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Encyclopedia > Ethnic cleansing
Part of a series of articles on
General forms

Racism · Sexism · Ageism
Religious intolerance · Xenophobia Ethnic Cleansing (2002) is a controversial computer game developed by Resistance Records, an underground music label specializing in Neo-Nazi and white supremacist bands. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Religious intolerance is either intolerance motivated by ones own religious beliefs or intolerance against anothers religious beliefs or practices. ... Look up xenophobia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Specific forms
Manifestations

Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching
Hate speech · Hate crime
Genocide (examples) · Ethnocide
Ethnic cleansing · Pogrom · Race war
 · Religious persecution · Blood libel · Paternalism
Police brutality Slave redirects here. ... Racial profiling, also known as ethnic profiling, is the inclusion of racial or ethnic characteristics in determining whether a person is considered likely to commit a particular type of crime (see Offender Profiling). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... A Jewish cemetery in France after being defaced by Neo-Nazis. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Genocide is the mass killing of a group of people, as defined by Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (CPPCG) as any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centres. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Religious persecution is systematic mistreatment of an individual or group due to their religious affiliation. ... Blood libels are unfounded allegations that a particular group eats people as a form of human sacrifice, often accompanied by the claim of using the blood of their victims in various rituals. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... January 31 1919: David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by batons of the Glasgow police Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ...

Movements
Policies

Discriminatory
Race / Religion / Sex segregation
Apartheid · Redlining · Internment · Ethnocracy Racial segregation characterised by separation of different races in daily life, such as eating in a restaurant, drinking from a water fountain, using a rest room, attending school, going to the movies, or in the rental or purchase of a home. ... Sex segregation is the separation, or segregation, of people according to sex or gender. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... Ethnocracy is a form of government where all offices are held by a certain ethnic group purposefully and the other ethnic groups are subdued and sometimes killed by the state because of their race or cultural differences. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Emancipation · Civil rights
Desegregation · Integration
Equal opportunity For other uses, see Emancipation (disambiguation). ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... Desegregation is the process of ending racial segregation, most commonly used in reference to the United States. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... Equal opportunity is a descriptive term for an approach intended to provide a certain social environment in which people are not excluded from the activities of society, such as education, employment, or health care, on the basis of immutable traits. ...


Counter-discriminatory
Affirmative action · Racial quota
Reservation (India) · Reparation
Forced busing
Employment equity (Canada) Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial quota... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Reservation in Indian law is a term used to describe the governmental policy whereby a percentage of seats are reserved in the Parliament of India, State Legislative Assemblies, Central and State Civil Services, Public Sector Units, Central and State Governmental Departments and in all Public and Private Educational Institutions, except... In the philosophy of justice, reparation is the idea that a just sentence ought to compensate the victim of a crime appropriately. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Employment equity refers to Canadian policies that require or encourage preferential treatment in employment practices for certain designated groups: women, people with disabilities, Aboriginal peoples, and visible minorities. ...

Law

Discriminatory
Anti-miscegenation · Anti-immigration
Alien and Sedition Acts · Jim Crow laws
Test Act · Apartheid laws
Ketuanan Melayu · Nuremberg Laws Anti-miscegenation laws (also known as miscegenation laws) were laws that banned interracial marriage and sometimes also interracial sex. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ======== many recent edits that had nothing to do with article. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The several Test Acts were a series of English penal laws that imposed various civil disabilities on Roman Catholics and Nonconformists. ... The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... United Malays National Organisation (UMNO) Youth Chief Hishammuddin Hussein brandishing the kris (dagger), an action seen by some as a defense of ketuanan Melayu. ... The Nuremberg Laws of 1935 were denaturalization laws passed in Nazi Germany. ...


Anti-discriminatory
Anti-discrimination acts
Anti-discrimination law
14th Amendment · Crime of apartheid This is a list of anti-discrimination acts (often called discrimination acts), which are laws designed to prevent discrimination. ... President Johnson signs the Civil Rights Act of 1964. ... Amendment XIV in the National Archives The Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (Amendment XIV) is one of the post-Civil War amendments (known as the Reconstruction Amendments), first intended to secure rights for former slaves. ... The crime of apartheid is defined by the 2002 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court which established the International Criminal Court as inhumane acts of a character similar to other crimes against humanity committed in the context of an institutionalised regime of systematic oppression and domination by one racial...

Other forms

Nepotism · Cronyism · Colorism
Linguicism · Ethnocentrism · Triumphalism
Adultcentrism · Gynocentrism
Androcentrism · Economic Look up nepotism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Colorism is a form of discrimination that is an international phenomenon, where human beings are accorded differing social and/or economic status and treatment based on skin color. ... Linguicism is a form of prejudice, an -ism along the lines of racism, ageism or sexism. ... Christopher Columbus 1492 voyage is seen by many Europeans as the discovery of the Americas, despite the fact that humans first reached it some 12,000 years prior. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Supremacism. ... Manifestations Slavery · Racial profiling · Lynching Hate speech · Hate crime · Hate groups Genocide · Holocaust · Pogrom Ethnocide · Ethnic cleansing · Race war Religious persecution · Gay bashing Pedophobia · Ephebiphobia Movements Discriminatory Aryanism · Neo-Nazism · Supremacism Kahanism Anti-discriminatory Abolitionism · Civil rights · Gay rights Womens/Universal suffrage · Mens rights Childrens rights · Youth... Gynocentrism (Greek γυνο, gyno-, woman, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, often consciously adopted, of placing female human beings or the female point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Androcentrism (Greek ανδρο, andro-, man, male, χεντρον, kentron, center) is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of ones view of the world and its culture and history. ... Economic discrimination is a term that describes a form of discrimination based on economic factors. ...

Related topics

Bigotry · Prejudice · Supremacism
Intolerance · Tolerance · Diversity
Multiculturalism · Oppression
Political correctness
Reverse discrimination · Eugenics
Racialism For people named Bigot and other meanings, see Bigot (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Not to be confused with suprematism. ... Intolerance is the lack of ability or willingness to tolerate something. ... It has been suggested that toleration be merged into this article or section. ... Recently diversity has been used in a political context to justify recruiting international students or employees. ... The term multiculturalism generally refers to a state of both cultural and ethnic diversity within the demographics of a particular social space. ... For other uses, see Oppression (disambiguation). ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... Reverse discrimination is a term that is used to describe policies or acts that are seen to benefit a historically socio-politically non-dominant group (typically minorities or women), at the expense of a historically socio-politically dominant group (typically men and majority races). ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Eugenics Conference [7], 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...

Discrimination Portal Image File history File links Portal. ...

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Ethnic cleansing refers to various policies or practices aimed at the displacement of an ethnic group from a particular territory in order to create a supposedly ethnically "pure" society. The term entered English and international usage in the early 1990s to describe certain events in the former Yugoslavia. Its typical usage was developed in the Balkans, to be a less objectionable code-word meaning genocide, but its intent was to best avoid the obvious pitfalls of longstanding international treaty laws prohibiting war crimes. Official language Serbo-Croatian, Serbian, Croatian, Slovenian, Bosnian, Macedonian Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Area (1991)  - Total  - % water Ranked xxst 255,804 km² Negligible Population  - Total (2004)  - Density Ranked xxth 20,522,972 80/km² Currency Yugoslav dinar Time zone  - in summer CET (UTC+1) CEST (UTC+2) National anthem... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


Synonyms include sectarian revenge[citation needed] and ethnic purification and (in the French versions of some UN documents) nettoyage ethnique and épuration ethnique.[1]

Contents

Definitions

The term ethnic cleansing has been variously defined. In the many words of Andrew Bell-Fialkoff:

[E]thnic cleansing [...] defies easy definition. At one end it is virtually indistinguishable from forced emigration and population exchange while at the other it merges with deportation and genocide. At the most general level, however, ethnic cleansing can be understood as the expulsion of a population from a given territory.[2]

Drazen Petrovic has distinguished between broad and narrow definitions. Broader definitions focus on the fact of expulsion based on ethnic criteria, while narrower definitions include additional criteria: for example, that expulsions are systematic, illegal, involve gross human-rights abuses, or are connected with an ongoing internal or international war. According to Petrovic:

[E]thnic cleansing is a well-defined policy of a particular group of persons to systematically eliminate another group from a given territory, often based on economic principles, or nationalist claims to the land. Such a policy often involves violence and is very often connected with military operations. Unlike the U.S. Indian Removal program, which purchased the land from the natives, Ethnic Cleansing is to be achieved by all possible means, from discrimination to extermination, and entails violations of human rights and international humanitarian law."[3]

The official United Nations definition of ethnic cleansing is "rendering an area ethnically homogeneous by using force or intimidation to remove from a given area persons of another ethnic or religious group"[4] UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


However, ethnic cleansing rarely aims at complete ethnic homogeneity. The common practice is the removal of stigmatized ethnic groups, and thus can be defined as "the forcible removal of an ethnically defined population from a given territory", occupying the middle part of a somewhat fuzzy continuum between nonviolet pressured ethnic emigration and genocide.[5] For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


In reviewing the International Court of Justice (ICJ) Bosnian Genocide Case in the judgement of Jorgic v. Germany on 12 July 2007 the European Court of Human Rights selectively quoted from the ICJ ruling on the Bosnian Genocide Case to explain that ethnic cleansing was not enough on its own to establish that a genocide had occurred: The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: ) is the primary judicial organ of the United Nations. ... The Application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide (Bosnia and Herzegovina v. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR), often referred to informally as the Strasbourg Court, was created to systematise the hearing of human rights complaints against States Parties to the Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms, adopted by...

