Eric, and Terence Ranger, editors, The Invention of Tradition. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983).
  • Morales-Díaz, Enrique; Gabriel Aquino; & Michael Sletcher, "Ethnicity", in Michael Sletcher, ed., New England, (Westport, CT, 2004).
  • Sider, Gerald, Lumbee Indian Histories (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993).
  • Smith, Anthony D. (1987), The Ethnic Origins of Nations, Blackwell
  • ^  U.S. Census Bureau State & County QuickFacts: Race.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Linguistic Rights - Protection of Ethnic Groups in Europe (1005 words)
Persons belonging to ethnic groups shall have the right to learn their mother tongue (ethnic group language) and to be instructed in it within the whole system of education including, besides the compulsory schooling, e.g.
Whenever outside the settlement areas of persons belonging to ethnic groups the minimum number of pupils required to build a class is not achieved in schools reasonably near, the pupils in question shall be in any case entitled to learn their mother tongue (ethnic group language).
In areas in which ethnic groups are settled, persons belonging to the majority population shall be guaranteed to be taught the language of the ethnic group as well as their history and culture.
National Statistics Online (294 words)
The size of the minority ethnic population was 4.6 million in 2001 or 7.9 per cent of the total population of the United Kingdom.
Census Ethnic Group Questions: In both 1991 and 2001 respondents were asked to which ethnic group they considered themselves to belong.
Different versions of the ethnic group question were asked in England and Wales, in Scotland and in Northern Ireland, to reflect local differences in the requirement for information.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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