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Encyclopedia > Ethiopian calendar
Calendars
v  d  e
Common use Chinese · Islamic · Gregorian · ISO · Astro · Julian
Calendar Types
Lunisolar · Solar · Lunar

Selected usage Armenian · Bahá'í · Bengali · Berber · Buddhist · Coptic · Ethiopian · Germanic · Hebrew · Hindu · Indian · Iranian · Irish · Japanese · Javanese · Juche · Malayalam · Maya · Minguo · Nanakshahi · Nepali · Nepal Sambat · Tamil · Thai (LunarSolar) · Tibetan · Vietnamese· Yoruba · Zoroastrian
Calendar Types
Original Julian · Runic

The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer), also called the Ge'ez calendar, is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and is also the liturgical year of Christians in Eritrea belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, Eastern Catholic Church of Eritrea and Lutheran (Evangelical Church of Eritrea), where it is commonly known as the Ge'ez calendar. It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which is based on the even older Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, and begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar. A Tunisian calendar showing Gregorian, Islamic and Berber dates // Afghan calendar (Afghan Calendar Project) Armenian calendar Astronomical year numbering Baháí calendar Bengali calendar Berber calendar Buddhist calendar Chinese calendar Coptic calendar Ethiopian calendar Fiscal year Germanic calendar (still in use by Ásatrúar) Gregorian calendar Hebrew calendar Hindu calendars Indian... The Islamic calendar or Muslim calendar (Arabic: التقويم الهجري; at-taqwÄ«m al-hijrÄ«; Persian: تقویم هجري قمری ‎ taqwÄ«m-e hejri-ye qamari; also called the Hijri calendar) is the calendar used to date events in many predominantly Muslim countries, and used by Muslims everywhere to determine the proper day on which to celebrate... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... The ISO week date system is a leap week calendar system that is part of the ISO 8601 date and time standard. ... Astronomical year numbering is based on BCE/CE (or BC/AD) year numbering, but follows normal decimal integer numbering more strictly. ... The Revised Julian calendar is a calendar that was considered for adoption by the Eastern Orthodox churches at a synod in Istanbul in May 1923. ... A lunisolar calendar is a calendar whose date indicates both the moon phase and the time of the solar year. ... A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the position of the earth on its revolution around the sun (or equivalently the apparent position of the sun moving on the celestial sphere). ... A lunar calendar is a calendar oriented at the moon phase. ... The Baháí calendar, also called the Badí‘ calendar, used by the Baháí Faith, is a solar calendar with regular years of 365 days, and leap years of 366 days. ... The Bengali calendar (Bengali: , Assamese: Vaskar), is the traditional calendar used in Bangladesh and eastern regions of India in the state of West Bengal, Assam and Tripura. ... The Berber calendar is the annual calendar used by Berber people in North Africa. ... The Buddhist calendar is used on mainland southeast Asia in the countries of Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Myanmar (formerly Burma) in several related forms. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The Hebrew calendar (Hebrew: ‎) or Jewish calendar is the annual calendar used in Judaism. ... A page from the Hindu calendar 1871-72. ... The Javanese calendar is a calendar used by the Javanese people. ... The Juche Idea (also Juche Sasang or Chuche; pronounced // in Korean, approximately joo-cheh) is the official state ideology of North Korea and the political system based on it. ... Malayalam calendar (also known as Malayalam Era or Kollavarsham) is a solar Sideral calendar used in the state of Kerala in South India. ... The Maya calendar is actually a system of distinct calendars and almanacs used by the Maya civilization of pre-Columbian Mesoamerica, and by some modern Maya communities in highland Guatemala. ... A calendar that commemorates the first year of the Republic as well as the election of Sun Yat-sen as the provisional President. ... The Nanakshahi (Punjabi: , ) calendar is a solar calendar that was adopted by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. ... Bikram Samwat (Bikram Sambat, Devnagari:बिक्रम संवत, abbreviated B.S.) is the calendar established by Indian emperor Vikramaditya. ... Nepal Sambat (Nepal Bhasa: नेपाल सम्बत) is a lunar calendar. ... The Tamil Calendar is followed by the Tamil speaking state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in India, and by the Tamil population in Malaysia, Singapore & Sri Lanka. ... The Thai lunar calendar or Patitin Chantarakati (Thai: ปฏิทินจันทรคติ) was replaced by the Patitin Suriyakati (ปฎิทินสุริยคติ) Thai solar calendar in AD 1888 2431 BE for most purposes, but the Chantarakati still determines most Buddhist feast or holy days, as well as a day for the famous Loy Krathong festival. ... The Thai solar, or Suriyakati (สุริยคติ), calendar is used in traditional and official contexts in Thailand, although the Western calendar is sometimes used in business. ... The Tibetan calendar is a lunisolar calendar, that is, the Tibetan year is composed of either 12 or 13 lunar months, each beginning and ending with a new moon. ... The Zoroastrian calendar is a religious calendar used by members of the Zoroastrian faith, and it is an approximation of the (tropical) solar calendar. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... The Runic calendar (or Rune staff) appears to have been a medieval Swedish invention, whereas clog almanacs appear in several European countries. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... From the Greek word λειτουργια, which can be transliterated as leitourgia, meaning the work of the people, a liturgy comprises a prescribed religious ceremony, according to the traditions of a particular religion; it may be refer to, or include, an elaborate... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Lutheran movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity by the original definition. ... The Coptic calendar, also called the Alexandrian calendar, is used by the Coptic Orthodox Church. ... The ancient civil Egyptian Calendar, known as the Annus Vagus or Wandering Year, had a year that was 365 days long, consisting of 12 months of 30 days each, plus 5 extra days at the end of the year. ... The Julian calendar was introduced in 46 BC by Julius Caesar and came into force in 45 BC (709 ab urbe condita). ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Like the Coptic calendar, the Ethiopian/Ge'ez calendar has twelve months of 30 days each plus five or six epagomenal days (usually called a thirteenth month). Furthermore, its months begin on the same days as those of the Coptic calendar, but they have different names, that are in Ge'ez. The sixth epagomenal day is added every four years without exception on August 29 in the Julian calendar, six months before the Julian leap day. Thus the first day of the Ethiopian year, 1 Mäskäräm, for years between 1901 and 2099 (inclusive), is usually September 11 (Gregorian), but falls on September 12 (Gregorian), in years before the Gregorian leap year. Intercalation is the insertion of a leap day, week or month into some calendar years to make the calendar follow the seasons or moon phases. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