The term 'ethnic cleansing' has frequently been employed to refer to the events in Bosnia and Herzegovina which are the subject of this case ... General Assembly resolution 47/121 referred in its Preamble to 'the abhorrent policy of 'ethnic cleansing', which is a form of genocide', as being carried on in Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... It [i.e. ethnic cleansing] can only be a form of genocide within the meaning of the [Genocide] Convention, if it corresponds to or falls within one of the categories of acts prohibited by Article II of the Convention. Neither the intent, as a matter of policy, to render an area “ethnically homogeneous”, nor the operations that may be carried out to implement such policy, can as such be designated as genocide: the intent that characterizes genocide is “to destroy, in whole or in part” a particular group, and deportation or displacement of the members of a group, even if effected by force, is not necessarily equivalent to destruction of that group, nor is such destruction an automatic consequence of the displacement. This is not to say that acts described as 'ethnic cleansing' may never constitute genocide, if they are such as to be characterized as, for example, 'deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part', contrary to Article II, paragraph (c), of the Convention, provided such action is carried out with the necessary specific intent (dolus specialis), that is to say with a view to the destruction of the group, as distinct from its removal from the region. As the ICTY has observed, while 'there are obvious similarities between a genocidal policy and the policy commonly known as 'ethnic cleansing' ' (Krstić, IT-98-33-T, Trial Chamber Judgment, 2 August 2001, para. 562), yet '[a] clear distinction must be drawn between physical destruction and mere dissolution of a group. The expulsion of a group or part of a group does not in itself suffice for genocide. ... United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations. ... The Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1948 and came into effect in January 1951. ... Look up Category:Latin derivations in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ...

ECHR quoting the ICJ[6]

Origins of the term

The term "ethnic cleansing" entered the English lexicon as a loan translation of the Bosnian/Serbian/Croatian phrase etničko čišćenje (pronounced [etnitʃko tʃiʃtʃʲeɲe]).[dubious ] During the 1990s it was used extensively by the media in the former Yugoslavia in relation to the Yugoslav wars, and appears to have been popularised by the international media some time around 1992. The term may have originated some time before the 1990s in the military doctrine of the former Yugoslav People's Army, which spoke of "cleansing the field" (čišćenje terena, [tʃiʃtʃʲeɲe terena]) of enemies to take total control of a conquered area. The origins of this doctrine are unclear, but may have been a legacy of the Partizan era. Calque In linguistics, a calque ([kælk]) or loan translation (itself a calque of German Lehnübersetzung) consists of the borrowing of a phrase from one language into another, in the process of which individual words native to the borrowing language semantically match the individual words in the source language. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (YPA) (Serbo-Croatian: Jugoslovenska narodna armija or Jugoslavenska narodna armija; Serbian and Macedonian: Југословенска народна армија—JHA; Macedonian and Serbian Latin forms: Jugoslovenska narodna armija; Croatian and Bosnian: Jugoslavenska narodna armija—JNA; Slovene: Jugoslovanska ljudska armada—JLA) was the military force of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Yugoslav Partisan Flag The Partisans (lat. ...


This originally applied purely to military enemies, but came to be applied to ethnic groups as well. It was used in this context in Yugoslavia as early as 1982, in relation to the policies of the Kosovo Albanian administration creating an "ethnically clean" territory (i.e. "cleanly" Albanian) in the province.[7] However, this usage had antecedents. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...


One of the earliest usages of the term cleansing can be found on May 16, 1941, during the Second World War, by one Viktor Gutić, a commander in the Croatian fascist faction, the Ustaše: Every Croat who today solicits for our enemies not only is not a good Croat, but also an opponent and disrupter of the prearranged, well-calculated plan for cleansing [čišćenje] our Croatia of unwanted elements [...].[8] The Ustaše did carry out large-scale ethnic cleansing and genocide of Serbs in Croatia during the Second World War and sometimes used the term "cleansing" to describe it.[9] is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian far-right organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... The Serbs of Croatia are the largest national minority in that country. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Some time later, on 30 June 1941, Stevan Moljević, a lawyer from Banja Luka who was an ideologue of the Chetniks, published a booklet with the title On Our State and Its Borders. Moljević assessed the circumstances in the following manner: One must take the opportunity of the war conditions and at a suitable moment take hold of the territory marked on the map, cleanse [očistiti] it before anybody notices and with strong battalions occupy the key places (...) and the territory surrounding these cities, freed of non-Serb elements. The guilty must be promptly punished and the others deported - the Croats to Croatia, the Muslims to Turkey or perhaps Albania - while the vacated territory is settled with Serb refugees now located in Serbia.[10] is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Stevan Moljević (1888-1946) was Serb lawyer from Banja Luka, who had a minor role in forming of the Chetnik resistance during Second World War. ... Municipality of Bosnia and Herzegovina General Information Entity Republika Srpska Land area 15,000km² Population (1991 census) 195,139 230,000 Population density 126,8/km2 Coordinates Area code +387 51 Mayor Dragoljub Davidović (SNSD) Website http://www. ... Chetniks (Serbian Četnici, Четници) were an organization of Yugoslavs (mostly Serbs) who supported the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and formed a notable resistance force during World War II. The name is derived from the Serbian word četa which means company (of about 100 men). ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ...


The term "cleansing", more specifically the Russian term "cleansing of borders", ochistka granits (очистка границ), was used in Soviet documents of early 1930s in reference to the resettlement of Poles from the 22-km border zone in Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR. The process was repeated on a larger and wider scale in 1939-1941, involving many other ethnicities with cross-border ties to foreign nation-states, see Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union and Population transfer in the Soviet Union.[5] The Border Security Zone in Russia is a strip of land (usually, though not always, along the state border) where economic activity and access are restricted without permission of the FSB[1]. In order to visit the zone, a permit issued by the local FSB department is required[1]. The... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 5th in the USSR... State motto: Ukrainian: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Kiev Official language Ukrainian and Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until December 25, 1917 December 30, 1922 August 24, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 3rd in the USSR 603,700 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 2nd in the... Max Barry set up Jennifer Government: NationStates, a game on the World Wide Web inspired by, and promoting, his novel Jennifer Government. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... Not by Their Own Will. ...


A similar term with the same intent was used by the Nazi administration in Germany under Adolf Hitler. When an area under Nazi control had its entire Jewish population removed, whether by driving the population out, by deportation to Concentration Camps, and/or murder, the area was declared judenrein, (lit. "Jew Clean"): "cleansed of Jews".(cf. racial hygiene). Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Hitler redirects here. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... The term ethnic cleansing refers to various policies of forcibly removing people of another ethnic group. ... Racial hygiene (often labeled a form of scientific racism) is the selection, by a government, of the most physical, intellectual and moral persons to raise the next generation (selective breeding) and a close alignment of public health with eugenics. ...


Ethnic cleansing as a military and political tactic

The 12th anniversary of ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia which was held in Tbilisi in 2005. One of the visitors of the gallery recognized her dead son on the photograph.
The 12th anniversary of ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia which was held in Tbilisi in 2005. One of the visitors of the gallery recognized her dead son on the photograph.

The purpose of ethnic cleansing is to remove the conditions for potential and actual opposition, whether political, terrorist, guerrilla or military, by physically removing any potentially or actually hostile ethnic communities. Although it has sometimes been motivated by a doctrine that claim an ethnic group is literally "unclean" (as in the case of the Jews of medieval Europe), more usually it has been a rational (if brutal) way of ensuring that total control can be asserted over an area. The campaign in Bosnia in early 1992 was a case in point. The tactic was used by Bosnian Croat, Bosnian Muslim and Bosnian Serb forces. Ethnic cleansing is often also accompanied by efforts to eradicate all physical traces of the expelled ethnic group, such as by the destruction of cultural artifacts, religious sites and physical records.[citation needed] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a south Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Bosniaks (natively: Bošnjaci) are South Slavs descended from those who converted to Islam during the Ottoman period (15th-19th century). ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


In 1993, during the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict, armed Abkhaz separatist insurgency confronted with large population of ethnic Georgians implemented the tactic of ethnic cleansing directed against ethnic Georgians (which made the majority of the population) of Abkhazia. [11] As the results, more than 250,000 ethnic Georgians were forced to flee and approximately 30,000 people were killed during separate incidents involving massacres and expulsion. (see Ethnic cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia) [12] [13] Combatants Abkhaz separatists Confederation of Mountain Peoples of the Caucasus Russian Cossacks Russian Forces1 Georgian Interior and Defense Ministry forces Paramilitary groups and volunteer battalions Commanders Iysuph Soslanbekov, Musa Shanibov, Shamil Basaev, Beslan Barghandjia, Anri Djergenia Geno Adamia, Guram Gubelashvili, Gia Kharkharashvili, Davit Tevzadze, Soso Akhalaia Casualties ~2,500-4... Dead Georgian civilian with his dog on the streets of Sukhumi, September 27, 1993 The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (Georgian: , Russian: ) or the Massacre of Georgians in Abkhazia [1][2] — refers to the massacres [3] and forced mass expulsion... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Dead Georgian civilian with his dog on the streets of Sukhumi, September 27, 1993 The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (Georgian: , Russian: ) or the Massacre of Georgians in Abkhazia [1][2] — refers to the massacres [3] and forced mass expulsion...


As a tactic, ethnic cleansing has a number of significant impact. It enables a force to eliminate civilian support for resistance by eliminating the civilians — recognizing Mao Zedong's dictum that guerrillas among a civilian population are fish in water, it disables the fish by draining the water. When enforced as part of a political settlement, as happened with the forced resettlement of ethnic Germans to Germany after 1945, it can contribute to long-term stability[14]. Some individuals of the large German population in Czechoslovakia and prewar Poland had been sources of friction before the Second World War, but this was forcibly resolved[15]. It thus establishes "facts on the ground" - radical demographic changes which can be very hard to reverse. Mao redirects here. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


On the other hand, ethnic cleansing is such a brutal tactic and so often accompanied by large-scale bloodshed that it is widely reviled. It is generally regarded as lying somewhere between population transfers and genocide on a scale of odiousness, and is treated by international law as a war crime. Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ...

Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide.
Armenian civilians, being cleansed from their homeland during the Armenian Genocide.

Image File history File links Marcharmenians. ... Image File history File links Marcharmenians. ... Armenian Genocide photo. ...

