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Encyclopedia > Ethiopia
This article contains Ethiopic text.
Without rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes or other symbols instead of Ethiopic characters.
የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ
ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ

ye-Ītyōṗṗyā Fēdēralāwī Dīmōkrāsīyāwī Rīpeblīk
Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Flag of Ethiopia Coat of arms of Ethiopia
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemWodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityopp'ya
"March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia"

Capital
(and largest city)
Addis Ababa
9°01′N, 38°44′E
Official languages Amharic
Demonym Ethiopian
Government Federal Parliamentary republic1
 -  President Girma Wolde-Giorgis
 -  Prime Minister Meles Zenawi
Establishment 10th century BC 
 -  Traditional date c.980 BC 
 -  Kingdom of Dʿmt 8th century BC 
 -  Kingdom of Aksum 1st century BC 
Area
 -  Total 1,104,300 km² (27th)
426,371 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 0.7
Population
 -  2006 estimate 75,067,000 (16th²)
 -  1994 census 53,477,265 
 -  Density 70/km² (123rd)
181/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2005 estimate
 -  Total $69.099 billion (69th)
 -  Per capita $823 (175fth)
Gini (1999–00) 30 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.406 (low) (169th)
Currency Birr (ETB)
Time zone EAT (UTC+3)
 -  Summer (DST) not observed (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .et
Calling code +251
1 According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime", with a dominant-party system led by the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front.
2 Rank based on 2005 population estimate by the United Nations.

Ethiopia (IPA: /ˌiːθiːˈoʊpiə/) (Ge'ez: ኢትዮጵያ ʾĪtyōṗṗyā), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a landlocked country situated in the Horn of Africa. Ethiopia is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, Kenya to the south, Somalia to the east and Djibouti to the north-east. Image File history File links Acap. ... Ethiopia may refer to: Ethiopia, the country in the Horn of Africa Ethiopia (Mythology), the Phoenician Kingdom Category: ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The UTF-8-encoded Japanese Wikipedia article for mojibake, as displayed in ISO-8859-1 encoding. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Flag ratio: 1:2 The Flag of Ethiopia was adopted on February 6, 1996. ... The Coat of arms of Ethiopia contains a yellow five pointed star radiating rays of light. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityoppya (Amharic: ወደፊት ገስግሺ ውድ እናት ኢትዮጵያ, March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia) is the national anthem of Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links LocationEthiopia. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... Ethiopias population is highly diverse. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... The Federal Republic of Germany and its sixteen Bundesländer (federal states) A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... This page contains a list of heads of state of Ethiopia since 1974. ... Girma Wolde-Giorgis (born December 1924 in Addis Ababa) is the President of Ethiopia. ... List of heads of government of Ethiopia (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations See also Ethiopia Rulers and Heads of State of Ethiopia List of Presidents of Ethiopia Lists of office-holders ... Meles Zenawi Asres (Geez መለስ ዜናዊ meles zÄ“nāwÄ«, b. ... Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, with one of the longest recorded histories in the world. ... Look up Circa on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The Latin word circa, literally meaning about, is often used to describe various dates (often birth and death dates) that are uncertain. ... Dmt is the Sabaean name for a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed from around 800 BC until it was united in the Aksum kingdom around the birth of Jesus. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different surface areas  here is a list of areas between 1 million km² and 10 million km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007 This is a list of countries ordered according to population. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Look up Per capita in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article includes two lists of countries of the world[1] sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year divided by the average population for the same year. ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... For other uses, see Birr (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Africa: Striped colours indicate countries observing daylight saving East Africa Time, or EAT, is a time zone used in eastern Africa. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .et is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Ethiopia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Democracy index map. ... Political parties Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A dominant-party system, or one party dominant system, is a party system where only one political party can realistically become the government, by itself or in a coalition government. ... The Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front, or EPRDF, is the ruling political party of Ethiopia. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Horn of Africa. ...


Ethiopia is one of the oldest countries in the world[1] and Africa's second-most populous nation.[2] Ethiopia has yielded some of humanity's oldest traces,[3] making the area important in the history of human evolution. Recent studies claim that the vicinity of present-day Addis Ababa was the point from which human beings migrated around the world.[4][5][6] Ethiopian dynastic history traditionally began with the reign of Emperor Menelik I in 1000 BC.[7][8] The roots of the Ethiopian state are similarly deep, dating with unbroken continuity to at least the Aksumite Empire (which adopted the name "Ethiopia" in the 4th century) and its predecessor state, D`mt (with early 1st millennium BC roots).[9][10] After a period of decentralized power in the 18th and early 19th centuries known as the Zemene Mesafint ("Era of the Judges/Princes"), the country was reunited in 1855 by Kassa Hailu, who became Emperor Tewodros II, beginning Ethiopia's modern history.[11][12][13][14] Ethiopia's borders underwent significant territorial expansion to its modern borders for the rest of the century,[15][16][17] especially by Emperor Menelik II and Ras Gobena, culminating in its victory over the Italians at the Battle of Adwa in 1896 with the military leadership of Ras Makonnen, and ensuring its sovereignty and freedom from colonization.[18][19] It was brutally occupied by Mussolini's Italy from 1936 to 1941,[20] ending with its liberation by British Empire and Ethiopian Patriot forces. For the history of humans on Earth, see History of the world. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Menelik I, first Emperor of Ethiopia, is traditionally believed to be the son of King Solomon of ancient Israel and Makeda, Queen of Sheba. ... Aksum was an important participant in international trade from the 1st century CE (Periplus of the Erythraean Sea) until circa the later part of the 1st millennium when it succumbed to a long decline against pressures from the various Islamic powers leagued against it. ... Dʿmt was a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed during the 8th and 7th centuries BC. Few inscriptions by or about this kingdom exist, as very little archaeological work has taken place. ... Some historians date the murder of Iyasu I, and the resultant decline in the prestige of the dynasty, as the beginning of the Ethiopian Zemene Mesafint (Era of the Princes,) a time of disorder when the power of the monarchy was eclipsed by the power of local warlords. ... Tewodros II (Geez ቴዎድሮስ, also known as Theodore II) (1818 -suicide April 13, 1868) was an Emperor of Ethiopia (1855 - 1868). ... Emperor Menelik II (Geez ምኒልክ) baptized as Sahle Maryam (August 17, 1844 – December 12, 1913), was of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. ... Combatants Ethiopia Italy Commanders Emperor Menilek II Empress Taytu Ras Alula Engida Dejazmach Balcha Aba Nefso Fitawrari Gebeyyehu Ras Gobena Ras Makonnen Ras Mengesha Atikem Ras Mengesha Yohannes Ras Mikael of Wollo Ras Wale Betul Negus Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam Oreste Baratieri Strength ~100,000 (80,000 with firearms), Unknown... Ras Makonnen ca. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


Having converted during the fourth century AD, it is also the second-oldest country to become officially Christian, after Armenia.[21] Since 1974, it has been secular and has also had a considerable Muslim community since the earliest days of Islam.[22] Historically a relatively isolated mountain country, Ethiopia by the mid 20th century became a crossroads of global international cooperation. It became a member of the League of Nations in 1923, signed the Declaration by United Nations in 1942, and was one of the fifty-one original members of the United Nations (UN). The headquarters of United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA) is in Addis Ababa, as is the headquarters of the African Union (formerly the Organisation of African Unity), of which Ethiopia was the principal founder. There are about forty-five Ethiopian embassies and consulates around the world. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... For the political science journal, see International Organization. ... 1939–1941 semi-official emblem Anachronous world map in 1920–1945, showing the League of Nations and the world Capital Not applicable¹ Language(s) English, French and Spanish Political structure International organization Secretary-general  - 1920–1933 Sir James Eric Drummond  - 1933–1940 Joseph Avenol  - 1940–1946 Seán Lester Historical... The Declaration by United Nations was a World War II document agreed to on January 1, 1942 during the Arcadia Conference by 26 governments, several of them governments-in-exile. ... UN redirects here. ... The United Nations Economic Commission for Africa (UNECA or ECA) was established in 1958 to encourage economic cooperation among its member states (the nations of the African continent). ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... OUA redirects here. ... Categories: | ... The term Consulate can refer to: the office or the period in office of a consul a diplomatic consulate the French Consulate which governed between 1799 and 1804 a brand of menthol cigarettes Consulate This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share...

Contents

Name

It is not certain how old the name Ethiopia is; its earliest attested use is in the Iliad , where it appears twice, and in the Odyssey, where it appears three times. The earliest attested use in the region is as a Christianized name for the Kingdom of Aksum in the 4th century, in stone inscriptions of King Ezana.[23] The Ge'ez name ʾĪtyōṗṗyā and its English cognate are thought by some recent scholars to be derived from the Greek word Αἰθιοπία Aithiopia, from Αἰθίοψ Aithiops ‘an Ethiopian’, derived in turn from Greek words meaning "of burned face"[24]. However, the Book of Aksum, a Ge'ez chronicle compiled in the 15th century, states that the name is derived from "'Ityopp'is" — a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham who according to legend founded the city of Axum. Pliny the Elder[25] similarly states the tradition that the nation took its name from someone named Aethiops. A third etymology, suggested by the late Ethiopian scholar and poet laureate Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin, traces the name to the "old black Egyptian [sic]" words Et (Truth or Peace) Op (high or upper) and Bia (land, country), or "land of higher peace". title page of the Rihel edition of ca. ... This article is about Homers epic poem. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... Ezana of Axum (Geez ዔዛና Ê¿Ä’zānā unvocalized ዐዘነ Ê¿zn. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Book of Aksum (Geez መጽሓፈ ፡ አክሱም maṣḥāfa aksÅ«m, Amh. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Ityoppis is, according to the 15th century Book of Aksum, a son (unmentioned in the Bible) of Cush, son of Ham who founded the city of Axum. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... Axum, properly Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ... The term aethiops can refer to a number of different things: Aethiops, or æthiops or ethiops, refers to certain dark-colored compounds of metal. ... A Poet Laureate is a poet officially appointed by a government and often expected to compose poems for State occasions and other government events. ... Tsegaye Gabre-Medhin (17 August 1936—25 February 2006) was Poet Laureate of Ethiopia, as well as a poet, playwright, essayist, and art director. ...


In English and generally outside of Ethiopia, the country was also once historically known as Abyssinia, derived from Habesh, an early Arabic form of the Ethiosemitic name "Ḥabaśāt" (unvocalized "ḤBŚT"), modern Habesha, the native name for the country's inhabitants (while the country was called "Ityopp'ya"). In a few languages, Ethiopia is still called by names cognate with "Abyssinia," e.g., and modern Arabic Al Habeshah, meaning land of the Habesha people. The term Habesha, strictly speaking, refers only to the Amhara and Tigray-Tigrinya people who have historically dominated the country politically, and which combined comprise about 36% of Ethiopia's population. However, in contemporary Ethiopian politics, the word Habesha is often used to describe all Ethiopians and Eritreans. Abyssinia can strictly refer to just the North-Western Ethiopian provinces of Amhara and Tigray as well as central Eritrea, while it was historically used as another name for Ethiopia.[26] Geographical renaming is the act of changing the name of a geographical feature or area. ... Arabic redirects here. ... Ethiopian Semitic languages (sometimes Ethiopic) is a language group which together with Old South Arabian forms the Western branch of the South Semitic languages. ... The term Habesha (Geez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh. ... Amhara (Amharic: አማራ, Geez: አምሐራ) is an ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia, numbering about 23 million, making up 30. ... The Tigray-Tigrinya are an ethnic group who live in Eritrea and the northern highlands of Ethiopias Tigray province. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Amhara region. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Tigray region. ...


History

Main article: History of Ethiopia

Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa, with one of the longest recorded histories in the world. ...

Early history

Human settlement in Ethiopia dates back to ancient times. Fossilized remains of the earliest ancestors to the human species, discovered in Ethiopia, have been assigned dates as long ago as 5.9 million years.[27] Together with Eritrea and the southeastern part of the Red Sea coast of Sudan (Beja lands), it is considered the most likely location of the land known to the ancient Egyptians as Punt (or "Ta Netjeru," meaning land of the Gods), whose first mention dates to the twenty-fifth century BC.[28][29] Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... The Beja people are an ethnic group dwelling parts of North-Eastern and Eastern Africa including the area of the Horn of Africa. ... Map of Ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was the civilization of the Nile Valley between about 3000 BC and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation it is the quintessential example of an hydraulic empire. ... The Land of Punt, also called Pwenet[1] by the ancient Egyptians, at times synonymous with Ta netjer, the land of the god [2], was a fabled site in the Horn of Africa and was the source of many exotic products, such as gold, aromatic resins, African blackwood, ebony, ivory...

