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Encyclopedia > Ethnic German

Ethnic Germans – often simply called Germans – are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German but do not live within the present-day Federal Republic of Germany, nor necessarily hold its citizenship. In English usage, but less often in German, the term may be used for assimilated descendants of German emigrants. The traditional American English language practice has been to refer to the ethnic Germans of a given country by combining the country or region name (or its adjective) with "Germans"; for example, "Brazilian Germans" was at least traditionally used (see below) to refer to ethnic Germans living in Brazil. Already in the past, this practice broke down when referring to countries that no longer existed ("Kingdom of Hungary" Germans) or regions that transcended national boundaries (thus "Black Sea Germans"). This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... First group of German immigrants arrived in Brazil, by Ernst Zeuner, 1824 A German-Brazilian (German Deutschbrasilianer or Deutschbrasilianisch, Portuguese teuto-brasileiro or germano-brasileiro) is a Brazilian person of German ancestry/origin (i. ... The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Åžvabi or Åžvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Å vabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Å vabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ... The Black Sea Germans (German: Schwarzmeerdeutsche) are ethnic Germans who left their homeland in the 18th and 19th centuries, and settled in territories of the northern bank of the Black Sea, mostly in southern Russia. ...


In addition, the modern trend is to emphasize the status as citizens of the new country and to invert the order of the compound expression. According to this system, one uses the word "German" as an adjective, not a noun. For example, German Americans are never called "U.S. Germans" or "American Germans". Likewise, German Swiss should not be called "Swiss Germans"; they are not Germans (though they were part of the first German empire until 1648), and some may even feel offended when erroneously described as such. The term "Swiss German" should be used only as a correct reference to the Swiss dialect of the German language, where the word "German" is logically in the noun position. Already in the past, many ethnic German groups preferred to call themselves in this way that emphasized that they were assimilated members of the society of their new country. For example, the German Alsatians and the German Balts (who also called themselves that way) were called "Alsatian Germans" and "Baltic Germans" against their will in Germany's nationalistic phases. Germans of Swiss origin, see Category:Swiss Germans inaccurately, native speakers of Swiss German (German: Deutschschweizer) Category: ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ...


The concept of ethnic identity is always controversial and problematic to define. In this case, German ethnicity can relate to:

  • having a connection with German culture;
  • speaking the German language;
  • having ancestors who were born in Germany or an area that is or was otherwise considered German.

The concept of who is an ethnic German has repeatedly changed in history. For example, in contrast to the German Swiss, who had already shaped a national identity centuries before even the idea of "Germany" had arisen, most German-speaking Austrians used to consider themselves as ethnic Germans until the mid-20th century. The first attempts to create a consciousness of the "Austrian nation" took place during the Napoleonic Wars (at which time "Austrian" identity included non-German-speaking subjects of the Austrian Empire) and in the early 1930s, but without much success. Since the end of World War II, Austrians have increasingly come to see themselves as a nation distinct from the German nation. [1] German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... Motto (Latin) (traditional)[1] One for all, all for one Anthem Swiss Psalm Switzerland() on the European continent() Capital Berne (federal capital) Largest city Zürich Official languages German, French, Italian, Romansh[2] Government Direct democracy Federal republic  -  Federal Council M. Leuenberger P. Couchepin (VP 07) S. Schmid M. Calmy... Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] Holy Roman Empire[6] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[7] Saxony[8] Denmark [9] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... One of the most influential doctrines in history is that all humans are divided into groups called nations. ...

Contents

Distribution

Ethnic Germans are an important minority group in many countries. (See Germans, German language, and German as a minority language for more extensive numbers and a better sense of where Germans maintain German culture and have official recognition.) The following sections briefly detail the historical and present distribution of ethnic Germans by region, but generally exclude modern expatriates, who have a presence in the United States, Scandinavia and major urban areas worldwide. See Groups at bottom for a list of all ethnic German groups, or continue for a summary by region. German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... German-speaking minorities live in many countries and on all six inhabited continents: the countries of the former Soviet Union, Poland, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Belgium, Italy, the United States, Latin America, Namibia, Israel, and Australia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Scandinavia is a historical and geographical region centered on the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe and includes the three kingdoms of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. ...

Ancestry according to the U.S. 2000 census: Counties with plurality of German ancestry in light blue
Ancestry according to the U.S. 2000 census: Counties with plurality of German ancestry in light blue

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3766x2820, 1311 KB) A chart of the top ancestries in the US, as provided by the 2000 census. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3766x2820, 1311 KB) A chart of the top ancestries in the US, as provided by the 2000 census. ... 2000 US Census logo The Twenty-Second United States Census, known as Census 2000 and conducted by the Census Bureau, determined the resident population of the United States on April 1, 2000, to be 281,421,906, an increase of 13. ... A plurality, relative majority or simple majority is the largest share of something, which may or may not be considered a majority, i. ...

North America

  • There are over 60 million Americans of German ancestry in the United States including various groups as the Pennsylvania Dutch and the German Texans. Of these, 23 million are of German ancestry alone ("single ancestry"), and another 40 million are of partial German ancestry. Of those who claim partial ancestry, 22 million identify their primary ancestry ("first ancestry") as German. German (Americans) has been the largest ethnic-origin group in the United States for almost its entire history, including before independence, but will soon be outnumbered by people of Mexican descent (legally) living in the United States within 10 to 20 years if current immigration levels and birth rates among the groups continue unchanged (people of "single ethnicity" Mexican descent living legally in the United States already outnumber "single ethnicity" ethnic-origin German-Americans since after the 2000 census). Germans form just under half the population in the Upper Midwest. [2] [3]
  • Canada (2.7 million, 9% of the population)

German Americans are citizens of the United States of German ancestry. ... The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... German Texans are an ethnic category belonging to residents of the state of Texas who acknowledge German ancestry and self-identify with the term. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ...

Latin America

They are a considerable part of the population in:

  • Brazil: Mainly in Southern Brazil and São Paulo, there are 6 million single-ancestry ethnic Germans, 3% of the national population; 12 million Brazilians are part German, 6% of the national population. Hunsrückisch and Pomeranians are some of the more prominent such groups.
Notable examples of German-Brazilians are former president Ernesto Geisel, politician Jorge Bornhausen, actress Vera Fischer, Cacilda Becker, top models as Gisele Bündchen, Ana Hickmann, Letícia Birkheuer and Rodrigo Hilbert, musicians like Andreas Kisser and Astrud Gilberto, architect Oscar Niemeyer, landscape architect Roberto Burle Marx, physicist and astronomer Marcelo Gleiser, physician Adolfo Lutz, basketball player Oscar Schmidt, tennis player Gustavo Kuerten, swimmer Fernando Scherer, tv host Xuxa Meneghel, the Catholic prelates Cláudio Cardinal Hummes and Paulo Evaristo Cardinal Arns and the renowned sailor Robert Scheidt among many others.
  • Argentina: About 6% of the Argentine population. 1,200,000 Volga Germans [4]. More than 400,000 with other German ancestries including Mennonites and German Swiss (these two groups more common in Southern Argentina, and also in Santa Fe and Cordoba provinces).
An example of German Argentines is president Néstor Kirchner. Other notable examples of Argentine ethnic Germans are top model Nicole Neumann, basketball player Walter Herrmann, football player Gabriel Heinze among many others.