Ethnic cleansing as a crime under international law

There is no formal legal definition of ethnic cleansing.[16] However, ethnic cleansing in the broad sense - the forcible deportation of a population - is defined as a crime against humanity under the statutes of both International Criminal Court (ICC) and the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY).[17] The gross human-rights violations integral to stricter definitions of ethnic cleansing are treated as separate crimes falling under the definitions for genocide or crimes against humanity of the statutes.[18] The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


The UN Commission of Experts (established pursuant to Security Council Resolution 780) held that the practices associated with ethnic cleansing "constitute crimes against humanity and can be assimilated to specific war crimes. Furthermore ... such acts could also fall within the meaning of the Genocide Convention." The UN General Assembly condemned "ethnic cleansing" and racial hatred in a 1992 resolution.[19] Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ...


There are however situations, such as the Expulsion of Germans after World War II, where ethnic cleansing has taken place without legal redress. Timothy V. Waters argues that if similar circumstances arise in the future, this precedent would allow the ethnic cleansing of other populations under international law.[20] Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ...


Silent ethnic cleansing

Silent ethnic cleansing is a term coined in the mid-1990s by some observers of the Yugoslav wars. Apparently concerned with Western-media representations of atrocities committed in the conflict — which generally focused on those perpetrated by the Serbs — atrocities committed against Serbs were dubbed "silent", on the grounds that they were not receiving adequate coverage. [21] For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Since that time, the term has been used by other ethnically oriented groups for situations that they perceive to be similar — examples include both sides in Northern Ireland's continuing troubles, and those who object to the expulsion of ethnic Germans from former German territories during and after World War II. Northern Ireland (Irish: , Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a constituent country of the United Kingdom lying in the northeast of the island of Ireland, covering 5,459 square miles (14,139 km², about a sixth of the islands total area). ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Some observers, however, assert that the term should only be used to denote population changes that do not occur as the result of overt violent action, or at least not from more or less organized aggression - the absence of such stressors being the very factor that makes it "silent" (although some form of coercion must logically exist).


Instances of ethnic cleansing

This section lists incidents that have been termed "ethnic cleansing" by some academic or legal experts. Not all experts agree on every case; nor do all the claims necessarily follow definitions given in this article. Where claims of ethnic cleansing originate from non-experts (e.g., journalists or politicians) this is noted.


Early instances

  • Neanderthals were replaced by early modern humans traveling from Africa, with some experts believing that Cro-Magnons committed a form of slow ethnic cleansing.[22][23]
  • Most of the Old Testament contains passages of genocidal intent and ethnic cleansing ordered by God[citation needed] such as 1 Samuel 15:19
  • Ancient Assyria began to utilize mass-deportation as a punishment for rebellions since the 13th century BC. By the 9th century BC the Assyrians made it a habit of regularly deporting thousands of restless subjects to other lands.
  • Julius Caesar's campaign against the Helvetii, the Celtic inhabitants of modern Switzerland: approximately 60% of the tribe was killed, and another 20% was taken into slavery. The remainder of the Helvetii were driven back into their old lands.
  • The apartheid-like system existed in early Anglo-Saxon England, which prevented the native British genes getting into the Anglo-Saxon population by restricting intermarriage and wiped out a majority of original British genes in favour of Germanic ones, according to a new study. According to research led by University College London, Anglo-Saxon settlers enjoyed a substantial social and economic advantage over the native Celtic Britons[29] who lived in what is now England, for more than 300 years from the middle of the 5th century.[30][31][32]
  • Jews were frequently massacred and exiled from various European countries. The persecution hit its first peak during the Crusades. In the First Crusade (1096) flourishing communities on the Rhine and the Danube were utterly destroyed; see German Crusade, 1096. In the Second Crusade (1147) the Jews in France were subject to frequent massacres. The Crusades were followed by expulsions, including in, 1290, the banishing of all English Jews; in 1396, 100,000 Jews were expelled from France. According to James Carroll, "Jews accounted for 10% of the total population of the Roman Empire. By that ratio, if other factors had not intervened, there would be 800 million Jews in the world today, instead of something like 24 million."[35]
  • In 1270, the Jews of Tunisia were required either to leave or to embrace Islam.
  • The Crow Creek Massacre in 1325 was part of the ethnic cleansing of the Initial Coalescent people by the Middle Missouri villagers.[39]
  • Northern Iraq remained predominantly Assyrian Christian until the destructions of Tamerlane, an Islamic conqueror of Turco-Mongol descent, at the end of the 14th century.[40]
  • Between the 11th and 18th centuries, the Vietnamese expanded southward in a process known as nam tiến (southward expansion). In 1471 the kingdom of Champa suffered a massive defeat by the Vietnamese, in which 120,000 Cham people were either captured or killed, and the kingdom was reduced to a small enclave near Nha Trang.[41][42]
  • In 1622, the tribal chief of the Powhatan Confederacy of what is now Virginia in the United States planned the destruction of the English settlers. During the Jamestown Massacre, the Powhatans killed 347 English settlers throughout the Virginia colony, almost one-third of the English population of first permanent English colony in the New World.[44]
  • On August 10, 1680, the Pueblo Indians rose in revolt against Spanish rule. By the time the Pueblo Revolt succeeded, the Pueblo warriors killed 380 Spanish settlers and drove the surviving Europeans from New Mexico. By 1690s, certain Pueblo groups wanted the Spanish to come back to protect them against Apache and Navajo raiders.[47]

For other uses, see Neanderthal (disambiguation). ... This article is about modern humans. ... For the avant garde collective, see Cromagnon (band). ... For other uses, see Assyria (disambiguation). ... The Assyrian Empire originated in the early 2nd millennium BC,[4][5] succeeding the Akkadian Kingdom of the late 3rd millennium BC.[6] Assyria did not become a powerful military state until the early 1st millenium BC, when Ashurnasirpal IIs conquests reasserted Assyrias hegemony in the Near East... Scene from the failed Québecois rebellion against British rule in 1837. ... For other uses, see Carthage (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Combatants Roman Republic Carthage Commanders Scipio Aemilianus Hasdrubal the Boetarch Strength 40,000 90,000 Casualties 17,000 62,000 The Third Punic War (149 BC to 146 BC) was the third and last of the Punic Wars fought between the former Phoenician colony of Carthage, and the Republic of... For other uses, see War (disambiguation). ... The institution of slavery in ancient Rome made many people non-persons before their legal system. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Mithridates VI of Pontus, (132 BC- 63 BC), called Eupator Dionysius, was the king of Pontus in Asia Minor and one of Romes most formidable and successful enemies. ... For other uses, see Murder (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state which existed from the 6th century BC to the 1st century BC. For the state which existed in the 18th century, see Roman Republic (18th century). ... Below is a list of incidents that are commonly labeled as massacres by reliable sources. ... Asiatic Vespers - (Night of the Vespers) Date: Exact Date Unknown; circa 88-83 B.C.E. Mithridates Eupator VI of Pontus (Mithridates the Great) ordered the excecution of roughly 100,000 Italians that were Roman citizens or any person who spoke with an Latin accent. ... For other uses, see Julius Caesar (disambiguation). ... A map of Gaul showing the northern Alpine position of the Helvetii. ... This article is about the European people. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Roman Britain refers to those parts of the island of Great Britain controlled by the Roman Empire between 43 and 410. ... This article is about the European people. ... A sculpture depicting Boudica, the warrior queen of the Iceni who led the revolt against the Romans in AD 61, and her daughters, commissioned by Prince Albert and executed by Thomas Thornycroft, stands near Westminster Pier, London Boudica (also spelt Boudicca, formerly better known as Boadicea) (d. ... Vandal and Vandali redirect here. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Vandals Commanders Belisarius Gelimer Strength 10,000 infantry 6,000 cavalry ca. ... // Constructing a chronology of the early Anglo-Saxon period is highly complex, and the limitations of our source material place restrictions on just how accurate any chronology can be. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ... This article is about the European people. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The St. ... Events November 13 - English king Ethelred gives order to kill all Danes in England, leading to the St. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... Ethelred II (c. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ... Combatants Byzantines, supported by Cumans, Vlachs, Bulgars and Frankish and Flemish mercenaries. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Henry, son of William I attempted a coup against his brothers but failed to seize the English throne. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The word massacre has a number of meanings, but most commonly refers to individual events of deliberate and direct mass killing, especially of noncombatant civilians or other innocents without any reasonable means of defense, that would often qualify as war crimes or atrocities. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The German Crusade of 1096 is that part of the First Crusade in which peasant crusaders, mostly from Germany, attacked not Muslims but Jews. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... This article incorporates text from the public domain 1901-1906 Jewish Encyclopedia The history of the Jews of France dates back over 2,000 years. ... // March 1 - The University of Coimbra is founded in Lisbon, Portugal by King Denis of Portugal; it moves to Coimbra in 1308. ... Events September 25 - Bayazid I defeats Sigismund of Hungary and John of Nevers at the Battle of Nicopolis. ... James P. Carroll (born 1943 in Chicago, Illinois) is a noted author, novelist, and columnist for the Boston Globe. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... Al-Ä€ndalus (Arabic الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim inhabitants; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750-929) and Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) and its taifa successor kingdoms specifically, and in general to territories under Muslim occupation (711-1492). ... Berbers are the indigenous peoples of North Africa west of the Nile Valley. ... The Almohad Dynasty (From Arabic الموحدون al-Muwahhidun, i. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Commonly used image indicating one artists conception of Maimonidess appearance Maimonides (March 30, 1135 or 1138–December 13, 1204) was a Jewish rabbi, physician, and philosopher in Spain, Morocco and Egypt during the Middle Ages. ... Muslim percentage of population by country Distribution of Islam per country. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Islamic world is the world-wide community of those who identify with Islam, known as Muslims, and who number approximately one-and-a-half billion people. ... The Mongol Invasion of Russia was an invasion of the medieval state of Kievan Rus by a large army of nomadic Mongols, starting in 1223. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The Iranian languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family. ... The Turkic languages constitute a language family of some thirty languages, spoken across a vast area from Eastern Europe and the Mediterranean to Siberia and Western China, and are traditionally considered to be part of the proposed Altaic language family. ... The cathedral atop the Rock of Cashel in Ireland was completed in 1270. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... The Crow Creek Massacre occurred in the early 14th century between Native Americans in the South Dakota area. ... Events January 7:Alfonso IV becomes the King of Portugal. ... Languages Assyrian, Chaldean, Turoyo Religions Christianity Related ethnic groups other Semitic peoples Assyrians are an ethnic group whose origins lie in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey and Syria, but who have migrated to the Caucasus, North America and Western Europe during the past century. ... For the chess engine Tamerlane, see Tamerlane. ... The Turco-Mongols were the aristocratic, nomadic, mostly Turkic-speaking horsemen of Turkic and Mongolian descent in Central Asia who served as rulers and conquerors in Central and Western Asian societies during the Middle Ages. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... South East Asia circa 1100 C.E. Champa territory in green. ... This article is about the Cham people of Asia. ... The fishing harbour in Nha Trang. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Al-Ä€ndalus (Arabic الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to the Iberian Peninsula by its Muslim inhabitants; it refers to both the Emirate (ca 750-929) and Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031) and its taifa successor kingdoms specifically, and in general to territories under Muslim occupation (711-1492). ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... Also film, 1492: Conquest of Paradise. ... Converso (Spanish and Portuguese for a convert, from Latin conversus, converted, turned around) and its feminine form conversa referred to Jews or Muslims or the descendants of Jews or Muslims who had converted to Catholicism in Spain and Portugal, particularly during the 1300s and 1400s. ... Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Marranos (Spanish and Portuguese, literally pigs in the Spanish language, originally a derogatory term from the Arabic محرّم muharram meaning ritually forbidden, stemming from the prohibition against eating the flesh of the animal among both Jews and Muslims), were Sephardic Jews (Jews from the Iberian peninsula) who were forced to adopt... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... Events April 5 - In Virginia, Native American Pocahontas marries English colonist John Rolfe. ... The Safavid Empire at its 1512 borders. ... Tahmasp I (1514-1576) was an influential Shah of Persia of the Safavid Dynasty. ... Events January 14 – Hampton Court conference with James I of England, the Anglican bishops and representatives of Puritans September 20 – Capture of Ostend by Spanish forces under Ambrosio Spinola after a three year siege. ... 1605 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Shāh ‘Abbās I or Shāh ‘Abbās, The Great (Persian: ) born on (January 27, 1571 - January 19, 1629) was Shah of Iran, and the most eminent ruler of the Safavid Dynasty of the Persian Empire. ... Naghsh-i Jahan Square, Isfahan This article is about the city of Isfahan. ... New Julfa is a quarter of Isfahan, Iran, located on the outskirts of the city. ... Events January 1 - In the Gregorian calendar, January 1 is declared as the first day of the year, instead of March 25. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Indian massacre of 1622. ... The Powhatan (also spelled Powatan and Powhaten) were a very powerful tribe of Native Americans, speaking an Algonquian language, who lived in what is now Virginia at the time of the first European-Native encounters. ... This article is about the English as an ethnic group and nation. ... Jewish history in Poland 960 Jewish merchant from Spain, Ibrahim Ibn Jaqub (Abraham ben Jakov), travels to Poland and writes the first description of the country. ... The Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Turkey. ... Khmelnytsky Uprising (also Chmielnicki Uprising or Khmelnytsky/Chmielnicki Rebellion) refers to a rebellion in the lands of in present-day Ukraine which raged from 1648-1654. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Combatants English Royalists and Irish Catholic Confederate troops English Parliamentarian New Model Army troops and allied Protestants in Ireland Commanders James Butler, 1st Duke of Ormonde (1649 - Dec. ... The Act for the Settlement of Ireland 1662 was passed by the Long Parliament, who had taken power in England after the English Civil War, after the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland, itself in response to the Irish Rebellion of 1641. ... Irish Catholics is a term used to describe Irish people or people of Irish descent who adhere to the Roman Catholic faith. ... The Caribbean or the West Indies is a group of islands in the Caribbean Sea. ... North American redirects here. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Pueblo be merged into this article or section. ... 1680-The Pueblo Revolt, by George Chacón, Taos Mural Project The Pueblo Revolt of 1680 or Popés Rebellion was an uprising of many pueblos of the Pueblo people against Spanish colonists in the New Spain province of New Mexico. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Largest metro area Albuquerque metropolitan area Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... For other uses, see Apache (disambiguation). ... The Navajo people (or Diné) of the Southwestern United States are currently the largest Native American tribe in North America, with an estimated tribal population of 300,000. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Great Turkish War refers to a series of conflicts between the Ottoman Empire and contemporary European powers, then joined into a Holy League, during the second half of the 17th century. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...

