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Encyclopedia > Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka
 This article documents a current event.
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Sri Lanka

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Politics and government of
Sri Lanka
Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... To suggest a relevant news story for the Main Page, refer to the criteria then add your suggestion at the candidates page. ... Sri Lankan coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Politics of Sri Lanka takes place in a framework of a presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President of Sri Lanka is both head of state and head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ...

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The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the Government of Sri Lanka and a minority terrorist group consisting of Ethnic Sri Lankan Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka. Since the 1983 "Black July" pogrom, there has been on-and-off civil war, mostly between the government and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, or the LTTE, who want to create an independent state of Tamil Eelam in the north-east of the island. It is estimated that the war has left 65,000 people dead since 1983 and caused great harm to the population and economy of the country. A cease-fire was declared in 2002, but new violence in late 2005 led to fears of a renewed civil war. Flag of the President of Sri Lanka // List of presidents The following is a list of Sri Lankan Presidents. ... Percy Mahendra Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945) is the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, and a Sri Lankan politician. ... The following is a list of Sri Lankan Prime Ministers: Don Stephen Senanayake (February 4, 1948 - March 26, 1952) Dudley Shelton Senanayake (March 26, 1952 - October 12, 1953) John Lionel Kotalawela (October 12, 1953 - April 12, 1956) Solomon Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (April 12, 1956 - September 26, 1959) Wijeyananda Dahanayake (September... Ratnasiri Wickremanayake (born on May 5, 1933) is the 14th Prime Minister of Sri Lanka and a veteran politician. ... The Parliament of Sri Lanka is a Unicameral 225-member legislature elected by universal suffrage and proportional representation for a six-year term. ... This article lists political parties in Sri Lanka. ... During the Donoughmore period of political experimentation (1931-48), several Sri Lanka leftist parties were formed. ... Politics of Sri Lanka Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Sri Lanka ... Sri Lanka is divided into eight provinces for the purposes of local governance. ... Below the provinces Sri Lanka is divided into 25 administrative districts. ... The Sri Lanka Independence Struggle against British rule was often dormant but eventually succeeded in winning independence for Sri Lanka in 1948. ... Sri Lanka traditionally follows a nonaligned foreign policy but has been seeking closer relations with the United States since December 1977. ... The recorded History of Sri Lanka is usually taken to begin in the 6th century BCE, when the Indo-Aryan people migrated into the island from India. ... Information on politics by country is available for every country, including both de jure and de facto independent states, inhabited dependent territories, as well as areas of special sovereignty. ... see Sri Lankan Tamils ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... A civil war is a war in which parties within the same culture, society or nationality fight for political power or control of an area. ... The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Map of the districts of Sri Lanka claimed by LTTE as parts of Tamil Eelam Tamil Eelam (Tamil: தமிழ் ஈழம், tamiḻ īḻam) is the name given by the LTTE and All Tamil population of Sri Lanka to the independent state which they demand in the Northern and Eastern portions of the island. ...


Sinhalese argue that Tamils received preferential treatment under British rule. By the time of independence, there were more missionary built schools in minority Tamil dominated Jaffna than in the rest of the island. This meant that there was a disproportionate number of Sri Lankan Tamils in the civil service, medicine and law in post-independence Sri Lanka. Sinhalese nationalists claim that this showed that the Tamils had benefited from favoritism; and even though some nationalists do not agree with this view, many historians agree that the roots of the conflict stem from the "divide and rule" policy adopted by the British Raj during their occupation of Sri Lanka from the late 18th Century until 1948 when Sri Lanka formally gained independance. Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Jaffna (Tamil யாழ்ப்பாணம், meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. ... Sri Lankan Tamils also known as Eelam Tamils, Ceylonese or Ceylon Tamils and Jaffna Tamils are today a trans-national minority, and are Tamil people from Sri Lanka. ... A civil servant or public servant is a civilian career public sector employee working for a government department or agency. ... Medicine is the branch of health science and the sector of public life concerned with maintaining or restoring human health through the study, diagnosis and treatment of disease and injury. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ...


