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Encyclopedia > Ethane
Ethane
Ethane Ethane Ethane
General
Systematic name Ethane
Other names dimethyl, ethyl hydride
methylmethane
Molecular formula C2H6
SMILES CC
InChI InChI=1/C2H6
/c1-2/h1-2H3
Molar mass 30.07 g/mol
Appearance colorless gas
CAS number [74-84-0]
Structure
Symmetry group Staggered phase: D3d
Properties
Density and phase 1.212 kg/m3, gas
Solubility in water 4.7 g/100 ml (? °C)
Melting point -182.76 °C (90.34 K)
Boiling point -88.6 °C (184.5 K)
Critical point 305.32K (32.17 °C) at 4.87 MPa
Acidity (pKa) 50
Hazards
MSDS External MSDS
EU classification Highly flammable (F+)
NFPA 704
4
1
0
 
R-phrases R12
S-phrases (S2), S9, S16, S33
Flash point -135 °C
Autoignition
temperature
472 °C
Explosive limits 3.0–12.5%
RTECS number KH3800000
Supplementary data page
Structure &
properties
n, εr, etc.
Thermodynamic
data
Phase behaviour
Solid, liquid, gas
Spectral data UV, IR, NMR, MS
Related compounds
Related alkanes Methane
Propane
Related compounds Ethanol
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for
materials in their standard state (at 25°C, 100 kPa)
Infobox disclaimer and references

Ethane is a chemical compound with chemical formula C2H6. It is the only two-carbon alkane, that is, an aliphatic hydrocarbon. At standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colorless, odorless gas. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1100x871, 14 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Ethane ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 819 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 766 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1100 × 861 pixel, file size: 149 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a system of naming chemical compounds and of describing the science of chemistry in general. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The simplified molecular input line entry specification or SMILES is a specification for unambiguously describing the structure of chemical molecules using short ASCII strings. ... The IUPAC International Chemical Identifier (InChI), developed by IUPAC and NIST, is a digital equivalent of the IUPAC name for any particular covalent compound. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences, mixtures and alloys. ... The symmetry group of an object (e. ... In physics, density is mass m per unit volume V. For the common case of a homogeneous substance, it is expressed as: where, in SI units: ρ (rho) is the density of the substance, measured in kg·m-3 m is the mass of the substance, measured in kg V is... In the physical sciences, a phase is a set of states of a macroscopic physical system that have relatively uniform chemical composition and physical properties (i. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Solution. ... This article describes water from a scientific and technical perspective. ... The melting point of a crystalline solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... In physical chemistry, thermodynamics, chemistry and condensed matter physics, a critical point, also called a critical state, specifies the conditions (temperature, pressure) at which the liquid state of the matter ceases to exist. ... The acid dissociation constant (Ka), also known as the acidity constant or the acid-ionization constant, is a specific equilibrium constant for the reaction of an acid with its conjugate base in aqueous solution [1]. // When an acid dissolves in water, it partly dissociates forming hydronium ions and its conjugate... An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethane. ... Council Directive 67/548/EEC of 27 June 1967 on the approximation of laws, regulations and administrative provisions relating to the classification, packaging and labelling of dangerous substances (as amended) is the main European Union law concerning chemical safety. ... NFPA 704 is a standard maintained by the U.S. National Fire Protection Association. ... Image File history File links NFPA_704. ... R-phrases are defined in Annex III of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Nature of special risks attributed to dangerous substances and preparations. ... S-phrases are defined in Annex IV of European Union Directive 67/548/EEC: Safety advice concerning dangerous substances and preparations. ... For other uses, see Flash point (disambiguation). ... The autoignition temperature, or the ignition temperature of a substance is the lowest temperature at which a chemical will spontaneously ignite in a normal atmosphere, without an external source of ignition, such as a flame or spark. ... The explosive limit of a gas or a vapour, is the limiting concentration (in air) that is needed for the gas to ignite and explode. ... RTECS, also known as Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances, is a database of toxicity information compiled from the open scientific literature that is available for charge. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethane. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethane. ... The refractive index (or index of refraction) of a medium is a measure for how much the speed of light (or other waves such as sound waves) is reduced inside the medium. ... The relative dielectric constant of a material under given conditions is a measure of the extent to which it concentrates electrostatic lines of flux. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethane. ... This page provides supplementary chemical data on ethane. ... Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopy or Ultraviolet-Visible Spectrophotometry (UV/ VIS) involves the spectroscopy of photons (spectrophotometry). ... Infrared spectroscopy (IR Spectroscopy) is the subset of spectroscopy that deals with the IR region of the EM spectrum. ... It has been suggested that NMR Data Processing be merged into this article or section. ... Mass spectrometry (also known as mass spectroscopy (deprecated)[1] or informally, mass-spec and MS) is an analytical technique used to measure the mass-to-charge ratio of ions. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... In chemistry, the standard state of a material is its state at 1 bar (100 kilopascals) and 25 degrees Celsius (298. ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... A chemical compound is a chemical substance of two or more different chemically bonded chemical elements, with a fixed ratio determining the composition. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Chemical structure of methane, the simplest alkane Alkanes are chemical compounds that consist only of the elements carbon (C) and hydrogen (H) (i. ... In chemistry, non-aromatic and non-cyclic (acyclic) organic compounds are called aliphatic. ... Oil refineries are key to obtaining hydrocarbons; crude oil is processed through several stages to form desirable hydrocarbons, used in fuel and other commercial products. ... Temperature and air pressure can vary from one place to another on the Earth, and can also vary in the same place with time. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Ethane is isolated on an industrial scale from natural gas, and as a byproduct of petroleum refining. Its chief use is as petrochemical feedstock for ethylene production. For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... A feedstock is a petrochemical used as a raw material to be fed into a machine or processing plant. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...

