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Encyclopedia > Ethanol
Ethanol
IUPAC name Ethanol
Other names Ethyl alcohol; grain alcohol; hydroxyethane; drinking alcohol; ethyl hydrate
Identifiers
CAS number [64-17-5]
RTECS number KQ6300000
SMILES CCO
Properties
Molecular formula CH3CH2OH

MolarMass = 46.06844(232) g/mol Neutral grain spirits refers to a clear liquid distilled at a high ethyl alcohol content. ... Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... Image File history File links Ethanol-2D-skeletal. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1100x900, 169 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ethanol ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ...

Appearance colorless clear liquid
Density 0.789 g/cm³, liquid
Melting point

−114.3 °C (158.8 K) For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature range at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ...

Boiling point

78.4 °C (351.6 K) Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ...

Solubility in water Fully miscible
Acidity (pKa) 15.9
Viscosity 1.200 mPa·s (cP) at 20.0 °C
Dipole moment 5.64 fC·fm (1.69 D) (gas)
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Flammable (F)
NFPA 704
4
0
0
 
R-phrases R11
S-phrases (S2), S7, S16
Flash point 286.15 K (13 °C or 55.4 °F)
Related compounds
Supplementary data page
Structure and
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state
(at 25 °C, 100 kPa)

Infobox disclaimer and references

Ethanol, also called ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, or drinking alcohol, is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid. It is best known as the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages and in thermometers. In common usage, it is often referred to simply as alcohol. Solubility is a chemical property referring to the ability for a given substance, the solute, to dissolve in a solvent. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... An acid dissociation constant, denoted by Ka, is an equilibrium constant for the dissociation of a weak acid. ... For other uses, see Viscosity (disambiguation). ... The poise (P; IPA: ) is the unit of dynamic viscosity in the centimetre gram second system of units. ... The Earths magnetic field, which is approximately a dipole. ... The debye (symbol: D) is a non-SI and non-CGS unit of electrical dipole moment. ... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. ... 900MHz, 21. ... Mass spectrometry (previously called mass spectroscopy (deprecated) or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique that measures the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... The plimsoll symbol as used in shipping In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals exactly). ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alcoholic beverages are drinks containing ethanol, popularly called alcohol. ...


Ethanol is also known as EtOH, using the common organic chemistry notation of representing the ethyl group (C2H5) with Et. The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism maintains an EtOH database.[1] The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. ...


Ethanol is a straight-chain alcohol, and its molecular formula is C2H5OH. An alternative notation is CH3-CH2-OH, which indicates that the carbon of a methyl group (CH3-) is attached to the carbon of a methylene group (-CH2-), which is attached to the oxygen of a hydroxyl group (-OH). A chemical formula is an easy way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ...


Its empirical formula is C2H6O, a formula that it shares with dimethyl ether. In chemistry, the empirical formula of a chemical compound is a simple expression of the relative number of each type of atom in it. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Dimethyl ether, also known as methoxymethane, oxybismethane, methyl ether, wood ether, and DME, is a colorless gaseous ether with an ethereal odor. ...


Except for the use of fire, the fermentation of sugar into ethanol is very likely the earliest organic reaction known to humanity,[citation needed] and the intoxicating effects of ethanol consumption have been known since ancient times. In modern times, ethanol intended for industrial use is also produced from byproducts of petroleum refining. Organic reactions are chemical reactions involving organic compounds. ...


Ethanol has widespread use as a solvent of substances intended for human contact or consumption, including scents, flavorings, colorings, and medicines. In chemistry, it is both an essential solvent and a feedstock for the synthesis of other products. It has a long history as a fuel for heat and light and also as a fuel for internal combustion engines. A colored automobile engine The internal combustion engine is an engine in which the combustion of fuel and an oxidizer (typically air) occurs in a confined space called a combustion chamber. ...

Contents

History

Ethanol has been used by humans since prehistory as the intoxicating ingredient of alcoholic beverages. Dried residues on 9000-year-old pottery found in China imply that alcoholic beverages were used even among Neolithic people.[2] Its isolation as a relatively pure compound was first achieved by Muslim chemists who developed the art of distillation during the Abbasid caliphate, the most notable of whom were Jabir ibn Hayyan (Geber), Al-Kindi (Alkindus), and al-Razi (Rhazes, 865–925). Booze redirects here. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Alchemy in Islam differs from the general alchemy in certain ways, one of which is that Muslim alchemists didnt believe in the creation of life in the laboratory. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Mashriq Dynasties  Maghrib Dynasties  The Abbasid Caliphate Abbasid (Arabic: , ) is the dynastic name generally given to the caliph of Baghdad, the second of the two great Sunni dynasties of the Arab Empire, that overthrew the Umayyad caliphs from all but Spain. ... A caliphate (from the Arabic خلافة or khilāfah), is the Islamic form of government representing the political unity and leadership of the Muslim world. ... Jabir ibn Hayyan and Geber were also pen names of an anonymous 14th century Spanish alchemist: see Pseudo-Geber. ... For the Christian theologian, see Abd al-Masih ibn Ishaq al-Kindi. ... For other uses, see Razi. ...


Writings attributed to Jabir ibn Hayyan (721–815) mention the flammable vapors of boiled wine. Al-Kindi (801–873) unambiguously described the distillation of wine.[3]


In 1796, Johann Tobias Lowitz obtained pure ethanol by filtering distilled ethanol through activated charcoal. Activated carbon Activated carbon, also called activated charcoal or activated coal, is a general term which covers carbon material mostly derived from charcoal. ...


Antoine Lavoisier described ethanol as a compound of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and in 1808 Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure determined ethanol's chemical formula.[4] Fifty years later, Archibald Scott Couper published the structural formula of ethanol, which placed ethanol among the first chemical compounds to have their chemical structure determined.[5] Lavoisier redirects here. ... Nicolas-Théodore de Saussure (14 October 1767 - 18 April 1845) was a Switzerland chemist and student of plant physiology who made seminal advances in phytochemistry. ... Archibald Scott Couper (1831-1892) was the author of On a New Chemical Theory, Philosophical Magazine 16, 104-116 (1858) [as excerpted in Alembic Club Reprint #21, On a New Chemical Theory and Researches on Salicylic Acid[1]] Friedrich August Kekulé von Stradonitz claimed to solve the structure of Benzene...


Ethanol was first prepared synthetically in 1826 through the independent efforts of Henry Hennel in Great Britain and S.G. Sérullas in France. In 1828, Michael Faraday prepared ethanol by acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene, a process similar to that which is used today for industrial ethanol synthesis.[6] Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... In acid catalysis and base catalysis a chemical reaction is catalized by an acid or a base. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...


Ethanol was used as lamp fuel in the United States as early as 1840, but a tax levied on industrial alcohol during the Civil War made this use uneconomical. This tax was repealed in 1906,[7] and from 1908 onward Ford Model T automobiles could be adapted to run on ethanol.[8] With the advent of Prohibition in 1920 though, sellers of ethanol fuel were accused of being allied with moonshiners,[7] and ethanol fuel again fell into disuse until late in the 20th century. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Ford Model T (colloquially known as the Tin Lizzie and the Flivver) was an automobile produced by Henry Fords Ford Motor Company from 1908 through 1927. ... The term Prohibition, also known as A Dry Law, refers to a law in a certain country by which the manufacture, transportation, import, export, and sale of alcoholic beverages is restricted or illegal. ... Revenue men at the site of moonshine stills, Kentucky, 1911 or earlier For other uses, see Moonshine (disambiguation). ...


Physical properties

Ethanol burning in a shallow dish.

Ethanol is a volatile, flammable, colorless liquid that has a strong characteristic odor. It burns with a smokeless blue flame that is not always visible in normal light. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 192 KB) Combustion of ethanol in evaporating dish Kyanite 01:24, 15 November 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 192 KB) Combustion of ethanol in evaporating dish Kyanite 01:24, 15 November 2006 (UTC) I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ...


The physical properties of ethanol stem primarily from the presence of its hydroxyl group and the shortness of its carbon chain. Ethanol’s hydroxyl group is able to participate in hydrogen bonding, rendering it more viscous and less volatile than less polar organic compounds of similar molecular weight. // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ... // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ...


Ethanol is a versatile solvent, miscible with water and with many organic solvents, including acetic acid, acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, diethyl ether, ethylene glycol, glycerol, nitromethane, pyridine, and toluene.[9][10] It is also miscible with light aliphatic hydrocarbons, such as pentane and hexane, and with aliphatic chlorides such as trichloroethane and tetrachloroethylene.[10] The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Acetone (disambiguation). ... Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... R-phrases , , , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point Non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point Non-flammable U.S. Permissible exposure limit (PEL) 50 ppm (240 mg/m3) (OSHA) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Flash point 35 °C R/S statement R: S: RTECS number PA9800000 Related compounds Related nitro compounds nitroethane Related compounds methyl nitrite methyl nitrate Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Nitromethane is an organic... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ... Toluene, also known as methylbenzene or phenylmethane is a clear, water-insoluble liquid with the typical smell of paint thinners, redolent of the sweet smell of the related compound benzene. ... Pentane (also known as amyl hydride or skellysolve) is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)3CH3. ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... The chemical compound 1,1,1-trichloroethane is a chlorinated hydrocarbon that was until recently widely used as an industrial solvent. ... Tetrachloroethylene Cl2C=CCl2 is a manufactured chemical compound that is widely used for the dry cleaning of fabrics and for metal-degreasing. ...


Ethanol’s miscibility with water contrasts with that of longer-chain alcohols (five or more carbon atoms), whose water miscibility decreases sharply as the number of carbons increases.[11]


Hydrogen bonding causes pure ethanol to be hygroscopic to the extent that it readily absorbs water from the air. The polar nature of the hydroxyl group causes ethanol to dissolve many ionic compounds, notably sodium and potassium hydroxides, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide, and sodium bromide.[10] Sodium and potassium chlorides are slightly soluble in ethanol.[10] Because the ethanol molecule also has a nonpolar end, it will also dissolve nonpolar substances, including most essential oils[12] and numerous flavoring, coloring, and medicinal agents. A hygroscopic substance is a substance that absorbs water readily from its surroundings. ... Sodium hydroxide (NaOH), also known as lye, caustic soda and (incorrectly, according to IUPAC nomenclature)[1] sodium hydrate, is a caustic metallic base. ... The chemical compound potassium hydroxide, (KOH) sometimes known as caustic potash, potassa, potash lye, and potassium hydrate, is a metallic base. ... Magnesium chloride is composed of magnesium and chlorine and is a typical ionic halide, being highly polar and soluble in water. ... R-phrases S-phrases , , Related Compounds Other anions calcium fluoride calcium bromide calcium iodide Other cations magnesium chloride strontium chloride Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) (also Sal Ammoniac, salmiac, nushadir salt, zalmiak, sal armagnac, sal armoniac, salmiakki, salmiak and salt armoniack) is, in its pure form, a clear white water-soluble crystalline salt of ammonia with a biting, slightly sour taste. ... Ammonium bromide, NH4Br, can be prepared by the direct action of hydrogen bromide on ammonia. ... Sodium bromide is the chemical compound with the formula NaBr. ... Sodium chloride, also known as common salt, table salt, or halite, is a chemical compound with the formula NaCl. ... The chemical compound potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. ...