A watershed in Sri Lankan politics was the Sinhala Only Act of 1956, which made Sinhala the sole official language, restricted many government jobs to Sinhala speakers, and changes in university admissions policies, which reduced the number of Tamils getting higher education. Even though this policy was immediately expanded to include Tamil also in equal status as a national language, it is widely held that it created a rift between the two ethnic groups by undermining the confidance that Tamil people had in the majority Sinhalese. The Sinhala Only Act was a law passed in the Sri Lankan parliament in 1956. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


While many have been led to believe that the struggle between Tamils and Sinhalese has been a permanent historical feature of political life in Sri Lanka, this is not so. Before the colonial era, there were local kingdoms in Kotte, Kandy and Jaffna. There were also some Tamil dominated areas in the Eastern Province, but these were under Kandyan control. Off these Kotte and Kandy were nominally Buddhist while the Jaffna Kingdom was Tamil and Hindu in its orientation. Sri Jayewardenapura-Kotte, also known as Kotte, is the legislative capital of Sri Lanka. ... The Temple of the Tooth in Kandy Kandy (මහ නුවර in Sinhala கண்டி in Tamil) is a city in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Jaffna (Tamil யாழ்ப்பாணம், meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Historically invasion by the south-Indian Tamil king Ellalan or Ellare was reported as an epochal conflict between Tamils and Sinhalese by the near mythical Mahavamsa which led to a brief period of South Indian rule in the north, but he was defeated in battle by the Sinhala king Dutugamanu. But later Pallava, Chola, Pandya and Kalinga kingdoms from India invaded and dominated the country from time to time along with periods of intense commercial and cultural interactions. These invasions have been interpreted as an age old enmity between two ethnic groups by later historians. Many Sinhalese castes (see Caste in Sri Lanka) derive from South Indian immigrants who have happily assumed Sinhala Buddhist identity. Ellaalan( c. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The Mahavamsa, also Mahawamsa, (Pāli: great chronicle) is a historical record, written in the Pāli language, of the Buddhist kings of Sri Lanka. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... Gamini Abhaya or Dutte GaminiKing Dutugamunu(c. ... Pallava, were a South Indian dynasty who established their capital at Kanchipuram in the 4th cent. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The Pandyan kingdom was an ancient state at the tip of South India, founded around the 6th century BCE. It was part of the Dravidian cultural area, which also comprised other kingdoms such as that of the Pallava, the Chera, the Chola, the Chalukya and the Vijayanagara. ... Kalinga is a landlocked province of the Philippines in the Cordillera Administrative Region in Luzon. ... The word Caste is derived from the Portuguese word casta, meaning lineage, breed or race. ... The system of Caste in Sri Lanka is a division of society into strata, differing somewhat from the classic Varnas of North India but is similar in nature to the Jati system found in South India . ...


In the decades after independence, Tamils politicians pushed for a federal system through the Federal Party. The concept of a separate nation, Tamil Eelam, was proposed by the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF) in 1976. TULF was a coalition of parties who went on to campaign in the 1977 elections for an independent state for Tamils in Sri Lanka. They won and went to Parliament to represent the northern and eastern provinces. The government banned TULF representatives from parliament for advocating an independent state. Frustrated by the ongoing politics, Tamil youth started to form militant groups, some funded by bank robberies, and military presence in the north also grew. Map of the districts of Sri Lanka claimed by LTTE as parts of Tamil Eelam Tamil Eelam (Tamil: தமிழ் ஈழம், tamiḻ īḻam) is the name given by the LTTE and All Tamil population of Sri Lanka to the independent state which they demand in the Northern and Eastern portions of the island. ... TULF Election Symbol The Tamil United Liberation Front (in Sinhala: Tamil Vimuktasi Peramuna) is a political group in Sri Lanka, which seeks autonomy or independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka, which they call Tamil Eelam. ... 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1976 calendar). ... For the album by Ash, see 1977 (album). ...


A deadly attack on the military in the north by Tamil groups sparked riots in Colombo, the capital, and elsewhere in July 1983 (see Black July Pogrom). The riots alleged to have been planned in advance. Between 1000 -3,000 Tamils were killed [1], and many more fled Sinhalese-majority areas. This is usually considered the beginning of the ethnic conflict. In 1985, peace talks between the Tamils and the government failed, and the war continued. In 1987, government troops pushed the LTTE fighters to the northern city of Jaffna, which remains a center of LTTE activity to this day. In April 1987, the conflict exploded with ferocity, as both the Government forces and engaged each other in a series of bloody operations. Colombo (කොළඹ in Sinhala; கொழும்பு in Tamil) is the largest city and commercial hub of Sri Lanka, located on the southwest coast adjacent to the present capital city of Kotte. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... This article is about the year. ... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Jaffna (Tamil யாழ்ப்பாணம், meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. ...


