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Encyclopedia > Ethnic

An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. This boundary may take any of a number of forms -- This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. For the many types of competitive sport, see Racing. For racing conditions associated with computer programming, see Race hazard. A race is a distinct population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. The most widely observed races are those... racial, For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). In general, it refers to human activity; different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or criteria for valuing, human activity. Culture is traditionally the oldest human... cultural, Linguistics Theoretical linguistics Phonetics Phonology Morphology Syntax Semantics Lexical semantics Stylistics Prescription Pragmatics Applied linguistics Sociolinguistics Generative linguistics Cognitive linguistics Computational linguistics Historical linguistics Etymology List of linguists Broadly conceived, linguistics is the study of human language, and a linguist is someone who engages in this study. The study of... linguistic, Economics is the social science studying production and consumption through measurable variables. It involves analysing the production, distribution, trade and consumption of goods and services. Economics is said to be positive when it attempts to explain the consequences of different choices given a set of assumptions and normative when it... economic, Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religious, Politics is the process and method of decision-making for groups of human beings. Although it is generally applied to governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions including corporate, academic, and religious. Political science is the study of political behavior and examines the acquisition and application of... political -- and may be more or less porous. Because of this boundary, members of an ethnic group are often presumed to be culturally or biologically similar, although this is not in fact necessarily the case.


Another characteristic of ethnic groups is continuity in time, that is, a history and a future as a people. This is achieved through the intergenerational transmission of common language, institutions and traditions. It is important to consider this characteristic of ethnic groups if we are to distinguish them from a group of individuals who share a common characteristic, such as ancestry, in a specific point in time. On the political front, ethnic groups are distinguished from nation-states by the former's lack of sovereignty.


In the United States, the collectivity of immigrants from a region of the world and their descendants are called "ethnic groups" despite their lack of internal cohesion and common institutions and their inability to transmit language to the next generation. Immigrants are socialized into identifying as a member of one of the list of "ethnic groups" provided by the US Census Bureau and with various "traditions" which, although often of recent invention, appeal to some notion of the past. Thus Mexican nationals, upon crossing the border, become For other uses, see Hispanic (disambiguation). Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. According to the... Hispanic ethnics.


In the West, the notion of ethnicity, like This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. For the many types of competitive sport, see Racing. For racing conditions associated with computer programming, see Race hazard. A race is a distinct population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. The most widely observed races are those... race and A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. Added to this is usually the idea that a national (a person of the national ideology) should speak a certain language. The language itself might however be a... nation, developed in the context of European colonial expansion, when Mercantilism is the economic theory that a nations prosperity depended upon its supply of gold and silver, that the total volume of trade is unchangeable. This theory suggests that the government should play an active role in the economy by encouraging exports and discouraging imports, especially through the use... mercantilism and Capitalism generally refers to in philosophy and politics, a social system based on the principle of individual rights, including property rights. in economics, a combination of economic practices that became institutionalized in Europe between the 16th and 19th centuries, especially involving the right of individuals and groups of individuals acting... capitalism were promoting global movements of populations at the same time that This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. For other meanings, see state (disambiguation). In international law and international relations, a state is a geographic political entity possessing politicial sovereignty, i.e. not being subject to any higher political authority. In casual language, the idea of a state and a... state boundaries were being more clearly and rigidly defined. In the nineteenth century, modern states generally sought legitimacy through their claim to represent "nations." Nation-states, however, invariably include indigenous populations that were excluded from the nation-building project and such people typically constitute ethnic groups. Members of ethnic groups, consequently, often understand their own identity in terms of something outside of the history of the nation-state -- either an alternate history, or in ahistorical terms, or in terms of a connection to another nation-state.


In non-Western civilizations, such as the Mesoamerican, the concept of "ethnic group", and indeed ethnic groups, existed before contact with Europeans. The Spaniards called the different indigeneous communities of Mexico pueblos or naciones (communities or nations) depending on their size and importance. In contemporary Mexico, "ethnic group" refers to the surviving indigenous territorial communities that maintain their distict language and political, economic and social systems. The The Zapatista Army of National Liberation (Ejército Zapatista de Liberación Nacional, EZLN) is an armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico. The EZLN claims to represent the rights of the indigenous population, but also sees itself and is seen as part of... Zapatista movement, which demands legal status for ethnic groups and their right to a common future as such, can only be understood with a definition of ethnic group as a territorial and social organization.