Colonial period

  • Conflict between Miao groups and newly arrived Han settlers increased during the 18th century under repressive economic and cultural reforms imposed by the Qing Dynasty. This led to armed conflict and large-scale migrations continuing into the late 19th century, the period during which most Hmong people emigrated to Southeast Asia.[48][49]
  • When the Venezuelan War of Independence started, the Spanish enlisted the Llaneros, playing on their dislike of the criollos of the independence movement. José Tomás Boves led an army of llaneros which routinely killed white Venezuelans. After several more years of war, which killed half of Venezuela's white population, the country achieved independence from Spain in 1821.[50][51]
  • In the immediate aftermath of Dom Pedro’s abdication in 1831, the poor people of color, including slaves, staged anti-Portuguese riots in the streets of Brazil's larger cities.[52]
  • On November 19, 1835, the Chatham Islands were invaded by mainland Māori. Some 300 Moriori men, women and children were massacred and the remaining 1,300 survivors were enslaved. By 1862, only 101 Morioris were left alive. Modern inhabitants are descendants of those who invaded and conquered the archipelago in 1835.[53]
  • The ethnic cleansing of the light-skinned Spanish and Mestizo people by the Mayas from the eastern Yucatan and the territory of Quintana Roo during the Caste War of Yucatán. The greatest success of the Maya revolt was reached in the spring of 1848, with the Europeans and Mestizos driven from most of the peninsula other than the walled cities of Campeche and Mérida and the south-west coast.
  • In the United States in the 19th century there were numerous instances of relocation of Native American peoples from their traditional areas to often remote reservations elsewhere in the country, particularly in the Indian Removal policy of the 1830s. The Trail of Tears, which led to the deaths of about 2,000 to 8,000 Cherokees from disease, and the Long Walk of the Navajo are well-known examples.[54][55][4]
  • The Tasmanians, estimated at 8,000 people in 1803, were reduced to a population of around 300 by 1833, although much of this has been attributed to the effect of diseases to which they had no natural immunity (including smallpox and syphilis) and alcoholism.[56] Estimates of the total number of Tasmanian deaths at the hands of European settlers vary, with some controversial estimates ranging as low as 118 in the period from 1803 until 1847.[57] This conflict is a subject of the Australian history wars.
  • Ainu people are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, northern Honshū, the Kuril Islands, much of Sakhalin, and the southernmost third of the Kamchatka peninsula. As Japanese settlement expanded, the Ainu were pushed northward, until by the Meiji period they were confined by the government to a small area in Hokkaidō, in a manner similar to the placing of Native Americans on reservations.

