In the context of a code adopted by a profession or by a governmental or quasi-governmental organ to regulate that profession, an ethical code may be styled as a code of professional responsibility, which may dispense with difficult issues of what behavior is "ethical". Professional responsibility is the area of legal practice that encompasses the duties of attorneys to act in a professional manner, obey the law, avoid conflicts of interest, and put the interests of clients ahead of their own interests. ...
Some codes of ethics are often promulgated by the (quasi-)governmental agency responsible for licensing a profession. Violations of these codes may be subject to administrative (e.g. loss of license), civil or penal remedies. Other codes can be enforced by the promulgating organization alone; violations of these codes are usually limited to loss of membership in the organization. Other codes are merely advisory and there are no prescribed remedies for violations or even procedures for determining whether a violation even occurred.
A code of ethics is often a formal statement of the organization's values on certain ethical and social issues. Some set out general principles about an organization's beliefs on matters such as quality, employees or the environment. Others set out the procedures to be used in specific ethical situations - such as conflicts of interest or the acceptance of gifts, and delineate the procedures to determine whether a violation of the code of ethics occurred and, if so, what remedies should be imposed. The effectiveness of such codes of ethics depends on the extent to which to management supports them with sanctions and rewards. Violations of a private organization's code of ethics usually can subject the violator to the organization's remedies (in an employment context, this can mean termination of employment; in a membership context, this can mean expulsion). Of course, certain acts that constitute a violation of a code of ethics may also violate a law or regulation and can be punished by the appropriate governmental organ.
They are often not part of any more general theory of ethics but accepted as pragmatic necessities. Ethics (from the Ancient Greek Äthikos, the adjective of Äthos custom, habit), a major branch of philosophy, is the study of values and customs of a person or group and covers the analysis and employment of concepts such as right and wrong, good and evil, and responsibility. ...
Ethical codes are distinct from moral codes that may apply to the culture, education, and religion of a whole society. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Morality. ...
Even organizations and communities that may be considered criminal may have their own ethical code of conduct, be it official or unofficial. Examples could be hackers, thieves, or even street gangs.
For organizations with codes of ethics, see also
Look up realtor in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...
Ladd, John. "The Quest for a Code of Professional Ethics: An Intellectual and Moral Confusion." In Deborah G. Johnson (ed.) Ethical Issues in Engineering. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1991.
Flores, Albert. "The Philosophical Basis of Engineering Codes of Ethics." In Vesilind P.A. and A. Gunn (eds), Engineering Ethics and the Environment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998: 201-209.
James B. Sumner "Ethical related to Engineering" In eds G (Cambride Youth Club)
- Philippine President Manuel Quezon's Code of Citizenship and Ethics
- Code of Conduct and Ethical Standards for Public Officials and Employees (Republic Act 6713)