Two unusual phenomena are associated with mixtures of ethanol and water. Ethanol-water mixtures have less volume than the sum of their individual components. Mixing equal volumes of ethanol and water results in only 1.92 volumes of mixture.[13][9] The addition of even a few percent of ethanol to water sharply reduces the surface tension of water. This property partially explains the “tears of wine” phenomenon. When wine is swirled in a glass, ethanol evaporates quickly from the thin film of wine on the wall of the glass. As the wine’s ethanol content decreases, its surface tension increases and the thin film “beads up” and runs down the glass in channels rather than as a smooth sheet. This box:      Surface tension is a property of the surface of a liquid that causes it to behave as an elastic sheet. ... The phenomenon called tears of wine is manifested as a ring of clear liquid, near the top of a glass of wine, from which droplets form and flow back into the wine. ...


Mixtures of ethanol and water that contain more than about 50% ethanol are flammable and easily ignited. Alcoholic proof is a widely used measure of how much ethanol (i.e., alcohol) such a mixture contains. In the 18th century, proof was determined by adding a liquor (such as rum) to gunpowder. If the gunpowder burned, that was considered to be “100% proof” that it was “good” liquor — hence it was called “100 proof.” Flammable or Flammability refers to the ease at which a substance will ignite, causing fire or combustion. ... Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ...


Ethanol-water solutions that contain less than 50% ethanol may also be flammable if the solution is first heated. Some cooking methods call for wine to be added to a hot pan, causing it to flash boil into a vapor, which is then ignited to burn off excess alcohol. For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ...


Ethanol is slightly more refractive than water, having a refractive index of 1.36242 (at λ=589.3 nm and 18.35 °C).[9] The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ...


Chemical properties

Chemical structure of ethanol
For more details on this topic, see Alcohol.

Ethanol is classified as a primary alcohol, meaning that the carbon to which its hydroxyl group is attached has at least two hydrogen atoms attached to it as well. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The chemistry of ethanol is largely that of its hydroxyl group. // Hydroxyl group The term hydroxyl group is used to describe the functional group -OH when it is a substituent in an organic compound. ...


Acid-base chemistry

Ethanol's hydroxyl casues the molecule to be slightly basic. It is however,so very slightly basic it is almost neutral, like pure water. The pH of 100% ethanol is 7.33, compared to 7.00 for pure water. Ethanol can be quantitatively converted to its conjugate base, the ethoxide ion (CH3CH2O), by reaction with an alkali metal such as sodium:[11] For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... In the field of chemistry, in the Brønsted-Lowry (protonic) theory of acids and bases, a conjugate base is the basic member, X-, of a pair of compounds that differ only by the presence or absence of a proton at a certain position. ... An alkoxide is the conjugate base of an alcohol and therefore consists of an organic group bonded to a negatively charged oxygen atom. ... The alkali metals are a series of elements comprising Group 1 (IUPAC style) of the periodic table: lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K), rubidium (Rb), caesium (Cs), and francium (Fr). ... For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ...

2CH3CH2OH + 2Na → 2CH3CH2ONa + H2

or a very strong base such as sodium hydride: For sodium in the diet, see Salt. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

CH3CH2OH + NaH → CH3CH2ONa + H2

This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ...

Halogenation

Ethanol reacts with hydrogen halides to produce ethyl halides such as ethyl chloride and ethyl bromide: It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Hydrohalic acid. ... Tetrafluoroethane (a haloalkane) is a clear liquid which boils well below room temperature (as seen here) and can be extracted from common canned air canisters by simply inverting them during use. ... Ethyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used in producing tetraethyl lead, a gasoline additive. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , Flash point −20 °C Autoignition temperature 511 °C Explosive limits 6. ...

CH3CH2OH + HClCH3CH2Cl + H2O

HCl reaction requires a catalyst such as zinc chloride.[14] Hydrogen chloride in the presence of their respective zinc chloride is known as Lucas reagent.[11][14] Hydrochloric acid is the aqueous solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Ethyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used in producing tetraethyl lead, a gasoline additive. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Zinc chloride (ZnCl2) is a colorless or white compound of zinc and chlorine that is extremely hygroscopic. ...

CH3CH2OH + HBrCH3CH2Br + H2O

HBr requires refluxing with a sulfuric acid catalyst.[14] It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into hydrogen bromide. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , Flash point −20 °C Autoignition temperature 511 °C Explosive limits 6. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Reflux is a technique used in industrial and laboratory distillations. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...


Ethyl halides can also be produced by reacting ethanol with more specialized halogenating agents, such as thionyl chloride for preparing ethyl chloride, or phosphorus tribromide for preparing ethyl bromide.[11][14] Halogenation is a chemical reaction that replaces a hydrogen atom with a halogen atom. ... R-phrases , , , S-phrases , , , Flash point non flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Phosphorus tribromide is a colourless liquid with the formula PBr3. ...

CH3CH2OH + SOCl2 → CH3CH2Cl + SO2 + HCl

Ester formation

Under acid-catalyzed conditions, ethanol reacts with carboxylic acids to produce ethyl esters and water: Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ...

RCOOH + HOCH2CH3RCOOCH2CH3 + H2O

For this reaction to produce useful yields it is necessary to remove water from the reaction mixture as it is formed. Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Ethanol can also form esters with inorganic acids. Diethyl sulfate and triethyl phosphate, prepared by reacting ethanol with sulfuric and phosphoric acid respectively, are both useful ethylating agents in organic synthesis. Ethyl nitrite, prepared from the reaction of ethanol with sodium nitrite and sulfuric acid, was formerly a widely-used diuretic. R-phrases , , , S-phrases , Flash point 104 °C RTECS number WS7875000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... The compound triethyl phosphate has formula (C2H5)3PO4. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... The chemical compound ethyl nitrite is an Alkyl nitrite. ... Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... This illustration shows where some types of diuretics act, and what they do. ...


Dehydration

Strong acid desiccants, such as sulfuric acid, cause ethanol's dehydration to form either diethyl ether or ethylene: This article is about the chemical compound. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...

2 CH3CH2OH → CH3CH2OCH2CH3 + H2O
CH3CH2OH → H2C=CH2 + H2O

Which product, diethyl ether or ethylene, predominates depends on the precise reaction conditions. This article is about the chemical compound. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Oxidation

Ethanol can be oxidized to acetaldehyde, and further oxidized to acetic acid. In the human body, these oxidation reactions are catalyzed by enzymes. In the laboratory, aqueous solutions of strong oxidizing agents, such as chromic acid or potassium permanganate, oxidize ethanol to acetic acid, and it is difficult to stop the reaction at acetaldehyde at high yield. Ethanol can be oxidized to acetaldehyde, without over oxidation to acetic acid, by reacting it with pyridinium chromic chloride.[14] R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry, chromic acid is a chromium (Cr) compound, yet to be isolated, with the formula H2CrO4. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Pyridinium chlorochromate, a reddish orange solid reagent, is used to oxidize primary alcohols to aldehydes and secondary alcohols to ketones. ...


The direct oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid using chromic acid is given below.

C2H5OH + 2[O] → CH3COOH + H2O

The oxidation product of ethanol, acetic acid, is spent as nutrient by the human body as acetyl CoA, where the acetyl group can be spent as energy or used for biosynthesis. Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. ...


Chlorination

When exposed to chlorine, ethanol is both oxidized and its alpha carbon chlorinated to form the compound, chloral. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... The Alpha carbon refers to the first carbon after the carbon that attaches to the functional group. ... Chloral is a colourless narcotic liquid, obtained at first by the action of chlorine on alcohol; treated with water it produces chloral hydrate. ...

4Cl2 + C2H5OH → CCl3CHO + 5HCl

Combustion

Combustion of ethanol forms carbon dioxide and water: This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...

C2H5OH(g) + 3 O2(g) → 2 CO2(g) + 3 H2O(l) (ΔHr = −1409 kJ/mol[15])

Production

94% denatured ethanol sold in a bottle for household use.
94% denatured ethanol sold in a bottle for household use.

Ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast.[16] Which process is more economical is dependent upon the prevailing prices of petroleum and of grain feed stocks. Download high resolution version (480x640, 38 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (480x640, 38 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ...


Ethylene hydration

Ethanol for use as industrial feedstock is most often made from petrochemical feed stocks, typically by the acid-catalyzed hydration of ethylene, represented by the chemical equation Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... For other uses, see acid (disambiguation). ... Catalyst redirects here. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction. ...

C2H4(g) + H2O(g) → CH3CH2OH(l)

The catalyst is most commonly phosphoric acid,[17] adsorbed onto a porous support such as diatomaceous earth or charcoal. This catalyst was first used for large-scale ethanol production by the Shell Oil Company in 1947.[18] The reaction is carried out at with an excess of high pressure steam at 300 °C. Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... This article is about orthophosphoric acid. ... Not to be confused with absorption. ... A sample of diatomaceous earth Diatomaceous earth (IPA: , also known as DE, diatomite, diahydro, kieselguhr, kieselgur and Celite) is a naturally occurring, soft, chalk-like sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled into a fine white to off-white powder. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... The Shell emblem known as the Pecten Shell Oil Company (SOC) is the Houston, Texas based wholly-owned subsidiary of Royal Dutch Shell. ...


In an older process, first practiced on the industrial scale in 1930 by Union Carbide,[19] but now almost entirely obsolete, ethylene was hydrated indirectly by reacting it with concentrated sulfuric acid to produce ethyl sulfate, which was then hydrolyzed to yield ethanol and regenerate the sulfuric acid:[14] Union Carbide Corporation (Union Carbide) is one of the oldest chemical and polymers companies in the United States, and currently has more than 3,800 employees. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Sulfovinic acid or ethyl sulfate is an organic chemical compound used as intermediate in the production of ethanol from ethylene. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ...