In July 1987, the LTTE carried out their first suicide attack. In the 1987 attack "Captain Miller" of the Black Tigers drove a small truck with explosives through the wall of a fortified Sri Lankan army camp, reportedly killing forty soldiers. Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ... The Black Tigers are special operatives of the LTTE that commit suicide if needed to reach their objectives. ...


Initially there was a plethora of different resistance groups. The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam's position, attempting to learn from the PLO, was that there should be only one. Over time the LTTE merged with or primarily exterminated almost all the other militant Tamil groups. This has led to many of these groups working with the Sri Lankan government as paramilitaries as well as a legitimate minority Tamil oriented political parties opposed to LTTEs vision of an independent Tamil Eelam. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the area between the Jordan River and the Mediterranean Sea, with an intent to destroy Israel. ... A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ...

Contents


Indian involvement

India became involved in the 1980s. The involvement has been motivated by a mix of issues – its leaders' desire to project India as the regional power in the area, worries about India's own Tamils seeking independence, and a genuine concern for the Sri Lankan Tamils' plight. The latter was particularly strong in the state of Tamil Nadu where there was sympathy for the alleged discrimination against Sri Lankan Tamils by the majority Sinhalese. Uncoordinated in the 1980s, the central and state governments supported both sides in different ways. It is widely believed that India provided the LTTE and other Tamil guerilla groups with monetary and training support. MacGyver - 1980s hero The 1980s decade refers to the years from 1980 to 1989, inclusive. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


India became more actively involved in the late 1980s, and in 1987 the Indian Air Force airdropped food parcels to Jaffna. Negotiations were then held, and the Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987 by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President Jayewardene. Under this accord, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger—subject to later referendum—of the northern and eastern provinces, and official status for the Tamil language (this was eventually enacted as the 13th Amendment). India agreed to establish order in the north and east with an Indian Peace-Keeping Force (IPKF) and to cease assisting Tamil insurgents. Militant groups including the LTTE, although initially reluctant, agreed to surrender their arms to the IPKF. 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Indian Air Force (भारतीय वायु सेना : Bharatiya Vayu Sena) is the air-arm of the Armed Forces of India and has the prime responsibility of conducting air-based warfare and securing Indian airspace. ... Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Jaffna (Tamil யாழ்ப்பாணம், meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. ... Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was signed on July 29, 1987, was signed by Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and President Jayewardene, the Sri Lankan Government made a number of concessions to Tamil demands, which included devolution of power to the provinces, merger--subject to later referendum--of the northern... 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (राजीव गान्धी) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 6th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from their family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2, 1989 following a general election... Junius Richard Jayewardene (September 17, 1906 November 1, 1996) was a Sri Lankan politician. ...


The Sri Lankan government was facing a mostly unrelated uprising by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna in the south, and called in the Indian military immediately after the agreement was signed. The Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was formed, and initially oversaw a cease-fire and modest disarmament of the militant groups. The Sri Lankan government pulled its troops south and put down the JVP rebellion. The Peoples Liberation Front (Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna) is a nationalist Marxist political party in Sri Lanka. ... Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF), was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation that was formed to oversee the peace accord signed between India and Sri Lanka in 1987, trying to solve the ethnic conflict between Tamils and Sinhalese in Sri Lanka. ... Disarmament means the reduction or elimination by a nation of its weapons systems. ...


As time went on, however, the Indian forces began to meet with stiff opposition from all sides. None of the concessions agreed to in the Indo-Sri Lankan agreement were implemented by the Government of Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan government, fearing a large scale rebellion, began to grow wary of the presence of IPKF. Simultaneously, nationalist sentiment led many Sinhalese to oppose the continued presence of the IPKF. These led to the Sri Lankan government's call for India to quit the island, and they allegedly entered into a secret deal with the LTTE that culminated in a ceasefire. However, the LTTE and IPKF continued to have frequent hostilities, and according to some reports, the Sri Lankan government even armed the rebels willing to see the back of the Indian forces. Casualties mounted and eventually India pulled out its troops in March 1990.