The ruins of the temple at Yeha dates to the 7th or 8th century BC.
The ruins of the temple at Yeha dates to the 7th or 8th century BC.

Around the eighth century BC, a kingdom known as Dʿmt was established in northern Ethiopia and Eritrea, with its capital at Yeha in northern Ethiopia. Most modern historians consider this civilization to be a native African one, although Sabaean-influenced due to the latter's hegemony of the Red Sea,[30] while others view Dʿmt as the result of a mixture of "culturally superior" Sabaeans and indigenous peoples.[31] However, Ge'ez, the ancient Semitic language of Ethiopia, is now thought not to have derived from Sabaean (also South Semitic). There is evidence of a Semitic-speaking presence in Ethiopia and Eritrea at least as early as 2000 BC.[32][33] Sabaean influence is now thought to have been minor, limited to a few localities, and disappearing after a few decades or a century, perhaps representing a trading or military colony in some sort of symbiosis or military alliance with the Ethiopian civilization of Dʿmt or some other proto-Aksumite state.[34] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x596, 185 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ethiopia Yeha User:JialiangGao Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x596, 185 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ethiopia Yeha User:JialiangGao Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Yeha is a town in the north of Ethiopia, located in the region of Tigray. ... Dmt is the Sabaean name for a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed from around 800 BC until it was united in the Aksum kingdom around the birth of Jesus. ... Yeha is a town in the north of Ethiopia, located in the region of Tigray. ... The Sabaeans were a people who lived in what is today Yemen in the final millennium BCE. They may be the same nation as the biblical Sheba. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Sabey language was a language and alphabet used in Ethiopia up until the 8th Century AD. The Sabay language was replaced by the Geez language and writing system. ... Dmt is the Sabaean name for a kingdom on the northern Ethiopian plateau that existed from around 800 BC until it was united in the Aksum kingdom around the birth of Jesus. ...


After the fall of Dʿmt in the fourth century BC, the plateau came to be dominated by smaller successor kingdoms, until the rise of one of these kingdoms during the first century BC, the Aksumite Kingdom, ancestor of medieval and modern Ethiopia, which was able to reunite the area.[35] They established bases on the northern highlands of the Ethiopian Plateau and from there expanded southward. The Persian religious figure Mani listed Aksum with Rome, Persia, and China as one of the four great powers of his time.[36] (Redirected from 1st century BCE) (2nd century BC - 1st century BC - 1st century - other centuries) The 1st century BC starts on January 1, 100 BC and ends on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background. ... Mani (in Persian: مانی, Syriac: ) was born of Iranian (Parthian) parentage in Babylon, Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq) which was a part of Persian Empire about 210-276 CE. He was a religious preacher and the founder of Manichaeism, an ancient Persian gnostic religion that was once prolific but is now extinct. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Persia redirects here. ...


In 316 AD, a Christian philosopher from Tyre, Meropius, embarked on a voyage of exploration along the coast of Africa. He was accompanied by, among others, two Syro-Greeks, Frumentius and his brother Aedesius. The vessel was stranded on the coast, and the natives killed all the travelers except the two brothers, who were taken to the court and given positions of trust by the monarch. They both practiced the Christian faith in private, and soon converted the queen and several other members of the royal court. Upon the king's death, Frumentius was appointed regent of the realm by the queen, and instructor of her young son, Prince Ezana. A few years later, upon Ezana's coming of age, Aedesius and Frumentius left the kingdom, the former returning to Tyre where he was ordained, and the latter journeying to Alexandria. Here, he consulted Athanasius, who ordained him and appointed him Bishop of Aksum. He returned to the court and baptized the King Ezana, together with many of his subjects, and in short order Christianity was proclaimed the official state religion again.[37] For this accomplishment, he received the title "Abba Selama" ("Father of peace"). BCE redirects here. ... Frumentius (Geez ፍሬምንጦስ /freminÅ¥os/) (died ca. ... Aedesius (died 355), Neoplatonist philosopher, was born of a noble Cappadocian family. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Ezana of Axum was ruler of the Axumite Kingdom from about 320 to 350 AD. Ezana succeeded his father Ella Amida while still a youth and his mother, Sofya served as regent. ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ... Athanasius of Alexandria (also spelled Athanasios) was a Christian bishop of Alexandria in the fourth century. ...

Bete Giyorgis from above, one of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela.
Bete Giyorgis from above, one of the rock-hewn churches of Lalibela.

At various times, including a fifty-year period in the sixth century, Aksum controlled most of modern-day Yemen and some of southern Saudi Arabia just across the Red Sea, as well as controlling southern Egypt, northern Sudan, northern Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti, and northern Somalia.[38] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x585, 183 KB) Bete Giyorgis, the Church of St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (900x585, 183 KB) Bete Giyorgis, the Church of St. ... St. ... The Bete Giyorgis, one of the many rock-hewn churches at the holy site of Lalibela, Ethiopia Lalibela is a town in northern Ethiopia. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...


The line of rulers descended from the Aksumite kings was broken several times: first by the Jewish (unknown/or pagan) Queen Gudit around 950[39] (or possibly around 850, as in Ethiopian histories).[40] It was then interrupted by the Zagwe dynasty; it was during this dynasty that the famous rock-hewn churches of Lalibela were carved under King Lalibela, allowed by a long period of peace and stability.[41] Gudit (or Judith; also known as Esato) is a semi-legendary non-Christian queen (flourished c. ... The Zagwe Dynasty ruled Ethiopia from the end of the Kingdom of Axum to 1270, when Yekuno Amlak defeated and killed the last Zagwe king in battle. ... The Bete Giyorgis, one of the many rock-hewn churches at the holy site of Lalibela, Ethiopia Lalibela is a town in northern Ethiopia. ... Gebre Mesqel Lalibela (also called simply Lalibela, which means the bees recognise his sovereignty in Old Agaw) was negus of Ethiopia, and a member of the Zagwe dynasty; he is also considered a saint by the Ethiopian church. ...


Ethiopian Empire

Main article: Ethiopian Empire

Around 1270, the Solomonic dynasty came to control Ethiopia, claiming descent from the kings of Aksum. They called themselves Neguse Negest ("King of Kings," or Emperor), due to their direct descent from Solomon and the queen of Sheba.[42] Flag Capital Addis Ababa Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1270-1285 Yekuno Amlak  - 1930-1974 Haile Selassie I History  - Overthrow of Zagwe kings 1270  - Italian occupation 1936  - Liberation 1941  - Coup detat 1974  - Monarchy abolished March 12, 1975 The Ethiopian Empire, also known as Abyssinia, existed from approximately 1270 AD (beginning of... The Solomonid dynasty is the traditional royal house of Ethiopia, claiming descent from King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba, who is said to have given birth to the traditional first king Menelik I after her Biblically-described visit to Solomon in Jerusalem. ... The Emperor (Geez ንጉሠ ነገሥት, , King of Kings) of Ethiopia was the hereditary ruler of Ethiopia until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975. ... This article is about the Biblical character . ... Sheba (from the English transcription of the Hebrew name shva and Saba, Arabic: سبأ, also Saba, Amharic: ሳባ, Tigrinya: ሳባ) was a southern kingdom mentioned in the Jewish scriptures (Old Testament) and the Quran. ...


Restored contact with Europe

In the early fifteenth century Ethiopia sought to make diplomatic contact with European kingdoms for the first time since Aksumite times. A letter from King Henry IV of England to the Emperor of Abyssinia survives.[43] In 1428, the Emperor Yeshaq sent two emissaries to Alfons V of Aragon, who sent return emissaries that failed to complete the return trip.[44] The first continuous relations with a European country began in 1508 with Portugal under Emperor Lebna Dengel, who had just inherited the throne from his father.[45] Henry IV (3 April 1367 – 20 March 1413) was the King of England and France and Lord of Ireland from 1399 to 1413. ... Yeshaq I or Isaac (throne name Gabra Masqal II) was negus (1414 - 1429) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonid dynasty. ... Alfons V of Aragon (also Alfons I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... Dawit II or David II, better known by his throne name Lebna Dengel (1501 - September 2, 1540) was negus negust (1508 - 1540) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonid dynasty. ...

This proved to be an important development, for when the Empire was subjected to the attacks of the Adal General and Imam, Ahmad ibn Ibrihim al-Ghazi (called "Grañ", or "the Left-handed"), Portugal responded to Lebna Dengel's plea for help with an army of four hundred men, who helped his son Gelawdewos defeat Ahmad and re-establish his rule.[46] However, when Emperor Susenyos converted to Roman Catholicism in 1624, years of revolt and civil unrest followed resulting in thousands of deaths.[47] The Jesuit missionaries had offended the Orthodox faith of the local Ethiopians, and on June 25, 1632 Susenyos' son, Emperor Fasilides, declared the state religion to again be Ethiopian Orthodox Christianity, and expelled the Jesuit missionaries and other Europeans.[48][49] Image File history File linksMetadata Gonder. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Gonder. ... Fasilides or Basilides (throne name `Alam Sagad), b at Magazaz, Shewa, in 1603 before 10 November, was (1632 - October 18, 1667) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonid dynasty. ... Adal Sultanate Adal (mythology) Adal (sheep) Adal Ramones Adal (Ancient Turkish Name) Category: ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Ahmed Gurey statue in Mogadishu. ... Gelawdewos or Claudius (1522 - March 23, 1559) was negus (throne name Asnaf Sagad I) (1540 - 1559) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonid dynasty. ... Susenyos (also Sissinios, as in Greek; throne name Malak Sagad III; 1572 - September 7, 1632) was (1607 - 1632) of Ethiopia. ... Catholic Church redirects here. ... Seal of the Society of Jesus. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Fasilides or Basilides (throne name `Alam Sagad), b at Magazaz, Shewa, in 1603 before 10 November, was (1632 - October 18, 1667) of Ethiopia, and a member of the Solomonid dynasty. ... Ethiopian Church in Jerusalem This Ethiopian icon shows St. ...


Zemene Mesafint

All of this contributed to Ethiopia's isolation from 1755 to 1855, called the Zemene Mesafint or "Age of Princes." The Emperors became figureheads, controlled by warlords like Ras Mikael Sehul of Tigray, and by the Oromo Yejju dynasty, which later led to 17th century Oromo rule of Gondar, changing the language of the court from Amharic to Afaan Oromo.[50][51] Ethiopian isolationism ended following a British mission that concluded an alliance between the two nations; however, it was not until 1855 that Ethiopia was completely reunited and the power in the Emperor restored, beginning with the reign of Emperor Tewodros II. Upon his ascent, despite still large centrifugal forces, he began modernizing Ethiopia and recentralizing power in the Emperor, and Ethiopia began to take part in world affairs once again. Some historians date the murder of Iyasu I, and the resultant decline in the prestige of the dynasty, as the beginning of the Ethiopian Zemene Mesafint (Era of the Princes,) a time of disorder when the power of the monarchy was eclipsed by the power of local warlords. ... Mikael Sehul (Tigrigna Mikael the Astute; his name at birth was Blatta Mikael; c. ... Tigray was a province of Ethiopia. ... For the language, see Oromo language. ... Not to be confused with the Aramaic language. ... Tewodros II (Geez ቴዎድሮስ, also known as Theodore II) (1818 -suicide April 13, 1868) was an Emperor of Ethiopia (1855 - 1868). ...

Yohannes IV, Emperor of Ethiopia and King of Zion, with his son, Ras Araya Selassie Yohannis.
Yohannes IV, Emperor of Ethiopia and King of Zion, with his son, Ras Araya Selassie Yohannis.

By the 1880s, Sahle Selassie, as king of Shewa, and later as Emperor Menilik II, with the help of Ras Gobena's Shewan Oromo milita, began expanding his kingdom to the South and East, expanding into areas that hadn't been held since the invasion of Ahmed Gragn, and other areas that had never been under his rule, resulting in the borders of Ethiopia of today.[52] Image File history File links Yohannesson. ... Image File history File links Yohannesson. ... ...