C2H4 + H2SO4CH3CH2SO4H
CH3CH2SO4H + H2O → CH3CH2OH + H2SO4

Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ... Sulfovinic acid or ethyl sulfate is an organic chemical compound used as intermediate in the production of ethanol from ethylene. ... Sulfovinic acid or ethyl sulfate is an organic chemical compound used as intermediate in the production of ethanol from ethylene. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Sulfuric acid, (also known as sulphuric acid) H2SO4, is a strong mineral acid. ...

Fermentation

For more details on this topic, see Ethanol fermentation.

Ethanol for use in alcoholic beverages, and the vast majority of ethanol for use as fuel, is produced by fermentation. When certain species of yeast, most importantly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, metabolize sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide. The chemical equation below summarizes the conversion: Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ... Booze redirects here. ... Typical divisions Ascomycota (sac fungi) Saccharomycotina (true yeasts) Taphrinomycotina Schizosaccharomycetes (fission yeasts) Basidiomycota (club fungi) Urediniomycetes Sporidiales Yeasts are a growth form of eukaryotic micro organisms classified in the kingdom Fungi, with about 1,500 species described;[1] they dominate fungal diversity in the oceans. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Structure of the coenzyme adenosine triphosphate, a central intermediate in energy metabolism. ... Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...

C6H12O6 → 2 CH3CH2OH + 2 CO2

The process of culturing yeast under conditions to produce alcohol is called fermentation. Ethanol's toxicity to yeast limits the ethanol concentration obtainable by brewing. The most ethanol-tolerant strains of yeast can survive up to approximately 15% ethanol by volume.[20] Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Fermentation in progress Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ...


The fermentation process must exclude oxygen. If oxygen is present, yeast undergo aerobic respiration which produces carbon dioxide and water rather than ethanol. This article or section should be merged with aerobic metabolism. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ...


In order to produce ethanol from starchy materials such as cereal grains, the starch must first be converted into sugars. In brewing beer, this has traditionally been accomplished by allowing the grain to germinate, or malt, which produces the enzyme, amylase. When the malted grain is mashed, the amylase converts the remaining starches into sugars. For fuel ethanol, the hydrolysis of starch into glucose can be accomplished more rapidly by treatment with dilute sulfuric acid, fungally produced amylase, or some combination of the two.[21] Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Malted barley Malting is a process applied to cereal grains, in which the grains are made to germinate and then are quickly dried before the plant develops. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... Amylase is the name given to glycoside hydrolase enzymes that break down starch into glucose molecules. ... Mashing is a stage in the brewing process where grains are steeped in water at specific temperatures, to facilitate enzyme activity and starch conversion. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ...


Cellulosic ethanol

Main article: Cellulosic ethanol

Sugars for ethanol fermentation can be obtained from cellulose.[22][23] Until recently, however, the cost of the cellulase enzymes capable of hydrolyzing cellulose has been prohibitive. The Canadian firm Iogen brought the first cellulose-based ethanol plant on-stream in 2004.[24] Its primary consumer so far has been the Canadian government, which, along with the United States Department of Energy, has invested heavily in the commercialization of cellulosic ethanol. Deployment of this technology could turn a number of cellulose-containing agricultural byproducts, such as corncobs, straw, and sawdust, into renewable energy resources. Other enzyme companies are developing genetically engineered fungi that produce large volumes of cellulase, xylanase, and hemicellulase enzymes. These would convert agricultural residues such as corn stover, wheat straw, and sugar cane bagasse and energy crops such as switchgrass into fermentable sugars.[25] Cellulosic ethanol (also called lignocellulosic ethanol/ ceetoh and ceetol) is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. ... Beer - A Product of Ethanol Fermentation Ethanol fermentation is the biological process by which sugars such as glucose, fructose, and sucrose, are converted into ethanol and carbon dioxide. ... Cellulose as polymer of β-D-glucose Cellulose in 3D Cellulose (C6H10O5)n is a polysaccharide of beta-glucose. ... Cellulase is an enzyme complex which breaks down cellulose to beta-glucose. ... Iogen Corporation is a Canadian company located in Ottawa, Ontario that was founded by Patrick Foody. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Freshly picked corn on US farm Corn sample from USDA A corncob is the central core of a maize (Zea mays ssp. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... Sawdust is composed of fine particles of wood. ... Binomial name L. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm season grass and is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie. ...


Cellulose-bearing materials typically also contain other polysaccharides, including hemicellulose. When hydrolyzed, hemicellulose decomposes into mostly five-carbon sugars such as xylose. S. cerevisiae, the yeast most commonly used for ethanol production, cannot metabolize xylose. Other yeasts and bacteria are under investigation to ferment xylose and other pentoses into ethanol.[26] Polysaccharides (sometimes called glycans) are relatively complex carbohydrates. ... A hemicellulose can be any of several heteropolymers (matrix polysaccharides) present in almost all cell walls along with cellulose. ... Hydrolysis is a chemical reaction or process in which a chemical compound is broken down by reaction with water. ... Xylose or wood sugar is an aldopentose — a monosaccharide containing five carbon atoms and including an aldehyde functional group. ... A pentose is a monosaccharide with five carbon atoms. ...


On January 14, 2008, General Motors announced a partnership with Coskata, Inc. The goal is to produce cellulosic ethanol cheaply, with an eventual goal of US$1 per U.S. gallon ($0.30/L) for the fuel. The partnership plans to begin producing the fuel in large quantity by the end of 2008. By 2011 a full-scale plant will come on line, capable of producing 50 to 100 million gallons of ethanol a year (200–400 ML/a).[27] is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... A megalitre (Ml or alternatively ML), also spelled megaliter, is one million (1,000,000) litres in the metric system. ... A year (from Old English gÄ“r) is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ...



Hemp Easily Provides alcohol, Cellulose ethanol fuel can be made from stalks, and the fermentation of the plant as a whole, respectively. The energy from hemp may be high based on acreage or weight, but can be low based on the volume of the light weight harvested hemp.[citation needed] It does, however, produce more energy per acre per year than corn, sugar, flax, or any other crop currently grown for ethanol or biodiesel.[citation needed] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hemp


Prospective technologies

The anaerobic bacterium Clostridium ljungdahlii, recently discovered in commercial chicken wastes, can produce ethanol from single-carbon sources including synthesis gas, a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen that can be generated from the partial combustion of either fossil fuels or biomass. Use of these bacteria to produce ethanol from synthesis gas has progressed to the pilot plant stage at the BRI Energy facility in Fayetteville, Arkansas.[28] An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen. ... Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... Syngas (from synthesis gas) is the name given to gasses of varying composition that are generated in coal gasification and some types of waste-to-energy facilities. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the chemical reaction combustion. ... Fossil fuels or mineral fuels are fossil source fuels, that is, hydrocarbons found within the top layer of the earth’s crust. ... For the use of the term in ecology, see Biomass (ecology). ... Fayetteville is a college town in Washington County, Arkansas, USA and home to the University of Arkansas. ...


Another prospective technology is the closed-loop ethanol plant.[29] Ethanol produced from corn has a number of critics who suggest that it is primarily just recycled fossil fuels because of the energy required to grow the grain and convert it into ethanol. There is also the issue of competition with use of corn for food production. However, the closed-loop ethanol plant attempts to address this criticism. In a closed-loop plant, the energy for the distillation comes from fermented manure, produced from cattle that have been fed the by-products from the distillation. The leftover manure is then used to fertilize the soil used to grow the grain. Such a process is expected to have a much lower fossil fuel requirement.[30]


Though in an early stage of research, there is some development of alternative production methods that use feed stocks such as municipal waste or recycled products, rice hulls, sugarcane bagasse, small diameter trees, wood chips, and switchgrass.[31]


Testing

Near infrared spectrum of liquid ethanol.

Breweries and biofuel plants employ two methods for measuring ethanol concentration. Infrared ethanol sensors measure the vibrational frequency of dissolved ethanol using the CH band at 2900 cm−1. This method uses a relatively inexpensive solid state sensor that compares the CH band with a reference band to calculate the ethanol content. The calculation makes use of the Beer-Lambert law. Alternatively, by measuring the density of the starting material and the density of the product, using a hydrometer, the change in specific gravity during fermentation indicates the alcohol content. This inexpensive and indirect method has a long history in the beer brewing industry. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3500x2442, 321 KB) Summary Ethanol near IR spectrum. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3500x2442, 321 KB) Summary Ethanol near IR spectrum. ... It has been suggested that NIRS be merged into this article or section. ... Bio-energy redirects here. ... In optics, the Beer-Lambert law, also known as Beers law or the Lambert-Beer law or the Beer-Lambert-Bouguer law is an empirical relationship that relates the absorption of light to the properties of the material through which the light is traveling. ... A hydrometer is an instrument used to measure the specific gravity (or relative density) of liquids; that is, the ratio of the density of the liquid to the density of water. ...


Purification

Main article: Ethanol purification

Ethylene hydration or brewing produces an ethanol–water mixture. For most industrial and fuel uses, the ethanol must be purified. Fractional distillation can concentrate ethanol to 95.6% by weight (89.5 mole%). This mixture is an azeotrope with a boiling point of 78.1 °C, and cannot be further purified by distillation. The product of either ethylene hydration or brewing is an ethanol-water mixture. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ...


In one common industrial method to obtain absolute alcohol, a small quantity of benzene is added to rectified spirit and the mixture is then distilled. Absolute alcohol is obtained in the third fraction, which distills over at 78.3 °C (351.4 K).[11] Because a small amount of the benzene used remains in the solution, absolute alcohol produced by this method is not suitable for consumption, as benzene is carcinogenic.[32] Benzene, or Benzol (see also Benzine), is an organic chemical compound and a known carcinogen with the molecular formula C6H6. ... Rectified spirit or rectified alcohol is high concentration alcohol purified by the process of rectification (repeated or fractional distillation). ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...


There is also an absolute alcohol production process by desiccation using glycerol. Alcohol produced by this method is known as spectroscopic alcohol — so called because the absence of benzene makes it suitable as a solvent in spectroscopy. Desiccation is the state of extreme dryness, or the process of extreme drying. ... Glycerine, Glycerin redirects here. ... Animation of the dispersion of light as it travels through a triangular prism. ...