Notable communities of ethnic Germans exist in: Hunsrückisch is a German dialect spoken in the Hunsrück region of Germany (Rheinland-Pfalz). ... Pomeranians (Pomorzanie) are a group of Slavic tribes living in historical region of Pomerania along the shore of Baltic Sea between Oder and Vistula rivers. ... ... Ernesto Beckmann Geisel, pron. ... Jorge Bornhausen (Rio de Janeiro, October 1, 1937) is a Brazilian politician. ... Vera Lúcia Fischer (b. ... Gisele Caroline Nonnenmacher Bündchen (born July 20, 1980) is a Brazilian supermodel who is constantly acclaimed as the most famous and the highest-paid model in the world. ... Ana Hickmann (born March 1, 1981 in Santa Cruz do Sul, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) is a professional supermodel. ... Letícia Birkheuer (born April 25, in Passo Fundo, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) is a Brazilian model. ... Andreas Kisser Andreas Rudolf Kisser born on August 24, 1968 in São Bernardo do Campo, Brazil is the Guitarist for Sepultura. ... Astrud Gilberto Astrud Gilberto (born March 29, 1940) is a Brazilian singer best known for her samba and bossa nova music. ... Oscar Niemeyer Oscar Niemeyer Soares Filho (born December 15, 1907) is a Brazilian architect who is considered one of the most important names in international modern architecture. ... Roberto Burle Marx (August 4th, 1909, São Paulo - June 4th, 1994, Rio de Janeiro) was a Brazillian landscape designer (besides being a painter, ecologist and naturalist) whose designs of parks and gardens made him world famous. ... Dr. Marcelo Gleiser is a brazilian physicist and astronomer. ... Adolfo Lutz Adolfo Lutz was a Brazilian physician, 1855-1940, father of tropical medicine and medical zoology in Brazil, and a pioneer epidemiologist and researcher in infectious diseases. ... Oscar Daniel Bezerra Schmidt (born February 16, 1958 in Natal, Brazil), known as Oscar Schmidt, Oscar Schmidt Becerra in Spain, where he played for Fórum Valladolid for the 1993-94 and 1994-95 seasons, and simply Oscar or Mão Santa(Holy Hand) in Brazil, is considered by many... Gustavo Kuerten (born September 10, 1976 in Florianópolis, Santa Catarina) is a former World No. ... Fernando de Queiroz Scherer (born October 6, 1974 in Florianópolis) is an international top swimmer from Brazil, who won the bronze medal in the 50 metres freestyle at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia. ... Xuxa in an event in Brazil. ... His Eminence Cláudio Cardinal Hummes, OFM (born August 8, 1934) is a German-Brazilian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. ... Paulo Evaristo Cardinal Arns (born September 14, 1921 in Forquilhinha) is the emerited archbishop of São Paulo. ... Robert Scheidt (born April 15, 1973) is a renowned Brazilian sailor. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations based on the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... The German Swiss International School (Deutsch-Schweizerische Internationale Schule) was established in 1969 as the first international school for German-speaking expatriates in Hong Kong. ... German-Argentines are ethnic Germans born in Argentina. ...  , full name Néstor Carlos Kirchner Ostoic (born 25 February 1950), is the President of Argentina, sworn in on May 25, 2003. ... Nicole Neumann (born October 31, 1980, Buenos Aires, Argentina) is an Argentinian supermodel and actress. ... Wálter Herrmann (born June 26, 1979 in Venado Tuerto, Argentina) is an Argentine basketball player. ... Gabriel Iván Heinze (born April 19, 1978 in Crespo, Entre Ríos Province) is an Argentine footballer who currently plays for the English Premier League team Manchester United as a left-back, having transferred from Paris Saint-Germain in the summer of 2004 . ...

  • Chile: During the middle 19th century 70.000 germans emigrated to the south of chile almost 450.000 dircet descendats of that people live now in the country: 245,000 counting standard German-speakers only, formed in several germas school among the country. Some notable German descendants in Chile are: Presidents Eduardo Frei Montalva and Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle. Air Force General Commander Fernando Matthei Aubel, the famous architect Mathias Klotz, the tennis player Hans Gildemeister, female athlete Marlene Ahrens, Carabineros General Commander Rodolfo Stange Ölckers, Musician Patricio Manns, Army Commanders in Chief Lieutenant General René Schneider and Division Generals Emil Körner and Adolfo Hölley, echonomists Hernan Büchi and Rolf Lüders, senators [[Antonio Horvath], Carlos Kuschel and Evelyn Matthei, businnesmen Horst Paullman,Jürgen Paullman, Werner Grob, José Yurasek, Carlos Heller; TV presenters Karen Doggenweiler, Margot Kahl, Pamela Hodar, Michael Müller, Writer César Müller (aka Oreste Plath), painters Hardy Wistuba and Rossy Ölckers.
  • Ecuador: 32,000, counting standard German-speakers only.
  • Mexico, Bolivia, and Belize: 40,000, 28,567, and 5,763 Mennonite German speakers respectively, as well as notable (but more assimilated) public figures from various German groups.
  • Puerto Rico: 1,453 speakers
  • Peru: The communities of Oxapampa and Pozuzo in the high jungles of the Peruvian Amazon basin were settled in the middle of the XIX century by Austrian and Prussian immigrants. Many of its present day inhabitants speak German. The government of Germany currently provides different forms of economic and educational aid to these communities.
  • Colombia: 20,000 Germans
  • Uruguay: 28,000 standard German, 1,200 Plattdietsch.
  • Dominican Republic : There is a colony of around 25,000 Germans who have settled in the country, mostly on the northern coast's Puerto Plata, as well as a colony of the descendants of German and Austrian Jewish refugees in Sosua.

Eduardo Nicanor Frei Montalva (1911–1982) was the president of Chile from 1964 to 1970. ... Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle (born June 24, 1942) was President of Chile from 1994 to 2000. ... General Fernando Matthei Aubel represented the Air Force in the junta that ruled Chile from 1973 to 1990 after Gustavo Leigh was destituted on 1978. ... Mathias Klotz Germain Chilean architect, born in Viña del Mar on 13 April 1965. ... The Three Major Professional Tournaments Professional tennis players in the years before the Open era began in 1968 played mostly on tours in head-to-head competition. ... Marlene Ahrens (born in 1933) is a Chilean athlete. ... General Rodolfo Stange Oelckers (b. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Generals C. Prats and R. Schneider (right) General René Schneider Chereau (1913-1970) was the Commander-in-Chief of the Chilean Army at the time of the 1970 Chilean presidential election, when he was assassinated during a kidnapping attempt. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Oxapampa and Pozuzo, accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Puerto Plata Puerto Plata is one of the northern provinces of the Dominican Republic. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination... Sosua Beach Los Charamicos Sosua is a small town in the Puerto Plata province of the Dominican Republic. ...

Western Europe and the Alpine nations

Italy

Map of Austria-Hungary in 1911, showing areas inhabited by ethnic Germans in pink
Map of Austria-Hungary in 1911, showing areas inhabited by ethnic Germans in pink

In Italy there are two main groups, the main one being the 225,000 ethnic Germans of Alto Adige/Südtirol, formerly (before the 1919 annexation) part of Austrian Tyrol. Naturally, their dialects are basically extensions of Austrian German. There also exist smaller, unique populations of Germans which arrived so long ago that their dialect retains many archaic features heard nowhere else: the Cimbrians, the Móchenos and some groups of Walser. The Cimbrians, though celebrated since their discovery, are relatively few in number and concentrated in various communities in the Carnic Alps, north of Verona, and especially in the Sugana Valley (it:Valsugana or Suganertal) on the high plateau northwest of Vicenza in the Veneto Region. The Walser (who originated in the Swiss Valais) live in the provinces of Aostatal, Vercelli, and Verbano-Cusio-Ossola. The Móchenos live in the Fersina Valley (it:Valle dei Mocheni). Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (1521x1155, 1345 KB)Distribution of Races in Austria-Hungary from the Historical Atlas by William R. Shepherd, 1911 [1] This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen, or Alto Adige/Südtirol (official in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ; also in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ) is an autonomous province of Italy. ... Coat of arms of Tyrol: *[1] The Tyrol is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian regions known as the South Tyrol and Trentino. ... Cimbrian refers to any of several local Upper German dialects spoken in northeastern Italy. ... Mócheno is an Upper German dialect spoken in three towns of the Fersina Valley (Italian: Valle del Fersina, German: Fersental), in Trentino, northeastern Italy. ... Distribution of Highest Alemannic dialects The Walser are German-speaking people (more specifically, they speak Walser German dialects) that live in the alps of Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein and Austria. ... The Carnic Alps are a range of the Southern Limestone Alps at the borders of East Tyrol, Carinthia and Friuli. ... Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. ... Vicenza is a city in northern Italy, is the capital of the eponymous province in the Veneto region, at the northern base of the Monte Berico, straddling the Bacchiglione. ... Veneto or Venetia, is one of the 20 regions of Italy. ... The Valais (German:  ) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland in the south-western part of the country, in the Pennine Alps around the valley of the Rhone River from its springs to Lake Geneva. ... The Aosta Valley (in Italian: Valle dAosta, French: Vallée dAoste, Arpitan: Val dOuta) is a mountainous region in north-western Italy. ... Vercelli (Varséj in Piedmontese; Vercellae in Latin) is a commune and city of about 46,000 inhabitants in the Province of Vercelli, Italy. ... Verbano-Cusio-Ossola (It. ...