European Scramble for Africa

The 1880s were marked by the Scramble for Africa and modernization in Ethiopia, when the Italians began to vie with the British for influence in bordering regions. Asseb, a port near the southern entrance of the Red Sea, was bought in March 1870 from the local Afar sultan, vassal to the Ethiopian Emperor, by an Italian company, which by 1890 led to the Italian colony of Eritrea. Conflicts between the two countries resulted in the Battle of Adwa in 1896, whereby the Ethiopians surprised the world by defeating Italy and remaining independent, under the rule of Menelik II. Italy and Ethiopia signed a provisional treaty of peace on October 26, 1896. Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... Asseb (or Aseb) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea on the west coast of the Red Sea. ... Afar (or Danakil) are a tribal people who reside principally in the Danakil Desert in the Afar Region of Ethiopia and in Eritrea and Djibouti. ... Combatants Ethiopia Italy Commanders Emperor Menilek II Empress Taytu Ras Alula Engida Dejazmach Balcha Aba Nefso Fitawrari Gebeyyehu Ras Gobena Ras Makonnen Ras Mengesha Atikem Ras Mengesha Yohannes Ras Mikael of Wollo Ras Wale Betul Negus Tekle Haymanot of Gojjam Oreste Baratieri Strength ~100,000 (80,000 with firearms), Unknown... Menelik II (August 17, 1844 - December 12, 1913), Conquering Lion of Judah, Elect of God, King of Kings of Ethiopia was negus negust (emperor) of Ethiopia from 1889 to his death. ... Motto: none Anthem: Wodefit Gesgeshi, Widd Innat Ityoppya (March Forward, Dear Mother Ethiopia) Capital Addis Ababa Largest city Addis Ababa Official language(s) Amharic Government President Prime Minister Federal republic1 Girma Wolde-Giorgis Meles Zenawi Independence Liberation Day N.A. Area  - Total    - Water (%)   1,104,300 km² (26th) 426... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ...


Selassie years

Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in all the nation's history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate.
Haile Selassie's reign as emperor of Ethiopia is the best known and perhaps most influential in all the nation's history. He is seen by Rastafarians as Jah incarnate.

The early twentieth century was marked by the reign of Emperor Haile Selassie I, who came to power after Iyasu V was deposed. It was he who undertook the modernization of Ethiopia, from 1916, when he was made a Ras and Regent (Inderase) for Zewditu I and became the de facto ruler of the Ethiopian Empire. Following Zewditu's death he was made Emperor on 2 November 1930. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 728 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 482 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (585 × 728 pixel, file size: 79 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Rasta hairstyle Rastafarianism is a religious movement that believes in the divinity of ex Ethiopian emperor Haile Selassie. ... Jah (IPA: ) is a name for God, most commonly used in the Rastafari movement. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Iyasu V (Geez ኢያሱ), also known as Lij Iyasu (Geez ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1887 - 25 November 1935) was the designated but uncrowned monarch of Ethiopia (1913 - 1916). ... Zewditu (also spelled Zawditu or Zauditu; Geez ዘውዲቱ; April 29, 1876 - April 2, 1930) was Empress of Ethiopia from 1916 to 1930. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1930 (MCMXXX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display 1930 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Being born from parents of the three main Ethiopian ethnicities of Oromo, Amhara and Gurage, and after having played a leading role in the formation of the African Union, Haile Selassie was known as a uniting figure both inside Ethiopia and around Africa. For the language, see Oromo language. ... Amhara (አማራ) may refer to: Amhara, an ethnic group of Ethiopia. ... Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. ... Anthem Let Us All Unite and Celebrate Together [1] Administrative Centre Working languages Arabic English Spanish French Portuguese Swahili Membership 53 African states Leaders  -  Chairman Jakaya Kikwete  -  Jean Ping Establishment  -  as the OAU May 25, 1963   -  as the African Union July 9, 2002  Area  -  Total 29,757,900 km² (1st1... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ...


The independence of Ethiopia was interrupted by the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and Italian occupation (1936–1941).[53] Some of Ethiopia's infrastructure (roads most importantly) was built by the fascist Italian occupation troops (not by corvee) between 1937 and 1940. Following the entry of Italy into World War II, the British Empire forces together with patriot Ethiopian fighters liberated Ethiopia in the course of the East African Campaign (World War II) in 1941, which was followed by sovereignty on January 31, 1941 and British recognition of full sovereignty (i.e. without any special British privileges) with the signing of the Anglo-Ethiopian Agreement in December 1944.[54] During 1942 and 1943 there was an Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia. On August 26, 1942 Haile Selassie I issued a proclamation outlawing slavery.[55][56] Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Benito Mussolini Emilio De Bono Pietro Badoglio Rodolfo Graziani Haile Selassie Ras Imru Strength 800,000 combatants (only ~330,000 mobilized) ~250,000 combatants Casualties 10,000 killed1 (est. ... Corvée, or corvée labor, is a term used in feudal societies. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Combatants United Kingdom Anglo-Egyptian Sudan British Somaliland British East Africa British India Gold Coast Nigeria N. Rhodesia S. Rhodesia Union of S. Africa Belgium Belgian Congo Free France Ethiopian irregulars Italy Italian East Africa German Motorized Company Commanders Archibald Wavell William Platt Alan Cunningham Duke of Aosta Guglielmo Nasi... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Italian Propaganda Poster (1942): We will return! (to the italian African colonies) When the italian army surrendered in Gondar in november 1941, many Italians decided to start a guerrilla warfare in the mountains and deserts of Ethiopia, Eritrea and Somalia. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... Slave redirects here. ...


In 1952 Haile Selassie orchestrated the federation with Eritrea which he dissolved in 1962. This annexation sparked the Eritrean War of Independence. Although Haile Selassie was seen as a national and African hero, opinion within Ethiopia turned against him due to the worldwide oil crisis of 1973, food shortages, uncertainty regarding the succession, border wars, and discontent in the middle class created through modernization.[57] Combatants ELF EPLF Ethiopia Cuba Soviet Union Commanders Isaias Afewerki Haile Selassie Mengistu Haile Mariam Casualties 65,000 (offical state figure) Up to 500,000 The Eritrean War of Independence started on 1 September 1961 when Hamid Idris Awate and his companions fired the first shots against the occupying Ethiopian...


Haile Selassie's reign came to an end in 1974, when a Soviet backed Marxist-Leninist military junta, the "Derg" led by Mengistu Haile Mariam, deposed him, and established a one-party communist state. Soviet redirects here. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... A military junta is government by a committee of military leaders. ... Derg party badge, c1979. ... Mengistu Haile Mariam (IPA: //) (born 1937[3][4]) was the most prominent officer of the Derg, the military junta that governed Ethiopia from 1974 to 1987, and the president of the Peoples Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article is about a form of government in which the state operates under the control of a Communist Party. ...


Communism

The ensuing regime suffered several coups, uprisings, wide-scale drought, and a massive refugee problem. In 1977, there was the Ogaden War, but Ethiopia quickly defeated Somalia with a massive influx of Soviet military hardware and a Cuban military presence coupled with East Germany and South Yemen the following year. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Fields outside Benambra, Victoria, Australia suffering from drought conditions A drought is an extended period of months or years when a region notes a deficiency in its water supply. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air...


Hundreds of thousands were killed due to the red terror, forced deportations, or from using hunger as a weapon.[58] In 2006, after a long trial, Mengistu was found guilty of genocide.[59] Mengistu Haile Mariam, in December 2006 convicted of genocide in absentia for his role the Red Terror The Ethiopian Red Terror (1977-1978) was a violent political campaign in Ethiopia undertaken during the leadership of the Derg, a socialist military junta. ... Mengistu Haile Mariam (born 1937) was the head of state of Ethiopia from 1977 to 1991. ...


Recent

In 1993 a referendum was held & supervised by the UN mission UNOVER, with universal suffrage and conducted both in and outside Eritrea (among Eritrean communities in the diaspora), on whether Eritreans wanted independence or unity with Ethiopia. Over 99% of the Eritrean people voted for independence which was declared on May 24, 1993. In 1994, a constitution was adopted that led to Ethiopia's first multi-party elections in the following year. In May 1998, a border dispute with Eritrea led to the Eritrean-Ethiopian War that lasted until June 2000. This has hurt the nation's economy, but strengthened the ruling coalition. On May 15, 2005, Ethiopia held another multiparty election, which was a highly disputed one with some opposition groups claiming fraud. Though the Carter Center appreciated the preelection conditions, it has expressed its dissatisfaction with postelection matters. The 2005 EU election observers continued to accuse the ruling party of vote rigging. Many from the international community are divided about the issue with Irish officials accusing the 2005 EU election observers of corruption for the "inaccurate leaks from the 2005 EU election monitoring body which led the opposition to wrongly believe they had been cheated of victory."[60] In general, the opposition parties gained more than 200 parliament seats compared to the just 12 in the 2000 elections. Despite most opposition representatives joining the parliament, some leaders of the CUD party are in jail following the post-election violence. Amnesty International considers them "prisoners of conscience". is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Combatants Eritrea Ethiopia Commanders Sebhat Ephrem Tsadkan Gebre-Tensae[3] Casualties Estimates vary: 19,000;[4][5] 20-50,000[6] 67,000[7] Estimates vary: 34,000[8] up to 60,000;[9] 60,000[10] 123,000[11][12] The Eritrean-Ethiopian War took place from May 1998... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ethiopia held general elections on May 15, 2005, for seats in both its national and in four regional government councils. ... The Jimmy Carter Presidential Library The Carter Center is a human rights organization, founded in 1982 and chaired by former U.S. President Jimmy Carter. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... Prisoner of conscience (POC) is a term coined by the human rights pressure group Amnesty International in the early 1960s. ...


Politics

Main article: Politics of Ethiopia
See also: Rulers and Heads of State of Ethiopia and Foreign relations of Ethiopia

Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. Executive power is exercised by the government. Federal legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament. Politics of Ethiopia takes place in a framework of a federal parliamentary republic, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government. ... The following is a list of rulers and heads of state of Ethiopia since the Zagwe dynasty. ... Ethiopia was relatively isolated from major movements of world politics until the 1895 and 1935 Italian invasions. ... This article is about federal states. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... List of heads of government of Ethiopia (Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Affiliations See also Ethiopia Rulers and Heads of State of Ethiopia List of Presidents of Ethiopia Lists of office-holders ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ... Under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ...


On the basis of Article 78 of the 1994 Ethiopian Constitution, the Judiciary is completely independent of the executive and the legislature.[61] The current realities of this provision are questioned in a report prepared by Freedom House (see discussion page for link). In the law, the judiciary or judicial system is the system of courts which administer justice in the name of the sovereign or state, a mechanism for the resolution of disputes. ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ...


According to The Economist in its Democracy Index, Ethiopia is a "hybrid regime" situated between a "flawed democracy" and an "authoritarian regime". It ranks 106 out of 167 countries (with the larger number being less democratic). Cambodia ranks as more democratic at 105, and Burundi as less democratic at 107, than Ethiopia.[62] The Economist is an English-language weekly news and international affairs publication owned by The Economist Newspaper Ltd and edited in London. ... Democracy index map. ...


The election of Ethiopia's 547-member constituent assembly was held in June 1994. This assembly adopted the constitution of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia in December 1994. The elections for Ethiopia's first popularly-chosen national parliament and regional legislatures were held in May and June 1995 . Most opposition parties chose to boycott these elections. There was a landslide victory for the Ethiopian People's Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF). International and non-governmental observers concluded that opposition parties would have been able to participate had they chosen to do so. The Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front, or EPRDF, is the ruling political party of Ethiopia. ...


The current government of Ethiopia was installed in August 1995. The first President was Negasso Gidada. The EPRDF-led government of Prime Minister Meles Zenawi promoted a policy of ethnic federalism, devolving significant powers to regional, ethnically-based authorities. Ethiopia today has nine semi-autonomous administrative regions that have the power to raise and spend their own revenues. Under the present government, some fundamental freedoms, including freedom of the press, are circumscribed.[63] Citizens have little access to media other than the state-owned networks, and most private newspapers struggle to remain open and suffer periodic harassment from the government.[63] At least 18 journalists who had written articles critical of the government were arrested following the 2005 elections on genocide and treason charges. The government uses press laws governing libel to intimidate journalists who are critical of its policies.[64] Dr. Negasso Gidada Solon (born 1943) was the President of Ethiopia from 1995 until 2001. ... Meles Zenawi Asres (Geez መለስ ዜናዊ meles zēnāwī, b. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ...


Zenawi's government was elected in 2000 in Ethiopia's first ever multiparty elections; however, the results were heavily criticized by international observers and denounced by the opposition as fraudulent. The EPRDF also won the 2005 election returning Zenawi to power. Although the opposition vote increased in the election, both the opposition and observers from the European Union and elsewhere stated that the vote did not meet international standards for fair and free elections.[63] Ethiopian police are said to have massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, in the violence following the May 2005 elections in the Ethiopian police massacre.[65] The government initiated a crackdown in the provinces as well; in Oromia state the authorities used concerns over insurgency and terrorism to use torture, imprisonment, and other repressive methods to silence critics following the election, particularly people sympathetic to the registered opposition party Oromo National Congress (ONC).[64] For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... On October 18, 2006 an independent report said Ethiopian police massacred 193 protesters, mostly in the capital Addis Ababa, in the violence of June and November following the May 2005 elections. ... The Oromo National Congress is a political party in Ethiopia. ...