Other methods for obtaining absolute ethanol include desiccation using adsorbents such as starch or zeolites, which adsorb water preferentially, as well as azeotropic distillation and extractive distillation.
Zeolite The micro-porous molecular structure of a zeolite, ZSM-5 Zeolites (Greek, zein, to boil; lithos, a stone) are minerals that have a micro-porous structure. ... In chemistry, azeotropic distillation is any of a range of techniques used to break an azeotrope in distillation. ... Extractive Distillation is defined as distillation in the presence of a miscible, high boiling, relatively non-volatile component, the solvent, that forms no azeotrope with the other components in the mixture. ...


Grades of ethanol

Denatured alcohol

Main article: Denatured alcohol

Pure ethanol and alcoholic beverages are heavily taxed, but ethanol has many uses that do not involve consumption by humans. To relieve the tax burden on these uses, most jurisdictions waive the tax when an agent has been added to the ethanol to render it unfit to drink. These include bittering agents such as denatonium benzoate and toxins such as methanol, naphtha, and pyridine. Products of this kind are called denatured alcohol.[33][34] Denatured alcohol is ethanol with added adulterants that make it useless for consumption as an intoxicating beverage by rendering it toxic or extremely distasteful to drink, but still useful for industrial processes or as a household chemical. ... Denatonium benzoate, also called Benzenemethanaminium and Benzyl diethyl ((2,6-xylylcarbamoyl)methyl) ammonium benzoate, is the bitterest compound known. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Naphtha (CAS No. ... Pyridine is a chemical compound with the formula C5H5N. It is a liquid with a distinctively putrid odour. ...


Absolute ethanol

Absolute or anhydrous alcohol generally refers to purified ethanol, containing no more than one percent water. Absolute alcohol not intended for human consumption often contains trace amounts of toxic benzene (used to remove water by azeotropic distillation). Generally this kind of ethanol is used as solvents for lab and industrial settings where water will disrupt a desired reaction. Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Pure ethanol is classed as 200 proof in the USA, equivalent to 175 degrees proof in the UK system. Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used at present). ...


Use

As a fuel

Fuel type      MJ/L      MJ/kg Research
octane
number
Ethanol 23.5 31.1[35] 129
Methanol 17.9 19.9 123
Regular Gasoline 34.8 44.4[36] Min 91
Premium Gasoline Min 95
Aviation gasoline
(high octane gasoline, not Jet fuel)
33.5 46.8
Gasohol
(90% gasoline + 10% ethanol)
33.7 93/94
Autogas (LPG)
(60% Propane + 40% Butane)
26.8
Liquefied natural gas 25.3 ~55
Diesel 38.60 45.41 25
Volumetric energy density of some fuels compared with ethanol:[37]
Main article: Ethanol fuel

The largest single use of ethanol is as a motor fuel and fuel additive. The largest national fuel ethanol industries exist in Brazil (gasoline sold in Brazil contains at least 25% ethanol and anhydrous ethanol is also used as fuel in more than 90% of new cars sold in the country). The Brazilian production of ethanol is praised for the high carbon sequestration capabilities of the sugar cane plantations, thus making it a real option to combat climate change.[38] A gas station pump offering five different octane ratings. ... Information on pump, California. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Avgas is a high-octane fuel used for aircraft and, in the past, racing cars. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Rising energy prices and global warming have led to increased interest in alternative fuels. ... Autogas is the common name for liquified petroleum gas when it is used as a fuel in internal combustion engines in vehicles. ... 45 kg LPG cylinders Spherical Gas Container typically found in Refineries. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Butane, also called n-butane, is the unbranched alkane with four carbon atoms, CH3CH2CH2CH3. ... Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been processed to remove either valuable components e. ... This article is about the fuel. ... Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume, or per unit mass, depending on the context. ... Information on pump, California. ... For other uses, see Fuel (disambiguation). ... Isopropyl alcohol or isopropanol is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with the chemical formula CH3CHOHCH3. ... Carbon sequestration from a fossil-fuel power station A carbon dioxide sink or CO2 sink is a carbon reservoir that is increasing in size, and is the opposite of a carbon source. The main sinks are the oceans and growing vegetation. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... A sugarcane plantation at Ribeirão Preto, Brazil, 2005 A plantation is a large tract of monoculture, as a tree plantation, a cotton plantation, a tea plantation or a tobacco plantation. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 450,000 years For current global climate change, see Global warming. ...


Henry Ford designed the first mass-produced automobile, the famed Model T Ford, to run on pure anhydrous (ethanol) alcohol -- he said it was "the fuel of the future". Today, however, 100% pure ethanol is not approved as a motor vehicle fuel in the US. Added to gasoline, ethanol reduces ground-level ozone formation by lowering volatile organic compound and hydrocarbon emissions, decreasing carcinogenic benzene, and butadiene, emissions, and particulate matter emissions from gasoline combustion.[39] Henry Ford (1919) Henry Ford (July 30, 1863 – April 7, 1947) was the founder of the Ford Motor Company and father of modern assembly lines used in mass production. ...


Prior to the development of electronic fuel injection (EFI) and computerized engine management, the lower energy content of ethanol required that the engine carburetor be rejetted to permit a larger volume of fuel to mix with the intake air. EFI is able to actively compensate for varying fuel energy densities by monitoring the oxygen content of exhaust gases. However, a standard EFI gasoline engine can typically only tolerate up to 10% ethanol and 90% gasoline. Higher ethanol ratios require either larger-volume fuel injectors or an increase in fuel rail pressure to deliver the greater liquid volume needed to equal the energy content of pure gasoline. Fuel injection is a technology used in internal combustion engines to mix the fuel with air prior to combustion. ... Bendix-Technico (Stromberg) 1-barrel downdraft carburetor model BXUV-3, with nomenclature A carburetor (North American spelling) or carburettor (Commonwealth spelling), is a device that blends air and fuel for an internal combustion engine. ... // An oxygen sensor is an electronic device that measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the gas or liquid being analyzed. ... Fuel injection is a technology used in internal combustion engines to mix the fuel with air prior to combustion. ... Fuel rail, injectors and fuel pressure regulator from a four cylinder engine. ...


Today, more than 20% of the Brazilian fleet of cars on the streets[40] are able to use 100% ethanol as fuel, which includes ethanol-only engines and flex-fuel engines. Flex-fuel engines in Brazil are able to work with all ethanol, all gasoline or any mixture of both. In the US flex-fuel vehicles can run on 0% to 85% ethanol (15% gasoline) since higher ethanol blends are not yet allowed. Brazil supports this population of ethanol-burning automobiles with large national infrastructure that produces ethanol from domestically grown sugar cane. Sugar cane not only has a greater concentration of sucrose than corn (by about 30%), but is also much easier to extract. The bagasse generated by the process is not wasted, but is utilized in power plants as a surprisingly efficient fuel to produce electricity. For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Species Ref: ITIS 42058 as of 2004-05-05 Sugarcane is one of six species of a tall tropical southeast Asian grass (Family Poaceae) having stout fibrous jointed stalks whose sap at one time was the primary source of sugar. ... Bagasse (sometimes spelled bagass) is the biomass remaining after sugarcane stalks are crushed to extract their juice. ...


World production of ethanol in 2006 was 51 gigalitres (13,000,000,000 US gal), with 69% of the world supply coming from Brazil and the United States.[41]


The United States fuel ethanol industry is based largely on corn. According to the Renewable Fuels Association, as of October 30, 2007, 131 grain ethanol bio-refineries in the United States have the capacity to produce 7.0 billion US gallons (26 GL) of ethanol per year. An additional 72 construction projects underway (in the U.S.) can add 6.4 billion gallons of new capacity in the next 18 months. Over time, it is believed that a material portion of the ~150 billion gallon per year market for gasoline will begin to be replaced with fuel ethanol.[42] Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ...


The Energy Policy Act of 2005 requires that 4 billion gallons of "renewable fuel" be used in 2006 and this requirement will grow to a yearly production of 7.5 billion gallons by 2012.[43] The Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Pub. ...

A Ford Taurus "fueled by clean burning ethanol" owned by New York City.
A Ford Taurus "fueled by clean burning ethanol" owned by New York City.

In the United States, ethanol is most commonly blended with gasoline as a 10% ethanol blend nicknamed "gasohol". This blend is widely sold throughout the U.S. Midwest, and in cities required by the 1990 Clean Air Act to oxygenate their gasoline during the winter. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 796 KB)A New York City Department of Sanitation automobile fueled by clean burning ethanol. Photograph taken July 11, 2005. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2580x1932, 796 KB)A New York City Department of Sanitation automobile fueled by clean burning ethanol. Photograph taken July 11, 2005. ... The Ford Taurus is a mid-size, front wheel drive car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in North America. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Midwest is a common name for a region of the United States of America. ... The 1990 Clean Air Act is a piece of U.S. legislation relating to the reduction of smog and atmospheric pollution. ...


Controversy

Further information: Food vs fuel

It is disputed whether ethanol as an automotive fuel results in a net energy gain or loss. As reported in "The Energy Balance of Corn Ethanol: an Update,"[44] the energy returned on energy invested (EROEI) for ethanol made from corn in the U.S. is 1.34 (it yields 34% more energy than it takes to produce it). Input energy includes natural gas based fertilizers, farm equipment, transformation from corn or other materials, and transportation. However, other researchers report that the production of ethanol consumes more energy than it yields.[45][46] In comparison, sugar cane ethanol EROEI is at around 8 (it yields 8 joules for each joule used to produce it).[citation needed] Recent research suggests that cellulosic crops such as switchgrass provide a much better net energy production than corn, producing over five times as much energy as the total used to produce the crop and convert it to fuel.[47] If this research is confirmed, cellulosic crops will most likely displace corn as the main fuel crop for producing bioethanol. In physics, energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested), ERoEI, or EROI (Energy Return On Investment), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy acquired from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource. ... Binomial name L. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) is a warm season grass and is one of the dominant species of the central North American tallgrass prairie. ...