Alpine Nations

In Switzerland, German Swiss constitute the majority of the population. They write formally in Standard German, but have developed a separate national identity due to their long history of stable, alpine, isolationist, multinationalist neutrality and their various Swiss German dialects. Swiss German is intelligible to speakers of other Alemannic dialects but is usually not intelligible to speakers of Standard German. In Austria and Liechtenstein, both of which are primarily German-speaking countries, the situation is less extreme. Nevertheless, only very few German-speaking people in any country would call Swiss, Austrians, or Liechtensteiners ethnic Germans. This would be considered pan-German nationalism and usually also offensive or belittling. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pan-Germanism, one of the ethnically-charged political movements of the 19th century for unity of the German-speaking peoples of Europe. ...


France

A billingual streetsign in Strasbourg.

In France, the Alsace-Lorraine region and cities such as Strasbourg (with bilingual signs) and Thionville ("Diedenhofen" in German and Luxembourgish) were originally German-speaking, but because of territorial transfers resulting from various wars, and given the French stance on language and ethnicity within the Republic, assimilation has decimated the Alsatian dialect. The German-speaking population is estimated at 1,500,000, plus another 40,000 for ethnic Luxembourgers. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... (New région flag) (Region logo) Location Administration Capital Regional President Departments Bas-Rhin Haut-Rhin Arrondissements 13 Cantons 75 Communes 903 Statistics Land area1 8,280 km² Population (Ranked 14th)  - January 1, 2006 est. ... Lorraine coat of arms location of the Lorraine province Lorraine (French: Lorraine; German: Lothringen) is a historical area in present-day northeast France. ... City flag City coat of arms Location Coordinates Time Zone CET (GMT +1) Administration Country Region Alsace Department Bas-Rhin (67) Intercommunality Urban Community of Strasbourg Mayor Fabienne Keller  (UMP) City Statistics Land area¹ 78. ... Thionville (German: , Luxembourgish: Diedennuewen), is a town and commune in the Moselle département, in the Lorraine région, France. ... The French Republic or France (French: République française or France) is a country whose metropolitan territory is located in western Europe, and which is further made up of a collection of overseas islands and territories located in other continents. ... This inscription in Alsatian on a window in Eguisheim, Alsace, reads: Dis Hausz sted in Godes Hand - God bewar es vor Feyru (This house stands in Gods hand - God beware it for fire) Alsatian (French Alsacien, German Elsässisch) is a Low Alemannic German dialect spoken in Alsace, a...

German-speaking areas of Belgium.
German-speaking areas of Belgium.

Image File history File links Duitstalige_GemeenschapLocatie. ... Image File history File links Duitstalige_GemeenschapLocatie. ...

The Low Countries

Belgium

In Belgium, there is also a German minority, which forms the majority in its region of 71,000 inhabitants (though Ethnologue puts the national total at 150,000, not including Limburgisch and Luxembourgish). Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... Limburgish, or Limburgian or Limburgic (Dutch: Limburgs, German: Limburgisch, French: Limbourgeois) is a group of Franconian varieties, spoken in the Limburg and Rhineland regions, near the common Dutch / Belgian / German border. ... Luxembourgish (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch, French: , German: , Walloon: ), also spelled Luxemburgish, is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ...


Luxembourg

Though their language (Luxemburgish) is very closely related to the German language, do not consider themselves ethnic Germans. In a 1941 referendum held in Luxemburg by the German occupants, more than 90% proclaimed themselves Luxemburgish by nationality, mother tongue and ethnicity.[5] Luxembourgish or Luxembourgian (in French, Luxembourgeois; in German, Luxemburgisch; in Luxembourgish Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language spoken in Luxembourg. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...


The Netherlands

In the Netherlands, there are 380,000 Germans[6], along the German-Dutch border, a similar number of Dutch people is estimated to live along the same border line in Germany[7].


Denmark

In Denmark, the part of Schleswig that is now South Jutland County (or Northern Schleswig) has about 12,000 - 20,000 Germans. These Germans mostly speak Standard German and South Jutlandic. A few speak the Schleswigsch variety of Low Saxon. The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county (Danish, amt) on the Jutland peninsula in southern Denmark. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county in southern Denmark, on the peninsula of Jutland. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... South Jutlandic or South Jutish (South Jutlandic: Synnejysk; Danish: ; German: ) is a dialect of the Danish language. ... Schleswigsch (pronounced /Sles vIgS/, or SHLAY-svigsh) is a Northern Low Saxon dialect spoken in Schleswig, in Germany and Denmark. ... Low Saxon (in Low Saxon, Nedersaksisch, Neddersassisch, Plattdüütsch or Nedderdüütsch) is any of a variety of Low German dialects spoken in northern Germany and the Netherlands. ...


United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, there exists a German-Briton/British Germans ethnic group of around 100,000, mainly descended from nineteenth century immigrants, World War Two prisoners of war & other refugees, and German workers who have emigrated from Germany during the European Union era. The vast majority have settled in the London & South East part of the United Kingdom, in particular, Richmond (South West London) and Oxfordshire Famously, the British Royal Family are partially descended from German Monarchs. German-Briton A German-Briton is someone with both German and British (English, Irish, Welsh or Scottish)ethnicity who lives in the United Kingdom or who is a British citizen. ... British Germans are people of German origin who live in the United Kingdom // Germans have resided in Britain throughout its history. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Oxfordshire (abbreviated Oxon, from the Latinised form Oxonia) is a county in the South East of England, bordering on Northamptonshire, Buckinghamshire, Berkshire, Wiltshire, Gloucestershire, and Warwickshire. ... Members of the Royal Family on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony The British Royal Family is a shared royal family. ...


Central and Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union

Historically, large populations of ethnic Germans have been concentrated in Central and Eastern Europe. In German, these populations are commonly referred to as Volksdeutsche. The number of ethnic Germans in Central and Eastern Europe dropped dramatically as the result of the German exodus from Eastern Europe. However, there are still a substantial number of ethnic Germans in the countries that are now Germany and Austria's neighbors to the east—Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, and Slovenia. In addition, there are or have been significant populations in such areas as Romania, Moldova, Ukraine, and Russia. Ethnic Germans (usually simply called Germans, in German Volksdeutsche) are those who are considered, by themselves or others, to be ethnically German rather than anything else but who do not live within the Federal Republic of Germany nor hold its citizenship. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... It has been suggested that Expulsion of Germans after World_War II be merged into this article or section. ...


History

The German presence in Central and Eastern Europe is rooted in centuries of history, that of Prussia, Austria-Hungary, Bukovina, Königsberg (now Kaliningrad), Bessarabia and of a fractious Germany and eastward parts of Europe made up of many city states, whose royal families ruled over multi-ethnic populations. Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ...


Every city of even modest size as far east as Russia had a German quarter and a Jewish quarter (though, of course, there were relatively few Jews east of the Pale of Settlement). Travellers along any road would pass through, for example, a German village, then a Czech village, then a Polish village, etc., depending on the region. An 1880 watercolor of the Roman Ghetto by Ettore Roesler Franz. ... The Pale of Settlement (Russian: Черта оседлости - cherta osedlosti) was a western border region of Imperial Russia in which permanent residence of Jews was allowed, extending from the pale or demarcation line, to near the border with eastern/central Europe. ...


Eastward expansion

See main articles East Colonisation and Ostflucht To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Ostflucht (flight from the East) was a movement by residents of the historically eastern German regions, such as East Prussia, West Prussia, Silesia and Province of Posen beginning around 1850, to the more industrialized western German Rhine and Ruhr provinces. ...