Current year

The current year according to the Ethiopian calendar is 2000. There were millennium celebrations when the new year began in Ethiopia at 12 midnight Ethiopian Time on September 12. The year 2001 will begin on September 11, 2008 of the Gregorian calendar. A millennium (pl. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


New Year's Day

Enkutatash is the word for the Ethiopian new year in the official language of Ethiopia: Amharic, while it is called Ri'se Awde Amet (Head Anniversary) in Ge'ez, the term preferred by the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church. It occurs on September 11 in the Gregorian calendar, except for leap years when it occurs on September 12. The Ethiopian calendar year 1998 ˈAmätä Məhrät ("Year of Mercy") began on 11 September 2005. However, the Ethiopian years 1996 and 1992 AM began on 12 September 2003 and 1999, respectively. Enkutatash is the first day of the New Year in Ethiopia. ... The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next year. ... Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church is an Oriental Orthodox church. ... The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The new years begin on September 11 or 12 as described above from Gregorian 1900 to 2099, but differently in other Gregorian centuries, because every fourth Ethiopian/Ge'ez year is a leap year without exception. Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ...


Eras

To indicate the year, Ethiopians and followers of the Eritrean churches today use the Incarnation Era, which dates from the Annunciation or Incarnation of Jesus on 25 March 9 (Julian), as calculated by Annianus of Alexandria c. 400; thus its first civil year began seven months earlier on 29 August 8 (Julian). Meanwhile, Europeans eventually adopted the calculations made by Dionysius Exiguus in AD 525 instead, which placed the Annunciation exactly eight years earlier than had Annianus. This causes the Ethiopian year number to be eight years less than the Gregorian year number from January 1 until September 10 or 11, then seven years less for the remainder of the Gregorian year. For other uses, see Annunciation (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 9 (disambiguation). ... For the first-century bishop, see Anianus of Alexandria. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 8 (disambiguation). ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ...