The Hmong, also known as Miao (Chinese: 苗: Miáo; Vietnamese: Mẹo or Hmông; Thai: ม้ง (mong) or แม้ว (maew)), are an Asian ethnic group whose homeland is in the mountainous regions of southern China (especially Guizhou) that cross into northern Southeast Asia (northern Vietnam and Laos). ... Language(s) Chinese languages Religion(s) Predominantly Taoism, Mahayana Buddhism, traditional Chinese religions, and atheism. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Language(s) Hmong/Mong Religion(s) Shamanism, Buddhism, Christianity, others The terms Hmong (pronounced ) and Mong () both refer to an Asian ethnic group in the mountainous regions of southern China. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Great Upheaval (le Grand Dérangement), also known as the Great Expulsion or the Acadian Expulsion, is the eviction of the Acadian population from Nova Scotia between 1755 and 1763, ordered by governor Charles Lawrence and the Nova Scotia Council. ... The Acadians (French: Acadiens) are the descendants of the 17th-century French colonists who settled in Acadia (located in the Canadian Maritime provinces — Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, and Prince Edward Island — and some of the American state of Maine). ... Map of Acadiana Region with the Cajun Heartland USA subregion highlighted in dark red. ... Cajuns are an ethnic group consisting essentially of the descendants of Acadians who came from Nova Scotia to Louisiana as a result of their refusal to swear allegiance to the British Crown. ... Saint-Domingue was a French colony from 1697 to 1804 that is today the independent nation of Haiti. ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... Jean-Jacques Dessalines Jean-Jacques Dessalines (September 20, 1758–October 17, 1806) was a leader of the Haitian Revolution and an Emperor of Haiti (1804–1806 under the name of Jacques I). ... For the peoples actually from the Caucasus, see Peoples of the Caucasus. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The least-powerful, least-known, and paradoxically longest-lived Gothic communities were those that remained in the lands around the Black Sea, especially in the Crimea. ... The Nogais, also spelled Nogay, Noghai, and often called the Caucasian Mongols (Caucasian refers to their geographic position, in the Caucasus mountains, not to their ethnicity), are a Turkic people, and an important ethnic group in the Daghestan region who speak the Turkic Nogai language. ... Kuban (Ukrainian - Кубань) is an ethnical ukrainian territory. ... The fortress of Akkerman / Cetatea Albă (14th century), situated near the city of Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Flag Crimean Khanate in 1600 Capital Bakhchisaray Government Monarchy History  - Established 1441  - Annexed to Russia 1783 The Crimean Khanate or the Khanate of Crimea (Crimean Tatar: ; Russian: - Krymskoye khanstvo; Ukrainian: - Krymske khanstvo; Turkish: ) was a Crimean Tatar state from 1441 to 1783. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Venezuelan War of Independence in 1811-1812 was Venezuelas first war for independence from Spanish colonial rule. ... A Llanero or the Llaneros is the name given to Venezuelan and Colombia cowboys and means plainsmen. ... Criollo, in the Spanish colonial Casta system (caste system) of Latin America, was a person born in the Spanish colonies deemed to have purity of blood in respect to the individuals European ancestry. ... Jose Tomas Boves (1782-1814), born in Oviedo, in Asturias, Spain, known for his cruelties during the wars of independence in Greater Colombia. ... After the beginning of the Greek War of Independence in 1821, Turkish soldiers began the massacre of thousands of Greeks around the Ottoman Empire. ... Chios (Greek: , alternative transliterations Khios and Hios), is the fifth largest of the Greek islands, situated in the Aegean Sea seven kilometres (five miles) off the Turkish coast. ... Below is a list of incidents that are commonly labeled as massacres by reliable sources. ... Slave redirects here. ... Pedro I, Emperor of Brazil (pron. ... The Chatham Islands from space. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... Moriori are the indigenous people of the Chatham Islands (Rekohu in the Moriori language), east of the New Zealand archipelago in the Pacific Ocean. ... The word massacre has a number of meanings, but most commonly refers to individual events of deliberate and direct mass killing, especially of noncombatant civilians or other innocents without any reasonable means of defense, that would often qualify as war crimes or atrocities. ... Slave redirects here. ... The Spanish people or Spaniards are an ethnic group native to Spain, in southwestern Europe, who are primarily descended from the autochthonous pre-Indo-European Euskaldunak, Latin, Visigothic, Celtic and Moorish peoples. ... Language(s) Predominantly Spanish, (with a minority of other languages), while Mestiços speaks Portuguese Religion(s) Christianity (Predominantly Roman Catholic, with a minority of Protestant and other Religions) Related ethnic groups European (mostly Spanish, Portuguese, French and Italian), Amerindian people, Austronesian people, Hispanics and Latinos Mestizo (Portuguese: Mestiço... The Maya people are a Native American people of southern Mexico and northern Central America. ... The Yucatán Peninsula separates the Caribbean Sea from the Gulf of Mexico. ... Quintana Roo is a state of Mexico, on the eastern part of the Yucatán Peninsula. ... The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán (Mexico) against the population of European descent (called Yucatecos) in political and economic control. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... View of Campeche, showing Cathedral and part of old city fortifications Campeche is a city of Mexico located at 19°85′ N 90°53′ W, on the shore of the Gulf of Mexico. ... Cathedral on the Plaza Mayor, the oldest in North America [1]. Mérida is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Yucatán. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... For the Norwegian musical group, see Trail of Tears (band); for the 2006 documentary, see The Trail of Tears: Cherokee Legacy. ... Alternate meanings: Cherokee (disambiguation) The Cherokee are a people native to North America who first inhabited what is now the eastern and southeastern United States before most were forcefully moved to the Ozark Plateau. ... The Long Walk The Long Walk of the Navajo, also called the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo, was a 20 day or more foot walk many Navajos made in 1864 to a reservation in southeastern New Mexico. ... A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines c. ... This article is about the medical term. ... Smallpox (also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera) is a contagious disease unique to humans. ... Syphilis is a curable sexually transmitted disease caused by the Treponema pallidum spirochete. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The History wars are an ongoing public debate over the interpretation of the history of the white colonisation of Australia and its influence on responses to the current situation of the original inhabitants of the land. ... Ainu ) IPA: (also called Ezo in historical texts) are an ethnic group indigenous to Hokkaidō, the Kuril Islands, and much of Sakhalin. ...   literally North Sea Circuit, Ainu: Mosir), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is Japans second largest island and the largest of its 47 prefectural-level subdivisions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the political history of the sovereignty conflict, see Kuril Islands dispute. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... “Kamchatka” redirects here. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Language(s) Aramaic Religion(s) Syriac Christianity Related ethnic groups Other Semitic peoples, and other ethnic groups from the Fertile Crescent. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Languages Kurdish Religions Predominantly Sunni Muslim also some Shia, Yazidism, Yarsan, Judaism, Christianity Related ethnic groups other Iranian peoples (Talysh Baluch Gilak Bakhtiari Persians) The Kurds are an ethnic group who consider themselves to be indigenous to a region often referred to as Kurdistan, an area which includes adjacent parts... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Southern Federal District (Northern Caucasus) is one of the seven federal districts of Russia. ... The Adyghe or Adygs are a people of the northwest Caucasus region, principally inhabiting Adygeya (23 %) (now a constituent republic of the Russian Federation) and Karachay-Cherkessia (11 %) (where they are named as Cherkes). Shapsug National District, an autonomous district founded for Shapsigh (or Shapsugh) tribe living on the Black... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Muhajirism was the emigration of Muslim indigenous peoples from the Caucasus into the Ottoman Empire following the Russian-Circassian War and the Caucasian War (during the 19th century). ...

20th century

  • Massacres of the Turkish population by the Greek army of occupation and Greek scorched earth policy by Greek troops after their defeat in the Greco Turkish War. Massacre of Greek population and sack of Smyrna by Turkish troops.
  • During WWII, in Kosovo & Metohija, some 10,000 Serbs lost their lives[65][66], and about 80[65] to 100,000[65][67] or more[66] were ethnically cleansed. Hundreds of thousands more would leave in the following decades, following the shift of power in Kosovo, resulting in non-violent ethnic cleansing of Serbs between 1945 and 1991.
  • The ethnic cleansing and massacres of Poles in Volhynia by nationalist UPA which took place in 1943 and 1944, with the bulk of victims reported for summer and autumn 1944.
  • The ethnic cleansing of Cham Albanians from Southern Epirus by Greeks which took place in 1944 and 1945, circa 35000 deported to Albania, more than 9000 massacred.
  • Expulsion of Germans after World War II. From 1944 until 1948, between 13.5 and 16.5 million Germans were expelled, evacuated or fled from Central and Eastern Europe. Estimated number of those who died in the process is being debated by historians and estimated between 500,000 and 3,000,000.[69]
  • Mass expulsions of Hindus and Sikhs from Pakistan to India, and of Muslims from India to Pakistan. The controversy surrounding this move resulted in the killings of Hindus, Muslimss and Sikhs in riots. This was known as the partition of British India in 1947.[70] Well over 10 million people were violently displaced, making it the largest single instance of ethnic cleansing in recorded history.
  • After Indonesia received independence from the Netherlands in 1949, around 300.000 people, predominantly Indos or Dutch Indonesians (people of mixed Indonesian and European descent), fled or were expulsed from Indonesia.[79]
  • Displacement of Kashmiri Hindus living in Kashmir due to the ongoing and anti-Indian insurgency. Some 300,000 Hindus have been internally displaced from Kashmir due to the violence.[80]
  • On 6 and 5 September 1955 the Istanbul Pogrom or "Σεπτεμβριανά" was launched against the Greek population of Constantinople ,it was secretly backed by the Turkish government ,some Jews and Armenians of the city were also attacked by the mob , the event contributed greatly to the gradual extinction of the Greek minority in the city and country which numbered 100,000 in 1924 after the TurkoGreek population exchange treaty and only 5000 in 2007 and was followed by the Turkish government planed expulsion of the Greek minority in the Imbros and Tenedos islands in the period 1923-1993 source needed .
  • On 5 July 1960, five days after the Congo gained independence from Belgium, the Force Publique garrison near Léopoldville mutinied against its white officers and attacked numerous European targets. This caused the fear amongst the approximately 100,000 whites still resident in the Congo and mass exodus from the country.[81]
  • The creation of the apartheid system in South Africa, which began in 1948 but reached full flower in the 1960s and 1970s, involved some ethnic cleansing, including the separation of blacks, Coloureds, and whites, as well as the creation of Bantustans, which involved forced removals of non-white populations.[82][83]
  • Mass expulsion of the pied-noir population of European descent and Jews from Algeria to France. In just a few months in 1962, 900,000 of these Europeans and native Jewish people left the country.[84][85]
  • The ethnic cleansing between 1963-1974 of Turkish Cypriots by Greek Cypriots and Greek military forces.[88]
  • At least one million Iraqi Kurds were displaced during the Al-Anfal Campaign (1986-1989).
  • The forced assimilation campaign of the late 80s directed against ethnic Turks resulted in the emigration of some 300,000 Bulgarian Turks to Turkey.
  • The Nagorno Karabakh conflict has resulted in the displacement of population from both sides. 528,000 Azerbaijanis from Nagorno Karabakh Armenian controlled territories including Nagorno-Karabakh, and 185,000[90] to 220,000 Azeris, 18,000 Kurds and 3,500 Russians fled from Armenia to Azerbaijan from 1988 to 1989.[91] 280,000 to 304,000[92] persons—virtually all ethnic Armenians—fled Azerbaijan during the 19881993 war over the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh.[93]
  • Since April 1989, some 70,000 black Mauritanians -- members of the Peul, Wolof, Soninke and Bambara ethnic groups -- had been expelled from Mauritania by the Mauritanian government.[94]
  • The mass expulsion of southern Lhotshampas (Bhutanese of Nepalese origin) by the northern Druk majority of Bhutan in 1990.[100] The number of refugees is approximately 103,000.[101]
  • More than 800,000 Kosovo Albanians fled their homes in Kosovo during the Kosovo War in 1998-9, after being attacked and expelled. Over 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities fled Kosovo during and after the war.[105][106]