Near the end of the Migration Period (300-900 AD) that brought the Germanic and Slavic tribes as well as the Huns, etc., to what is now Central Europe, Slavs expanded westwards at the same time as Germans expanded eastwards. The result was German colonization as far east as Romania, and Slavic colonization as far west as present-day Lübeck (on the Baltic Sea), Hamburg (connected to the North Sea), and along the river Elbe and its tributary Saale, further south. After Christianization, the superior organization of the Roman Catholic Church led to further German expansion, known as the medieval Drang nach Osten. By 1100 or so, various rulers were often inviting ethnic Germans to their territories as craftsmen, miners, or farmers. The crusades of the Teutonic Knights at times led to further German settlements. Human migration denotes any movement of groups of people from one locality to another, rather than of individual wanderers. ... Distribution of Slavic people by language The Slavic peoples are a linguistic and ethnic branch of Indo-European peoples, living mainly in Europe, where they constitute roughly a third of the population. ... For other uses, see Hun (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Colonialism. ... Lübeck ( pronunc. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Location Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE6 First Mayor Ole von Beust (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  755 km² (292 sq mi) Population 1,754,317 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 2,324 /km² (6,018... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... This article is about a river in Central Europe. ... Length 413 km Elevation of the source 728  m Average discharge  ?  m³/s Area watershed  ?  km² Origin  Germany Mouth  Elbe Basin countries Germany Saale is the name of two rivers in Germany: the Saxonian Saale (German: Sächsische Saale) and the Franconian Saale (German: Fränkische Saale). ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... For the historical novel, see The Teutonic Knights (novel). ...


German domination of trade in the Baltic Sea and Eastern Central Europe was established through the Hanseatic League. Such areas had become important within trade routes and flourished. German urban law within these regions, (Stadtrecht), was promoted by the presence of large, relatively wealthy "German" populations. At the time, their culture and worldview was very different from that of the surrounding rural peoples. These other "Germans", commoners that were often influenced by these powerful city-states, stretched as far away from present-day Germany as Bergen (in Norway), Stockholm (in Sweden), and Vyborg (in Russia). Some groups, such as the Baltic Germans, the Volga Germans, and the Transylvanian Saxons, had established residence in the eastern Baltic, southern Russia, and what is now Romania, respectively. Over time, other groups like this would be joined by later waves of Germans. Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Town privileges were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. ... Worldview is Chicago Public Radios daily international-affairs radio show, hosted by Jerome McDonnell. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... County Hordaland District Midhordland Municipality NO-1201 Administrative centre Bergen Mayor (2004) Herman Friele (H) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 215 465 km² 445 km² 0. ... Nickname: Location of Stockholm in northern Europe Coordinates: Country Sweden Municipality Stockholm Municipality County Stockholm Province Södermanland and Uppland Charter 13th Century Population (April 2007)  - City 782,885  - Density 4,160/km² (10,774. ... A view of Vyborg from the castle tower Vyborg (Russian: ; Finnish: ; Swedish: ; German: ) is a town in Leningrad Oblast, Russia, situated on the Karelian Isthmus near the head of the Bay of Vyborg, 130 km to the northwest of St. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ...


By the 1500s, much of Pomerania, Prussia, the Sudetenland, Bessarabia, Galicia, Tyrol, Carniola, and Lower Styria had many German cities and villages. Numerous transfers and migrations occurred later: for example, within the Habsburg Monarchy at the end of Ottoman incursion into Europe (which penetrated as far as Vienna). Thus, the Danube Swabians settled in Pannonia and the Bukovina Germans in Bukovina. Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of the Griffins (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... It has been suggested that Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938) be merged into this article or section. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Galicia (Ukrainian: Галичина (Halychyna), Polish: Galicja, German: Galizien, Slovak: Halič, Romanian: Galiţia, Hungarian: Gácsország) is the name of a region of Central Europe. ... Coat of arms of Tyrol: *[1] The Tyrol is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian regions known as the South Tyrol and Trentino. ... Carniola English and Latin; (Slovenian Kranjska, German Krain) is a name for a region in Slovenia. ... Lower Styria (Slovenian Spodnja Å tajerska, German Untersteiermark, Latin Styria) is made up of the southern third of the former Duchy of Styria and is a region in northeastern Slovenia. ... The Habsburg Monarchy, often called Austrian Monarchy or simply Austria, are the territories ruled by the Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg, and then by the successor House of Habsburg-Lorraine, between 1526 and 1867/1918. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1680, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–65) Edirne (1365–1453) Constantinople (Ä°stanbul, 1453–1922) Language(s) Ottoman Turkish Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 Osman I  - 1918–22 Mehmed VI... “Wien” redirects here. ... The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Åžvabi or Åžvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Å vabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Å vabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ... Position of the Roman province of Pannonia Pannonia is an ancient country bounded north and east by the Danube, conterminous westward with Noricum and upper Italy, and southward with Dalmatia and upper Moesia. ... The Bukovina Germans formed a German ethnic group that lived from about 1780 to 1940 in Bukovina, part of present-day West Ukraina. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ...


The World Wars

By World War I, there were isolated groups of Germans or so-called Schwaben as far southeast as the Bosporus (Turkey), Georgia, and Azerbaijan. After the war, Germany's and Austria-Hungary's loss of territory and the rise of communism in the Soviet Union meant that more Germans than ever were minorities in various countries, though on the whole they still enjoyed fairly good treatment. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Swabia (German Schwaben) is a historic region in Germany and a language area. ... Satellite image of the Bosporus, taken from the International Space Station in April 2004 Bosphorus Bridge Fatih Sultan Mehmet Bridge The Bosporus or Bosphorus, also known as the Istanbul Strait, (Turkish: İstanbul Boğazı or, for İstanbuls inhabitants, simply Boğaz; while the term Boğaziçi denotes those... Communism is an ideology that seeks to establish a classless, stateless social organization based on common ownership of the means of production. ...


The status of ethnic Germans, and the lack of contiguity resulted in numerous repatriation pacts whereby the German authorities would organize population transfers (especially the Nazi-Soviet population transfers arranged between Adolf Hitler and Joseph Stalin, and others with Benito Mussolini's Italy) so that both Germany and the other country would increase their homogeneity. However, this was but a drop in the pond, and the Heim ins Reich rhetoric over the continued disjoint status of enclaves such as Danzig and Königsberg was an agitating factor in the politics leading up to World War II, and is considered by many to be among the major causes of Nazi aggressiveness and thus the war. The Nazi-Soviet population transfers were a series of population transfers between 1939 and 1941 of Germans from territories occupied by Soviet Union due to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact, notably Bessarabia and the Baltic states of Estonia and Latvia, all of which traditionally had large German minorities. ... Hitler redirects here. ... “Stalin” redirects here. ... Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (July 29, 1883 – April 28, 1945) was the prime minister and dictator of Italy from 1922 until 1943, when he was overthrown. ... The Heim ins Reich initiative (German: Home into the Realm) was a policy pursued by Adolf Hitler starting in 1939 and largely responsible for the outbreak of World War II. The initiative attempted to convince people of German descent living outside of Germany that they should strive to unify their... For alternative meanings of Gdańsk and Danzig, see Gdansk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Former German name of the city of Kaliningrad. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The actions of Germany ultimately had extremely negative consequences for most ethnic Germans in Central and Eastern Europe, who often fought on the side of the Nazi regime - some were drafted, others volunteered or worked through the paramilitary organisations such as Selbstschutz, which supported the German invasion of Poland and murdered tens of thousands of Poles. In places such as Yugoslavia, Germans were drafted by their country of residence, served loyally, and even held as POWs by the Nazis, and yet later found themselves drafted again, this time by the Nazis after their takeover. Because it was technically not permissible to draft non-citizens, many ethnic Germans ended up being (oxymoronically) forcibly volunteered for the Waffen-SS. In general, those closest to Nazi Germany were the most involved in fighting for her, but the Germans in remote places like the Caucasus were likewise accused of collaboration. The territorial changes following World War II can be very roughly understood as the following: Russia became bigger, Germany became smaller, and Poland was forced west. This anecdotal summary (minus the plight of the Poles) can be extended to Germany's borders with France and Czechoslovakia as well. Selbstschutz (German: ) was a name used by a number of paramilitary organisations created out of ethnic Germans in Central Europe. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... Waffen-SS recruitment poster; Volunteer to the Waffen-SS The Waffen-SS was the armed wing of the Schutzstaffel. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Post-War situation

If the ethnic Germans of Eastern Europe survived the fighting, the ethno-politics of the victorious Allies aimed at removal of German minority from new borders of countries that were freed from Nazi German rule. In Poland and Czechoslovakia, millions fled the Red Army and local governments, mostly on foot and in wagons, but also by ship. Elsewhere, especially in Russia and Yugoslavia, Germans were treated even more brutally, and often interned in harsh labor camps, to "pay the debts" induced by their nation and the cost of communist liberation. The remaining German inhabitants were expelled or fled from present-day Poland, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, today's Kaliningrad Oblast, and other East European countries. In Romania, Germans were forcibly transferred within the country, to destroy their cohesion as an ethnic group. The Allies of World War II were the countries officially opposed to the Axis powers during the Second World War. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Kaliningrad Oblast (Russian: , Kaliningradskaya Oblast; informally called Yantarny kray (, meaning amber region) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast) on the Baltic coast. ... Eastern Europe is, by convention, a region defined geographically as that part of Europe covering the eastern part of the continent. ...