Michael Grunwald reports that one person could be fed 365 days "on the corn needed to fill an ethanol-fueled SUV".[48] He further reports that though "hyped as an eco-friendly fuel, ethanol increases global warming, destroys forests and inflates food prices." Environmentalists, livestock farmers, and opponents of subsidies say that increased ethanol production won't meet energy goals and may damage the environment, while at the same time causing worldwide food prices to soar. Some of the controversial subsidies in the past have included more than $10 billion to Archer-Daniels-Midland since 1980.[49][neutrality disputed] Critics also speculate that as ethanol is more widely used, changing irrigation practices could greatly increase pressure on water resources. In October 2007, 28 environmental groups decried the Renewable Fuels Standard (RFS), a legislative effort intended to increase ethanol production, and said that the measure will "lead to substantial environmental damage and a system of biofuels production that will not benefit family farmers...will not promote sustainable agriculture and will not mitigate global climate change."[50][51] The Archer Daniels Midland Company (NYSE: ADM), based in Decatur, Illinois, operates more than 270 plants worldwide, where cereal grains and oilseeds are processed into numerous products used in food, beverage, nutraceutical, industrial and animal feed markets worldwide. ...


Recent articles have also blamed subsidized ethanol production for the nearly 200% increase in milk prices since 2004,[52] although that is disputed by some[citation needed]. Ethanol production uses the starch portion of corn, but the leftover protein can be used to create a high-nutrient, low-cost animal feed.[53]


In 2007 the United Nations' independent expert on the right to food, called for a five-year moratorium on biofuel production from food crops, to allow time for development of non-food sources. He called recent increases in food costs because of fuel production, such as the quadrupling of world corn price in one year, a growing "catastrophe" for the poor.[54] In February 2007, riots occurred in Mexico because of the skyrocketing price of tortillas. Ethanol has been credited as the reason for this increase in food prices [1]. The demand for corn has had a rippling effect on many corn-based products, like tortillas. The effects of ethanol and the increasing cost of food have also been felt in Pakistan, Indonesia, and Egypt [2].


Oil has historically had a much higher EROEI than corn produced ethanol, according to some[citation needed]. However, oil must be refined into gasoline before it can be used for automobile fuel. Refining, as well as exploration and drilling, consumes energy. The difference between the energy in the fuel (output energy) and the energy needed to produce it (input energy) is often expressed as a percent of the input energy and called net energy gain (or loss). Several studies released in 2002 estimated that the net energy gain for corn ethanol is between 21 and 34 percent. The net energy loss for MTBE is about 33 percent. When added to gasoline, ethanol can replace MTBE as an anti-knock agent without poisoning drinking water as MTBE does. In Brazil, where the broadest and longest ethanol producing experiment took place, improvements in agricultural practices and ethanol production improvements led to an increase in ethanol net energy gain from 300% to over 800% in recent years.[citation needed] Consuming known oil reserves is increasing oil exploration and drilling energy consumption which is reducing oil EROEI (and energy balance) further.[55] In physics, energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested), ERoEI, or EROI (Energy Return On Investment), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy acquired from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... In physics, energy economics and ecological energetics, EROEI (Energy Returned on Energy Invested), ERoEI, or EROI (Energy Return On Investment), is the ratio of the amount of usable energy acquired from a particular energy resource to the amount of energy expended to obtain that energy resource. ... Energy balance has the following meanings in several fields: In physics, energy balance is a systematic presentation of energy flows and transformations in a system. ...


Opponents claim that corn ethanol production does not result in a net energy gain or that the consequences of large scale ethanol production to the food industry and environment offset any potential gains from ethanol. It has been estimated that "if every bushel of U.S. corn, wheat, rice and soybean were used to produce ethanol, it would only cover about 4% of U.S. energy needs on a net basis."[56] Many of the issues raised could likely be fixed by techniques now in development that produce ethanol from agricultural waste, such as paper waste, switchgrass, and other materials, but EIA Forecasts Significant Shortfall in Cellulosic Biofuel Production Compared to Target Set by Renewable Fuel Standard.[57] Binomial name L. Corn (Zea mays L. ssp. ... Species T. aestivum T. boeoticum T. dicoccoides T. dicoccon T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta T. sphaerococcum T. timopheevii References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat Wheat For the indie rock group, see Wheat (band). ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... Soy redirects here. ... The Energy policy of the United States is determined by federal, state and local public entities, which address issues of energy production, distribution and consumption. ... An energy crop is a plant domesticated for use in agriculture and is produced as a low cost and low maintenance harvest (generally, non food crops) to be used to make biofuels or directly exploited for its energy content. ...


Proponents cite the potential gains to the U.S. economy both from domestic fuel production and increased demand for corn. Optimistic calculations project that the United States is capable of producing enough ethanol to completely replace gasoline consumption.[citation needed] In comparison, Brazil's ethanol consumption today covers more than 50% of all energy used by vehicles in that country.


In the United States, preferential regulatory and tax treatment of ethanol automotive fuels introduces complexities beyond its energy economics alone. North American automakers have in 2006 and 2007 promoted a blend of 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline, marketed as E85, and their flex-fuel vehicles, e.g. GM's "Live Green, Go Yellow" campaign.[58] The apparent motivation is the nature of U.S. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) standards, which give an effective 54% fuel efficiency bonus to vehicles capable of running on 85% alcohol blends over vehicles not adapted to run on 85% alcohol blends.[59] In addition to this auto manufacturer-driven impetus for 85% alcohol blends, the United States Environmental Protection Agency had authority to mandate that minimum proportions of oxygenates be added to automotive gasoline on regional and seasonal bases from 1992 until 2006 in an attempt to reduce air pollution, in particular ground-level ozone and smog.[60] In the United States, incidents of methyl tert(iary)-butyl ether (MTBE) groundwater contamination have been recorded in the majority of the 50 states,[61] and the State of California's ban on the use of MTBE as a gasoline additive has further driven the more widespread use of ethanol as the most common fuel oxygenate.[62] Logo used in the United States for E85 fuel Not to be confused with European route E85, a motorway in Europe. ... For other types of Hybrid Transportation, see Hybrid (disambiguation)#Transportation. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations in the United States, first enacted by Congress in 1975, exist to regulate and improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US. Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) is the sales weighted... EPA redirects here. ... Ozone (O3) in the troposphere, is a pollutant, a constituent of smog. ... For other uses, see Smog (disambiguation). ... MTBE is highly flammable and is widely used as an oxygenate. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...


A February 7, 2008 Associated Press article stated, "The widespread use of ethanol from corn could result in nearly twice the greenhouse gas emissions as the gasoline it would replace because of expected land-use changes, researchers concluded Thursday. The study challenges the rush to biofuels as a response to global warming."[63] is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ...


One acre of land can yield about 7,110 pounds (3,225 kg) of corn, which can be processed into 328 gallons (1240.61 liters) of ethanol. That is about 26.1 pounds (11.84 kg) of corn per gallon.


Ethanol Fuel Cells

Main article: Direct-ethanol fuel cell

Ethanol may be used as a fuel to power Direct-ethanol fuel cells (DEFC) in order to produce electricity and the by-products of water (H20) and carbon dioxide (CO2).[64] Platinum is commonly used as an anode in such fuel cells in order to achieve a power density that is comparable to competing technologies. Until recently the high price of platinum has been cost prohibitive. A company called Acta Nanotech has created platinum free nanostructured anodes using more common and therefore less expensive metals.[65] A vehicle using a DEFC and non-platinum nanostructured anodes was used in the Shell Eco-Marathon 2007 by a team from Offenburg Germany which achieved an efficiency of 2716 kilometers per liter (6388 miles per gallon).[66] Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, ethanol, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, ethanol, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, ethanol, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... H2O is the chemical formula for Water (molecule). ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Carbon dioxide (chemical formula: ) is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... General Name, Symbol, Number platinum, Pt, 78 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 6, d Appearance grayish white Standard atomic weight 195. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... In engineering, specific power (sometimes also power per unit mass or power density) refers to the amount of power delivered by an energy source, divided by some measure of the sources size or mass. ... A nanostructure is an intermediate size between molecular and microscopic (micrometer-sized) structures. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... Direct-ethanol fuel cells or DEFCs are a subcategory of Proton-exchange fuel cells where, the fuel, ethanol, is not reformed, but fed directly to the fuel cell. ... Royal Dutch Shell plc is a multinational oil company of British and Dutch origins. ... The Eco-Marathon is an annual competition sponsored by Shell, in which vehicles take fuel consumption to the extreme -- the current record is 12,665 miles per gallon (MPG). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Offenburg is a city located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Miles per gallon (MPG, or mpg) is a measure of fuel efficiency - the number of miles the car can run on one gallon of fuel. ...


Rocket fuel

Ethanol was commonly used as fuel in early bipropellant rocket vehicles, in conjunction with an oxidizer such as liquid oxygen. The German V-2 rocket of World War II, credited with beginning the space age, used ethanol, mixed with water to reduce the combustion chamber temperature.[67][68] The V-2's design team helped develop U.S. rockets following World War II, including the ethanol-fueled Redstone rocket, which launched the first U.S. satellite.[69] Alcohols fell into general disuse as more efficient rocket fuels were developed.[68] F-1 rocket engine (The kind used by the Saturn V.) A bipropellant rocket is a rocket that uses separate fuel and oxidizer propellants. ... This article is about vehicles powered by rocket engines. ... An oxidizing agent is a substance that oxidizes another substance in electrochemistry or redox chemical reactions in general. ... German test launch. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... First launched in 1953, the American Redstone rocket was a direct descendant of the German V-2. ...


Alcoholic beverages

Main article: Alcoholic beverage

Ethanol is the principal psychoactive constituent in alcoholic beverages, with depressant effects to the central nervous system. It has a complex mode of action and affects multiple systems in the brain, most notably ethanol acts as an agonist to the GABA receptors.[70] Similar psychoactives include those which also interact with GABA receptors, such as gamma-hydroxybutyric acid.[71] Ethanol is metabolized by the body as an energy-providing carbohydrate nutrient, as it metabolizes into acetyl CoA, an intermediate common with glucose metabolism, that can be used for energy in the citric acid cycle or for biosynthesis. Booze redirects here. ... Booze redirects here. ... A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... The GABA receptors are a group of receptors with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their endogenous ligand. ... The GABA receptors are a group of receptors with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) as their endogenous ligand. ... Gamma-Hydroxybutyric acid (4-hydroxybutanoic acid, C4H8O3), commonly abbreviated GHB, is a neuroprotective therapeutic drug that is illegal in a number of countries[1], and is a naturally-occurring substance found in the central nervous system, wine, beef, small citrus fruits, and almost all living creatures in small amounts. ... Acetyl-CoA is an important molecule in metabolism, used in many biochemical reactions. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ... Overview of the citric acid cycle The citric acid cycle (also known as the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the TCA cycle, or the Krebs cycle, after Hans Adolf Krebs who identified the cycle) is a series of chemical reactions of central importance in all living cells that use oxygen as part...