Support from India dropped noticeably in 1991, after the assassination of a recently ex-Prime Minister of India, Rajiv Gandhi, by a woman suicide bomber (Thenmuli Rajaratnam) widely believed to be an LTTE member and a victim of IPKF terror. India remains an outside observer to the ongoing peace process, with frequent demands to press for an extradition of Velupillai Prabhakaran, leader of LTTE, even if a peace deal is struck between the parties in the future. India's central government has been firmly against the LTTE, although they do still speak up for Tamils' rights. Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (राजीव गान्धी) (August 20, 1944 – May 21, 1991), the eldest son of Indira and Feroze Gandhi, was the 6th Prime Minister of India (and the 3rd from their family) from his mothers death on 31 October 1984 until his resignation on December 2, 1989 following a general election... Thenmuli Rajaratnam was the assassin who killed Rajiv Gandhi, herself, and 16 others in a suicide bombing on May 21, 1991, in the Indian town of Sriperumbudur, near Madras. ... Velupillai Prabhakaran(Tamil வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்) (surname sometimes spelled Pirapaharan) (born November 26, 1954; Valvettithurai, Sri Lanka) is the leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), an independence movement and a rebel militia fighting for Tamil self-rule in North-East Sri Lanka. ...


In the 1980s and 1990s, successive governments officially revoked some of the discriminatory policies, and recognizing Tamil as an official language. Sinhalese and Muslims today claim they are reverse discriminated. Tamils deny the latter claim, and see the changes that have been made as too little too late. An official language is a language that is given a privileged legal status in a state, or other legally-defined territory. ...


The 1990s

The LTTE took significant parts of the north as the IPKF withdrew, and established many government-like functions in the areas under its control. LTTE attacks on the government continued, and they scored a major victory when one of their suicide bombers killed Sri Lankan President Ranasinghe Premadasa in May 1993. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


Amidst great hope, in 1994 elections brought the Sri Lanka Freedom Party to power on a peace platform. After failed peace talks, the government pursued a "war for peace" line, and retook Jaffna (the largest city the north). Repeated attempts by the government to take control of the land route from the south to Jaffna gained ground but ultimately failed. The LTTE then rolled the government out of much of the territory it had taken, but never succeeded in re-taking Jaffna. 1994 (MCMXCIV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated like the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal. // Events January Bill Clinton January 1 : North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) goes into effect. ... The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is a major political party in Sri Lanka. ... Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil, Jaffna Jaffna (Tamil யாழ்ப்பாணம், meaning யாழ்=harp, பாணம்=town of harper) the capital city of the Northern Province, Sri Lanka. ...


The Government forces often attacked civilian buildings such as temples, churches and schools in a bid to stem the growing resistance. These were often safe havens for terrorists fleeing the air raids and their destruction resulted in a high amount of Tamil civilian casualties. In one particular incident in August 1995, Sri Lankan Air Force jets bombed Navali's St. Peter's church, killing at least 75 refugees.


LTTE suicide and time bombs were exploded numerous times in populated city areas and public transport, killing hundreds of civilians. In January 1996, the LTTE carried out their deadliest suicide bomb attack, at the Central bank in Colombo, killing 90 and injuring 1,400. In October 1997 they bombed the Sri Lankan World Trade Center and, in January 1998, detonated a truck bomb in Kandy, damaging the Temple of the Tooth, one of the holiest Buddhist shrines in the World. In response to this bombing, the Sri Lankan government outlawed the LTTE and with some success pressed other governments around the world to do the same, significantly interfering with their fund-raising activities. 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ... The Temple of the Tooth in Kandy Kandy (මහ නුවර in Sinhala கண்டி in Tamil) is a city in the centre of Sri Lanka. ... The Sri Dalada Maligawa or The Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a temple in the city of Kandy in Sri Lanka. ...


From July 1, 1999 to December 20, 1999 the LTTE intensified its attacks on the Sri Lankan armed forces in an attempt to liberate and consolidate territory. The LTTE launched 17 successful attacks in the region which culminated in the overrunning of the Paranthan Chemicals Factory base and the Kurrakkan Kaddukulam base. Thousands were killed. The rebels also advanced north towards Elephant Pass and Jaffna. The LTTE was successful in cutting all land and sea supply lines of the Sri Lankan armed forces in the town of Kilinochchi and surrounding areas. In December 1999 the LTTE tried to kill the Sri Lankan President, Chandrika Kumaratunga. She lost one eye, among other injuries. July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Killinochchi is a small city in the north of Sri Lanka. ... 1999 (MCMXCIX) was a common year starting on Friday, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born June 29, 1945) was the 5th President of Sri Lanka and 4th Executive President of Sri Lanka (November 12, 1994 - November 19, 2005). ...