Contents

History

Ethane was first prepared synthetically in 1834 by Michael Faraday, applying electrolysis of a potassium acetate solution. He mistook the hydrocarbon product of this reaction for methane, and did not investigate it further. During the period 1847–1849, in an effort to vindicate the radical theory of organic chemistry, Hermann Kolbe and Edward Frankland produced ethane by the reductions of propionitrile (ethyl cyanide) and ethyl iodide with potassium metal, and, as did Faraday, by the electrolysis of aqueous acetates. They, however, mistook the product of these reactions for methyl radical, rather than the dimer of methyl, ethane. This error was corrected in 1864 by Carl Schorlemmer, who showed that the product of all these reactions was in fact ethane. Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed significantly to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... This article lacks information on the importance of the subject matter. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Organic chemistry is a specific discipline within chemistry which involves the scientific study of the structure, properties, composition, reactions, and preparation (by synthesis or by other means) of chemical compounds consisting primarily of carbon and hydrogen, which may contain any number of other elements, including nitrogen, oxygen, halogens as well... Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe (September 27, 1818 – November 25, 1884) was a chemist. ... Sir Edward Frankland (January 18, 1825 – August 9, 1899) was an English chemist. ... Propionitrile, or ethyl cyanide, has formula C2H5CN. It melts at -93 °C and boils at 97 °C. Template:Organic-chem-stub Categories: Nitriles ... General Name, symbol, number potassium, K, 19 Chemical series alkali metals Group, period, block 1, 4, s Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight 39. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... Carl Schorlemmer was born as son of a joiner in Darmstadt in 1834. ...


Its name was made from the name of ether, which at first meant diethyl ether. Ether is the general name for a class of chemical compounds which contain an ether group — an oxygen atom connected to two (substituted) alkyl or aryl groups — of general formula R – O–R.[1] A typical example is the solvent and anesthetic diethyl ether, commonly referred to simply as ether... This article is about the chemical compound. ...