Regions, zones, and districts

Main articles: Regions of Ethiopia, Zones of Ethiopia, and Districts of Ethiopia

Before 1996, Ethiopia was divided into 13 provinces, many derived from historical regions. Ethiopia now has a tiered government system consisting of a federal government overseeing ethnically-based regional states, zones, districts (woredas), and neighborhoods (kebele). Ethiopia is divided into 9 ethnically-based administrative regions (kililoch; singular - kilil): Afar Amhara Benishangul-Gumaz Gambela Hariai Oromia Somali Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region Tigray Additionally, there are two chartered cities (astedader akababiwach, singular - astedader akabibi): Addis Ababa Dire Dawa These administrative regions replaced the older system of... Below the regions, Ethiopia is divided into zones. ... Until 1995 Ethiopia was divided into provinces (which are still sometimes used to indicate location within Ethiopia). ... A federal government is the common government of a federation. ... Look up zone in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Local government areas called districts are used, or have been used, in several countries. ... Woreda (also spelled wereda) is an administrative sub-division, or local government, of Ethiopia, equivalent to a district. ... A neighbourhood or neighborhood (see spelling differences) is a geographically localised community located within a larger city or suburb. ... A kebele is the smallest administrative unit of Ethiopia similar to ward, a neighbourhood or a localized and delimited group of people. ...


Ethiopia is divided into nine ethnically-based administrative states (kililoch, sing. kilil) and subdivided into sixty-eight zones and two chartered cities (astedader akababiwoch, sing. astedader akababi): Addis Ababa and Dire Dawa (subdivisions 1 and 5 in the map, respectively). It is further subdivided into 550 woredas and six special woredas. For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Map of Ethiopia showing Dire Dawa (in red). ...


The constitution assigns extensive power to regional states that can establish their own government and democracy according to the federal government's constitution. Each region has its apex regional council where members are directly elected to represent the districts and the council has legislative and executive power to direct internal affairs of the regions. Article 39 of the Ethiopian Constitution further gives every regional state the right to secede from Ethiopia. There is debate, however, as to how much of the power guaranteed in the constitution is actually given to the states. The councils implement their mandate through an executive committee and regional sectoral bureaus. Such elaborate structure of council, executive, and sectoral public institutions is replicated to the next level (woreda).

The regions and chartered cities of Ethiopia, numbered alphabetically
The regions and chartered cities of Ethiopia, numbered alphabetically

The nine regions and two chartered cities are: Image File history File links Ethiopia_regions_numbered. ... Image File history File links Ethiopia_regions_numbered. ...

  1. Addis Ababa
  2. Afar
  3. Amhara
  4. Benishangul-Gumuz
  5. Dire Dawa
  1. Gambela
  2. Harari
  3. Oromia
  4. Somali
  5. Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region
  6. Tigray

For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Afar region. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Amhara region. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Benishangul-Gumaz region . ... Map of Ethiopia showing Dire Dawa (in red). ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Gambela region. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Harari region (in red). ... For the Zone of this name in the Amhara Region, see Oromia Zone. ... Flag of the SNNPR. Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (often abbreviated as SNNPR) is one of the nine ethnic divisions (kililoch) of Ethiopia. ... Map of Ethiopia highlighting the Tigray region. ...

Geography

Map of Ethiopia.
Map of Ethiopia.
Main article: Geography of Ethiopia

At 435,071 square miles (1,127,127 km²[66]), Ethiopia is the world's 27th-largest country (after Colombia). It is comparable in size to Bolivia, and is about two-thirds as large as the US state of Alaska. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1010x1215, 222 KB) Shaded relief map of Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1010x1215, 222 KB) Shaded relief map of Ethiopia. ... Map of Ethiopia Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


The major portion of Ethiopia lies on the Horn of Africa, which is the eastern-most part of the African landmass. Bordering Ethiopia is Sudan to the west, Djibouti and Eritrea to the north, Somalia to the east, and Kenya to the south. Within Ethiopia is a massive highland complex of mountains and dissected plateaus divided by the Great Rift Valley, which runs generally southwest to northeast and is surrounded by lowlands, steppes, or semi-desert. The great diversity of terrain determines wide variations in climate, soils, natural vegetation, and settlement patterns. The Horn of Africa. ... Northern section of the Great Rift Valley. ... This article is about the ecological zone type. ...


Climate and landforms

Elevation and geographic location produce three climatic zones: the cool zone above 2,400 meters (7,900 ft) where temperatures range from near freezing to 16 °C (32 °–61 °F); the temperate zone at elevations of 1,500 to 2,400 meters (4,900–7,900 ft) with temperatures from 16 to 30 °C (61–86 °F); and the hot zone below 1,500 meters (4,900 ft) with both tropical and arid conditions and daytime temperatures ranging from 27 to 50 °C (81–122 °F). The topography of Ethiopia ranges from several very high mountain ranges (the Semien Mountains and the Bale Mountains), to one of the lowest areas of land in Africa, the Danakil depression. For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... The Simien Mountains lie in northern Ethiopia, north east of Gonder. ... The Bale Mountains are a range of mountains in the Oromia Region of southeast Ethiopia, south of the Awash River. ... MODIS satellite image of the Afar Depression and surrounding regions of the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden, Arabia, and the Horn of Africa. ...

Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background.
Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background.

The normal rainy season is from mid-June to mid-September (longer in the southern highlands) preceded by intermittent showers from February or March; the remainder of the year is generally dry. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 3012 KB) by Giustino modified by User:Andro96 Taken with a Fujifilm FinePix E550 on August 26, 2005 http://flickr. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2848x2136, 3012 KB) by Giustino modified by User:Andro96 Taken with a Fujifilm FinePix E550 on August 26, 2005 http://flickr. ... Ethiopian Highlands with Ras Dashan in the background. ... Ras Dashan is the highest mountain in Ethiopia reaching an elevation of 4,623 metres (15,158 ft). ...


Ethiopia is an ecologically diverse country, ranging from the deserts along the eastern border to the tropical forests in the south to extensive Afromontane in the northern and southwestern parts. Lake Tana in the north is the source of the Blue Nile. It also has a large number of endemic species, notably the Gelada Baboon, the Walia Ibex and the Ethiopian wolf (or Simien fox). The wide range of altitude has given the country a variety of ecologically distinct areas, this has helped to encourage the evolution of endemic species in ecological isolation. Afromontane is a term used to describe the plant and animal species common to the mountains of Africa and the southern Arabian Peninsula. ... Lake Tana (also spelled Tana, Amharic: ጣና ሐይቅ Ṭānā Hāyḳ,Lake Tana, originally Tsana, Geez ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called Dembiya after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia. ... For other uses, see Blue Nile (disambiguation). ... This article is about the ecological meaning of endemic. See also endemic (epidemiology). ... Binomial name Theropithecus gelada (Rüppell, 1835) Gelada (Theropithecus gelada) is a species of Old World monkey, found only in the highlands of Ethiopia and Eritrea. ... Binomial name Capra walie Rüppell, 1835 The Walia Ibex (Capra walie) is a species of Ibex that is critically endangered. ... Binomial name Canis simensis Ruppell, 1840 Map of the range of the Ethiopian Wolf. ... Binomial name Canis simensis Ruppell, 1840 The Ethiopian Wolf (Canis simensis), also known as the Abyssinian Wolf, Simien Jackal or Simien Fox, is one of the rarest and most endangered of all canids, and is found in the Afro-alpine regions of Ethiopia, about 10,000 feet (3,000 meters...


Endangered Species

Endangered Species in Ethiopia


Historically, throughout the African continent, wildlife populations have been rapidly declining due to logging, civil wars, hunting, pollution, poaching, and other human interference.[67] A 17 year long civil along with severe drought, negatively impacted Ethiopia’s environmental conditions leading to even greater habitat degradation.[68] Habitat destruction is a factor that leads to endangerment. When changes to a habitat occur rapidly, it doesn’t allow animals time to adjust. Human impacts threaten many species, with greater threats expected as a result of climate change induced by greenhouse gas emissions.[69]



Ethiopia has a large number of species listed as critically endangered, endangered and vulnerable to global extinction. To assess the current situation in Ethiopia, it is critical that the endangered species in this region are identified. The endangered species in Ethiopia can be broken down into three categories; Critically endangered, Endangered and Vulnerable.[70]

Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
African Wild Ass Grevy’s Zebra African Elephant
Bilen Gerbil Mountain Nyala Ammodile
Black Rhinoceros Nubian Ibex Bailey’s Shrew
Ethiopian Wolf Wild Dog Bale Shrew
Guramba Shrew Beira Antelope
Harenna Shrew Cheetah
MacMillan’s Shrew Dibatag
Walia Ibex Dorcas Gazelle
Glass’s Shrew
Large-eared Free-tailed Bat
Lesser Horseshoe Bat
Lion
Moorland Shrew
Morris’s Bat
Mouse-tailed Bat Species
Natal Free-tailed Bat
Nikolaus’s Mouse
Patrizi’s Trident Leaf-nosed Bat
Red-fronted Gazelle
Rupp’s Mouse
Scott’s Mouse-eared Bat
Soemmerring’s Gazelle
Speke’s Gazelle
Spotted-necked Otter
Stripe-backed Mouse

[71]


There are 31 endemic species, meaning that a species occurs naturally only in a certain area, in this case Ethiopia.[72] The Ethiopian Wolf is perhaps the most researched of all the endangered species within Ethiopia.


The Ethiopian Wolf


Ethiopian wolves are decreasing rapidly in population. Fewer than 500 remain today due to the increased pressure from agriculture, high altitude grazing, hybridization with domestic dogs, direct persecution, and diseases such as rabies.[73] The EWCP (Ethiopian Wolf Conservation Project) actively works on protecting this species.[74] Scientists working with this project have found that this species has some resistance to the effects of small population sizes and some resilience to fragmentation.[75] A 2003 study on the Ethiopian wolf resulted in the conclusion that the key to its survival resides in securing its habitat and isolating its population from the impacts of people, livestock and domestic dogs.[76] The interactions between humans and Ethiopian wolves have become increasingly threatening to their conservation as these negative interactions increase as human density increases. Human interactions include poisoning, persecution in reprisal for livestock losses, and road kills.[77] Mountainous areas are critical for Ethiopian wolves survival to provide a healthy habitat.[78] Protecting this unique creature entails securing protected status for conservation areas where ecological processes are preserved in an ecosystem, and addressing and counteracting direct threats to survival (human persecution, fragmented populations and coexistence with domestic dogs.) Biologists also recommend the goal of preserving a minimum of 90% of the existing genetic diversity of the species for 100 years, which may require establishing a Nucleus I captive breeding population (preferably in Ethiopia). These aspirations are being pursued by a group called the Ethiopian Wolf Recovery Programme (EWRP).[79]


Outreach


Several conservation programs are in effect to help endangered species in Ethiopia. A group was created in 1966 called The Ethiopian Wildlife and Natural History Society, which focuses on studying and promoting the natural environments of Ethiopia along with spreading the knowledge they acquire, and supporting legislation to protect environmental resources.[80]


There are multiple conservation organizations one can access online to make donations, one which connects directly to the Ethiopian Wolf. The WWF is the World Wildlife Fund. Anyone can access their website at www.worldwildlife.org and donate money. Funding supports the World Wildlife Fund’s global conservation efforts. The majority of the funds received (83%) goes towards conservation activities, while only 6% goes towards finance and administration. The remaining 11% of funds are allocated for fundraising, which is much needed. The WWF Chairman of the Board, Bruce Babbitt holds this organization accountable for the best practices in accountability, governance and transparency throughout all tiers within the organization.[81]


A critical way to help threatened animals survive would be to protect their habitat permanently through national parks, wilderness areas and nature reserves. By protecting the places where animals live, human interference is limited. Protecting farms, and any place along roadsides that harbor animals helps encourage protection.[82]


Deforestation

Deforestation is a major concern for Ethiopia as studies suggest loss of forest contributes to soil erosion, loss of nutrients in the soil, loss of animal habitats and reduction in biodiversity. At the beginning of the Twentieth century around 420,000 km² or 35% of Ethiopia’s land was covered by trees but recent research indicates that forest cover is now approximately 11.9% of the area.[83] Ethiopia is one of the seven fundamental and independent centers of origin of cultivated plants of the world. Environmental issues in Ethiopia The Great Rift Valley is geologically active and susceptible to earthquakes. ...