At the same time, the suicide rate on the island climbed to become first in the world per capita. [2] Suicide (from Latin sui caedere, to kill oneself) is the act of willfully ending ones own life. ...


A significant peace movement also developed in the 1990s, with many organisations holding peace camps, conferences, trainings and peace meditations, and many other efforts to bridge the two sides at all levels. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1990s decade refers to the years from 1990 to 1999, inclusive. ...


After securing a vast area controlled by the government forces the LTTE further advanced Northwards, this advancement of the LTTE was posing a serious threat to the Elephant Pass military complex that enhoused 17,000 troops of the Sri Lankan forces. [3] On April 22, 2000 the Elephant pass military complex, which had separated the Jaffna peninsula from the Wanni mainland for 17 years, completely fell in the hands of the LTTE.[4], Tigers Seize Elephant Pass. April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Tentative peace

Approximate extent of area under the control of the LTTE, as of December 2005
Approximate extent of area under the control of the LTTE, as of December 2005

In 2000 the LTTE began to declare their willingness to explore measures that would safeguard Tamils' rights and autonomy as part of Sri Lanka, and announced a unilateral ceasefire just before Christmas 2000. Their July 2001 assault on Bandaranaike International Airport destroyed 8 (2 IAI Kfirs,2 Mil-17,4 K-7 trainers), of the air force's planes and 4 SriLankan Airlines's planes (2 Airbus A330s,1 A 340 and 1 A320), dampening the economy and causing tourism to plummet. Sri Lankan hopes for a military solution also faded. In parliamentary elections toward the end of the year the United National Front (UNF) came to power on a peace platform. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (601x960, 243 KB) Summary This map approximately shows the areas of Sri Lanka controlled by the LTTE and the Government, as of December 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (601x960, 243 KB) Summary This map approximately shows the areas of Sri Lanka controlled by the LTTE and the Government, as of December 2005. ... Bandaranaike International Airport (IATA: CMB, ICAO: VCBI) is Sri Lankas only international airport. ... SriLankan Airlines is the national airline of Sri Lanka. ... The United National Front is a alliance in Sri Lanka, formed by the United National Party and the Ceylon Workers Congress. ...


For the first time since the 1978 constitution introduced a strong presidency, one party held the Presidency (Chandrika Kumaratunga, Sri Lanka Freedom Party) and the other, Parliament (with Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe, United National Party). This co-habitation was extremely uneasy. The new government reciprocated another unilateral LTTE ceasefire offer at the end of 2001. The LTTE are believed to have taken this action after fear of international pressure and even direct US support of the Sri Lankan Government as part of the War on Terror. The two sides formalized it in a Memorandum of Understanding signed in February 2002. Norway is mediating, together with the other Nordic countries it also monitors the ceasefire through the SLMM and many other countries are offering substantial financial support if peace is achieved. Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (born June 29, 1945) was the 5th President of Sri Lanka and 4th Executive President of Sri Lanka (November 12, 1994 - November 19, 2005). ... The Sri Lanka Freedom Party is a major political party in Sri Lanka. ... Ranil Wickremesinghe was Prime Minister of Sri Lanka during 1993-1994, and 2001-2004 Ranil Shriyan Wickremasinghe (born March 24, 1949) is a popular Sri Lankan politician. ... The United National Party (UNP, Sinhalese:(pronounced Eksath Jathika Pakshaya), Tamil: ஐக்கிய தேசியக் கட்சி) is a political party in Sri Lanka. ... Mediation consists of a process of alternative dispute resolution in which a (generally) neutral third party, the mediator, using appropriate techniques, assists two or more parties to help them negotiate an agreement, with concrete effects, on a matter of common interest. ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ...


Some Sinhalese and Muslims have refused to support any concessions unless the LTTE disarms and becomes a democratic political entity.