In the past, a number of other eras for numbering years were also widely used in Ethiopia and the Axumite Kingdom: An era is a long period of time with different technical and colloquial meanings, and usages in language. ...


Era of Martyrs

The most important era – once widely used by the Eastern Churches, and still used by the Coptic Church - was the Era of Martyrs, also known as the Diocletian Era, whose first year began on 29 August 284. The term Eastern Church is variously used to refer to: The Eastern Orthodox Church, or Any of the Oriental Orthodox churches, or Any of the Eastern Rite Catholic churches, or The three groups collectively, when speaking of things they share in common with each other but not with Western churches. ... Christ - Coptic Art Coptic Orthodox Christianity is the indigenous form of Christianity that, according to tradition, the apostle Mark established in Egypt in the middle of the 1st century AD (approximately AD 60). ... The anno Diocletiani era or the Diocletian era or the Era of Martyrs is a method of numbering years used by Alexandrian Christians during the fourth and fifth centuries. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see number 284. ...


Respectively to the western and Julian New Year's Days about three months later, the difference between the Era of Martyrs and the Anni Domini is 285 (= 15x19) years. This is because in AD 525, Dionysius Exiguus decided to add 15 Metonic cycles to the existing 13 Metonic cycles of the Diocletian Era (15x19 + 13x19 = 532) to obtain an entire 532-year medieval Easter cycle, whose first cycle ended with the year Era of Martyrs 247 (= 13x19) equal to year DXXXI. It is also because 532 is the product of the Metonic cycle of 19 years and the Solar cycle of 28 years. Dionysius Exiguus invented Anno Domini years to date Easter. ... Events Bernicia settled by the Angles Ethiopia conquers Yemen The Daisan river, a tributary of the Euphrates, floods Edessa and within a couple of hours fills the entire city except for the highest parts. ... Dionysius Exiguus (Dennis the Little, meaning humble) (c. ... The Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris in astronomy and calendar studies is a particular approximate common multiple of the year (specifically, the seasonal tropical year) and the synodic month. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... This article is about the Christian festival. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Schwabe-Wolf cycle. ...


Anno Mundi according to Panodoros

Around AD 400, an Alexandrine monk called Panodoros fixed the Alexandrian Era (Anno Mundi = in the year of the world), the date of creation, on 29 August 5493 BC. After the 6th century AD, the era was used by Egyptian and Ethiopian chronologists. The twelfth 532-year-cycle of this era began on 29 August 360 AD, and so 4x19 years after the Era of Martyrs. Anno Mundi (AM, in the year of the world) refers to a Calendar era counting from the creation of the world. ... Cultures throughout history have believed the world formed or was formed at some time in the past, so methods of dating Creation have involved analysing scriptures and some physical data. ... During the 6th millennium BC, agriculture spreads from the Balkans to Italy and Eastern Europe and from Mesopotamia to Egypt. ...


Anno Mundi according to Anianos

Bishop Anianos preferred the Annunciation style as New Year's Day, the 25 March (see above). Thus he shifted the Panodoros era by about six months, to begin on 25 March 5492 BC. For the first-century bishop, see Anianus of Alexandria. ...


Leap year cycle

The four year leap-year cycle is associated with the four Evangelists: the first year after an Ethiopian leap year is named in honour of John, followed by the Matthew-year and then the Mark-year. The year with the sixth epagomenal day is traditionally designated as the Luke-year. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Names of John. ... Matthew the Evangelist (מתי, Gift of the LORD, Standard Hebrew and Tiberian Hebrew: Mattay; Septuagint Greek: Ματθαίος, Matthaios), most often called Saint Matthew, is an important Christian figure, and one of Jesus Twelve Apostles. ... Mark the Evangelist (מרקוס, Greek: Μάρκος) (1st century) is traditionally believed to be the author of the Gospel of Mark and a companion of Peter. ... Luke the Evangelist (לוקא, Greek: Loukas) is said by tradition to be the author of both the Gospel of Luke and the Acts of the Apostles, the third and fifth books of the New Testament. ...