See also:

It was due to such population transfer in the Soviet Union that Germans (along with many other peoples) ended up as far east as Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. As recently as 1990, there were 1 million standard German speakers and 100,000 Plautdietsch speakers in Kazakhstan alone, and 38,000, 40,000 and 101,057 standard German speakers in Ukraine, Uzbekistan, and Kyrgyzstan, respectively. It has been suggested that Expulsion of Germans after World_War II be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ... Not by Their Own Will. ...


There were reportedly 500,000 ethnic Germans in Poland in 1998. Recent official figures show 147,000 (as of 2002)[1]. But, because the census only registers declared nationalities, the actual figure is probably higher. Of the 700,000 Germans in Romania in 1988, only about 100,000 remained. In Hungary the situation is quite similar, with only about 150,000. There are 1 million in the former Soviet Union, mostly in a band from southwestern Russia and the Volga valley, through Omsk and Altai Krai to Kazakhstan. For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Omsk (Russian: ) is a city in southwest Siberia in Russia, the administrative center of Omsk Oblast. ... Altai Krai (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai) in the Siberian Federal District. ...


These Auslandsdeutsche, as they are now generally known, have been streaming out of the former Eastern Bloc since the early 1990s. For example, many ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union have taken advantage of the German Law of return, a policy which grants citizenship to all those who can prove to be a refugee or expellee of German ethnic origin or the spouse or descendant of such a person. This exodus has occurred despite the fact that many of the ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union speak little or no German. Auslandsdeutsche (Germans abroad; adj. ... A map of the Eastern Bloc. ... The term Right of return refers to the principle in international law that members of an ethnic or national group have a right to immigration and naturalization into the country that they, the destination country, or both consider to be that groups homeland, independent of prior personal citizenship in...


Expelled Germans in postwar Germany

After World War II many expellees (German: Heimatvertriebene) from the land east of the Oder-Neisse found refuge in both West Germany and East Germany. Refugees who had fled voluntarily but were later refused to return are often not distinguished from those who were forcibly deported, just as people born to German parents that moved into areas under German occupation either on their own or as Nazi colonists. This article is in need of attention. ...


In a document signed 50 years ago the Heimatvertriebene organisations have also recognized the plight of the different groups of people living in today's Poland who were resettled there by force. The Heimatvertriebene are just one of the groups of millions of other people, from many different countries, who all found refuge in today's Germany.


Some of the expellees are active in politics and belong to the political right-wing. Many others do not belong to any organizations, but they continue to maintain what they call a lawful right to their homeland. The vast majority pledged to work peacefully towards that goal while rebuilding post-war Germany and Europe.


The expellees are still highly active in German politics, and are one of the major political factions of the nation, with still around 2 million members. The president of their organization is as of 2004 still a member of the national parliament. 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Although expellees (in German Heimatvertriebene) and their descendants were active in West German politics, the prevailing political climate within West Germany was that of atonement for Nazi actions. However the CDU governments have shown considerable support for the expellees and German civilian victims. This article is in need of attention. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ...


Polish-German relations

Although relations between Poland and the Federal Republic of Germany have generally been cordial since 1991, there remain disputes about the War, the post-War expulsion, the treatment of the current German minority in Poland and the treatment of German heritage in modern day Western Poland and the Polish half of the former East Prussia. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ...


Since 1990, historical events have been examined by the Polish Institute of National Remembrance. Its role is to investigate the crimes of the past without regard to the nationality of victims and perpetrators. In Poland, crimes motivated by the nationality of victims are not covered by a statute of limitations, therefore the criminals can be charged in perpetuity. In a few cases, the crimes against Germans were examined. One suspected perpetrator of retaliatory crimes against expelled innocent German civilians, Salomon Morel, fled the country to Israel, which has denied Polish requests for his extradition. Instytut Pamięci Narodowej (IPN, Institute of National Remembrance) is a Polish institution created by the IPN Act in 18 December 1998. ... Salomon Morel, passport photo taken in 1993 Salomon (also Solomon or Shlomo) Morel (born November 15, 1919 in Garbów, Poland, died February 2007 in Tel Aviv, Israel) was a Polish Jew, who, between February and November 1945, was a member of Communist State Security, known in Polish as Urz...


Finalization of the Polish-German border

The Oder-Neisse line was officially considered completely unacceptable by the CDU controlled German government for decades. Even certain factions within the Social Democrats, the SPD refused to accept the Oder-Neisse line. The Ostpolitik of Social Democratic Chancellor Willy Brandt confirmed the Oder-Neisse line as unalterable through the Treaty of Warsaw on the 7th of December 1970. The 1991 Polish-German border agreement finalized the Oder-Neisse line as the Polish-German border. The agreement gave to minority groups in both countries several rights, such as the right to use national surnames, speak their native languages, and attend schools and churches of their choice. These rights had been denied previously on the basis that the individual had already chosen the country in which they wanted to live. The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU - Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the largest conservative political party in Germany. ... Social Democratic Party of Germany Spectral Power Density ... The Oder-Neisse line (Polish: , German: ) marked the border between German Democratic Republic and Poland between 1950 and 1990. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... For other uses, see Chancellor (disambiguation). ... Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 - October 8, 1992), was a German politician, Chancellor of West Germany 1969 – 1974, and leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) 1964 – 1987. ... The Treaty of Warsaw is a treaty between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ...


Polish criticism of German "revisionism"

Some Poles criticise the current German historical view as tending to move toward the portrayal of Germans as both victims and perpetrators of the War, rather than being purely perpetrators.


Some German expellees, on the other hand, criticise the official Polish outlook on the War and post War events as mostly based on a collectivist view (of mixed communist and nationalist ideas) that does not look at the individual suffering on both sides, but emphazises the ethnic background of each individual.


Such positions are viewed critically in Poland as it allegedly ignores widespread collaboration and support for Nazi occupation by the German minority in the pre-1939 Polish Republic, and the fact that German people enjoyed privileged status during the war while Poles were classified as subhumans by German authorities.


Restrictions on the sale of property to foreigners

In November 2005 Der Spiegel published a poll from Allensbach Institut which estimated that 61% of Poles believed Germans would try to get back territories that were formerly under German control or demand compensation[2],[3]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There are also some worries among Poles that rich descendants of the expelled Germans would buy the land the Polish state had confiscated in 1945. It is believed that this may result in large price increases, since current Polish land prices are low compared to Western Europe. This led to Polish restrictions on the sale of property to foreigners, including Germans; special permission is needed. This policy is comparable to similar restrictions on the Baltic Åland Islands. These restrictions will be lifted 12 years after the 2004 accession of Poland to the European Union, i.e. on May 1, 2016. The restrictions are viewed by some as weak - they aren't valid for companies and certain types of properties. National motto: ? Official language Swedish Capital Mariehamn Governor Peter Lindbäck Premier Roger Nordlund Total Area  - Land  - Water 6,784 km² 1,527 km² 5,258 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 26,257 17. ... May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). ... 2016 (MMXVI) will be a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The attempts by German organisations to build a Centre Against Expulsions dedicated to the suffering of expellees during World War II (as well as other conflicts) has led Polish politicians and activists to propose a Center for Martyrology of the Polish Nation (called also Center for the Memory of Suffering of the Polish Nation). This would document the systematical oppression of Polish people by the Nazi state during World War II, serving to educate German people about atrocities perpetrated against their neighbours. However, this proposal was criticized by German politicians on the grounds that similar institutions already exist, whereas the expulsion of Germans has been relatively ignored [4]. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Status of the German minority in Poland

The remaining German minority in Poland (152,897 people according to the 2002 census, some say much higher) is still awaiting formal recognition of minority rights, as a minority law has not been introduced by the Polish parliament yet. There are German speakers throughout Poland, and most of the Germans live in the Opole/Oppeln Voivodship. There are a few unofficial bilingual signs in some of the smaller towns of the Opole/Oppeln region. In addition, there are some bilingual schools and in a few towns German can sometimes be used instead of Polish in dealings with officials on a lower level at the discretion of local council officials. However, Western European standards of minority protection, including universal bilingual topography, use of the language in courts and dealings with all government officials, as well as bilingual education for the entire population, remain unfulfilled. Opole Voivodship. ...