The LTTE temporarily pulled out of the peace talks in 2003, saying that insufficient attention was being put on developing an interim political solution. The government eventually produced a proposal, and the LTTE a counter-proposal, which President Kumaratunga responded to by taking over several defense-related ministries. Peace talks remained suspended. In 2004 she took over additional ministries, and dissolved Parliament, calling an election, which brought her United People's Freedom Alliance to power. Legislative elections were held in Sri Lanka on 2 April 2004. ... UPFA election symbol The United Peoples Freedom Alliance is a political alliance in Sri Lanka. ...


During the election, LTTE commander Karuna of Batticaloa-Ampara split from the group's main leadership, claiming insufficient resources and power were being given to Tamils of the eastern part of the island. The LTTE officially sacked him, small-scale violence erupted, and tensions were extremely high. After the election, brief fighting south of Trincomalee led to a rapid retreat and capitulation of the Karuna group, their leaders eventually fleeing to Colombo. It has now been revealed that a ruling Muslim politician was involved with Karuna's escape. Batticaloa(මඩකලපුව In Sinhala, மட்டக்களப்பு In Tamil) is the provincial capital of the eastern province of Sri Lanka but now both northern and eastern provinces merged and Trincomalee has been declared as the provincial capital of north -East province. ... Ampara is a remote city on the East Coast of Sri Lanka, about 320km from the capital city of Colombo. ...


The Asian tsunami of late 2004 killed more than 30,000 people in the country. It was hoped that the disaster would bring the warring sides together, but the conflict continued. For related articles, including charities accepting donations, see Category:2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ...


Renewed violence

Until 2005, the cease fire between the LTTE and the government largely held. However, the situation was complicated by allegations that both sides were carrying out covert operations against the other. The government claimed that LTTE rebels were killing opponents and government soldiers and getting away with it, while the rebels accused the government of supporting paramilitary groups against the organization.


The foreign minister of Sri Lanka, Lakshman Kadirgamar, was killed by a sniper on August 15, 2005. The government blamed the LTTE, but no retaliation was made. Kadirgamar on a diplomatic visit to France, January 1996. ... August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the 2005 presidential election, the UNF candidate, Wickremasinghe, advocated reopening talks with the LTTE. The UPFA candidate, Mahinda Rajapaksa, called for a tougher line and renegotiation of the ceasefire. The LTTE openly called for a boycott of the election of the Tamils, but believing the Tamils were getting ready to vote in large numbers, the LTTE was accused of using violence and intimidation to enforce the boycott. Losing the chance to get a large number of Tamil votes meant a loss for Wickramasinghe and a narrow win for Rajapakse. Despite being seen as a hardliner, Rajapakse promised to pursue peace and new talks with the rebels. Presidential elections in Sri Lanka were held on 17 November 2005. ... Percy Mahendra Mahinda Rajapaksa (born November 18, 1945) is the President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, and a Sri Lankan politician. ... A boycott is an action undertaken to abstain from using, buying, or dealing with someone or some organisation as an expression of protest or as a means of coercion. ...


LTTE leader Velupillai Prabhakaran, in an annual address in November, stated that the Tigers would "renew their struggle" in 2006 if the government did not take serious moves toward peace. Velupillai Prabhakaran(Tamil வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்) (surname sometimes spelled Pirapaharan) (born November 26, 1954; Valvettithurai, Sri Lanka) is the leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), an independence movement and a rebel militia fighting for Tamil self-rule in North-East Sri Lanka. ...


Violence escalated in December 2005. Increased guerrilla activity included claymore mine attacks, clashes between the Sea Tigers and the Sri Lankan navy, and the killings of sympathizers on both sides. Prominent figures were targeted for assassination, including Joseph Pararajasingham, a pro-LTTE MP gunned down at a Christmas Mass. This violence left around 200 people dead. [5] The LTTE, following their standard practice, denied responsibility for the attacks, blaming "armed civilian groups" for them. Other incidents such as assassination of Tamil journalists and civilians led the SLMM to question whether a ceasefire can still be said to exist [6]. Observers believed that if serious steps are not taken towards peace, the country would return to war. Parts of the M18A1 Claymore The M18A1 Claymore Antipersonnel Mine is a weapon often used by many countries around the world, named after the large Scottish sword, by the inventor, Norman A. MacLeod. ... LTTE Sea Tiger head, Colonel Soosai on a Sea Tiger vessel off Mullaitivu Sea Tigers are the naval part of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, founded in 1984. ... Joseph Pararajasingham was a Sri Lankan politician known for his pro-Tamil Tiger views who represented the Tamil National Alliance party in the Sri Lankan Parliament. ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ...