Ethiopia loses an estimated 1,410 km² of natural forests each year. Between 1990 and 2005 the country lost approximately 21,000 km².[citation needed]


Current government programs to control deforestation consist of education, promoting reforestation programs and providing alternate raw material to timber. In rural areas the government also provides non-timber fuel sources and access to non-forested land to promote agriculture without destroying forest habitat.


Organizations such as SOS and Farm Africa are working with the federal government and local governments to create a system of forest management.[84] Working with a grant of approximately 2.3 million Euros the Ethiopian government recently began training people on reducing erosion and using proper irrigation techniques that do not contribute to deforestation. This project is assisting more than 80 communities.


Urbanization

Increase in Urbanization


Population growth, migration, and urbanization are all straining both governments and ecosystems’ capacity to provide people basic services.[85] Urbanization has steadily been increasing in Ethiopia, with two periods of significantly rapid growth. First, in 1936-1941 during the Italian occupation of Mussolini’s fascist regime, and from 1967-1975 when the populations of urban centers tripled.[86] In 1936, Italy annexed Ethiopia, building infrastructure to connect major cities, and a dam providing power and water.[87] This along with the influx of Italians and laborers was the major cause of rapid growth during this period. The second period of growth was from 1967-1975 when rural populations migrated to urban centers seeking work and better living conditions.[88] This pattern slowed after to the 1975 Land Reform program instituted by the government provided incentives for people to stay in rural areas. As people moved from rural areas to the cities, there we less people to grow food for the population. The Land Reform Act was meant to increase agriculture since food production was not keeping up with population growth over the period of 1970-1983.[89] This program proliferated the formation of peasant associations, large villages based on agriculture.[90] The act did lead to an increase in food production, although there is debate over the cause; it may be related to weather conditions more than the reform act.[91] Urban populations have continued to grow with an 8.1% increase from 1975-2000.[92]


Rural Vs. Urban Life


Migration to urban areas is usually motivated by the hope of better living conditions. In peasant associations daily life is a struggle to survive. Only 45% of rural households in Ethiopia consume the World Health Organization’s minimum standard of food per day, (2,200 kilocalories), with 42% of children under 5 years old being underweight.[93] Most poor families (75%) share their sleeping quarters with livestock, and 40% of children sleep on the floor, where night time temperatures average 5 degrees Celsius in the cold season.[94] The average family size is six or seven, living in a 30 square meter mud and thatch hut, with less than two hectares of land to cultivate.[95] These living conditions are deplorable, but are the daily lives of peasant associations.


The peasant associations face a cycle of poverty. Since the land holdings are so small, farmers cannot allow the land to lie fallow, which reduces soil fertility.[96] This land degradation reduces the production of fodder for livestock, which causes low amounts of milk production.[97] Since the community burns livestock manure as fuel, rather than plowing the nutrients back into the land, the crop production is reduced.[98] The low productivity of agriculture leads to inadequate incomes for farmers, hunger, malnutrition and disease. These unhealthy farmers have a hard time working the land and the productivity drops further.[99]


Although conditions are drastically better in cities, all of Ethiopia suffers from poverty, and poor sanitation. In the capital city of Addis Ababa, 85% of the population lives in slums.[100] Although there are some wealthy neighborhoods with mansions, most people make their houses using whatever materials are available, with walls made of mud or wood. Only 12% of homes have cement tiles or floors.[101] Sanitation is the most pressing need in the city, with most of the population lacking access to waste treatment facilities. This contributes to the spread of illness through unhealthy water.[102]


Despite the living conditions in the cities, the people of Addis Ababa are much better off than people living in the peasant associations due to their educational opportunities. Unlike rural children, 69% of urban children are enrolled in primary school, and 35% of those eligible for secondary school attend.[103] Addis Ababa has its own university as well as many other secondary schools. The literacy rate is 82%.[104]


Health is also much greater in the cities. Birth rates, infant mortality rates, and death rates are lower in the city than in rural areas, due to better access to education and hospitals.[105] Life expectancy is higher at 53, compared to 48 in rural areas.[106] Despite sanitation being a problem, use of improved water sources is also greater; 81% in cities compared to 11% in rural areas.[107] This encourages more people to migrate to the cities in hopes of better living conditions.


The continued urbanization and migration poses a threat to environmental sustainability in Ethiopia. As more migration occurs, there will be decreased food production to sustain the population. Rather than fixing the problems of degraded land and water resources, people move to cities in hopes of a better life. If nothing is done about the problem, the capacity to grow food will decrease as populations continue to increase, while poverty and health conditions get worse.


This is a problem many NGOs (Non-Government Organizations) are working on fixing. But there is clear evidence that most are far apart, less coordinated, and working in isolation, with no effective mechanisms for them to relate with other NGOs.[108] This is why a consortium is required to solve the problem. The good news is that the Sub-Saharan Africa NGO Consortium is already coordinating efforts among NGOs in Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania, Zambia, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Ethiopia, Sudan, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Mali, Ghana, and Nigeria.[109] By sharing information, techniques, and resources, NGOs are better equipped to help the rural farmers of Ethiopia.


Economy

Coffee farmer filling cups with coffee
Coffee farmer filling cups with coffee
Main article: Economy of Ethiopia
See also: Foreign aid to Ethiopia

Ethiopia was one of the poorest countries in the world. Recently, Ethiopia has showed a fast growing annual GDP and it is the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007.[citation needed] Since 1991, there have been attempts to improve the economy. This is reflected in the ten percent economic growth registered for the past six consecutive years. Yet, a daunting task of maintaining this growth and reducing urban poverty remains to be done. Image File history File links Mymom52^.jpg‎ Summary Personal Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Mymom52^.jpg‎ Summary Personal Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The economy of Ethiopia is based on agriculture, which accounts for half of gross domestic product (GDP), 60% of exports, and 80% of total employment. ... During the post-World War II era, Ethiopia received small amounts of economic development aid from such countries as the United States and Sweden. ...


Provision of telecommunications services is left to a publicly owned monopoly. It is the view of the current government that maintaining public ownership in this vital sector is essential to ensure that telecommunication infrastructures and services are extended to the rural Ethiopia, which would not be attractive to private enterprises.


There are some sectors which are reserved to Ethiopians only. The financial sector is one of them. There are now more than seven private banks in the country but none of them are owned by foreigners.


The Ethiopian constitution defines the right to own land as belonging only to "the state and the people", but citizens may only lease land (up to 99 years), and are unable to mortgage or sell. Renting of land for a maximum of twenty years is allowed and this is expected to ensure that land goes to the most productive user.


Agriculture accounts for almost 41 percent of the gross domestic product (GDP), 80 percent of exports, and 80 percent of the labour force.[citation needed] Many other economic activities depend on agriculture, including marketing, processing, and export of agricultural products. Production is overwhelmingly by small-scale farmers and enterprises and a large part of commodity exports are provided by the small agricultural cash-crop sector. Principal crops include coffee, pulses (e.g., beans), oilseeds, cereals, potatoes, sugarcane, and vegetables. Recently, Ethiopia has had a fast growing annual GDP and it was the fastest growing non-oil dependent African nation in 2007.[110][111] Exports are almost entirely agricultural commodities, and coffee is the largest foreign exchange earner. Ethiopia is Africa's second biggest maize producer.[112] Ethiopia's livestock population is believed to be the largest in Africa, and as of 1987 accounted for about 15 percent of the GDP.[citation needed] Despite recent improvements, the rapidly exploding population means that Ethiopia remains one of the poorest nations in the world. According to a recent UN report the GNP per capita of Ethiopia has reached $160.The same report indicated that the life expectancy had improved substantially in recent years. The life expectancy of men is reported to be 52 and women 54 years. GDP redirects here. ... Species Coffea arabica - Arabica Coffee Coffea benghalensis - Bengal coffee Coffea canephora - Robusta coffee Coffea congensis - Congo coffee Coffea excelsa - Liberian coffee Coffea gallienii Coffea bonnieri Coffea mogeneti Coffea liberica - Liberian coffee Coffea stenophylla - Sierra Leonian coffee Coffea (coffee) is a genus of ten species of flowering plants in the family... Pulses are defined by the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations (FAO) as annual leguminous crops yielding from one to twelve grains or seeds of variable size, shape and color within a pod. ... Binomial name Brassica napus L. Rapeseed (Brassica napus), also known as Rape, Oilseed Rape, Rapa, Rapaseed and (one particular cultivar) Canola, is a bright yellow flowering member (related to mustard) of the family Brassicaceae. ... Grain redirects here. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ...


Exports

Ethiopia was the original source of the coffee bean, and coffee beans are the country's largest export commodity.[113]


Ethiopia is also the 10th largest producer of livestock in the world. Other main export commodities are khat, gold, leather products, and oilseeds. Recent development of the floriculture sector means Ethiopia is poised to become one of the top flower and plant exporters in the world.[114] Binomial name (Vahl) Forssk. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ...


With the private sector growing slowly, designer leather products like bags are becoming a big export business making them the first luxury designer label in the country.[115] Additional small-scale export products include cereals, pulses, cotton, sugarcane, potatoes and hides. With the construction of various new dams and growing hydroelectric power projects around the country, it has also begun exporting electric power to its neighbors.[116][117][118] However, coffee remains its most important export product and with new trademark deals around the world, including recent deals with Starbucks, the country plans to increase its revenue from coffee.[119] Most regard Ethiopia's large water resources and potential as its "white oil" and its coffee resources as "black gold".[120][121] For other uses of Starbuck, see Starbuck. ...


The country also has large mineral resources and oil potential in some the less inhabited regions; however, political instability in those regions has harmed progress. Ethiopian geologists were implicated in a major gold swindle in 2008. Four chemists and geologists from the Ethiopian Geological Survey were arrested in connection with a fake gold scandal, following complaints from buyers in South Africa. Gold bars from the National Bank of Ethiopia were found to be gilded metal by police, costing the state around US$17 million, according to the Science and Development Network website. [2]


Demographics

Schoolboys in western Oromia, Ethiopia.
Schoolboys in western Oromia, Ethiopia.

Ethiopia's population has grown from 33.5 million in 1983 to 75.1 million in 2006.[122] The country's population is highly diverse. Most of its people speak a Semitic or Cushitic language. The Oromo, Amhara, and Tigray make up more than three-quarters of the population, but there are more than 80 different ethnic groups within Ethiopia. Some of these have as few as 10,000 members. Ethiopias population is highly diverse. ... Image File history File links Nakempte_Boys. ... Image File history File links Nakempte_Boys. ... Oromo flag The land of the Oromo Nation is known as Oromia (sometimes spelled Oromiya). ... 14th century BC diplomatic letter in Akkadian, found in Tell Amarna. ... The Cushitic languages are a subgroup of the Afro-Asiatic languages, named after the Biblical figure Cush by analogy with Semitic. ... For the language, see Oromo language. ... Amhara (አማራ) is an ethnicity of people in the central highlands of Ethiopia, numbering about 19 million, making up around 26% of the countrys population (estimates differ). ... The Tigray-Tigrinya are an ethnic group who live in Eritrea and the northern highlands of Ethiopias Tigray province. ...


Ethiopians and Eritreans, especially Semitic-speaking ones, collectively refer to themselves as Habesha or Abesha, though others reject these names on the basis that they refer only to certain ethnicities.[123] The Arabic form of this term (Al-Habasha) is the etymological basis of "Abyssinia," the former name of Ethiopia in English and other European languages.[124] The term Habesha (Geez ሐበሻ ḥabaśā, Amh. ... Arabic redirects here. ...


According to the Ethiopian national census of 1994, the Oromo are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia at 32.1%. The Amhara represent 30.2%, while the Tigray people are 6.2% of the population. Other ethnic groups are as follows: Somali 6%, Gurage 4.3%, Sidama 3.4%, Wolayta 2%, Afar 2%, Hadiya 2%, Gamo 1%.[125][126] For the language, see Oromo language. ... Amhara (Amharic: አማራ, Geez: አምሐራ) is an ethnic group in the central highlands of Ethiopia, numbering about 23 million, making up 30. ... The Tigray-Tigrinya are an ethnic group who live in Eritrea and the northern highlands of Ethiopias Tigray province. ... Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. ... The Sidama are a tribal people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. ... Welayta (also spelled Walaytta, Wolaita) is the name of an ethnic group and a former kingdom, located in southern Ethiopia. ... Afar (or Danakil) are a tribal people who reside principally in the Danakil Desert in the Afar Region of Ethiopia and in Eritrea and Djibouti. ... Hadiya (Gudela) was a powerful vassal kingdom of Ethiopia, located in southwestern Ethiopia, south of the Abbay River and west of Shewa. ...