The Destruction of Thracian Bulgarians in 1913 (in Bulgarian Разорението на тракийските българи през 1913 година) is a book, published by Bulgarian academician Lyubomir Miletich in 1918, which describes the mass extermination and ethnic cleansing, caused to the Bulgarian population in Eastern Thrace and Eastern Rodopi. ... This article is about the Turkish nationalist constitutionalist movement. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ä°smet Ä°nönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ä°smet Ä°nönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ä°smet Ä°nönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Ä°zmir, historically Smyrna, is the third most populous city of Turkey and the countrys largest port after Ä°stanbul. ... Cartoon depicting a Turk and a Greek arguing over the exchange. ... Combatants Greece Turkish Revolutionaries Commanders Gen Leonidas Paraskevopoulos, Gen Anastasios Papoulas, Gen Georgios Hatzianestis Ali Fethi Okyar, Ä°smet Ä°nönü, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Fevzi Çakmak Strength 200,000 men 120,000 men (plus village protectors) Casualties 23,500 dead; 20,820 captured 20,540 dead; 10,000 wounded The... Borders as shaped by the treaty The Treaty of Lausanne (July 24, 1923) was a peace treaty that settle a part of the partitioning of the Ottoman Empire that reflected the consequences of the Turkish Independence War between Allies of World War I and Turkish national movement, (Grand National Assembly... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... Don Cossacks refers to cossacks that settled along the Don River, Russia it its lower and middle parts. ... Combatants Local Soviet powers led by Russian SFSR and Red Army Chinese mercenaries White Movement Central Powers (1917-1918): Austria-Hungary Ottoman Empire German Empire Allied Intervention: (1918-1922) Japan Czechoslovakia Greece  United States  Canada Serbia Romania UK  France Foreign volunteers: Polish Italian Local nationalist movements, national states, and decentralist... The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to former Polish citizens or Polish-speaking people who resided in the Soviet Union. ... The total deportation of Koreans in the Soviet Union, over 172,000 persons, in September-October 1937 from the border regions of the Russian Far East was part of the systematic Stalins policy of population transfer in the Soviet Union. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... // Map of Soviet Central Asia Soviet Central Asia is a reference to the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan that were part of the Soviet Union from 1924-1991. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... East Karelia and West Karelia with borders of 1939 and 1940/1947. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Petrozavodsk (Russian: ; Karelian/Finnish: Petroskoi) is the capital of the Republic of Karelia, Russia, with a population of 266,160 (2002 Census). ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Poles were victims of discrimination and expulsions by German state in both XIX and XX century. ... German Nazism and the acts of the Nazi German state profoundly affected many countries, communities and peoples before, during and after World War II. While the attempt of Germany to exterminate several nations viewed as subhuman by Nazi ideology, was stopped by the Allies, Nazi aggression neverthless led to deaths... Slave redirects here. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... The Ustaše (often spelled Ustashe in English; singular Ustaša or Ustasha) was a Croatian right-wing organisation put in charge of the Independent State of Croatia by the Axis Powers in 1941. ... Jasenovac concentration camp (in Croatian: Logor Jasenovac, in Serbian: Логор Јасеновац) was the largest concentration and extermination camp in Croatia during World War II. It was established by the UstaÅ¡a (Ustasha) regime of the Independent State of Croatia in August 1941 and headed by Miroslav Majstorović. It was dismantled in April... Jerome War Relocation Center in Jerome, Arkansas Japanese people heading off to an internment camp. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Fifth Column (disambiguation). ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... Volga German pioneer family commemorative statue in Victoria, Kansas, USA. The Volga Germans (German: or Russlanddeutsche) were ethnic Germans living near the Volga River in the region of southern European Russia around Saratov and to the south, maintaining German culture, language, traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutheranism, Reformed and Roman Catholicism... Altai Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) in the Siberian Federal District. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Republic of Kalmykia (Russian: ; Kalmyk: Хальмг Таңһч) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... The Republic of Ingushetia (Russian: ; Ingush: ГӀалгӀай Мохк) is a federal subject of Russia. ... The Balkars (Karachay-Balkar: sg. ... Karachay-Cherkess Republic (Russian: , or, less formal, Karachay-Cherkessia ) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... The Massacre of Poles in Volhynia was an ethnic cleansing conducted in Volhynia (Polish: ) during World War II. In the course of it, up to 80,000 Poles are thought to have been massacred by the nationalist Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Ukrainska Povstanska Armiya, or UPA). ... UPA appeal poster. ... Cham Albanians (in Albanian: Çamë, in Greek: Τσάμηδες Tsámidhes) are a group of ethnic Albanians originally residing close to the river Thyamis (Θύαμις in Greek, Çam in Albanian). ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Italians in Istria in 1910. ... For other uses, see Diaspora (disambiguation). ... Istria (Croatian and Slovenian: Istra, Venetian and Italian: Istria), formerly Histria (Latin), is the largest peninsula in the Adriatic Sea. ... Rijeka (in local Croatian dialects Rika and Reka; Fiume in Italian and Hungarian. ... For other uses, see Zadar (disambiguation). ... Fascism is an authoritarian political ideology (generally tied to a mass movement) that considers individual and other societal interests subordinate to the interests of the state. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In memory to the people deported from Lemkivshchyna “WisÅ‚a” (Vistula) Action was conducted in 1947 to relocate south-eastern Polands Ukrainian, Boyko and Lemko population. ... Polish voivodeships 1922-1939. ... Note: although the term recovered territories has a clear meaning in Poland and Polish historiography, it is not a widely accepted term or concept in English speaking nations. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... This article is under construction. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Makkah masjid on the last Friday of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan Muslims praying by the historic Charminar after filling the Makkah Masjid, congregations of more than two hundred thousand pray on special occasions there. ... Flag Capital Hyderabad Government Principality Nizam  - 1720-48 (first) Asaf Jah I  - 1911-48 (last) Asaf Jah VII History  - Established 1724  - Annexed by India September 18, 1948 Hyderābād and Berar   (Telugu: హైదరాబాదు Urdu: حیدر آباد) under the Nizams, was the largest princely state in India. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Palestinian refugees in 1948 The Palestinian exodus (Arabic: الهجرة الفلسطينية al-Hijra al-Filasteeniya) refers to the refugee flight of Palestinian Arabs during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war. ... The Palestinian flag, adopted in 1948, is a widely recognized modern symbol of the Palestinian people. ... Flag The approximate borders of the British Mandate circa 1922. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... The Jewish exodus from Arab lands refers to the 20th century expulsion and emigration of Jews, primarily of Sephardi and Mizrahi background, from majority Arab lands. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Combatants  Israel Haganah Irgun Lehi Palmach Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen[2], Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Yemenite Jews (Hebrew: תֵּימָנִים, Standard Temanim Tiberian ; singular תֵּימָנִי, Standard Temani Tiberian ) are those Jews who live, or whose recent ancestors lived, in Yemen (תֵּימָן, Standard Teman Tiberian ; far south), on the southern tip of the Arabian peninsula. ... For other uses, see Indo. ... The Kashmiri Pandits (Hindus) are the original inhabitants of the Valley of Kashmir. ... Kashmir (or Cashmere) may refer to: Kashmir region, the northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent India, Kashmir conflict, the territorial dispute between India, Pakistan, and the China over the Kashmir region. ... The Republic of India is the second most populous country in the world, with a population of more than one billion, and is the seventh largest country by geographical area. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... The Istanbul Pogrom (also known as Istanbul Riots; Greek: (Events of September); Turkish: (Events of September 6-7)), was a pogrom directed primarily at Istanbuls 100,000-strong Greek minority on September 6 and 7, 1955. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For the district, see Gökçeada (district). ... Tenedos, known as Bozcaada officially and by its Turkish inhabitants, (Greek: , Tenedhos), is a small island in the Aegean Sea, part of the Bozcaada district of Çanakkale province in Turkey. ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Force Publique (FP) was the official armed force for what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo from 1885, (when the territory was known as the Congo Free State), through the period of direct Belgian rule (1908-60), until the beginning of the Second Republic in 1965. ... Kinshasa - Wikipedia /**/ @import /w/skins-1. ... White African people are descendants of Europeans who settled on the continent of Africa under colonial rule. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the South African context, the term Coloured refers to various people of mixed Bantu, Khoisan, and European descent (with some Malay or Indian ancestry, especially in the Western Cape) together with some racially pure Khoisans. ... Bantustan refers to any of the territories designated as tribal homelands for black South Africans during the Apartheid era. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Pied-noir is a term for the former French colonists of North Africa, especially Algeria. ... Year 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs to be expanded. ... For the automotive term, see redline. ... White flight is a term for the demographic trend where working- and middle-class white people move away from increasingly racial-minority inner-city neighborhoods to white suburbs and exurbs. ... The term inner-city is often applied to the poorer parts at the centre of a major city. ... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Map of Zanzibars main island Zanzibar is part of Tanzania Coordinates: , Country Tanzania Islands Unguja and Pemba Capital Zanzibar City Settled AD 1000 Government  - Type semi-autonomous part of Tanzania  - President Amani Abeid Karume Area  - Both Islands  637 sq mi (1,651 km²) Population (2004)  - Both Islands 1,070... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... http://en. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... For the breed of cat, see Bengal cat; for the tiger, see Bengal Tiger; for the American football franchise , see Cincinnati Bengals Bengal (Banga, Bangla, Bangadesh, or Bangladesh in Bengali) comprises a region in the northeast of the Indian subcontinent, today divided between the independent country of Bangladesh and the... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... NRI redirects here. ... Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Turks in Bulgaria The settlement of Turks in Bulgaria began in the 14th century and in the 2001 Census, the size of the community was estimated at 746,664. ... Anthem Azat ou Ankakh Artsakh Free and Independent Artsakh Capital Stepanakert (Khankendi) Official languages Armenian1 Government Unrecognized  -  President Bako Sahakian [1]  -  Prime Minister Anushavan Danielyan Independence from Azerbaijan   -  Referendum December 10, 1991   -  Proclaimed January 6, 1992   -  Recognition none2  Area  -  Total 4,400 km²  1,699 sq mi  Population  -  March 2007... Azerbaijanis are a people numbering more than 35 million worldwide. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Categories: Africa-related stubs | Burkina Faso | Cameroon | Ethnic groups of Africa | Fulani Empire | Mali | Nigeria ... Wolof may refer to: the ethnic group of the Wolof people; the Wolof language; things originating from the culture or tradition of the Wolof people. ... Also called Sarakole, Seraculeh, or Serahuli, the Soninke are a Mandé people who descend from the Bafour, and are closely related to the Imraguen of Mauritania. ... Bambara Mother figure, 15th-20th century The Bambara (Bamana in their own language, or sometimes Banmana) are a Mande people living in west Africa, primarily in Mali but also in Guinea, Burkina Faso and Senegal. ... Language(s) Turkish, Russian, Georgian,Azerbaijanian Religion(s) Sunni Islam Related ethnic groups Turks, Terekeme, other Muslims of Meskheti Meskhetian Turks are the former Muslim inhabitants of Meskheti (Georgia), along the border with Turkey. ... The Fergana Valley (also Ferghana Valley) is a region of Central Asia spreading across Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the year. ... Self-proclaimed Serbian entity in Croatia Republic of Serbian Krajina show in red Capital Knin Government Republic Governors (1990-1995) Milan Babić Goran Hadžić  - Serbian zone of Croatia Milan Martić Historical era Yugoslav wars  - Breakup of Yugoslavia 1990-June 25, 1991  - Creation of SAO Krajina December 21, 1990  - Secession... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... This article is about the year. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Croatian Religions Predominantly Roman Catholic Related ethnic groups Slavs South Slavs Croats (Croatian: Hrvati) are a South Slavic people mostly living in Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and nearby countries. ... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Dead Georgian civilian with his dog on the streets of Sukhumi, September 27, 1993 The Ethnic Cleansing of Georgians in Abkhazia, also known as the Genocide of Georgians in Abkhazia (Georgian: , Russian: ) or the Massacre of Georgians in Abkhazia [1][2] — refers to the massacres [3] and forced mass expulsion... Capital Sokhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Georgian Government  -  Chairman, Cabinet of Ministers  -  Chairman, Supreme Council Temur Mzhavia Autonomous republic of Georgia  -  Georgian independence Declared Recognised 9 April 1991 25 December 1991  Currency Georgian lari (GEL) Anthem Aiaaira Capital Sukhumi Official languages Abkhaz, Russian1 Government  -  President Sergei Bagapsh  -  Prime Minister Alexander Ankvab... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Tutsi are one of three native peoples of the nations of Rwanda and Burundi in central Africa: the other two being the Twa (or Watwa), a pygmy people, and the original inhabitants; and the Hutu (Wahutu), a Bantu-derived people. ... Hutu is the name given to one of the three ethnic groups occupying Burundi and Rwanda. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the 1994 mass killing of the hundreds of thousands of ethnic Tutsis and moderate Hutu sympathizers in Rwanda and was the largest atrocity during the Rwandan Civil War. ... Lhotshampa, or Lhotsampa, means southerners in Dzongkha, the national language of Bhutan, and refers to the Nepali settlers who reside primarily in the southwest of the country. ... This article is considered orphaned, since there are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... // Geography The Chechen people are mainly inhabitants of Chechnya, which is internationally recognized as part of Russia. ... The Chechen Republic (IPA: ; Russian: , Chechenskaya Respublika; Chechen: , Noxçiyn Respublika), or, informally, Chechnya (; Russian: ; Chechen: , Noxçiyçö), sometimes referred to as Ichkeria, Chechnia, Chechenia or Noxçiyn, is a federal subject of Russia. ... Combatants Russian Federation Chechen Republic of Ichkeria Commanders Pavel Grachev Anatoly Kulikov Konstantin Pulikovsky Anatoliy Romanov Vyacheslav Tikhomirov Gennady Troshev Dzhokhar Dudayev  â€  Aslan Maskhadov Strength (December 11, 1994) Up to 50,000 soldiers and Interior Ministry (MVD) (December 11, 1994) 3,000 to 15,000[1] Casualties Military: At least... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...