Another round of talks

In light of this renewed violence, the co-chairs of the Tokyo Donor conference called both parties to come to the negotiation table. The co-chairs—the United States in particular—were heavily critical of the LTTE violence. US State Department officials, as well as the US ambassador to Sri Lanka, gave warnings to the Tigers claiming a return to hostilities would mean that the Tigers would face a "more determined" Sri Lankan military. Tokyo ) , literally eastern capital, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and includes the highly urbanized central area formerly known as the city of Tokyo which is the heart of the Greater Tokyo Area. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ...


In a last ditch effort to salvage an agreement between the parties, the Norwegian special envoy Erik Solheim and the LTTE theoretician Anton Balasingham came to the island. The parties severely disagreed on the location of the talks; however, these last ditch efforts produced a breakthrough when both parties agreed the talks could be held in Geneva, Switzerland. Erik Solheim (born January 18, 1955 in Oslo) is a Norwegian politician and the leader of the Socialist Left Party from 1987 to 1997. ... Anton Balasingham is the polical advisor of LTTE terrorist organization (Tamil Tigers). ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German: //, Italian: Ginevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland, situated where Lake Geneva (French Lac Léman) flows into the Rhône River. ...


On February 7, 2006, Sri Lanka's government and the LTTE agreed to peace talks in Geneva definitively on February 22 and February 23. These talks were reported to have gone "above expectations", with both the government and the LTTE agreeing to curb the violence and to hold talks in April. [7] February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Over the next few weeks following the talks, violence dropped significantly. However, beginning in early April, violence increased. Assassinations, mine attacks, and ethnic violence in Trincomalee threatened talks in Geneva scheduled for April 19-21. The LTTE called for a postponement of the Geneva talks until April 24-25, and the government initially agreed to this. Following an incident at sea on April 15, however, in which a Sri Lankan Navy ship followed a vessel carrying tiger commanders. Bay of Trincomalee (View from Temple) Trincomalee North East city of Sri Lanka. ...


Following negotiations, both the government and the rebels agreed to a civilian vessel transporting the regional leaders with international truce monitors. The eastern commanders for the LTTE were to have travelled north for an internal meeting on April 16, 2006. The journey involved rebels and ceasefire monitors crossing government-controlled territory. However, the climate shifted drastically when the Tamil Tigers cancelled the meeting, claiming to have not agreed to the navy vessels' escort. According to the Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission, the Tamil rebels had agreed to the Sri Lankan navy vessels' escort. "It was part of the agreement. The rebels should have read the clauses carefully. We are frustrated," said Helen Olafsdottir, spokesperson for the SLMM. (BBC) LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ... The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission - SLMM, was established on February 22, 2002 by the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE). ...


Escalated violence ensued in mid April with suspected Tiger attacks, ethnic riots and unsolved murders. An attack on military vehicles using a claymore anti-personnel mine killed 10 navy sailors on April 11th. The following day, coordinated bombings by rebels and rioting in the north-eastern part of the country left 16 dead. A claymore anti-personnel mine exploded in Trincomalee, killing 2 policemen in their vehicle. Another blast set off in a crowded vegetable market killed 1 soldier and civilians. Ensuing rioting by civilians left more than a dozen dead. (BBC). Responsibility for these attacks was claimed by an organisation called the Upsurging People's Force, but the military accused of being a front for the LTTE. Image:WE-Scottish Claymore. ... Bay of Trincomalee (View from Temple) Trincomalee North East city of Sri Lanka. ... The Upsurging Peoples Force (Tamil பொங்கி எழும் மக்கள் படை) is a Tamil militant group in Sri Lanka. ...