View from the Sheraton Hotel in Addis Ababa.
View from the Sheraton Hotel in Addis Ababa.

There are 1.2 million Ethiopians in the US as part of the Ethiopian diaspora. [127] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 562 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 562 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The Sheraton hotel brand is owned by Starwood Hotels & Resorts Worldwide. ... For the long-distance runner, see Addis Abebe. ...


Religion

Main article: Religion in Ethiopia
This leather painting depicts Ethiopian Orthodox priests playing sistra and a drum.
This leather painting depicts Ethiopian Orthodox priests playing sistra and a drum.

According to the most recent 1994 National Census,[125] Christians make up 61.6% of the country's population, Muslims 32.8%, and practitioners of traditional faiths 5.6%. This agrees with the updated CIA World Factbook, Christianity is the most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia.[128] but the US State department has contradictory figures, putting Islam as being about equal or a slight majority, so a review of the figures might be needed (Sunnis Islam=45%-50%, Orthodoxy= 40%, Protestant 5% and the rest traditional).[129] Orthodox Christianity has a dominant presence in central and northern Ethiopia, while both Orthodox & Protestant Christianity has large representations in the South and Western Ethiopia. A small ancient group of Jews, the Beta Israel, live in northwestern Ethiopia, though most have emigrated to Israel in the last decades of the twentieth century as part of the rescue missions undertaken by the Israeli government, Operation Moses and Operation Solomon. [3] Some Israeli and Jewish scholars consider these Ethiopian Jews as the historical "Lost Tribe of Israel". Sometimes Christianity in Africa is thought of as a European import that arrived with colonialism, but this is not the case with Ethiopia. The Kingdom of Aksum was one of the first nations to officially adopt Christianity, when St. Frumentius of Tyre, called Fremnatos or Abba Selama ("Father of Peace") in Ethiopia, converted King Ezana during the fourth century AD. Many believe that the Gospel had entered Ethiopia even earlier, with the royal official described as being baptised by Philip the Evangelist in chapter eight of the Acts of the Apostles. (Acts 8:26-39) Today, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, part of Oriental Orthodoxy, is by far the largest denomination, though a number of Protestant (Pentay) churches and the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church have recently gained ground. Since the eighteenth century there has existed a relatively small Uniate Ethiopian Catholic Church in full communion with Rome, with adherents making up less than 1% of the total population.[125] There are a large number of religions traditionally practiced in Ethiopia, the most numerous today being Christianity, Islam, and Animism. ... Image File history File links Merge-arrow. ... There are a large number of religions traditionally practiced in Ethiopia, the most numerous today being Christianity, Islam, and Animism. ... Download high resolution version (864x638, 235 KB)This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... Download high resolution version (864x638, 235 KB)This is an image I took myself using an Olympus C8080W digital camera. ... Ethiopian Church in Jerusalem This Ethiopian icon shows St. ... -1... For other uses, see Drum (disambiguation). ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... The Beta Israel (Geez ቤተ፡ እስራኤል BÄ“ta Isrāēl, modern BÄ“te Isrāēl; ‎), also known by the term Falasha (Amharic for Exiles or Strangers, as they were called by non-Jewish Ethiopians — a term that is considered pejorative) are Jews of Ethiopian origin. ... Operation Moses, named after the biblical figure Moses, was the covert removal of Ethiopian Jews (known as Beta Israel) from Sudan during a famine in 1984. ... Operation Solomon was a 1991 covert Israeli military operation to take Ethiopian Jews to Israel. ... It has been suggested that Israelite Diaspora be merged into this article or section. ... The Kingdom of Aksum (or Axum, Geez አክሱም), was an important trading nation in northeastern Africa, growing from the proto-Aksumite period ca. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Frumentius (Geez ፍሬምንጦስ /freminÅ¥os/) (died ca. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Ezana of Axum (Geez ዔዛና Ê¿Ä’zānā unvocalized ዐዘነ Ê¿zn. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... AD redirects here. ... Philip the Evangelist appears several times in the Acts of the Apostles but should not be confused with Philip the Apostle. ... For the literature genre, see Acts of the Apostles (genre). ... Ethiopian Church in Jerusalem This Ethiopian icon shows St. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The term... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Pentay or Pentay is a slang term widely used in modern Ethiopia, and among Ethiopians living abroad, to describe Ethiopian Christians who are not members of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church (nor the Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church). ... According to its followers, The Ethiopian Orthodox Tehadeso Church stands to preserve the countrys orthodox traditions while believing in the full Gospel of the scripture. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... The Ethiopian Catholic Church is a sui iuris particular Catholic and Orthodox Church in full communion with the Holy See and of the Alexandrian, or Coptic, Rite. ... Full communion is completeness of that relationship between Christian individuals and groups which is known as communion. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


The name "Ethiopia" (Hebrew Kush) is mentioned in the Bible numerous times (thirty-seven times in the King James version). Abyssinia is also mentioned in the Qur'an and Hadith. While many Ethiopians claim that the Bible references of Kush apply to their own ancient civilization, pointing out that the Gihon river, a name for the Nile, is said to flow through the land, most non-Ethiopian scholars believe that the use of the term referred to the Kingdom of Kush in particular or Africa outside of Egypt in general. Some have argued[citation needed] that biblical Kush was a large part of land that included Northern Ethiopia, Eritrea and most of present day Sudan. The capital cities of biblical Kush were in Northern Sudan. This page is about the version of the Bible; for the Harvey Danger album, see King James Version (album). ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Hadith ( transliteration: ) are oral traditions relating to the words and deeds of Prophet Muhammad. ... Gihon is the title of a river first mentioned in the second chapter of the Biblical book of Genesis. ... For other uses, see Nile (disambiguation). ... For the son of Rama and Sita from Indian epic of Ramayana, go to Kush (hindu). ... This article is about the Nubian civilization. ...

A traditional Ethiopian depiction of Jesus and Mary with distinctively "Ethiopian" features.
A traditional Ethiopian depiction of Jesus and Mary with distinctively "Ethiopian" features.

Islam in Ethiopia dates back to the founding of the religion; in 615, when a group of Muslims were counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca and travel to Ethiopia, which was ruled by Ashama ibn Abjar, a pious Christian king. Moreover, Bilal, the first muezzin, the person chosen to call the faithful to prayer, and one of the foremost companions of Muhammad, was from Ethiopia. Image File history File linksMetadata Ethiopia_African_potrayal_of_Jesus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ethiopia_African_potrayal_of_Jesus. ... According to the latest 1994 national census, Islam is the second most widely practiced religion in Ethiopia after Christianity, with approximately one third (32. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... In 615 CE a number of Sahaba, the Muslims who originally converted in Mecca, migrated to Ethiopia, seeking refuge from persecution. ... According to Arabic sources, Ashama ibn Abjar was Emperor of Aksum at the time of Muhammad when several Muslims sought refuge in the Aksumite kingdom. ... Bilal (Name): Means wetting, moistening in Arabic. ... The müezzin (the word is pronounced this way Turkish, Urdu, etc. ...


There are numerous indigenous African religions in Ethiopia, mainly located in the far southwest and western borderlands. In general, most of the (largely members of the non-Chalcedonian Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church) Christians generally live in the highlands, while Muslims and adherents of traditional African religions tend to inhabit more lowland regions in the east and south of the country. It has been suggested that African Traditional Religion be merged into this article or section. ... The term Oriental Orthodoxy refers to the churches of Eastern Christian traditions that keeps the faith of only the first three ecumenical councils of the undivided Church - the councils of Nicea, Constantinople and Ephesus. ... Ethiopian Church in Jerusalem This Ethiopian icon shows St. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


Ethiopia is also the spiritual homeland of the Rastafari movement, whose adherents believe Ethiopia is Zion. The Rastafari view Emperor Haile Selassie I as Jesus, the human incarnation of God, a view apparently not shared by Haile Selassie I himself, who was staunchly Ethiopian Orthodox Christian. The concept of Zion is also prevalent among Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, though it represents a separate and complex concept, referring figuratively to St. Mary, but also to Ethiopia as a bastion of Christianity surrounded by Muslims and other religions, much like Mount Zion in the Bible. It is also used to refer to Axum, the ancient capital and religious centre of Ethiopian Orthodox Christians, or to its primary church, called Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion.[130] The Bahá'í Faith has been established in Ethiopia since the 1950s, and today is concentrated primarily in Addis Ababa, but also in the suburbs of Yeka, Kirkos and Nefas Silk Lafto.[131] Haile Selassie I The Rastafari movement (also known as Rastafari, or simply Rasta) is a new religious movement[1] that accepts Haile Selassie I, the former Emperor of Ethiopia, as God incarnate, called Jah[2] or Jah Rastafari. ... Zion (Hebrew: צִיּוֹן, tziyyon; Tiberian vocalization: tsiyyôn; transliterated Zion or Sion) is a term that most often designates the Land of Israel and its capital Jerusalem. ... Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Our Lady redirects here. ... Mount Zion (Hebrew: ‎ transliteration: Har Tziyyon - Height) is the ancient name of a mountain in jerusalem southe of the old city. ... Axum, properly Aksum, is a city in northern Ethiopia. ... The Chapel of the Tablet The Church of Our Lady Mary of Zion (“Re-ese Adbarat Kidiste Kidusan Dingel Maryam Ts’iyon” in the languages of Ethiopia) of the Ethiopian Orthodox Church is the most important and the oldest church of Ethiopia. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ...


Health

Main article: Health in Ethiopia

According to the head of the World Bank's Global HIV/AIDS Program, Ethiopia has only 1 medical doctor per 100,000 people.[132] However, the World Health Organization in its 2006 World Health Report gives a figure of 1936 physicians (for 2003),[133] which comes to about 2.6 per 100,000. Globalization is said to affect the country, with many educated professionals leaving Ethiopia for a better economic opportunity in the West. The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... WHO redirects here. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Ethiopia's main health problems are said to be communicable diseases caused by poor sanitation and malnutrition. These problems are exacerbated by the shortage of trained manpower and health facilities.[134]


There are 119 hospitals (12 in Addis Ababa alone) and 412 health centers in Ethiopia.[135]


Ethiopia has an incredibly low life expectancy at birth with the current average age being 45 years old.[136] In America the average life expectancy is over three decades longer at the age of 77. [137] In addition to the life expectancy rate being so low, there is also a very high infant mortality rate with over 10 percent of babies dying after or shortly after birth. [138]Currently Ethiopia only has 3 doctors per 100,000 people. These numbers are dangerously low compared to America, which has 550 available for every one hundred thousand Americans. [139] Currently Ethiopia, as a whole is fighting a losing battle against the AIDS epidemic.[140]


The low proportion of doctors with western medical expertise leaves the door wide open for potentially less reliable traditional healers that use home-based therapies to heal common ailments. High rates of unemployment leave many Ethiopian citizens unable to support their families. In Ethiopia an increasing number of “false healers” using home based medicines have grown with the rising population.[141] The differences between real and false healers are almost impossible to distinguish. However, only about ten percent of practicing healers are true Ethiopian healers.[142] Much of the false practice can be attributed to commercialization of medicine and the high demand for healing.[143] Both men and women are known to practice medicine from their homes.[144] It is most commonly the men that dispense herbal medicine similar to an out of home pharmacy.[145]


Ethiopian healers are more commonly known as traditional medical practitioners. Before the onset of Christian missionaries and westernized medicine, traditional medicine was the only form of treatment available.[146] Traditional healers extract healing ingredients from wild plants, animals and rare minerals.[147] Among the leading number of disease that leads to death include aids, malaria, tuberculosis and dysentery.[148] Largely because of the costs, traditional medicine continues to be the most common form of medicine practiced. Many Ethiopians are unemployed which makes it difficult to pay for most medicinal treatments.[149] Ethiopian medicine is heavily reliant on magical and supernatural beliefs that have little or no relation to the actual disease itself.[150] Many physical ailments are believed to be caused by the spiritual realm which is the reason healers are most likely to integrate spiritual and magical healing techniques.[151] Traditional medicinal practice is strongly related to the rich cultural beliefs of Ethiopia, which explains the emphasis of its use.[152]


In Ethiopian culture there are two main theories of the cause of disease. The first is attributed to God or other supernatural forces, while the other is attributed to external factors such as unclean drinking water and unsanitary food. [153] Most genetic diseases or deaths are viewed as the will of God. Miscarriages are thought to be the result of demonic spirits.[154]