Alcoholic beverages vary considerably in their ethanol content and in the foodstuffs from which they are produced. Most alcoholic beverages can be broadly classified as fermented beverages, beverages made by the action of yeast on sugary foodstuffs, or as distilled beverages, beverages whose preparation involves concentrating the ethanol in fermented beverages by distillation. The ethanol content of a beverage is usually measured in terms of the volume fraction of ethanol in the beverage, expressed either as a percentage or in alcoholic proof units. Bottles of cachaça, a Brazilian alcoholic beverage. ... A distilled beverage is a consumable liquid containing ethyl alcohol (ethanol) purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as fruit, vegetables, or grain. ... Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... Alcoholic proof is a measure of how much ethanol is in an alcoholic beverage, and is approximately twice the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV, the unit that is commonly used presently). ...


Fermented beverages can be broadly classified by the foodstuff from which they are fermented. Beers are made from cereal grains or other starchy materials, wines and ciders from fruit juices, and meads from honey. Cultures around the world have made fermented beverages from numerous other foodstuffs, and local and national names for various fermented beverages abound. For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... Cereal crops are mostly grasses cultivated for their edible seeds (actually a fruit called a grain, technically a caryopsis). ... Starch (CAS# 9005-25-8, chemical formula (C6H10O5)n,[1]) is a mixture of amylose and amylopectin (usually in 20:80 or 30:70 ratios). ... For other uses, see Wine (disambiguation). ... Cider in a pint glass Cider (or cyder) is an alcoholic beverage made primarily from the juices of specially grown varieties of apples. ... Juice is the liquid naturally contained in plants. ... Mead Mead is a fermented alcoholic beverage made of honey, water, and yeast. ... For other uses, see Honey (disambiguation). ...


Distilled beverages are made by distilling fermented beverages. Broad categories of distilled beverages include whiskeys, distilled from fermented cereal grains; brandies, distilled from fermented fruit juices, and rum, distilled from fermented molasses or sugarcane juice. Vodka and similar neutral grain spirits can be distilled from any fermented material (grain or potatoes are most common); these spirits are so thoroughly distilled that no tastes from the particular starting material remain. Numerous other spirits and liqueurs are prepared by infusing flavors from fruits, herbs, and spices into distilled spirits. A traditional example is gin, which is created by infusing juniper berries into a neutral grain alcohol. Whisky (or whiskey) is an alcoholic beverage distilled from grain, often including malt, which has then been aged in wooden barrels. ... For other uses, see Brandy (disambiguation). ... Caribbean rum, circa 1941 Rum is a distilled beverage made from sugarcane by-products such as molasses and sugarcane juice by a process of fermentation and distillation. ... Molasses or treacle is a thick syrup by-product from the processing of the sugarcane or sugar beet into sugar. ... Species Saccharum arundinaceum Saccharum bengalense Saccharum edule Saccharum officinarum Saccharum procerum Saccharum ravennae Saccharum robustum Saccharum sinense Saccharum spontaneum Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species (depending on taxonomic interpretation) of tall perennial grasses (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae), native to warm temperate to tropical... Vodka bottling machine, Shatskaya Vodka Shatsk, Russia Vodka (Polish: wódka, Russian: водка) is one of the worlds most popular distilled beverages. ... Neutral grain spirits refers to a clear liquid distilled at a high ethyl alcohol content. ... Binomial name Solanum tuberosum L. The potato (Solanum tuberosum) is a perennial plant of the Solanaceae, or nightshade, family, grown for its starchy tuber. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Spice (disambiguation). ... This article is about the beverage. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ...


In a few beverages, ethanol is concentrated by means other than distillation. Applejack is traditionally made by freeze distillation, by which water is frozen out of fermented apple cider, leaving a more ethanol-rich liquid behind. Eisbier (more commonly, eisbock) is also freeze-distilled, with beer as the base beverage. Fortified wines are prepared by adding brandy or some other distilled spirit to partially-fermented wine. This kills the yeast and conserves some of the sugar in grape juice; such beverages are not only more ethanol-rich, but are often sweeter than other wines. For other uses, see Applejack. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Fractional freezing. ... American-style apple cider, left; Apple juice, right. ... Paulaner Salvator Bock is a strong lager, which has origins in Munich, Germany. ... For other uses, see Beer (disambiguation). ... A fortified wine is a wine to which additional alcohol has been added, most commonly in the form of brandy (a spirit distilled from wine). ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely-traded commodity. ...


Alcoholic beverages are sometimes used in cooking, not only for their inherent flavors, but also because the alcohol dissolves hydrophobic flavor compounds which water cannot.


Feedstock

Main article: Chemical derivatives of ethanol

Ethanol is an important industrial ingredient and has widespread use as a base chemical for other organic compounds. These include ethyl halides, ethyl esters, diethyl ether, acetic acid, butadiene, and ethyl amines. Ethanol is a common chemical with widespread industrial use. ... A halide is a binary compound, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, or astatide compound. ... For other uses, see Ester (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... The general structure of an amine Amines are organic compounds and a type of functional group that contain nitrogen as the key atom. ...


Antiseptic use

Ethanol is used in medical wipes and in most common antibacterial hand sanitizer gels at a concentration of about 62% (percentage by weight, not volume) as an antiseptic. Ethanol kills organisms by denaturing their proteins and dissolving their lipids and is effective against most bacteria and fungi, and many viruses, but is ineffective against bacterial spores.[72] An alcohol gel, also known as a hand santizer, is a gel used in hospitals as an alternative to hand washing with soap and water. ... In mathematics, a percentage is a way of expressing a number as a fraction of 100 (per cent meaning per hundred). It is often denoted using the percent sign, %. For example, 45% (read as forty-five percent) is equal to 45 / 100, or 0. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Some common lipids. ... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... For the fictional character, see Fungus the Bogeyman. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ...


Antidote use

Ethanol can be used as an antidote for poisoning by other toxic alcohols, in particular methanol[73] and ethylene glycol. Ethanol competes with other alcohols for the alcohol dehydrogenase enzyme, preventing metabolism into toxic aldehyde and carboxylic acid derivatives.[74] Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Competitive inhibition is a form of enzyme inhibition where binding of the inhibitor to the enzyme prevents binding of the substrate and vice versa. ... Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. ... An aldehyde. ... Structure of a carboxylic acid The 3D structure of the carboxyl group A space-filling model of the carboxyl group Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of a carboxyl group, which has the formula -C(=O)OH, usually written -COOH or -CO2H. [1] Carboxylic acids are Bronsted...


Other uses

The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... This article is about the properties of water. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Perfume (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Paint (disambiguation). ... In medicine, a tincture is an alcoholic extract (e. ... Copic ) is a brand of marker made in Japan by Too and distributed in the United States and Canada by Imagination International. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

Effects on humans

Main article: Short-term effects of alcohol
BAC (mg/dL) Symptoms[75]
50 Euphoria, talkativeness, relaxation
100 Central nervous system depression, impaired motor and sensory function, impaired cognition
> 140 Decreased blood flow to brain
300 Stupefaction, possible unconsciousness
400 Possible death
> 550 Death

Effects on the central nervous system

Ethanol is a central nervous system depressant and has significant psychoactive effects in sublethal doses; for specifics, see effects of alcohol on the body by dose. Based on its abilities to change the human consciousness, ethanol is considered a drug.[76] Death from ethyl alcohol consumption is possible when blood alcohol level reaches 0.4%. A blood level of 0.5% or more is commonly fatal. Levels of even less than 0.1% can cause intoxication, with unconsciousness often occurring at 0.3–0.4%.[77] The effects of alcohol on the human body can take several forms. ... Consciousness is a characteristic of the mind generally regarded to comprise qualities such as subjectivity, self-awareness, sentience, sapience, and the ability to perceive the relationship between oneself and ones environment. ... For other uses, see Drug (disambiguation). ... ...


The amount of ethanol in the body is typically quantified by blood alcohol content (BAC), the milligrams of ethanol per 100 milliliters of blood. The table at right summarizes the symptoms of ethanol consumption. Small doses of ethanol generally produce euphoria and relaxation; people experiencing these symptoms tend to become talkative and less inhibited, and may exhibit poor judgment. At higher dosages (BAC > 100 mg/dl), ethanol acts as a central nervous system depressant, producing at progressively higher dosages, impaired sensory and motor function, slowed cognition, stupefaction, unconsciousness, and possible death. Blood alcohol content (BAC) or blood alcohol concentration is the concentration of alcohol in blood. ... The milligram (symbol mg) is an SI unit of mass. ... The millilitre (ml or mL, also spelt milliliter) is a metric unit of volume that is equal to one thousandth of a litre. ... A diagram showing the CNS: 1. ... A depressant, referred to in slang as a downer, is a chemical agent that diminishes the function or activity of a specific part of the body. ...


In America, about half of the deaths in car accidents occur in alcohol-related crashes.[78] There is no completely safe level of alcohol for driving; the risk of a fatal car accident rises with the level of alcohol in the driver's blood.[79] However, most drunk driving laws governing the acceptable levels in the blood while driving or operating heavy machinery set typical upper limits of blood alcohol content (BAC) between 0.05% to 0.08%. In an accident resulting from excessive speed, this concrete truck rolled over into the front garden of a house. ... Drunk driving (drink driving in the UK) or drinking and driving is the act of operating a motor vehicle after having consumed alcohol (i. ...


Effects on metabolism

Main article: Alcohol metabolism

Ethanol within the human body is converted into acetaldehyde by alcohol dehydrogenase and then into acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. The product of the first step of this breakdown, acetaldehyde,[80] is more toxic than ethanol. Acetaldehyde is linked to most of the clinical effects of alcohol. It has been shown to increase the risk of developing cirrhosis of the liver,[71] multiple forms of cancer, and alcoholism. Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenases (EC 1. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Alcohol Dehydrogenase Alcohol dehydrogenases are a group of dehydrogenase enzymes that occur in many organisms and facilitate the interconversion between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , Flash point 43 °C Related Compounds Related carboxylic; acids Formic acid; Propionic acid; Butyric acid Related compounds acetamide; ethyl acetate; acetyl chloride; acetic anhydride; acetonitrile; acetaldehyde; ethanol; thioacetic acid; acetylcholine; acetylcholinesterase Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase Acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (EC 1. ...