There are no exceptions to the four year leap-year cycle, unlike the Gregorian calendar. The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used calendar in the world. ...


Months

Ge'ez, Amharic, and Tigrinya (with Tigrinya suffixes in parenthesis) Coptic Gregorian start date Start date in year after
sixth epagomenal day
Mäskäräm (መስከረም) Tut September 11 September 12
Ṭəqəmt(i) (ጥቅምት) Babah October 11 October 12
Ḫədar (ኅዳር) Hatur November 10 November 11
Taḫśaś ( ታኅሣሥ) Kiyahk December 10 December 11
Ṭərr(i) (ጥር) Tubah January 9 January 10
Yäkatit (Tn. Läkatit) (የካቲት) Amshir February 8 February 9
Mägabit (መጋቢት) Baramhat March 10 March 10
Miyazya (ሚያዝያ) Baramundah April 9 April 9
Gənbot (ግንቦት) Bashans May 9 May 9
Säne (ሰኔ) Ba'unah June 8 June 8
Ḥamle (ሓምሌ) Abib July 8 July 8
Nähase (ነሓሴ) Misra August 7 August 7
Ṗagʷəmen/Ṗagumen (ጳጐሜን/ጳጉሜን) Nasi September 6 September 6

Note that these dates are valid only from March 1900 to February 2100. Note: This article contains special characters. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Tigrinya (Geez ትግርኛ tigriññā, also spelled Tigrigna) is a Semitic language spoken by the Tigray-Tigrinya people in central Eritrea (there referred to as the Tigrinya people), where it is one of the main working languages (Eritrea does not have official languages), and in the Tigray Region of Ethiopia (whose... The Coptic language is a direct descendant of the ancient Egyptian language which was once written in Egyptian hieroglyphic, hieratic, and demotic scripts. ...


Sources

  • "The Ethiopian Calendar", Appendix IV, C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, The Prester John of the Indies (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1961).
  • Ginzel, Friedrich Karl, "Handbuch der matematischen und technischen Chronologie", Leipzig, 3 vol., 1906-1914

The Hakluyt Society is a society named after Richard Hakluyt. ...

External links

  • Warning: In the following two links, dates in the "Ethiopian calendar" have been converted into a pseudo-Julian calendar by replacing the true Amharic Ethiopian month names by close, but not coincident, Julian names. For example, Mäskäräm is called "September" even though Mäskäräm actually begins on August 29/30 Julian (and September 11th Gregorian, the most common calendar). When they state that the Ethopian year begins on "September 1", they mean it begins on Mäskäräm 1. Similarly, when they state that Christmas occurs on "December 29" in the Ethiopian calendar, they mean it occurs on Tahsas 29.
    • Ethiopian Calendar - Christian, Islamic, Jewish & Public Holidays
    • Ethiopian Religious Festivals
  • The Ethiopic Calendar by Aberra Molla
  • Ethiopian Calendar Converter
  • Ethiopian Perpetual Calendar Software
  • Ethiopian Online Calendar

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethiopian calendar - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (915 words)
The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ye'Ītyōṗṗyā zemen āḳoṭaṭer) or Ethiopic calendar is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia, as well as in Eritrea before it became independent.
It is based on the older Alexandrian or Coptic calendar, which is based on the even older Egyptian calendar, but like the Julian calendar, it adds a leap day every four years without exception, and begins the year on August 29 or August 30 in the Julian calendar.
"The Ethiopian Calendar", Appendix IV, C.F. Beckingham and G.W.B. Huntingford, The Prester John of the Indies (Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, 1961).
The Ethiopic Calendar (2664 words)
The Ethiopic and Coptic calendars have 13 months, 12 of 30 days each and an intercalary month at the end of the year of 5 or 6 days depending whether the year is a leap year or not.
This calendar that replaced the Roman calendar (and re-established January 1 as the beginning of new years) became the Julian calendar.
One of the reasons behind the controversy between the Ethiopian and the Gregorian calendars is because Pope Gregory abandoned the rules for calculating Easter and introduced new rules in 1582 without consulting the Alexandrian Church.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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