One medical practice that is commonly practiced irrespective of religion or economic status is female genital mutilation.[155] Nearly four out of five Ethiopian women are circumcised.[156] There are three levels of circumcision that involve different degrees of cutting the clitoris and vaginal area.[157] Many of these practices are done with an unsanitary blade with little or no anesthetics.[158] It can result in heavy bleeding, high pain, and sometimes death.[159]


It was not until Christian missionaries traveled to Ethiopia bringing new religious beliefs and education that westernized medicine was infused into Ethiopian medicine.[160] Today there are three medical schools in Ethiopia that began training students in 1965 two of which are linked to Addis Ababa University.[161] There is only one psychiatric facility treatment in the whole country because Ethiopian culture is resistant to psychiatric treatment.[162] Although there have been huge leaps and bounds in medical technology there is still a large problem in the distribution of medicine and doctors in Ethiopia. [163]


Education

Main article: Education in Ethiopia
See also: Universities and colleges in Ethiopia

Education in Ethiopia has been dominated by the Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s. The elites, mostly Christians and central ethnic Amhara population, had the most privilege until 1974, when the government tried to reach the rural areas. In fact, until right now, it is only the elite Christians who have better chance to higher education. Languages other than Amharic are supressed. Oromo, for example wasn't allowed in the educational institutions. The current system follows very similar school expansion schemes to the rural areas as the previous 1980s system with an addition of deeper regionalisation giving rural education in their own languages starting at the elementary level and with more budget allocated to the Education Sector. The sequence of general education in Ethiopia is six years of primary school, four years of lower secondary school and two years of higher secondary school.[164] Education in Ethiopia has been dominated by the Ethiopian Orthodox Church for many centuries until secular education was adopted in the early 1900s. ... Several universities and colleges exist in Ethiopia. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Cuisine

Typical Ethiopian cuisine: Injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew).
Typical Ethiopian cuisine: Injera (pancake-like bread) and several kinds of wat (stew).
Main article: Ethiopian cuisine

The best known Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrees, usually a wat, or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread. One does not eat with utensils, but instead uses injera to scoop up the entrees and side dishes. Tihlo prepared from roasted barley flour is very popular in Amhara, Agame, and Awlaelo (Tigrai). Traditional Ethiopian cuisine employs no pork or shellfish of any kind, as they are forbidden in the Islamic, Jewish, and Ethiopian Orthodox Christian faiths. It is also very common to eat from the same big dish in the center of the table with a group of people. Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 898 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2560x1920, 898 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat or tsebhi (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. ... Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrees, usually a wat or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread, which is 50 cm (20 inches) in diameter and made out of fermented teff flour. ... Ethiopian cuisine consists of various vegetable or meat side dishes and entrees, usually a wat or thick stew, served atop injera, a large sourdough flatbread, which is 50 cm (20 inches) in diameter and made out of fermented teff flour. ... For other uses, see Vegetable (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Meat (disambiguation). ... Wat or wet, known as tsebhi in Tigrinya (also wot; Amharic , Tigrinya ) is an Ethiopian and Eritrean stew which may be prepared with chicken, beef, lamb, a variety of vegetables, and spice mixtures such as berbere and niter kibbeh, a seasoned clarified butter. ... Beef Stew A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in water or other water-based liquid, typically by simmering, and that are then served without being drained. ... This meal, consisting of injera and several kinds of wat or tsebhi (stew), is typical of Ethiopian and Eritrean cuisine. ... Sourdough starter made with flour and water refreshed for 3 or more days Sourdough (or, more formally, natural leaven or levain) refers to the process of leavening bread by capturing wild yeasts in a dough or batter, as opposed to using a domestic, purpose-cultured yeast such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. ... Crisp bread Making Tortillas A flatbread is a simple bread made from flattened dough. ... For other uses, see Pork (disambiguation). ... Cooked mussels Shellfish is a term used to describe shelled molluscs and crustaceans used as food. ... Islam (Arabic: ; ( â–¶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Ethiopian Church in Jerusalem This Ethiopian icon shows St. ...


Music

Mahmoud Ahmed, an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry, in 2005.
Mahmoud Ahmed, an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry, in 2005.
Main article: Music of Ethiopia

The Music of Ethiopia is extremely diverse, with each of the country's 80 ethnic groups being associated with unique sounds. Ethiopian music uses a unique modal system that is pentatonic, with characteristically long intervals between some notes. Influences include ancient Christian elements and Muslim and folk music from elsewhere in the Horn of Africa, especially Sudan and Somalia. Popular musicians include teddy Afro, Tilahun Gessesse, Aster Aweke, Hamelmal Abate, Tewodros Tadesse, Ephrem Tamiru, Muluken Melesse, Bizunesh Bekele, Mahmoud Ahmed, Tadesse Alemu, Alemayehu Eshete, Neway Debebe, Asnaketch Worku, Ali Birra, Gigi, Dawit (Messay) Mellesse, and Mulatu Astatke. Image File history File links Mahmoudahmedfeature. ... Image File history File links Mahmoudahmedfeature. ... Mahmoud Ahmed (born May 8, 1941) is an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry. ... For other uses, see Singer (disambiguation). ... Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. ... Ethiopian music is extremely diverse, with each of the countrys 80 tribes being associated with unique sounds. ... Ethiopian music is extremely diverse, with each of the countrys 80 tribes being associated with unique sounds. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... In music, a pentatonic scale is a scale with five notes per octave. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Folk song redirects here. ... The Horn of Africa. ... Teddy Afro (in Amharic: ቴዲ አፍሮ; real name: Tewodros Kassahun, in Amharic: ቴዎድሮስ ካሳሁን) is an Ethiopian music sensation and one of the most successful singers and song writers from Ethiopia in recent times. ... Tilahun Gessesse is an Ethiopian singer. ... Sometimes referred to as “Ethiopia’s Aretha Franklin”, Aster Aweke is an Ethiopian singer who lives in the United States. ... The album Muluken Melesse (b. ... Mahmoud Ahmed (born May 8, 1941) is an Ethiopian singer of Gurage ancestry. ... Tadesse Alemu is an Ethiopian singer who sings traditional Ethiopian songs, sometimes Christian-based, in an upbeat pop-music style with the modern-day electronic instrumentation that is characteristic of today’s Ethiopian popular music. ... Alemayehu Eshete (also written Alèmayèhu Eshèté ) is an Ethiopian Ethio-jazz singer active since the 1960s. ... Asnaketch Worku is a famous Ethiopian vocalist. ... Ali Birra (born 1950) is a famous Oromo singer, composer, poet and nationalist. ... Ejigayehu Shibabaw, or Gigi as she is popularly known, is one of the most successful contemporary Ethiopian singers worldwide. ... Mulatu Astatke (var. ...


Sports

Ethiopia has some of the best middle-distance and long-distance runners in the world. Kenya and Morocco are often its opponents in World Championships and Olympic middle and long-distance events. As of March 2006, two Ethiopians dominate the long-distance running scene, mainly: Haile Gebreselassie (World champion and Olympic champion) who has set over twenty new world records and currently holds the 20 km, half-marathon, 25 km, and marathon world record,[citation needed] and Kenenisa Bekele (World champion, World cross country champion, and Olympic champion), who holds the 5,000 m and 10,000 m world records.[citation needed] Ethiopia has also had various successful sweeps by taking all three medals in various world races including during the Olympics. The last few years Ethiopian women runners have joined the men in dominating athletics, particularly the multi-gold medalists Meseret Defar and Tirunesh Dibaba.[165][166][167] Ethiopia has added more events to the list of its preeminence in athletics, including the steeplechase which Legese Lamiso recently took the top honors.[168] Middle distance track events are track races longer than sprints up to (and arguably including) 5000 meters. ... Long distance in telecommunications, refers to telephone calls made outside a certain area, usually characterized by an area code outside of a local call area. ... A World Championship is any contest to determine the best in the world in a particular field. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Haile Gebrselassie (born April 18, 1973) is a long distance track and road running athlete born as one of ten children in Assela, Arsi, Ethiopia. ... A world record is the best performance in a certain discipline, usually a sports event. ... Fun runners taking part in the Bristol Half Marathon A half marathon is a road running event of 13. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ... Kenenisa Bekele (born June 13, 1982, Ethiopia) is an Ethiopian distance runner, one of the most successful distance runners of all time and considered by some as a modern-day great. ...


Ethiopian distance-runners include Derartu Tulu, Abebe Bikila, Mamo Wolde, Miruts Yifter, Addis Abebe, Gebregziabher Gebremariam, Belayneh Densamo, Werknesh Kidane, Tirunesh Dibaba, Meseret Defar, Million Woldie, Assefa Mezgebu, etc. Derartu Tulu was the first woman from Africa to win an Olympic gold medal, doing so over 10,000 metres at Barcelona. Abebe Bikila, the first Olympic champion Θ representing an African nation, won the Olympic marathon in 1960 and 1964, setting world records both times. He is well-known to this day for winning the 1960 marathon in Rome while running barefoot. Miruts Yifter, the first in a tradition of Ethiopians known for their brilliant finishing speed, won gold at 5,000 and 10,000 metres at the Moscow Olympics. He is the last man to achieve this feat. Derartu Tulu (born: March 21, 1972) in Bokoji, Arsi, Ethiopia is a long distance track, road and marathon athlete. ... Abebe Bikila (August 7, 1932 - October 25, 1973) was an Ethiopian runner and two time Olympic marathon champion from Ethiopia. ... Demisse Mamo Wolde (June 12, 1932-May 26, 2002) was an Ethiopian runner born in Diri Jille. ... Miruts Yifter (born May 15, 1944) is a former Ethiopian athlete, winner of two gold medals at the 1980 Summer Olympics. ... Addis Abebe (born September 5, 1970) is a former long-distance runner from Ethiopia, most famous for winning a bronze medal in the infamous 10,000 metres at the 1992 Summer Olympics. ... Gebre-egziabher Gebremariam (born September 10, 1984 in Tigray) is an Ethiopian long-distance runner. ... Belayneh Densamo (born June 28, 1965 in Diramo Afarrara, Sidamo) is a long distance track and road running athlete from Ethiopia. ...


Archaeology

Ethiopia offers a greater richness in archaeological finds and historical buildings than any other country in Sub-Saharan Africa (including Sudan). In April 2005 , the Obelisk of Axum, one of Ethiopia's religious and historical treasures, was returned to Ethiopia by Italy.[169] Under the orders of dictator Benito Mussolini, Italian troops seized the obelisk in 1937 and took it to Rome. Italy agreed to return the obelisk in 1947 in a UN agreement, and it was finally returned in 2005 . As of January 2007 the obelisk has not been erected in Ethiopia. The monument was returned to Ethiopia in three or four large segments to facilitate easier transport. The pieces are so large that the Ethiopian government has been unable to erect it or even devise a way it could feasibly be done. The original site of the obelisk is an unexcavated area that would be damaged by heavy machinery, if that were determined to be an appropriate method of erection. There have been plenty of significant discoveries including the oldest known, complete fossilized human skeleton, Lucy. Other discoveries are still being made.[170] Recently, archeologists uncovered the ruins of the legendary ancient Islamic kingdom of Shoa, that included evidence of a large urban settlement as well as a large mosque.[171] The Northern Stelae Park in Axum, with the King Ezanas Stele at the centre and the Great Stele lies broken. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... Lucy (also given a second (Amharic) name: ድንቅነሽ dinqineš, or “Dinkenesh,” meaning “You are beautiful” or you are wonderful[2]) is the common name of AL 288-1, the 40% complete Australopithecus afarensis skeleton discovered on November 24, 1974 by the International Afar Research Expedition (IARE; director: Maurice Taieb, co-directors... Islam (Arabic: ; ( ▶ (help· info)), the submission to God) is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions and the worlds second-largest religion. ... Shewa (also spelled Shoa) is a historical region of Ethiopia. ...