Drug interactions

Ethanol can interact in harmful ways with a number of other drugs, including barbiturates, benzodiazepines, opioids, and phenothiazines[77] Barbituric acid, the basic structure of all barbiturates Barbiturates are drugs that act as central nervous system depressants, and by virtue of this they produce a wide spectrum of effects, from mild sedation to anesthesia. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Phenothiazines are the largest of the 5 main classes of antipsychotic drugs. ...


Magnitude of effects

Some individuals have less effective forms of one or both of the metabolizing enzymes, and can experience more severe symptoms from ethanol consumption than others. Conversely, those who have acquired ethanol tolerance have a greater quantity of these enzymes, and metabolize ethanol more rapidly.[81] Drug tolerance occurs when a subjects reaction to a drug (such as a painkiller or intoxicant) decreases so that larger doses are required to achieve the same effect. ...


Other effects

Frequent drinking of alcoholic beverages has been shown to be a major contributing factor in cases of elevated blood levels of triglycerides.[82] Triglyceride (blue: fatty acid; red: glycerol backbone) Triglycerides are glycerides in which the glycerol is esterified with three fatty acids. ...


Ethanol is not a carcinogen,[83][84] but its effect on the liver can contribute to immune suppression. Consequently, consumption of alcoholic beverages can be an aggravating factor in cancers. Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The liver is the largest internal organ in the human body, and is an organ present in vertebrates and some other animals. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


See also

Energy Portal

Image File history File links Crystal_128_energy. ... Propan-1-ol is is a primary alcohol with the formula CH3CH2CH2OH. It is also known as 1-propanol, 1-propyl alcohol n-propyl alcohol, or simply propanol. ... 2,2,2-Trichloroethanol is an organic compound related to ethanol, except the hydrogen atoms at position 2 are replaced with chlorine atoms. ... Booze redirects here. ... Butanol (butyl alcohol) is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atom structure and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol (refer to box). ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... An Intoximeters Alcosensor IV breathalyzer A breathalyzer (or breathalyser) is a device for estimating blood alcohol content (BAC) from a breath sample. ... Cellulosic ethanol (also called lignocellulosic ethanol/ ceetoh and ceetol) is a type of biofuel produced from lignocellulose, a structural material that comprises much of the mass of plants. ... Three phases of ethanol commercialization are emerging. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Corn liquor is a grain alcohol made entirely out of corn. ... Denatured alcohol is ethanol with added adulterants that make it useless for consumption as an intoxicating beverage by rendering it toxic or extremely distasteful to drink, but still useful for industrial processes or as a household chemical. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethanol. ... Information on pump, California. ... Gasoline on the left, alcohol on the right at a filling station in Brazil Brazil’s 29-year-old ethanol fuel program uses cheap sugar cane, mainly bagasse (cane-waste) for process heat and power, and modern equipment, and provides a ~22% ethanol blend used nationwide, plus 100% hydrous ethanol... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Energy portal This is a list of energy topics which identifies articles and categories that relate to energy in general. ... A bottle of isopropyl rubbing alcohol Rubbing alcohol, U.S.P. / B.P. (also known as Isopropyl alcohol) is a liquid prepared for topical application prepared from isopropyl alcohol (or denatured alcohol) and containing 68. ... Apart from petroleum-derived gasoline and diesel, Ethanol is the main alcohol fuel used to run cars, other vehicles, and machinery. ...

References

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  2. ^ Roach, J. (July 18, 2005). "9,000-Year-Old Beer Re-Created From Chinese Recipe.". National Geographic News. 
  3. ^ Hassan, Ahmad Y. Alcohol and the Distillation of Wine in Arabic Sources. History of Science and Technology in Islam. Retrieved on 2008-03-29.
  4. ^ Alcohol in the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition
  5. ^ Couper, A.S. (1858). "On a new chemical theory" (online reprint). Philosophical magazine 16 (104–116). 
  6. ^ Hennell, H. (1828). "On the mutual action of sulfuric acid and alcohol, and on the nature of the process by which ether is formed.". Philosophical Transactions 118 (365–371). 
  7. ^ a b Robert Siegel. "Ethanol, Once Bypassed, Now Surging Ahead", NPR, February 15, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-22. 
  8. ^ Joseph DiPardo. Outlook for Biomass Ethanol Production and Demand. United States Department of Energy. Retrieved on 2007-09-22.
  9. ^ a b c CRC Handbook of Chemistry, 44th ed.
  10. ^ a b c d Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.
  11. ^ a b c d e Morrison, Robert Thornton; Boyd, Robert Neilson (1972). Organic Chemistry, 2nd ed.. Allyn and Bacon, inc.. 
  12. ^ Merck Index of Chemicals and Drugs, 9th ed.; monographs 6575 through 6669
  13. ^ Kroschwitz and Howe-Grant, editors, Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed., (New York: John Wiley & Sons), vol. 9, 813.
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  35. ^ Calculated from heats of formation. Does not correspond exactly to the figure for MJ/l divided by density.
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The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), as part of the U.S. National Institutes of Health, supports and conducts biomedical and behavioral research on the causes, consequences, treatment, and prevention of alcoholism and alcohol-related problems. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ahmad Y. al Hassan (born 1925) Chevalier of the Legion d’Honneur: Historian of Islamic and Arabic science and technology. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... A combination of federal, state and private funds is providing $300 million for the construction of 13 facilities on ORNLs new main campus. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • "Alcohol." (1911). In Hugh Chisholm (Ed.) Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition. Online reprint
  • Lodgsdon, J.E. (1994). "Ethanol." In J.I. Kroschwitz (Ed.) Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed. vol. 9, pp. 812–860. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  • Smith, M.G., and M. Snyder. (2005). "Ethanol-induced virulence of Acinetobacter baumannii". American Society for Microbiology meeting. June 5June 9. Atlanta.
  • Sci-toys website explanation of US denatured alcohol designations
  • Boyce, John M., and Pittet Didier. (2003). “Hand Hygiene in Healthcare Settings.” Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta, Georgia, United States.
  • Rene Martinez VitalSensors Technologies LLC. VS1000A Series In-Line Ethanol Sensors for the Beverage and BioFuel Industry. Martinez describes the theory and practice of measuring brix on-line in beverages.

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... Atlanta redirects here. ...