Chemistry

In the laboratory, ethane may be conveniently prepared by Kolbe electrolysis. In this technique, an aqueous solution of an acetate salt is electrolysed. At the anode, acetate is oxidized to produce carbon dioxide and methyl radicals, and the highly reactive methyl radicals combine to produce ethane: Kolbe electolysis or Kolbe reaction is a organic reaction named after Adolph Wilhelm Hermann Kolbe. ... An acetate, or ethanoate, is a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... This article is about the chemical process. ... Diagram of a zinc anode in a galvanic cell. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ...

CH3COO → CH3• + CO2 + e
CH3• + •CH3 → C2H6

Another method, the oxidation of acetic anhydride by peroxides, is conceptually similar. An acetate, or ethanoate, is a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... Acetic anhydride, also known as ethanoic anhydride, is one of the simplest of acid anhydrides. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ...


The chemistry of ethane also involves chiefly free radical reactions. Ethane can react with the halogens, especially chlorine and bromine, by free radical halogenation. This reaction proceeds through the propagation of the ethyl radical: In chemistry, radicals (often referred to as free radicals) are atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons on an otherwise open shell configuration. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... “Bromo” redirects here. ... This reaction is typical of alkanes and alkyl-substituted aromatics. ... Ethyl is a two-carbon substituent in organic chemistry. ...

C2H5• + Cl2C2H5Cl + Cl•
Cl• + C2H6 → C2H5• + HCl

Because halogenated ethanes can undergo further free radical halogenation, this process results in a mixture of several halogenated products. In the chemical industry, more selective chemical reactions are used for the production of any particular two-carbon halocarbon. General Name, symbol, number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, period, block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Ethyl chloride is a chemical compound once widely used in producing tetraethyl lead, a gasoline additive. ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ...


Combustion

The complete combustion of ethane releases 1561 kJ/mol, or 51.9 kJ/g, of heat, and produces carbon dioxide and water according to the chemical equation A combustion reaction taking place in a igniting match Combustion or burning is a complex sequence of exothermic chemical reactions between a fuel and an oxidant accompanied by the production of heat or both heat and light in the form of either a glow or flames. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A chemical equation is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction where the reactant entities are given on the left hand side and the product entities on the right hand side. ...

2 C2H6 + 7 O2 → 4 CO2 + 6 H2O + 3122 kJ/mol

Combustion occurs by a complex series of free-radical reactions. Computer simulations of the chemical kinetics of ethane combustion have included hundreds of reactions. An important series of reaction in ethane combustion is the combination of an ethyl radical with oxygen, and the subsequent breakup of the resulting peroxide into ethoxy and hydroxyl radicals. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In order to meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article requires cleanup. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... It has been suggested that simulation software be merged into this article or section. ... In physical chemistry, chemical kinetics or reaction kinetics is the study of reaction rates in a chemical reaction. ... General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... A peroxide is a compound containing an oxygen-oxygen single bond. ...

C2H5• + O2 → C2H5OO•
C2H5OO• + HR → C2H5OOH + •R
C2H5OOH → C2H5O• + •OH

The principal carbon-containing products of incomplete ethane combustion are single-carbon compounds such as carbon monoxide and formaldehyde. One important route by which the carbon-carbon bond in ethane is broken to yield these single-carbon products is the decomposition of the ethoxy radical into a methyl radical and formaldehyde, which can in turn undergo further oxidation. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... In chemistry free radicals are uncharged atomic or molecular species with unpaired electrons or an otherwise open shell configuration. ... Carbon monoxide, with the chemical formula CO, is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless gas. ... The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ...

C2H5O• → CH3• + CH2O

Some minor products in the incomplete combustion of ethane include acetaldehyde, methane, methanol, and ethanol. At higher temperatures, especially in the range 600–900 °C, ethylene is a significant product. It arises via reactions like The chemical compound formaldehyde (also known as methanal) is a gas with a pungent smell. ... R-phrases , , S-phrases , , , Flash point −39 °C Autoignition temperature 185 °C RTECS number AB1925000 Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... Methanol, also known as methyl alcohol, carbinol, wood alcohol, wood naptha or wood spirits, is a chemical compound with chemical formula CH3OH. It is the simplest alcohol, and is a light, volatile, colourless, flammable, poisonous liquid with a distinctive odor that is somewhat milder and sweeter than ethanol (ethyl alcohol). ... Ethanol, also known as ethyl alcohol, drinking alcohol or grain alcohol, is a flammable, colorless, slightly toxic chemical compound, and is best known as the alcohol found in alcoholic beverages. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ...