See also: Germans of Poland, Bilingual communes in Poland Germans are a notable national minority in Poland, consisting of almost 150,000 people. ... According to Act of 6 January 2005 on National and Ethnic Minorities and on the Regional Languages there are 16 bilingual communes in Poland: Official/auxiliary German language in commutes in Silesia German in part of Silesia - Opole Voivodeship: Gmina Biała (Gemeinde Zülz; since 06. ...


Czech-German relations

On 28 December 1989, Václav Havel, at that time a candidate for president of Czechoslovakia (he was elected one day later), suggested that Czechoslovakia should apologise for the expulsion of ethnic Germans after World War II. Most of other politicians of the country didn't agree, and there was also no reply from leaders of Sudeten German organizations. Later, the German President Richard von Weizsäcker answered this by apologizing to Czechoslovakia during his visit to Prague on March 1990 after Václav Havel repeated his apology saying that the expulsion was "the mistakes and sins of our fathers". The Beneš decrees however continued to remain in force in Czechoslovakia. December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Václav Havel, GCB, CC, (IPA: ) (born October 5, 1936 in Prague) is a Czech writer and dramatist. ... Dr. Richard Freiherr von Weizsäcker â–¶ (help· info) (born April 15, 1920) is a German politician (CDU). ... Nickname: Motto: Praga Caput Rei publicae Location within the Czech Republic Coordinates: , Country Czech Republic Region Capital City of Prague Founded 9th century Government  - Mayor Pavel Bém Area  - City 496 km²  (191. ... The BeneÅ¡ decrees (Czech: ; German: ; Slovak: ; Hungarian: ) refers to a series of laws enacted by the Czechoslovak government of exile during World War II in absence of Czechoslovak parliament (see details in Czechoslovakia: World War II (1939 - 1945)). Today, the term is most frequently used for the part of them...


In Czech-German relations, the topic has been effectively closed by the Czech-German declaration of 1997. One principle of the declaration was that parties will not burden their relations with political and legal issues which stem from the past.


However, some expelled Sudeten Germans or their descendants are demanding return of their former property, which was confiscated after the war. Several such cases have been taken to Czech courts. As confiscated estates usually have new inhabitants, some of whom have lived there for more than 50 years, attempts to return to a pre-war state may cause fear. The topic comes to life occasionally in Czech politics. Like in Poland, worries and restrictions concerning land purchases exist in the Czech Republic. According to a survey by the Allensbach Institut in November 2005, 38% of Czechs believe Germans want to regain territory they lost or will demand compensation.


Recognition of Sudeten German anti-Nazis

In 2005 Czech Prime Minister Jiří Paroubek announced an initiative to publicise and formally recognise the deeds of Sudeten German Anti-Nazis. Although the move was received positively by most Sudeten Germans and the German minority, there has been criticism that the initiative is limited to Anti-Nazis who actively fought for the Czechoslovak state, but not Anti-Nazis in general. The German minority in particular also expected some financial compensation for their mistreatment after the War. Jiří Paroubek Jiří Paroubek (IPA: ) (born 21 August 1952 in Olomouc) is a Czech politician from the Czech Social Democratic Party (ÄŒSSD) and the prime minister since April 25, 2005. ...


Status of the German minority in the Czech Republic and Slovakia

There are about 40,000 Germans remaining in the Czech Republic (number of Czechs who have at least partly German ancestry probably runs into hundreds of thousands[5]). Their number has been consistently decreasing since World War II. According to the 2001 census there remain 13 municipalities and settlements in the Czech Republic with more than 10% Germans.


The situation in Slovakia was different from that in the Czech lands, in that the number of Germans was considerably lower and that the Germans from Slovakia were almost completely evacuated to German states as the Soviet army was moving west through Slovakia, and only the fraction of them that returned to Slovakia after the end of the war was deported together with the Germans from the Czech lands. Carpathian Germans (German: , Slovak: Karpatskí Nemci), sometimes simply called Slovak Germans (German: Slowakeideutsche), is the name for a group of German language speakers on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ...


The German minority in the Czech Republic has been granted some rights on paper, however the actual use of the language in dealings with officials is usually not possible. There is no bilingual education system in Western and Northern Bohemia, where the German minority is most concentrated. The Czech authorities have enacted a unique hurdle in their minority act.[citation needed]


The Czech Republic has introduced a law in 2002 that guarantees the use of native minority languages (incl. German)as official languages in municipalities where autochthonous linguistic groups make up at least 10% of the population. Besides the use in dealings with officials and in courts the law also allows for bilingual signage and guarantees education in the native language. The law so far only exists on paper and has not been implemented anywhere, neither in the Polish speaking Tesin/Cieszyn area nor in Western and Northern Bohemia where a hand full of towns still have in excess of 10% German speakers. The Czech Republic (Czech: Česká republika) is a landlocked country in Central Europe. ...


Many representatives of expelees organizations support the erection of bilingual signs in all formerly German speaking territory as a visible sign of the bilingual linguistic and cultural heritage of the region. While the erection of bilingual signs is technically permitted if a minority constitutes 10% of the population, the minority is also forced to sign a petition in favour of the signs in which 40% of the adult minority population must participate.


German minority in Hungary

Today the German minority in Hungary have minority rights, organisations, schools and local councils but spontaneous assimilation is well under way. Many of the deportees visited their old homes after the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1990. Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ...


Russia

Many descendants of Germans who were expelled from the former city of Königsberg can be found today in Germany. Although the deportation of Germans from this northern part of former East Prussia often was conducted in a violent and aggressive way by Soviet officials who sought to revenge the Nazi terror in Soviet areas during the war, the present Russian inhabitants of the Kaliningrad sector (northern East Prussia) have much less animus against Germans. German names have even been revived in commercial Russian trade. Many old German Prussian villages are still intact, though they have become dilapidated over the course of time. The city centre of Kaliningrad however was entirely rebuilt, as the British bombing campaign of 1944 and the siege of Königsberg in 1945 had left it in ruins. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders General Otto von Lasch Marshal Vasilevsky Marshal Rokossovsky Strength 130,000 250,000 Casualties 50,000 60,000 The Battle of Königsberg was the last battle of the East Prussian Operation. ... Year 1945and died 2007 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...

Examples of German language in Namibia's everday life.
Examples of German language in Namibia's everday life.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (841x557, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German language Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (841x557, 179 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): German language Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to...

Africa, Oceania, and East Asia

Unlike other major European powers of the 20th century, Germany was not very involved in colonizing Africa (though mainly because it came too late and from a difficult geopolitical location), and lost German East Africa and German South-West Africa after World War I. Similarly to those in Latin America, the Germans in Africa tended to isolate themselves and be more self-sufficient than other Europeans. In Namibia there are 30,000 ethnic Germans, 6% of the population, though it is estimated that only a third of those retain the language. Most German-speakers live in the capital, Windhoek, and in smaller towns such as Swakopmund and Lüderitz, where German architecture is highly visible. In South Africa, a number of Afrikaners and Boers are of partial German ancestry, being the descendants of German immigrants who intermarried with Dutch settlers and adopted Afrikaans as their mother tongue. German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika) was Germanys colony in East Africa, including what is now Burundi, Rwanda, and Tanganyika, the mainland part of present Tanzania. ... Flag German South-West Africa (black), other German colonies in red Capital Windhoek (from 1891) Political structure Colony Governor  - 1898-1905 Theodor von Leutwein  - 1905-1907 Friedrich von Lindequist  - 1907-1910 Bruno von Schuckmann  - 1910-1915 Theodor Seitz Historical era The Scramble for Africa  - Established 7 August, 1884  - Genocide 1904... --193. ... Swakopmund is a city in Namibia, with around 35,000 inhabitants. ... Lüderitz, Namibia Lüderitz, Namibia is a harbour town on one of the least hospitable coasts in Africa. ... Afrikaners (sometimes known as Boers) are white South Africans, predominantly of Calvinist German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloons descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Afrikaners are white South Africans of predominantly Calvinist Dutch, German, French Huguenot, Friesian and Walloon descent who speak Afrikaans. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Like North America, Australia has received many ethnic German immigrants from Germany and elsewhere. Numbers vary depending on who is counted, but moderate criteria give an estimate of 750,000 (4% of the population). The first wave of German immigration to Australia began in 1838, with the arrival of Prussian Lutheran settlers in South Australia (see German settlement in Australia). After the Second World War, Australia received a large influx of displaced ethnic Germans. In the 1950s and 1960s, German immigration continued as part of Australia's ambitious population program. | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Lutheranism describes those churches within Christianity that were reformed according to the theological insights of Martin Luther in the 16th century. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... German settlement in Australia began in large numbers in 1838, with the arrival of immigrants from Prussia to Adelaide, South Australia. ...