See also

This is a list of articles that are related to African and black people. ... Telephones - main lines in use: 435,000 (2003) Telephones - mobile cellular phones: 97,800 (2003) Telephone system: open wire and microwave radio relay system adequate for government use domestic: open wire; microwave radio relay; radio communication in the HF, VHF, and UHF frequencies; two domestic satellites provide the national trunk... Membership badge of the Ethiopia Scout Association The Ethiopia Scout Association is the national Scouting association of Ethiopia. ... The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ), also called the Geez calendar, is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and is also the liturgical year of Christians in Eritrea belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, Eastern Catholic Church of Eritrea and Lutheran (Evangelical Church of Eritrea), where it is commonly known... Ethiopia was relatively isolated from major movements of world politics until the 1895 and 1935 Italian invasions. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to Ethiopia. ... This is a list of Ethiopian companies. ... The following is a list of Ethiopians. ... The Ethiopian National Defense Force (ENDF) has approximately 100,000 personnel, which makes it one of the largest military forces in Africa. ... This is a list of Monarchies taht existed in pre-republic Ethiopia and before. ... Ethiopia is home to several national parks: Abidjatta-Shalla National Park Awash National Park Bale Mountains National Park Gambela National Park Mago National Park Nechisar National Park Omo National Park Semien Mountains National Park Yangudi Rassa National Park Included in this system are a number of wildlife sanctuaries: Harar Wildlife... // Historic of picture of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway in Dire Dawa with Alfred Ilg (taken sometime in 1902-1906) total: 681 km (Ethiopian segment of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway), all 1000mm narrow gauge note: At present the railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia, but negotiations... Several universities and colleges exist in Ethiopia. ... // According to the 2000 Ethiopia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) access to improved water and sanitation was as follows: 22% for improved water supply (86% for urban areas and 13% for rural areas) 8% for improved sanitation (34% in urban areas, 3% in rural areas)[1] The World Bank quotes...

Peoples and Languages

Nations, Nationalities and Peoples

Afar may refer to: Look up afar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Agaw are a people of Ethiopia. ... Air Wisconsin Airlines Corporation logo. ... The Agaw are a people of Ethiopia. ... Amhara (አማራ) may refer to: Amhara, an ethnic group of Ethiopia. ... Argobba is an Ethiopic language that spoken in an area north-east of Addis Ababa by the Argobba people. ... Ari may refer to: Rabbi Isaac Luria (1534–1572), Jewish rabbinical scholar and mystic, known also as Ari Ari (atoll), a tourist destination in the Maldives Ari, Italy, a commune in the province of Chieti, Abruzzo, Italy Ari, Bangkok, Thailand, a station on the Sukhumvit line of the Bangkok Skytrain... Look up bench in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Berta can mean: Bertha, a name, commonly spelled this way in many European languages Berta language, spoken in Ethiopia Berta distillery, grappa distillery in italy, official site Category: ... For the German astronomer see Johann Elert Bode. ... Chaha (in Chaha and Amharic: ቸሃ čehā or čexā) is a Semitic language spoken in central Ethiopia, mainly within the Gurage Zone in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region and by speakers of the language who have settled in Ethiopian cities, especially Addis Ababa. ... Look up Dime in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Dime has several different meanings, here are some of them: Dime (U.S. coin) - a U.S. coin worth ten cents. ... Bangdi The dizi (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), is a Chinese transverse flute. ... Gamo is an Airgun manufacturer. ... Gambela, Ethiopia a city Gambela Region, Ethiopia Gambela National Park Category: ... Gumuz (also spelled Gumaz) is an ethnic group living in the Benishangul-Gumaz Region and the Qwara woreda of Ethiopia, as well as the Fazogli region of Sudan; they number about 200,000. ... Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. ... Hadiya (Gudela) was a powerful vassal kingdom of Ethiopia, located in southwestern Ethiopia, south of the Abbay River and west of Shewa. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Harari may refer to: The city of Harar in Ethiopia; Harari is an adjectival form of the noun (along with Hadere, Adere). ... KOMO-TV, KOMO 4 is a television station in Seattle, Washington. ... Konso (also known as Karati) is a town on the Segen River in southwestern Ethiopia. ... KORE is an AM radio station in Springfield, Oregon, USA, serving the Eugene-Springfield metropolitan area with Christian music and programming. ... Kunamas are one of the smallest ethnic group from Eritrea, they live in region of Gash-Barka. ... Maale can mean: Maale, Maldives, a first-order administrative division of the Maldives the Maale (ethnic group), an ethnic group in Ethiopia, and the Maale language, the language of the Maale people This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Mao could refer to: Mao Zedong, (Mao Tse-Tung in Wade-Giles) leader of the Communist Party of China from 1935 to 1976. ... As one of the most influential rap artists in New Zealand history, Mareko (Born, Mark Kolani Sagapolutele)with his South Auckland based crew Deceptikonz, has contributed to the shaping of an entire generation of New Zealand hip hop music. ... Mursi woman. ... NAO can refer to: A Carrack (a three- or four-masted sailing ship developed in the Mediterranean in the 15th century) National Audit Office Nautical Almanac Office New Age Outlaws, now known as Voodoo Kin Mafia in TNA Wrestling North Atlantic Oscillation The Scotland-based electro/rock band North Atlantic... The Nuer are a confederation of tribes located in Southern Sudan and western Ethiopia. ... Surf is the name of a laundry detergent, most commonly known by said name in the United States, the United Kingdom, and Ireland. ... Opo was the name of a famous dolphin in New Zealand, see the chapter Opo the dolphin in the article Hokianga. ... For the language, see Oromo language. ... The Sidama are a tribal people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. ... The Surma are a tribal people in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region (SNNPR) of Ethiopia. ... Tigre may mean: Tiger in Spanish language. ... Welayta (ወላይታ, also Wolayta, Wolaita, Walayta, etc. ... YEM may refer to: Yemen, the country in Southwest Asia Manitowaning/Manitoulin East Municipal Airport, the IATA airport code You Enjoy Myself, a song by the jam band Phish Yamashita Engineering Manufacture Inc. ...

Languages

Main article: Languages of Ethiopia

Ethiopia has eighty-four indigenous languages. Some of these are: Ethiopia has many indigenous languages (some 84 according to SIL), most of them Afro-Asiatic (Semitic, Cushitic, Omotic) and Nilo-Saharan. ...

English is the most widely spoken foreign language and is the medium of instruction in secondary schools. Amharic was the language of primary school instruction, but has been replaced in many areas by local languages such as Oromifa and Tigrinya. Ethiopia has its own alphabet, called Ge'ez or Ethiopic (ግዕዝ), and calendar. Afar () is a Lowland East Cushitic language spoken in Ethiopia, Eritrea and Djibouti. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Anfillo is a Northern Omotic language spoken in Western Ethiopia by a few hundred people. ... The Awngi language is a Central Cushitic language spoken by the Awi people, living in Central Gojjam in northwestern Ethiopia. ... The Berta language is spoken in Sudan and Ethiopia, and is generally classified as a branch of Nilo-Saharan. ... Bussa (or Muusiye) is a Lowland East Cushitic language spoken in the Dirashe region in the South West of Ethiopia. ... Gurage is an ethnic group in Ethiopia. ... Hadiya(sometimes Hadiyigna or Adiya) is the language of the Hadiya people of Ethiopia. ... aman be dejqho ... Afro-Asiatic, Highland Cushitic Language group mainly spoken at the highlands of Kembat-Tembaro zone. ... Konso (or Komso, Conso) is a East Cushitic language spoken in South West Ethiopia. ... Ongota (also known as Birale/Birayle) is a moribund language of southwest Ethiopia. ... Oromo, also known as Afaan Oromoo, Oromiffa(a), and sometimes in other languages as variant spellings of these names (Oromigna, Afan Oromo, etc. ... The Saho language is an East Cushitic language of Eritrea, spoken in the middle of the country, as well as by a small group across the border in Ethiopia. ... The Sidamo languages are part of the Afro-Asiatic languages, belonging to the Cushitic sub-phylum. ... The Silte language (Selti, Silti; ISO/DIS 639-3: xst) is an South Semitic (East Gurage) language of Ethiopia, with some 830,000 speakers (1998 census), spoken in the region about 150 km south of Addis Abeba. ... Soddo (autonym kəstane Christian; formerly called Aymälläl in Western sources, after a particular dialect of it) is a Gurage language spoken by about 300,000 people in southeastern Ethiopia. ... Tigrigna (or ትግሪኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... Wolaita or Wolayatta (also known as Wellamo) is situated in the Southern Ethiopia had been an independent ancient Nation before the expansion of Menelik II, King of Ethiopia to the south in early 1890s. ... Xamtanga or Khamtanga is a Central Cushitic language spoken in Ethiopia. ... The Zay language is one of the Ethiopic languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Oromo, also known as Afaan Oromoo, Oromiffa(a), and sometimes in other languages as variant spellings of these names (Oromigna, Afan Oromo, etc. ... Tigrigna (or ትግሪኛ) is a Semitic language spoken in Eritrea, where it is the official language, and in parts of Ethiopia and Israel. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... The Geez language (or Giiz language) is an ancient language that developed in the Ethiopian Highlands of the Horn of Africa as the language of the peasantry. ... The Ethiopian calendar (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር ), also called the Geez calendar, is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and is also the liturgical year of Christians in Eritrea belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahdo Church, Eastern Catholic Church of Eritrea and Lutheran (Evangelical Church of Eritrea), where it is commonly known...


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  171. ^ Hailu , Tesfaye. (2000). History and Culture of the Argobba: Recent Investigations, In: Annale D'Éthiopie, 16, pp. 195–206, ISBN 2-86877-154-8

1913 advertisement for the 11th edition, with the slogan When in doubt — look it up in the Encyclopædia Britannica The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with æ, the ae-ligature) was first published in 1768–1771 as The Britannica was an important early English-language general encyclopedia and is still... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Tewodros II (Geez ቴዎድሮስ, also known as Theodore II) (1818 -suicide April 13, 1868) was an Emperor of Ethiopia (1855 - 1868). ... The Paris Peace Conference (July 29 to October 15, 1946) resulted in the Paris peace treaties signed on February 10, 1947. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Routledge is an imprint for books in the humanities part of the Taylor & Francis Group, which also has Brunner-Routledge, RoutledgeCurzon and RoutledgeFalmer divisions. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Reuters Group plc (LSE: RTR and NASDAQ: RTRSY); pronounced is known as a financial market data provider and a news service that provides reports from around the world to newspapers and broadcasters. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mail & Guardian is a South African newspaper that was started by a group of journalists in 1985 after the closures of the two leading liberal newspapers, the Rand Daily Mail and Sunday Express. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Alan Greenspan, former chairman, United States Federal Reserve. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Look up discovery in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Bibliography

This article contains material from the Library of Congress Country Studies, which are United States government publications in the public domain. This article contains material from the CIA World Factbook which, as a U.S. government publication, is in the public domain. The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

  • Bahru Zewde (1991). A History of Modern Ethiopia, 1855–1974. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press. ISBN 0852550677. 
  • Haile Selassie I. (1999). My Life and Ethiopia's Progress: The Autobiography of Emperor Haile Selassie I, Translated by Edward Ullendorff, Chicago: Frontline. ISBN 0948390409. 
  • Henze, Paul B. (2004). Layers of Time: A History of Ethiopia. Shama Books. ISBN 1-931253-28-5. 
  • Marcus, Harold G. (1975). The Life and Times of Menelik II: Ethiopia, 1844–1913. Oxford, U.K.: Clarendon.  Reprint, Trenton, NJ: Red Sea, 1995. ISBN 1569020094.
  • Marcus, Harold G. (2002). A History of Ethiopia, updated ed., Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520224795. 
  • Mockler, Anthony (1984). Haile Selassie's War. New York: Random House.  Reprint, New York: Olive Branch, 2003. ISBN 1902669533.
  • Pankhurst, Richard. History of Northern Ethiopia — and the Establishment of the Italian Colony or Eritrea. Civic Webs Virtual Library. Retrieved on April 05, 2008.
  • Rubenson, Sven (2003). The Survival of Ethiopian Independence, 4th ed., Hollywood, CA: Tsehai. ISBN 0972317279. 

Haile Selassie I KG, GCB, GCMG, GCVO (Geez: , Power of the Trinity; July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was de jure Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974 and de facto from 1916 to 1936 and 1941 to 1974. ...

External links

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Category:Ethiopia

Overview Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Education The International Fund for Agricultural Development is an agency of the United Nations. ... Dr. Peter J. Middlebrook (born in Lincoln, U.K., 15 November 1965) is a leading English political economist / Political Scientistspecialising in the reconstruction and development of Transitionand post conflict economies. ...

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Government Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ...

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Southern Sudan is a region of Sudan. ... Aramaic is a group of Semitic languages with a 3,000-year history. ... Hebrew redirects here. ...

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CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Ethiopia (5590 words)
Ethiopia is used to designate the lands inhabited by the sons of Cush, and is therefore applied to all the scattered regions inhabited by that family.
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Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan.
Ethiopia is the oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world.
Ethiopia was a charter member of the United Nations and took part in UN operations in Korea in 1951 and the Congo in 1960.
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