C2H5• + O2C2H4 + •OOH

Similar reactions (although with species other than oxygen as the hydrogen abstractor) are involved in the production of ethylene from ethane in steam cracking. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules (e. ...


Production

After methane, ethane is the second-largest component of natural gas. Natural gas from different gas fields varies in ethane content from less than 1% to over 6% by volume. Prior to the 1960s, ethane and larger molecules were typically not separated from the methane component of natural gas, but simply burnt along with the methane as a fuel. Today, however, ethane is an important petrochemical feedstock, and it is separated from the other components of natural gas in most well-developed gas fields. Ethane can also be separated from petroleum gas, a mixture of gaseous hydrocarbons that arises as a byproduct of petroleum refining. Economics of building and running processing plants can change, however. If the relative value of sending the unprocessed natural gas to a consumer exceeds the value of extracting ethane, then the plant may not be run. This can cause operational issues managing the changing quality of the gas in downstream systems.[1] Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ...


Ethane is most efficiently separated from methane by liquefying it at cryogenic temperatures. Various refrigeration strategies exist: the most economical process presently in wide use employs turboexpansion, and can recover over 90% of the ethane in natural gas. In this process, chilled gas expands through a turbine; as it expands, its temperature drops to about -100 °C. At this low temperature, gaseous methane can be separated from the liquefied ethane and heavier hydrocarbons by distillation. Further distillation then separates ethane from the propane and heavier hydrocarbons. A Siemens steam turbine with the case opened. ... יחכיטכיגיגיוגקאטגקעיגקDistillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. ... Propane is a three-carbon alkane, normally a gas, but compressible to a liquid that is transportable. ...


Uses

The chief use of ethane is in the chemical industry, in the production of ethylene by steam cracking. When diluted with steam and briefly heated to very high temperatures (900 °C or more), heavy hydrocarbons break down into lighter hydrocarbons, and saturated hydrocarbons become unsaturated. Ethane is favored for ethylene production because the steam cracking of ethane is fairly selective for ethylene, while the steam cracking of heavier hydrocarbons yields a product mixture poorer in ethylene, and richer in heavier olefins such as propylene and butadiene, and in aromatic hydrocarbons. Ethylene (or IUPAC name ethene) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H4. ... In petroleum geology and chemistry, cracking is the process whereby complex organic molecules (e. ... An alkane in organic chemistry is a type of hydrocarbon in which the molecule has the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms and so has no double bonds (they are saturated). ... Unsaturated hydrocarbon is the name of a type of organic molecule in organic chemistry, that contains a chain of carbons. ... A synonym for the more widely accepted term, alkene. ... Propylene, also known by its IUPAC name propene, is an organic compound having the chemical formula C3H6. ... Butadiene can refer to either one of two hydrocarbon chemical compounds which are alkenes that are isomers of each other. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH) or arene [1] is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ...


Experimentally, ethane is under investigation as a feedstock for other commodity chemicals. Oxidative chlorination of ethane has long appeared to be a potentially more economical route to vinyl chloride than ethylene chlorination. Many processes for carrying out this reaction have been patented, but poor selectivity for vinyl chloride and corrosive reaction conditions (specifically, a hydrochloric acid-containing reaction mixture at temperatures greater than 500 °C) have discouraged the commercialization of most of them. Presently, INEOS operates a 1000 t/a ethane-to-vinyl chloride pilot plant at Wilhemshaven in Germany. Vinyl chloride, also known as chloroethene in IUPAC nomenclature, is an important industrial chemical chiefly used to produce its polymer, polyvinyl chloride (PVC). ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... The chemical compound hydrochloric acid is the aqueous (water-based) solution of hydrogen chloride gas (HCl). ... Ineos is a privately owned British chemicals company. ...