During the Meiji era (1868-1912), many Germans came to work in Japan as advisors to the new government. Despite Japan's isolationism and geographic distance, there have been a few Germans in Japan, since Germany's and Japan's fairly parallel modernization made Germans ideal O-yatoi gaikokujin. Both the modern German and Japanese states were founded in the same year of 1871 – through the foundation of the German Empire under the leadership of Prussia and the “abolition of domains and foundation of prefectures” ordinance in Japan. ... The o-yatoi gaikokujin (Japanese: お雇い外国人 — hired foreigners, foreign employees) were foreign specialists, engineers, teachers, mercenaries and more, hired to assist in the modernization of Japan. ...


In China, the German trading colony of Jiaozhou Bay in what is now Qingdao existed until 1914, and did not leave much more than breweries, including Tsingtao Brewery. Communist East Germany had relations with Uganda and Vietnam, but in these cases population movement went mostly to, not from, Germany. The Jiaozhou Bay (, ) was a 552km² German colonial Concession, which existed from 1898 to 1914. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Past packaging of Tsingtao Beer in a display at the Qingdao Beer Museum Tsingtao Brewery (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (SEHK: 168) is Chinas largest brewery. ... GDR redirects here. ...


See also: German colonial empire and List of former German colonies German colonial empire The German colonial empire was an overseas area formed in the late 19th century as part of the Hohenzollern dynastys German Empire. ... German colonial empire This is a list of former German Empire colonies and protectorates (German: Schutzgebiete), the German colonial empire. ...


Groupings

Note that many of these groups have since migrated elsewhere. This list simply gives the region with which they are associated, and does not include the Germans from countries with German as an official national language, which are:

In general, it also omits some collective terms in common use defined by political border changes where this is antithetical to the current structure. Such terms include:

Roughly grouped: Germans of Hungary (German: Ungarndeutsche) are any German-speaking minority group in Hungary who would be counted among the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben). ... Germans of Hungary (German: Ungarndeutsche) are any German-speaking minority group in Hungary who would be counted among the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben). ... // Due to Hunnish incursions in Europe and the associated migration period in the 4th century, Germanic people migrated to the Danube and the Mediterranean as early as the year 375. ... // Due to Hunnish incursions in Europe and the associated migration period in the 4th century, Germanic people migrated to the Danube and the Mediterranean as early as the year 375. ... The Germans of Romania or Rumäniendeutsche were 700,000 strong in 1988. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: Siebenbürger Sachsen; Romanian: Saşi, Hungarian: Szászok) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania from the 12th century onwards. ...

  • Austrian Germans in and around Kočevje (Gottschee) and Maribor (Marburg an der Drau) in Slovenia

In the Americas, one can divide the groups by current nation of residence: Germans in the Czech Republic form a minority of the residents in Bohemia, Moravia, and Czech Silesia. ... the german inhabitants of Bohemia, Moravia and Silesia. ... It has been suggested that Germans in Czechoslovakia (1918-1938) be merged into this article or section. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Germans are a notable national minority in Poland, consisting of almost 150,000 people. ... Polonization (Polish: ) is the assumption (complete or partial), of the Polish language or another real or supposed Polish attribute. ... Bambrzy (PoznaÅ„skie Bambry, ger. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... German-Briton A German-Briton is someone with both German and British (English, Irish, Welsh or Scottish)ethnicity who lives in the United Kingdom or who is a British citizen. ... British Germans are people of German origin who live in the United Kingdom // Germans have resided in Britain throughout its history. ... Schleswigsch (pronounced /Sles vIgS/, or SHLAY-svigsh) is a Northern Low Saxon dialect spoken in Schleswig, in Germany and Denmark. ... Sønderjyllands Amt (English: South Jutland County) is a county (Danish, amt) on the Jutland peninsula in southern Denmark. ... The Executive (government) of the German-speaking Community meets in Eupen Flag of the German-speaking community in Belgium The German-speaking Community of Belgium (German: , short DGB) is one of the three federal communities in Belgium. ... Alsatian can refer to: A person from Alsace, France Alsatian language German Shepherd Dog This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Imperial Province of Elsaß-Lothringen Alsace-Lorraine (German: , generally Elsass-Lothringen) was a territorial entity created by the German Empire in 1871 after the annexation of most of Alsace and parts of Lorraine in the Franco-Prussian War. ... The Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen, or Alto Adige/Südtirol (official in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ; also in Italian: ; German: ; Ladin: ) is an autonomous province of Italy. ... Distribution of Highest Alemannic dialects The Walser are German-speaking people (more specifically, they speak Walser German dialects) that live in the alps of Switzerland, Italy, Liechtenstein and Austria. ... The Valais (German:  ) is one of the 26 cantons of Switzerland in the south-western part of the country, in the Pennine Alps around the valley of the Rhone River from its springs to Lake Geneva. ... Cimbrian refers to any of several local Upper German dialects spoken in northeastern Italy, especially in South Tyrol. ... Mócheno is an Upper German dialect spoken in three towns of the Fersina Valley (German: Fersental, Italian: Valle del Fersina), in Trentino-South Tyrol, northeastern Italy. ... Area: 563. ... Area: 147. ... The Bruderhof Communities (German: place of brothers) are Christian faith-based communities with branches in New York and Pennsylvania in the USA, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites descended from Dutch and mainly Germanic Prussian Anabaptists who established colonies in South Russia (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789. ... The Mennonites are a group of Christian Anabaptist denominations named after and influenced by the teachings and tradition of Menno Simons. ... The Transylvanian Saxons (German: ; Hungarian: ; Romanian: ) are a people of German origin who settled in Transylvania (German: ) from the 12th century onwards. ... Detail of a church window in Hermannstadt dedicated to the memory of the Austrian Protestants. ... Carpathian Germans (German: , Slovak: Karpatskí Nemci), sometimes simply called Slovak Germans (German: Slowakeideutsche), is the name for a group of German language speakers on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ... Carpathian Germans (German: Karpatendeutsche, Slovak: Karpatskí Nemci), sometimes simply called Slovak Germans (German: Slowakeideutsche), is the name for a group of German language speakers on the territory of present-day Slovakia. ... SpiÅ¡ in Slovakia SpiÅ¡ (-Slovak; Latin: Scepusium, Polish: Spisz, German: , Hungarian: Szepesség) is a region in north-eastern Slovakia, with a very small area in south-eastern Poland. ... Regat Germans or Old Kingdom Germans (Germ. ... The Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben, Hungarian: Dunai-Svábok or Dunamenti németek, Romanian: Åžvabi or Åžvabi Dunăreni, Serbian: Dunavske Å vabe or Дунавске Швабе, Croatian: Podunavski Å vabe) is a collective term for Germans who lived in the former Kingdom of Hungary, especially in the Danube (Donau) River valley. ... Bačka (Serbian: Бачка or Bačka, Hungarian: Bácska, Croatian: Bačka, Slovak: Báčka, German: Batschka) is an area of the Pannonian plain lying between the rivers Danube and Tisa. ... The Banat Swabians are a German-speaking population in Southeast Europe, part of the Danube Swabians, who immigrated over 200 years ago from different parts of Southern Germany into Banat, after it had been almost entirely depopulated during wars with Turkey. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the... Germans (Bulgarian: , nemtsi or германци, germantsi) are a minority ethnic group in Bulgaria (German: ). Although according to the 2001 census they only numbered 436,[1] the settlement of Germans in Bulgaria has a long and eventful history and comprises several waves, the earliest one dating back to the Middle Ages. ... Satu Mare Swabians (German: Sathmarer Schwaben) are a German ethnic group, who live near Satu Mare in Romania, and who form part of the broader group known as Danube Swabians. ... Germans of Hungary (German: Ungarndeutsche) are any German-speaking minority group in Hungary who would be counted among the Danube Swabians (German: Donauschwaben). ... The term Swabian Turkey (German: Schwäbische Türkei) describes a region in southeastern Transdanubia in Hungary delimited by the Danube (Donau), the Drava (Drau), and Lake Balaton (Plattensee) inhabited by an ethnic German minority. ... Motto none Anthem Intermeco Bosnia and Herzegovina() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Sarajevo Official languages Bosnian Croatian Serbian Government Parliamentary democracy  -  Presidency members NebojÅ¡a Radmanović1 Haris Silajdžić2 Željko KomÅ¡ić3  -  Chairman of the Council of Ministers Nikola Å pirić  -  High Representative 4 Independence... The Black Sea Germans (German: Schwarzmeerdeutsche) are ethnic Germans who left their homeland in the 18th and 19th centuries, and settled in territories of the northern bank of the Black Sea, mostly in southern Russia. ... The Crimea Germans (De. ... The Dobrujan Germans (Germ. ... The Bukovina Germans formed a German ethnic group that lived from about 1780 to 1940 in Bukovina, part of present-day West Ukraina. ... Bukovina (Ukrainian: , Bukovyna; Romanian: Bucovina; German and Polish: Bukowina; see also other languages) is a historical region on the northern slopes of the northeastern Carpathian Mountains and the adjoining plains. ... Couple with infant The Bessarabia Germans are an ethnic group and part of the Black Sea Germans, who lived in Bessarabia (today part of Moldova and Ukraine) between 1814 and 1940. ... Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Prypiat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Coat-of-arms of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: , German: , Hungarian: , Czech: , Yiddish: , Turkish: , Romanian: ) is a historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Church of the Saviour – a German Kirche in Baku, Azerbaijan. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The term German-Russian is used in three somewhat different senses. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites descended from Dutch and mainly Germanic Prussian Anabaptists who established colonies in South Russia (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789. ... The Germans of Kazakhstan are a significant minority in Kazakhstan, and make up several percent of population. ... Bosporus Germans are those ethnic Germans living and settled in Istanbul. ... Istanbul (Turkish: , Greek: , historically Byzantium and later Constantinople; see other names) is Turkeys most populous city, and its cultural and financial center. ...