Sometimes ethnic groups are subject to prejudicial attitudes and actions by the state or its constituents. In the twentieth century, people began to argue that conflicts among ethnic groups or between members of an ethnic group and the state can and should be resolved in one of two ways. Some, like Jürgen Habermas and Bruce Barry, have argued that the legitimacy of modern states must be based on a notion of political rights of autonomous individual subjects. According to this view the state ought not to acknowledge ethnic, national or racial identity and should instead enforce political and legal equality of all individuals. Others, like Charles Taylor (born November 5, Canadian philosopher known for his viewpoints on morality and modern western identity of individuals and groups. He is often classified as a communitarian. His principal philosophical standpoint is that of exclusive humanism—a humanism without reference to the transcendent, especially as it relates to... Charles Taylor Will Kymlicka is a Canadian political philosopher. He received his B.A. in philosophy and politics from Queens University in 1984, and his Ph.D in philosophy from Oxford University in 1987. He has written several books on culture, race, and politics; these, and his other works have been... Will Kymlicka argue that the notion of the autonomous individual is itself a cultural construct, and that it is neither possible nor right to treat people as autonomous individuals. According to this view, states must recognize ethnic identity and develop processes through which the particular needs of ethnic groups can be accommodated within the boundaries of the nation-state.


Ethnicity

This article or section has just been merged from This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. Ethnicity is sometimes used as a euphemism for race, or as a synonym for minority group. While ethnicity and race are related concepts... ethnicity. Please take care to edit it for consistency.

Ethnicity is the For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). The word culture comes from the Latin root colere (to inhabit, to cultivate, or to honor). In general, it refers to human activity; different definitions of culture reflect different theories for understanding, or criteria for valuing, human activity. Culture is traditionally the oldest human... cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. The term "ethnicity" is sometimes improperly used to refer to a In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. Minority only makes sense in the context of a unified society or group. This can be used to refer to people of a different language, nationality, religion... minority group or This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. For the many types of competitive sport, see Racing. For racing conditions associated with computer programming, see Race hazard. A race is a distinct population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. The most widely observed races are those... race.


While ethnicity and race are related concepts, the concept of ethnicity is rooted in the idea of societal groups, marked especially by shared Nationality is, in English usage, a legal relationship existing between a person and a state. The person becomes subject to the states jurisdiction, even while not on the states territory; in exchange the subject becomes entitled to the states protection, and to other rights as well. The... nationality, This article is on the social structure. There are also articles on the biological tribe, the musical group Tribe, and the Tribes video game series. Viewed historically or developmentally, a tribe consists of a social formation existing before the development of, or outside of, states. Many people use the term... tribal afilliation, Religion, sometimes used interchangeably with faith, is commonly defined as belief concerning the supernatural, sacred, or divine, and the practices and institutions associated with such belief. In its broadest sense some have defined it as the sum total of answers given to explain humankinds relationship with the universe. Religion... religious faith, shared As with any complex, emergent concept, language is somewhat resistant to definition. However, most would agree that language is a system of Communication is the process of exchanging information usually via a common system of symbols. Communication is the academic discipline which studies communication. Contents // 1 Forms of communication 2... language, or cultural and traditional origins and backgrounds, whereas race is rooted in the idea of Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology is the science of life (from the Greek words bios = life and logos = word). It is concerned with the characteristics and behaviors of organisms, how species and individuals come into existence, and... biological classification of For other uses, see Human (disambiguation). Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. Biologists classify human beings as Homo sapiens (Latin for knowing man), a primate species of mammal with a highly developed brain, belonging to the family of great apes, along... homo sapiens to In taxonomy, a subspecies is the taxon immediately subordinate to a species. Members of one subspecies differ morphologically but sometimes only genetically from members of other subspecies of the species. Contents // 1 Conventions 1.1 Zoology 1.2 Bacteriology 1.3 Botany 2 Criteria 3 Important difference between species and... subspecies according to morphological features such as skin color or facial characteristics.


It is a term also used to justify real or imagined historic ties as well. In The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. It is the third most common first language (native speakers), with around 402 million people in 2002. English has lingua franca status in many parts of the world, due to the military, economic, scientific, political and cultural influence... English, Ethnicity goes far beyond the modern ties of a person to a particular A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. Added to this is usually the idea that a national (a person of the national ideology) should speak a certain language. The language itself might however be a... nation (e.g., citizenship), and focuses more upon the connection to a perceived shared past and culture. See also Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. It stressed strong emotion, imagination, freedom within or even from classical notions of form in art, and overturning of previous social conventions, particularly the position of the aristocracy. It followed the Enlightenment period and was... Romanticism, Folklore is the ethnographic concept of the tales, legends, or superstitions current among a particular ethnic population, a part of the oral history of a particular culture. The academic study of folklore is known as folkloristics. The concept of folklore developed as part of the 19th century ideology of romantic... folklore. In other languages, the corresponding terms for ethnicity and nationhood can be closer to each other.


The Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. In the sense of the Common Era... 19th century saw the development of the political ideology of Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. This was developed by Johann Gottfried von Herder, who introduced the concept of the Volk (German for Folk). Romantic... ethnic nationalism, when the vague concept of This article is about race as an intraspecies classification. For the many types of competitive sport, see Racing. For racing conditions associated with computer programming, see Race hazard. A race is a distinct population of humans distinguished in some way from other humans. The most widely observed races are those... race was tied to Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. According to the theory of nationalism, the preservation of identity features, the independence in all subjects, the wellbeing, and the glory of ones own nation are fundamental values... nationalism, first by German theorists including Johann Gottfried Herder Johann Gottfried von Herder (August 25, 1744 - December 18, 1803), German poet, critic, theologian, and philosopher, is best known for his concept of the Volk and is generally considered the father of ethnic nationalism. Biography Along with Wilhelm von Humboldt, he proposed what is now called the... Johann Gottfried von Herder. Instances of societies focusing on ethnic ties to the exclusion of history or historical context arguably have resulted in almost fanatical self-justifying nationalist and/or imperialist goals. Two periods frequently cited as examples of this are the Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century was a literary magazine founded in 1877 by Sir James Knowles. In 1901, the title was changed to Nineteenth Century and After. Categories: Stub ... Nineteenth Century (periodical) ( (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th... 19th-century consolidation and expansion of the History of Germany series Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (WWII) Germany since 1945 The history of Germany is, in places, extremely complicated and depends much on how one defines Germany. As a nation-state, Germany did not exist until 1871. Before... German Empire, and the History of Germany series Franks Holy Roman Empire German Confederation German Empire Weimar Republic Nazi Germany Nazi Germany (WWII) Germany since 1945 Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist... Third Reich, each promoted on the theory that these governments were only re-possessing lands that had "always" been ethnically German. The history of the The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). The region has a combined area of 550,000 km² and a population of around 53 million. The countries of Albania, Bulgaria, Croatia, mainland Greece, the (Former Yugoslav) Republic of... Balkans is particularly riddled with An ethnic war is a war between ethnic groups often as a result of ethnic nationalism. They are of interest because of the apparent prevalence in the aftermath of the Cold War and because they frequently result in war crimes such as genocide. Two controversial questions about ethnic wars is... inter-ethnic conflicts.


The term "ethnicity" may also be used to refer to a particular ethnic group: "People of various ethnicities."


Historically, the word "ethnic" signified "gentile," coming from the Greek adjective "ethnikos." The adjective is derived from the noun ethnos, which meant foreign people or nations. The noun "ethnic" ceased to be related to "heathen" in the early 18th century. The use of the term ethnic in the modern sense began in the mid-20th century.


See also

  • This is a list of names of ethnic groups. A group can have several names (e.g., names in English language and in native language, obsolete names, versions of spelling, etc.) Contents: Top - 0-9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O... List of ethnic groups
  • This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. Ethnicity is sometimes used as a euphemism for race, or as a synonym for minority group. While ethnicity and race are related concepts... Ethnicity
  • Ethnic nationalism is the form of nationalism in which the state derives political legitimacy from historical cultural or hereditary groupings (ethnicities); the underlying assumption is that ethnicities should be politically distinct. This was developed by Johann Gottfried von Herder, who introduced the concept of the Volk (German for Folk). Romantic... Ethnic nationalism
  • The concept of ethnic origin is an attempt to classify people, not according to their current ethnicity, but according to where their ancestors came from. For example somebody living in a monocultural environment, speaking English for example and clearly a member of an English-speaking ethnicity, may be descended from... Ethnic origin
  • A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. Added to this is usually the idea that a national (a person of the national ideology) should speak a certain language. The language itself might however be a... Nation

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethnic group - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (859 words)
An ethnic group is a culture or subculture whose members are readily distinguishable by outsiders based on traits originating from a common racial, national, linguistic, or religious source.
Members of an ethnic group are often presumed to be culturally or biologically similar, although this is not in fact necessarily the case.
Ethnic groups share a common origin, and exhibit a continuity in time, that is, a history and a future as a people.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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