External links

  • International Labour Organization ethanol safety information
  • National Pollutant Inventory – Ethanol Fact Sheet
  • Ethanol Information
  • Ethanol Facts
  • Coordinates of the ethanol molecule on Computational Chemistry Wiki. Accessed on 8 September 2005.
  • Molview from bluerhinos.co.uk See Ethanol in 3D
  • National Institute of Standards and Technology chemical data on ethanol
  • ChEBI – biology related
  • Chicago Board of Trade news and market data on ethanol futures
is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-khwl الكحول, or al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 15 °C RTECS number UH8225000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Butanol or butyl alcohol (sometimes also called biobutanol when produced biologically), is an alcohol with a 4 carbon structure and the molecular formula of C4H10O. It is primarily used as a solvent, as an intermediate in chemical synthesis, and as a fuel. ... Isobutanol (IUPAC nomenclature: 2-methyl-1-propanol; also known as 2-methylpropyl alcohol, among other names) is a colorless, flamable, organic compound with a characteristical smell. ... 1-Pentanol, (or n-pentanol, pentan-1-ol), is an alcohol with five carbon atoms and the molecular formula C5H11OH. 1-Pentanol is colorless liquid with an unpleasant aroma. ... 1-Hexanol is an alcohol with a six carbon chain and the molecular formula of CH3(CH2)5OH. It is a colorless liquid that is slightly soluble in water, but miscible with ether and ethanol. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Octanol is a straight chain fatty alcohol with eight carbon atoms and the molecular formula CH3(CH2)7OH. Although the term octanol usually refers exclusively to the primary alcohol 1-octanol, there are other less common isomers of octanol such as the secondary alcohols 2-octanol, 3-octanol and 4... 1-Nonanol is a straight chain fatty alcohol with nine carbon atoms and the molecular formula CH3(CH2)8OH. It is a colorless to slightly yellow liquid with a citrus odor similar to citronella oil. ... 1-Decanol is a straight chain fatty alcohol with ten carbon atoms and the molecular formula CH3(CH2)9OH. It is a colorless viscous liquid that is insoluble in water. ... Undecanol, also known by its IUPAC name 1-undecanol or undecan-1-ol, and by its trivial names undecyl alcohol and Hendecanol, is a fatty alcohol. ... Dodecanol, also known by its IUPAC name 1-dodecanol or dodecan-1-ol, and by its trivial name dodecyl alcohol and lauryl alcohol, is a fatty alcohol. ... 1-Tetradecanol, or commonly myristyl alcohol, is a straight-chain saturated fatty alcohol, with the molecular formula C14H30O. It is a white crystalline solid that is practically insoluble in water, soluble in diethyl ether, and slightly soluble in ethanol. ... Cetyl alcohol, also known as 1-hexadecanol, is a solid organic compound and a member of the alcohol class of compounds. ... Stearyl alcohol (also known as octadecyl alcohol or 1-octadecanol) is a substance prepared from stearic acid by the process of catalytic hydrogenation. ... Arachidyl alcohol, also 1-eicosanol, is a straight-chain fatty alcohol, with formula C20H41OH. Categories: | ... Docosanol, also known as behenyl alcohol, is a saturated fatty alcohol used mainly as an antiviral agent, specifically for treatment of cold sores caused by the herpes simplex virus. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Butanol is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atoms and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol: butan-1-ol CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH butan-2-ol CH3-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3 sec-butanol CH3-CH-CH3 | CH2OH OH | tert-butanol CH3... 2-Hexanol (or hexan-2-ol) is a six carbon alcohol in which the OH group is located on the second carbon atom. ... Butanol is a higher alcohol with a 4 carbon atoms and a general formula of C4H10O. There are 4 different isomeric structures for butanol: butan-1-ol CH3-CH2-CH2-CH2-OH butan-2-ol CH3-CH2-CH(OH)-CH3 sec-butanol CH3-CH-CH3 | CH2OH OH | tert-butanol CH3... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ... This is an article about antimicrobial agents. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Acridine, C13H9N, is an organic compound and a nitrogen heterocycle. ... Chemical structure of Acrinol Ethacridine lactate is an aromatic organic compound based on acridine. ... Aminoacridine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Euflavine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Biguanides (ATC A10 BA) form a class of oral hypoglycemic drugs used for diabetes mellitus treatment. ... An amidine is a functional group or type of chemical compound that has two amine groups attached to the same carbon atom with one carbon-nitrogen double bond,exactly its derivate of acid,when suspended the double bond is protonized: HN=CR-NH2. ... Dibrompropamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorhexidine Gluconate is a chemical antiseptic, to combat both gram positive and gram negative microbes. ... Propamidine is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Hexamidine is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Polihexanide is a polymer which functions as an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... Hexachlorophene also known as Nabac is an antiseptic agent. ... Policresulen is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenol, also known under an older name of carbolic acid, is a colourless crystalline solid with a typical sweet tarry odor. ... -1... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dettol. ... 2-Phenylphenol, or o-phenylphenol, is an organic compound that consists of two linked benzene rings and a phenolic hydroxyl group. ... Nitrofuran is a class of theraputic antibacterial agent (it cures disease) it includes drugs such as Nitrofurazone, Furazolidone, Nitrofurantoin and Furaltadone. ... Nitrofurazone, 2-((5-nitro-2-furanyl)methylene)hydrazinecarboxamide, chemical formula C6H6N4O4, is a pale yellow crystalline compound. ... For other uses, see Iodine (disambiguation). ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... Povidone-iodine (PVPI) is a water-soluble complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), with from 9. ... Diiodohydroxypropane is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Quinoline, also known as 1-azanaphthalene, 1-benzazine, or benzo[b]pyridine, is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound. ... Dequalinium is an antiseptic and disinfectant. ... Chlorquinaldol is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Oxyquinoline is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Clioquinol is a powerful anti-infective drug available for topical (Vioform) and internal (Enterovioform) use. ... Quaternary ammonium cation. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , RTECS number BO3150000 Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Benzalkonium chloride (alkyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride) is a mixture of alkylbenzyl dimethylammonium chlorides of various alkyl chain lengths. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Cetylpyridinium chloride is a cationic quaternary ammonium compound in some types of mouthwash such as Crest Pro-Health. ... Hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide ((C16H33)N(CH3)3Br) is one of the components of the topical antiseptic cetrimide. ... Benzoxonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Didecyldimethylammonium chloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... This article is about the element. ... Mercuric amidochloride is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Phenylmercuric borate is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Mercury(II) chloride, more commonly called Mercuric Chloride (once known as corrosive sublimate (see image at right)), is the chemical compound with the formula HgCl2. ... Mercurochrome chemical formula Merbromin (marketed as Mercurochrome, Merbromine, Sodium mercurescein, Asceptichrome, Supercrome and Cinfacromin) is a topical antiseptic used for minor cuts and scrapes. ... Thiomersal (INN) (C9H9HgNaO2S), formerly and still commonly known in the United States as thimerosal, is an organomercury compound (approximately 49% mercury by weight) used as an antiseptic and antifungal agent. ... Mercury(II) iodide (HgI2) is a chemical compound with an appearance of red-orange crystals. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... R-phrases , S-phrases , , , , Flash point non-flammable Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a very pale blue liquid which appears colorless in a dilute solution, slightly more viscous than water. ... Eosin is an orange-pink dye derived from coal tar. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , , , Flash point 15 °C RTECS number UH8225000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Tosylchloramide sodium is an antiseptic/disinfectant. ... Isopropyl alcohol (also isopropanol or rubbing alcohol) is a common name for propan-2-ol, a colorless, flammable chemical compound with a strong odor. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Sodium hypochlorite is a chemical compound with the formula NaClO. Sodium hypochlorite solution, commonly known as bleach, is frequently used as a disinfectant and as a bleaching agent. ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naphtha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH (often abbreviated MeOH). ... Ethylene glycol (monoethylene glycol (MEG), IUPAC name: ethane-1,2-diol) is an alcohol with two -OH groups (a diol), a chemical compound widely used as an automotive antifreeze. ... Fomepizole or 4-Methylpyrazole is indicated for use as an antidote in confirmed or suspected methanol or ethylene glycol poisoning. ... Paracetamol (INN) (IPA: ) or acetaminophen (USAN) is a widely-used analgesic and antipyretic. ... Acetylcysteine (rINN) (IPA: ), also known as N-acetylcysteine (abbreviated NAC), is a pharmacological agent used mainly as a mucolytic and in the management of paracetamol overdose. ... Glutathione (GSH) is a tripeptide. ... Methionine is an α-amino acid with the chemical formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2CH2SCH3. ... General Name, Symbol, Number arsenic, As, 33 Chemical series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15, 4, p Appearance metallic gray Standard atomic weight 74. ... British Anti Lewisite, often referred to by its acronym BAL, is a compound developed by the British biochemists of Oxford University during World War II . ... DMSA or dimercaptosuccinic acid is a chelating agent. ... This article is about the chemical compound. ... 4-Dimethylaminophenol (abbreviated in medical practice as DMAP) is an aminophenol. ... Amyl nitrite is the chemical compound with the formula C5H11ONO. A variety of isomers are known, but they all feature an amyl group attached to the nitrito functional group. ... Hydroxocobalamin (OHCbl) is a natural analog of vitamin B12, a basic member of the cobalamin family of compounds. ... Sodium nitrite, with chemical formula NaNO2, is used as a color fixative and preservative in meats and fish. ... R-phrases R35 S-phrases Flash point Non flammable Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) (sometimes spelled thiosulphate) is a colorless crystalline compound that is more familiar as the pentahydrate, Na2S2O3... Heparin, a highly sulfated glycosaminoglycan is widely used as an injectable anticoagulant and has the highest negative charge density of any known biological molecule. ... Protamine is a drug that reverses the anticoagulant effects of heparin by binding to it. ... This article is about the chemical. ... Atropine is a tropane alkaloid extracted from the deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna) and other plants of the family Solanaceae. ... // General Remarks and Chemistry Biperiden is an antiparkinsonian agent of the anticholinergic type. ... Diazepam (IPA: ), first marketed as Valium by Hoffmann-La Roche) is a benzodiazepine derivative drug. ... An oxime is one in a class of chemical compounds with the general formula R1R2 C N O H, where R1 is an organic side chain and R2 is either hydrogen, forming an aldoxime, or another organic group, forming a ketoxime. ... Structure of the molecule pralidoxime Pralidoxime belongs to a family of compounds, called oximes that bind to organophosphate inactivated acetylcholinesterase. ... Obidoxime is a member of oxime family used to treat nerve gas poisoning. ... In biochemistry, cholinesterase is an enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid, a reaction necessary to allow a cholinergic neuron to return to its resting state after activation. ... An opioid is a chemical substance that has a morphine-like action in the body. ... Diprenorphine (Revivon, M5050) is an opiate antagonist used to reverse the effects of the super-potent opioid analgesics such as etorphine and carfentanil that are used for tranquilizing large animals in veterinary medicine. ... Nalorphine (INN, also known as N-allyl-normorphine) is a narcotic antagonist. ... Naloxone is a drug used to counter the effects of opioid overdose, for example heroin and morphine overdose. ... Naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence and opioid dependence. ... Nalmefene (Revex) is an opioid receptor antagonist used primarily in the management of alcohol dependence, and also has been investigated for the treatment of other addictions such as pathological gambling and addiction to shopping. ... Alprazolam 2 mg tablets The benzodiazepines (pronounced , often abbreviated to benzos) are a class of sedative hypnotic psychoactive drugs with varying hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant and amnesic properties, which are mediated by slowing down the central nervous system. ... Flumazenil (flumazepil, Anexate®, Lanexat®, Mazicon®, Romazicon®) is a benzodiazepine antagonist, used as an antidote in the treatment of benzodiazepine overdose. ... Toxic metals are metals that form poisonous soluble compounds and have no biological role, i. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cadmium, Cd, 48 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 12, 5, d Appearance silvery gray metallic Standard atomic weight 112. ... This article is about the element. ... General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series Post-transition metals or poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... EDTA is a widely-used acronym for the chemical compound ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (and many other names, see table). ... British Anti Lewisite, often referred to by its acronym BAL, is a compound developed by the British biochemists of Oxford University during World War II . ... Binomial name Psychotria ipecacuanha Ipecacuanha (Psychotria ipecacuanha) of family Rubiaceae is a flowering plant, the root of which is most commonly used to make syrup of ipecac, a powerful emetic. ... Prednisolone is the active metabolite of prednisone. ... Promethazine is a first-generation H1 receptor antagonist antihistamine and antiemetic medication. ... Methylene blue is a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound with molecular formula: C16H18ClN3S. It has many uses in a range of different fields, such as biology or chemistry. ... Potassium permanganate is the chemical compound KMnO4. ... Physostigmine is a parasympathomimetic, specifically, an irreversible cholinesterase inhibitor obtained from the Calabar bean. ... Copper(II) sulfate is the chemical compound with the formula CuSO4. ... R-phrases 36, 38, 42-43, 61 S-phrases 26, 36-37, 39, 45 Related Compounds Other anions potassium bromide potassium chloride Other cations lithium iodide sodium iodide rubidium iodide caesium iodide Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa... Digoxin Immune Fab (Ovine) is the generic name for an antidote for overdose of digitalis. ... A sample of Prussian blue Prussian blue (German: Preußischblau or Berliner Blau, in English Berlin blue) is a dark blue pigment used in paints and formerly in blueprints. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethanol - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4352 words)
Ethanol is produced both as a petrochemical, through the hydration of ethylene, and biologically, by fermenting sugars with yeast.
Ethanol for use in alcoholic beverages, and the vast majority of ethanol for use as fuel, is produced by fermentation: when certain species of yeast (most importantly, Saccharomyces cerevisiae) metabolize sugar in the absence of oxygen, they produce ethanol and carbon dioxide.
The ethanol content of a beverage is usually measured in terms of the volume fraction of ethanol in the beverage, expressed either as a percentage or in alcoholic proof units.
Ethanol fuel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4949 words)
Ethanol as a substitute for gasoline is often created by harvesting a crop such as switchgrass and processing it for less money than it costs to pump oil and refine it into gasoline.
Ethanol can be produced from a variety of feedstocks, such as sugar cane, miscanthus, sugar beet, sorghum, switchgrass, barley, hemp, kenaf, potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava, sunflower, fruit, molasses, whey or skim milk, corn, corn cobs, grain, wheat, wood, paper, straw, cotton, grain sorghum, barley, other biomass, well as many types of cellulose waste.
Ethanol is however considered to be a carbon neutral fuel meaning that if the sugar cane were left to rot it would produce the same amount of CO2 emissions as burning the ethanol used from it.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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