21st century

  • Since the mid-1990s the central government of Botswana has been trying to move Bushmen out of the Central Kalahari Game Reserve. As of October 2005, the government has resumed its policy of forcing all Bushmen off their lands in the Game Reserve, using armed police and threats of violence or death.[114] Many of the involuntarily displaced Bushmen live in squalid resettlement camps and some have resorted to prostitution and alcoholism, while about 250 others remain or have surreptitiously returned to the Kalahari to resume their independent lifestyle.[115] “How can we continue to have Stone Age creatures in an age of computers?“ asked Botswana’s president Festus Mogae.[116][117]
  • Attacks by the Janjaweed Arabs, Muslim militias of Sudan on the African population of Darfur, a region of western Sudan.[124][125] A July 14, 2007 article notes that in the past two months up to 75,000 Arabs from Chad and Niger crossed the border into Darfur. Most have been relocated by the Sudanese government to former villages of displaced non-Arab people. Some 2.5 million have now been forced to flee their homes after attacks by Sudanese troops and Janjaweed militia.[126]
  • Currently in the Iraq Civil War (2003 to present), entire neighborhoods in Baghdad are being ethnically cleansed by Shia and Sunni Militias.[127][128] Some areas are being evacuated by every member of a particular secular group due to lack of security, moving into new areas because of fear of reprisal killings. As of June 21, 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 2 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[129][130][131]
  • Although Iraqi Christians represent less than 5% of the total Iraqi population, they make up 40% of the refugees now living in nearby countries, according to UNHCR.[132][133] In the 16th century, Christians constituted half of Iraq's population.[134] In 1987, the last Iraqi census counted 1.4 million Christians.[135] But as the 2003 invasion has radicalized Islamic sensibilities, Christians' total numbers slumped to about 500,000, of whom 250,000 live in Baghdad.[136] Furthermore, the Mandaean and Yazidi communities are at the risk of elimination due to the ongoing atrocities by Islamic extremists.[137][138] A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past 7 months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.[139]
  • In October 2006, Niger announced that it would deport the Arabs living in the Diffa region of eastern Niger to Chad.[145] This population numbered about 150,000.[146] While the government was rounding Arabs in preparation for the deportation, two girls died, reportedly after fleeing government forces, and three women suffered miscarriages. Niger's government had eventually suspended a controversial decision to deport Arabs.[147][148]
  • Civil unrest in Kenya erupted in December 2007.[149] By January 28, 2008, the death toll from the violence was at around 800.[150] The United Nations estimated that as many as 600,000 people have been displaced.[151][152] A government spokesman claimed that Odinga's supporters were "engaging in ethnic cleansing".[153]

A paramilitary is a group of civilians trained and organized in a military fashion. ... |group = Bushmen |image = |poptime = 82,000 |popplace = Botswana (55,000), Namibia (27,000) |rels = San Religion |langs = various Khoisan languages |related = Khoikhoi, Xhosa, Zulu, Griqua }} The Bushmen, San, Basarwa, ǃKung or Khwe are indigenous people of the Kalahari Desert, which spans areas of South Africa, Botswana, Namibia and Angola. ... Central Kalahari Game Reserve is a National Park in Botswana. ... Whore redirects here. ... Alcoholism is the consumption of, or preoccupation with, alcoholic beverages to the extent that this behavior interferes with the drinkers normal personal, family, social, or work life, and may lead to physical or mental harm. ... The Kalahari Desert is a large, arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Africa that covers about 500,000 km². It covers 70% of Botswana, and parts of Zimbabwe, Namibia and South Africa. ... Stone Age fishing hook. ... Festus Gontebanye Mogae (born August 21, 1939) is the president of Botswana. ... Whites redirects here. ... Mugabe redirects here. ... Zimbabwean women at Kariba, 1982 People of European ethnic origin (“whites”) first came as settlers to the African country now known as Zimbabwe during the late nineteenth century. ... This article is about the former British colony of Southern Rhodesia, todays Zimbabwe. ... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... A Janjaweed miltiaman mounted The Janjaweed (Arabic: جنجويد; variously transliterated Janjawid, Janjawed, Jingaweit, Jinjaweed, Janjawiid, Janjiwid, Janjaweit, etc. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... Combatants Iraqi Sunni Arabs Al-Qaeda in Iraq Jaish Ansar al-Sunna Islamic Army in Iraq Black Banner Organization Mohammads Army former Baath Loyalists Jaish al-Rashideen Abu Theeb group Shiite Arab militias Mahdi Army Badr Organization Commanders Abu Musab al-Zarqawi Abu Ayyub al-Masri Ishmael Jubouri... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Shiʻa Islam (Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite) makes up the second largest sect of believers in Islam, constituting about 30%–35% of all Muslim. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... The Assyrians are an ethnic group found in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon, who are speakers of various neo-Aramaic languages. ... What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... An atrocity (from the Latin atrox, atrocious, from Latin ater = matte black (as distinct from niger = shiny black)) is a term used to describe crimes ranging from an act committed against a single person to one committed against a population or ethnic group. ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... // When one conjures up an image of street gangs in the U.S. it is usually influenced by media portrayals of gun-toting youths engaged in disputes over territory and disrespect. ... The Mexican Mafia (MM) or La eMe (eMe) is a Mexican-American criminal prison gang in the United States. ... Languages Arabic other minority languages Religions Predominantly Sunni Islam, as well as Shia Islam, Greek Orthodoxy, Greek Catholicism, Roman Catholicism, Alawite Islam, Druzism, Ibadi Islam, and Judaism Footnotes a Mainly in Antakya. ... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