On January 5, 2006, five Tamil students were killed by the Sri Lankan Army [8]. Apart from these incident more than 100 Tamils were murdered by the Sri Lankan armed forces and paramilitary. [9]


On April 20, 2006, the Tamil Tigers officially pulled out of peace talks indefinitely. While the LTTE state that transportation issues have prevented them from meeting their regional leaders, analysts and the international community held a deep scepticism, seeing the transportation issue by the rebels as a delaying tactic to avoid attending peace talks in Geneva. (Reuters) This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


On 23 April 2006, six Sinhalese rice farmers were executed in their paddy fields by suspected Tamil Tigers terrorists in the northeastern Trincomalee district. (AlertNet) The following day, two suspected Tamil Tiger rebels were shot dead in Batticaloa while being caught planting mines, after rebels reportedly hacked a young mother to death and kidnapped her infant. (BBC) This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... Bay of Trincomalee (View from Temple) Trincomalee North East city of Sri Lanka. ... Batticaloa(මඩකලපුව In Sinhala, மட்டக்களப்பு In Tamil) is the provincial capital of the eastern province of Sri Lanka but now both northern and eastern provinces merged and Trincomalee has been declared as the provincial capital of north -East province. ...


International condemnation against the LTTE was repeated in April 2006, as Anoja Kugenthirasah, a Tamil Tiger suicide bomber attacked the Sri Lankan Army headquarters in the capital, Colombo, killing 10. Twenty-seven were injured, including the army commander Lieutenant General Sarath Fonseka, as the attacker detonated her concealed explosives near the military's hospital. The Sri Lankan military began aerial assaults on rebel positions in the north-eastern part of the island nation. (BBC) LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... LTTE is an acronym or initialism for: Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam Known for their guerilla warfare forcibly killing every other independent groups aiming for seperate state. ... A suicide attack is an attack in which the attacker or attackers intend and expect to die (see suicide). ... The Sri Lankan Army is the land force of Republic of Sri Lanka. ... Colombo (කොළඹ in Sinhala; கொழும்பு in Tamil) is the largest city and commercial hub of Sri Lanka, located on the southwest coast adjacent to the present capital city of Kotte. ...


Following this incident, Srilankan government air force dropped bombs in Muthur, a Tamil village, and killed more than 12 Tamils including children. Around 20,000 Tamils displaced due to this random bombing. [10]


On May 10, Sri Lankan Navy killed 13 Tamils including two children in Jaffna. Human right organizations condemn this incident and blame the Sri Lankan government for these systematic killings. [11]


See also

The recorded History of Sri Lanka is usually taken to begin in the 6th century BCE, when the Indo-Aryan people migrated into the island from India. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Black July is the commonly used name of the pogroms starting in Sri Lanka on July 23, 1983. ... This is a list that documents the numerous groups of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups that were formed to fight the state of Sri Lanka to create an independent Tamil Eelam. ...

External links

Dr. John Richardson serves as Professor of International Development and as Director of the Center for Teaching Excellence at American University in Washington DC. Born in the United States of America on March 12, 1938, he received his AB degree from Dartmouth College and Ph. ...

Additional references

  • Assignment in Colombo, J. N. Dixit (Indian High Commissioner during the 1980s negotiations that led to the IPKF presence) -- ISBN 8-122-00499-7
  • Hoole, R., Somasundaram, D., Sritharan K., and Thiranagama, R. The Broken Palmyra - The Tamil Crisis in Sri Lanka: An Inside Account. 1990. The Sri Lanka Studies Institute, Claremont. Also available online[12].
  • Rajasinghan, K.T. Sri Lanka: The Untold Story. 2001-2002. Serialised in Asia Times Online[13].

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3637 words)
The ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is an ongoing conflict between the majority Sinhalese and minority Sri Lankan Tamils on the island-nation of Sri Lanka.
The foreign minister of Sri Lanka, Lakshman Kadirgamar, was killed by a sniper on August 15, 2005.
On February 7, 2006, Sri Lanka's government and the LTTE agreed to peace talks in Geneva definitively on February 22 and February 23.
ETHNIC CONFLICT IN SRI LANKA AND REGIONAL SECURITY (7505 words)
The history of ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka is the history of emergence of consciousness among the majority community, the Sinhala, which defined the Sri Lanka society as Sinhala-Buddhist, thus denying its multi-ethnic character.
The conflict had become significant factor in the politics of Tamilnadu and it was necessary that its influence on the inflammatory Tamil separatist tendencies be minimized.
Sri Lanka has had to acknowledge that her foreign relations have to be conducted in such a way as to pose no threat to her far more powerful neighbour.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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