…or by ethnic or religious criteria: German-Canadians are those Canadians of German descent. ... German Americans are citizens of the United States of ethnic German ancestry and currently form the largest ancestry group in the United States. ... Texas German is a dialect of the German language that is spoken by descendants of German immigrants who founded the town of Fredericksburg, Texas in 1846. ... German Texans have historiclly played a significant role in Texas history. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... An German-Mexican (German: Deutsch-Mexikaner or Deutsch-Mexikanisch, Spanish: germano-mexicano) is a Mexican citizen of German descent or origin. ... Name and Location Deutschbrasilianer (in German), teuto_brasileiro (in Portuguese), or German_Brazilian (in English) basically is a person of German origin (i. ... Brazilian German is a generic name for German dialects spoken in Brazil. ... German-Argentines are ethnic Germans born in Argentina. ... Colonia Tovar The Colonia Tovar (Tovar Colony) is a city located in the Tovar Municipality of the Aragua State, Venezuela about 60 km from its nearest city, Caracas. ... Alemán Coloniero, spoken in Colonia Tovar, is a dialect that belongs to the Low Alemannic branch of German. ...

In Africa, Oceania, and East Asia The Pennsylvania Dutch (perhaps more strictly Pennsylvania Deitsch or Pennsylvanian German) are the descendants of German immigrants who came to Pennsylvania prior to 1800. ... The Amish (Amisch or Amische) (IPA: ) are an Anabaptist Christian denomination in the United States and Canada (Ontario and Manitoba) known for their plain dress and avoidance of modern conveniences such as cars and electricity. ... The Volga Germans are ethnic Germans living near the Volga River and the Black Sea, maintaining German culture, German language, German traditions and religions: Evangelical Lutherans or Roman Catholic. ... Plautdietsch, or Mennonite Low German, is a language spoken by the Mennonites, who are ethnically Dutch, but who adopted an East Low German dialect while they were refugees in the Vistula delta area of Royal Prussia (later the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth), beginning in the early-to-mid 1500s. ... The Russian Mennonites are a group of Mennonites descended from Dutch and mainly Germanic Prussian Anabaptists who established colonies in South Russia (present-day Ukraine) beginning in 1789. ... The Chortitzer Mennonite Conference, or Die Mennonitische Gemeinde zu Chortitz, is a small body of Mennonites in western Canada. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Hutterite women at work Hutterites are a communal branch of Anabaptists who, like the Amish and Mennonites, trace their roots to the Radical Reformation of the 16th century. ... Hutterite German (Hutterisch) is an Upper German dialect of the Austro-Bavarian variety of the German language, which is spoken by Hutterite communities in Canada and the United States. ... The Bruderhof Communities (German: place of brothers) are Christian faith-based communities with branches in New York and Pennsylvania in the USA, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia. ...

Germans of Namibia are a community of people descended from German colonists who settled in Namibia. ... German Australian is the fourth largest ethnic group in Australia, numbering 742,212 or 3. ... The Jiaozhou Bay (, ) was a 552km² German colonial Concession, which existed from 1898 to 1914. ... Past packaging of Tsingtao Beer in a display at the Qingdao Beer Museum Tsingtao Brewery (Chinese: ; pinyin: ) (SEHK: 168) is Chinas largest brewery. ...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-tao), well-known to the West by its Postal map spelling Tsingtao, is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, Peoples Republic of China. ...

Notes

Most numbers are from the www.ethnologue.com (see See also), apart from a few from German language and Germans, as well as the following in-line citations: German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ...

  1. ^ Austria. Library of Congress Country Studies, 2004.. Accessed 1 Oct 2006.
  2. ^ Who's Counting? The l990 Census of German-Americans. On the site of The Tricentennial Foundation German American Community Service. Accessed 12 Feb 2006.
  3. ^ Contents of ANCESTRY Table on the site of the United States Census Bureau. Accessed 12 Feb 2006.
  4. ^ Asociación Argentina de Descendientes de Alemanes del Volga
  5. ^ cf. the article on the Luxemburgish language on the German Wikipedia
  6. ^ See Demographics of the Netherlands.
  7. ^ See Demographics of Germany.

The United States Census Bureau (officially Bureau of the Census as defined in Title ) is a part of the United States Department of Commerce. ... The population of the Netherlands is concentrated on a limited territory. ... Germanys population pyramid. ...

See also

Three similar terms:

Other articles detailing the distribution of German language or people: Imperial Germans is the common translation of the German word Reichsdeutsche (adj. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... Auslandsdeutsche (Germans abroad; adj. ...

German-language Wikipedia entries: German-speaking minorities live in many countries and on all six inhabited continents: the countries of the former Soviet Union, Poland, Romania, Hungary, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Belgium, Italy, the United States, Latin America, Namibia, Israel, and Australia. ... By the High German consonant shift, the former Dutch-German dialect continuum. ... German (called Deutsch in German; in German the term germanisch is equivalent to English Germanic), is a member of the western group of Germanic languages and is one of the worlds major languages. ... It has been suggested that Expulsion of Germans after World_War II be merged into this article or section. ... Germans expelled from the Sudetenland // The expulsion of Germans after World War II refers to the forced migration of people considered Germans (Reichsdeutsche and some Volksdeutsche) from various European states and territories during 1945 and in the first three years after World War II 1946-48. ...

Ethnologue entries:

  • Standard German
  • Plautdietsch

Other:

  • the neologism Goralenvolk, one of the examples of a non-German group claimed as German by the Nazis

  Results from FactBites:
 
BMI Migration to Germany - Late repatriates (285 words)
A special group of immigrants to Germany is the "late repatriates", ethnic Germans from the former Soviet Union and Eastern bloc countries.
Their lack of German language skills has made it more difficult for members of this group to become integrated in Germany, which in turn has increased social concerns and reduced public acceptance for taking in additional ethnic Germans from Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union.
The Federal Office of Administration is responsible for processing the admission and distribution of ethnic German repatriates.
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Folk or ethnic costumes are now somewhat romanticized versions of clothing styles that were once worn in Germany.
German immigration to America increased significantly in the mid-19th Century.
Ethnic costumes in Germany are generally thought as the various costumes worn in Germany by basically people all ethnically German and all speaking German, albeit with different accents and dialects.
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