Genocide Portal

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ethnocide is a concept related to genocide; unlike genocide, which has entered into international law, ethnocide remains primarily the province of ethnologists, who have not yet settled on a single cohesive meaning for the term. ... Population transfer is a term referring to a policy by which a state, or international authority, forces the movement of a large group of people out of a region, most frequently on the basis of their ethnicity or religion. ... Involuntary settlements in the Soviet Union took several forms. ... Civilian casualties is a military term describing civilian, non-combatant persons killed or injured by direct military action. ... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ... Ethnic Cleansing (2002) is a controversial computer game developed by Resistance Records, an underground music label specializing in Neo-Nazi and white supremacist bands. ... The German exodus from Eastern Europe refers to the exodus of ethnic German populations from lands to the east of present-day Germany and Austria. ... Below is a list of incidents that are commonly labeled as massacres by reliable sources. ... This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll by strange diseases. ... The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán (Mexico) against the population of European descent (called Yucatecos) in political and economic control. ... The 1989 events were a series of ethnic and political disturbances in Mauritania and Senegal. ... This article is under construction. ... This is false story,never been established by any scientific survey. ... Persecution of Hindus refers to the religious persecution inflicted upon Hindus. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Not by Their Own Will. ... The Polish minority in the Soviet Union refers to former Polish citizens or Polish-speaking people who resided in the Soviet Union. ... The transmigration program (transmigrasi in Indonesia) was an initiative by the government of Indonesia to move landless people from densely populated areas of Indonesia to less populous areas of the Indonesian archipelago. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Drazen Petrovic, "Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology", European Journal of International Law, Vol. No. 3. Retrieved 20 May 2006.
  2. ^ Andrew Bell-Fialkoff, "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing", Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 110, Summer 1993. Retrieved 20 May 2006.
  3. ^ Petrovic, "Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology" p.11 [1] and quoted by Ilan Pappe "The Ethnic cleansing of Palestine" 2006, p.1
  4. ^ Hayden, Robert M. (1996) Schindler's Fate: Genocide, Ethnic Cleansing, and Population Transfers. Slavic Review 55 (4), 727-48.
  5. ^ a b Martin, Terry (1998). The Origins of Soviet Ethnic Cleansing. The Journal of Modern History 70 (4), 813-861.
  6. ^ ECHR Jorgic v. Germany §45 citing Bosnia and Herzegovina v. Serbia and Montenegro (“Case concerning the application of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide”) the International Court of Justice (ICJ) found under the heading of “intent and 'ethnic cleansing'” § 190
  7. ^ Marvine Howe in the New York Times (July 12, 1982), quoting an Albanian official in Kosovo
  8. ^ Pavelicpapers.com
  9. ^ Pavelicpapers.com
  10. ^ The Moljevic Memorandum
  11. ^ US State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, Abkhazia case
  12. ^ Chervonnaia, Svetlana Mikhailovna. Conflict in the Caucasus: Georgia, Abkhazia, and the Russian Shadow. Gothic Image Publications, 1994.
  13. ^ S State Department, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 1993, February 1994, Chapter 17.
  14. ^ Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005.
  15. ^ Judt, Tony. Postwar: A History of Europe Since 1945 Penguin Press, 2005.
  16. ^ Ward Ferdinandusse, [http://www.ejil.org/journal/Vol15/No5/9.pdf The Interaction of National and International Approaches in the Repression of International Crimes], The European Journal of International Law Vol. 15 no.5 (2004), p. 1042, note 7.
  17. ^ Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 7; Updated Statute of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia, Article 5.
  18. ^ Daphna Shraga and Ralph Zacklin "The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia", The European Journal of International Law Vol. 15 no.3 (2004).
  19. ^ A/RES/47/80 ""Ethnic cleansing" and racial hatred" United Nations. 12/16/1992. Retrieved on 2006, 09-03
  20. ^ Timothy V. Waters, On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing, Paper 951, 2006, University of Mississippi School of Law. Retrieved on 2006, 12-13
  21. ^ Krauthammer, Charles: "When Serbs Are 'Cleansed,' Moralists Stay Silent", International Herald Tribune, 12 August 1995
  22. ^ First genocide of human beings occurred 30,000 years ago
  23. ^ Science: The Neanderthal in all of us
  24. ^ Ancient History
  25. ^ Punic Wars
  26. ^ Staff. Mithradates VI Eupator, Encyclopaedia Britannica., Accessed 26 December 2007
  27. ^ Dig uncovers Boudicca's brutal streak
  28. ^ J. B. Bury: History of the Later Roman Empire • Vol. II Chap. XVII
  29. ^ English and Welsh are races apart
  30. ^ Evidence for an apartheid-like social structure in early Anglo-Saxon England
  31. ^ Ancient Britain Had Apartheid-Like Society, Study Suggests
  32. ^ 'Apartheid' slashed Celtic genes in early England
  33. ^ England’s massacre of the immigrants
  34. ^ BBC Making History
  35. ^ Carroll, James. Constantine's Sword (Houghton Mifflin, 2001) ISBN 0-395-77927-8 p.26
  36. ^ The Forgotten Refugees
  37. ^ The Almohads
  38. ^ Battuta's Travels: Part Three - Persia and Iraq
  39. ^ Crow Creek Massacre
  40. ^ The annihilation of Iraq
  41. ^ The Chams: Survivors of a Lost Civilisation
  42. ^ The Le Dynasty and Southward Expansion
  43. ^ Rezun, Miron, "Europe's Nightmare: The Struggle for Kosovo", (p. 6), Praeger/Greenwood (2001) ISBN 0-275-97072-8; Parker, Geoffrey, "Europe in Crisis", (p. 18), Blackwell Publishing (1979, 2000) ISBN 0-631-22028-3; Gadalla, Moustafa, "Egyptian Romany: The Essence of Hispania" (pp. 28-9), Tehuti Research Foundation (2004) ISBN 1-931446-19-9
  44. ^ Around 347 people were massacred in the attack
  45. ^ JewishEncyclopedia.com - "Cossacks' Uprising", by Herman Rosenthal
  46. ^ BBC The curse of Cromwell
  47. ^ Resistance and Accommodation in New Mexico
  48. ^ Culas & Michaud, 68–74.
  49. ^ The Hmong
  50. ^ Venezuela
  51. ^ A First-Hand Impression of the Venezuelan Opposition
  52. ^ Rebelions in Bahia
  53. ^ New Zealand A to Z | Chatham Islands
  54. ^ Perdue, Theda, Cherokee Women and the Trail of Tears in American Encounters: Natives and Newcomers from European Contact to Indian Removal, 1500-1850, p. 526, (Routledge (UK), 2000)
  55. ^ Committee on Indian Affairs, US Senate, Cherokee Settlement and Accommodation Agreements Concerning the Navajo and Hopi Land Dispute, (US General Printing Office, 1996)
  56. ^ Historian dismisses Tasmanian aboriginal genocide "myth"
  57. ^ Our history not rewritten but put right. Accusations of genocide have been based on guesswork and blatant ideology. SMH, 24 November 2002
  58. ^ The Massacres of the Khilafah
  59. ^ Justin McCarthy, Death and Exile: The Ethnic Cleansing of Ottoman Muslims, 1821-1922, (Princeton, N.J: Darwin Press, c1995
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  115. ^ African Bushmen Tour U.S. to Fund Fight for Land
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  124. ^ Collins, Robert O., "Civil Wars and Revolution in the Sudan: Essays on the Sudan, Southern Sudan, and Darfur, 1962-2004 ", (p. 156), Tsehai Publishers (US), (2005) ISBN 0-9748198-7-5 .
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  126. ^ Arabs pile into Darfur to take land 'cleansed' by janjaweed
  127. ^ Iraq is disintegrating as ethnic cleansing takes hold
  128. ^ "There is ethnic cleansing"
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  130. ^ U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly. Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, November 3, 2006
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  132. ^ Christians, targeted and suffering, flee Iraq
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  140. ^ Roots of Latino/black anger
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  142. ^ Thanks to Latino Gangs, There’s a Zone in L.A. Where Blacks Risk Death if They Enter
  143. ^ FBI called to deal with 'race' gang violence
  144. ^ A bloody conflict between Hispanic and black gangs is spreading across Los Angeles
  145. ^ Niger starts mass Arab expulsions
  146. ^ Reuters Niger's Arabs say expulsions will fuel race hate
  147. ^ Niger's Arabs to fight expulsion
  148. ^ UNHCR | Refworld - The Leader in Refugee Decision Support
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  153. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/7167363.stm

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References

  • Bell-Fialkoff, Andrew (1993). "A Brief History of Ethnic Cleansing". Foreign Affairs 72 (3): 110. [5]
  • Petrovic, Drazen (1994). "Ethnic Cleansing - An Attempt at Methodology". European Journal of International Law 5 (1): 359. [6]

External links

  • Documents and Resources on War, War Crimes and Genocide
  • Photojournalist's Account - Images of ethnic cleansing in Sudan
  • Timothy V. Waters, On the Legal Construction of Ethnic Cleansing, Paper 951, 2006, University of Mississippi School of Law (PDF)
  • Genocides and Ethnic Cleansings of Central and East Europe, the Former USSR, the Caucasus and Adjacent Middle East -- 1890 - 2007
  • Dump the “ethnic cleansing” jargon, group implores May 31, 2007, World Science
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For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Wise American Indian chief from the movie Drums Across the River This article discusses the various stereotypes of Native Americans present in Western societies. ... Anti-Arabism is a term that refers to prejudice or hostility against people from Arabic origin. ... This article discusses stereotypes of blacks of African descent present in American culture. ... 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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethnic cleansing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3166 words)
The term "cleansing" ("cleansing of borders", очистка границ) was used in Soviet documents of early 1930s in reference to the resettlement of Poles from the 22-km border zone in Byelorussian SSR and Ukrainian SSR.
The widespread ethnic cleansing accompanying the Yugoslav wars from 1991 to 1999, of which the most significant examples occurred in eastern Croatia and Krajina (1991-1995), in most of Bosnia (1992-1995), and in the Albanian-dominated breakaway Kosovo province (of Serbia) (1999).
Ethnic cleansing is often also accompanied by efforts to eradicate all physical traces of the expelled ethnic group, such as by the destruction of cultural artifacts, religious sites and physical records [18].
Ethnic Cleansing: Past, Present and Future, by Ran HaCohen (1400 words)
Ethnic cleansing happens when Israel connects the Jewish settlement of Kiryat Arba with that of Hebron by a promenade which cuts the heart of Palestinian Hebron and necessitates the demolition of scores of Palestinian houses along the route, described as "uninhabited", as being "shelter to terrorists" or as "belonging to rich families living elsewhere".
Ethnic cleansing happens when settlers terrorise the Palestinian village of Khirbet Yanun, break into houses destroying whatever they find; last October, only two old men were left of the whole village, the rest of its population had taken refuge in the neighbouring town of Akrabeh.
Ethnic cleansing is the motivation behind every new acre taken by Jewish settlements, behind "security zones" and "by-pass roads", behind fences and military outposts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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