Similarly, the Saudi Arabian firm SABIC has announced construction of a 30,000 t/a plant to produce acetic acid by ethane oxidation at Yanbu. This economic viability of this process may rely on the low cost of ethane near Saudi old fields, and it may not be competitive with methanol carbonylation elsewhere in the world. The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is a country on the Arabian Peninsula. ... SABIC (Saudi Basic Industries Corp) is a diversified manufacturing company, active in chemicals and intermediates, industrial polymers, fertilizers and metals. ... Acetic acid, also known as ethanoic acid, is an organic chemical compound with the formula CH3COOH best recognized for giving vinegar its sour taste and pungent smell. ... NASA photograph of Yanbu al Bahr Yanbu al Bahr (arabic: ينبع البحر spring by the sea), also known simply as Yanbu, Yambo, or Yenbo, is a major Red Sea port in the Al Madinah province of western Saudi Arabia. ...


Ethane can be used as a refrigerant in cryogenic refrigeration systems. On a much smaller scale, in scientific research, liquid ethane is used to vitrify water-rich samples for electron microscopy. A thin film of water, quickly immersed in liquid ethane at -150 °C or colder, freezes too quickly for water to crystallize. This rapid freezing does not disrupt the structure of soft objects present in the liquid state, as the formation of ice crystals can do. A vitrification experiment for the study of nuclear waste disposal at Pacific Northwest National Labs Vitrification is a process of converting a material into a glass-like amorphous solid which is free of any crystalline structure, either by the quick removal or addition of heat, or by mixing with an... The electron microscope is a microscope that can magnify very small details with high resolving power due to the use of electrons rather than light to scatter off material, magnifying at levels up to 500,000 times. ... Soft matter comprises a variety of states, perhaps best distinguished as being dominated by energies of the order of room temperature thermal energy. ... Snowflakes by Wilson Bentley, 1902 Ice is the name given to any one of the 14 known solid phases of water. ...


Health and safety

At room temperature, ethane is a flammable gas. When mixed with air at 3.0% – 12.5% by volume, it forms an explosive mixture. Gasoline explosions, simulating bomb drops at an airshow. ...


Some additional precautions are necessary where ethane is stored as a cryogenic liquid. Direct contact with liquid ethane can result in severe frostbite. In addition, the vapors evaporating from liquid ethane are, until they warm to room temperature, heavier than air and can creep along the ground or gather in low places, and if they encounter an ignition source, can flash back to the body of ethane from which they evaporated. Frostbite (congelatio in medical terminology) is the medical condition whereby damage is caused to skin and other tissues due to extreme cold. ...


Containers recently emptied of ethane may contain insufficient oxygen to support life. Beyond this asphyxiation hazard, ethane poses no known acute or chronic toxicological risk. It is not known or suspected to be a carcinogen. General Name, Symbol, Number oxygen, O, 8 Chemical series nonmetals, chalcogens Group, Period, Block 16, 2, p Appearance colorless (gas) very pale blue (liquid) Standard atomic weight 15. ... Asphyxia is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ...


Atmospheric and extraterrestrial ethane

A photograph of Titan's northern latitudes. The dark features appear to be hydrocarbon lakes, but further images will be needed to see if the dark spots remain the same (as they would if they were lakes)
A photograph of Titan's northern latitudes. The dark features appear to be hydrocarbon lakes, but further images will be needed to see if the dark spots remain the same (as they would if they were lakes)

Ethane occurs as a trace gas in the Earth's atmosphere, having a concentration at sea level of around 0.5 ppbv[1] at present, though its pre-industrial concentration is likely to have been substantially less as a large proportion of the ethane in today's atmosphere probably originated as unburned fossil fuels. Although ethane is a greenhouse gas, it is much less abundant than methane and also less efficient relative to mass. It has also been detected as a trace component in the atmospheres of all four giant planets, and in the atmosphere of Saturn's moon Titan. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2540x1800, 1301 KB) Summary Cassini radar image of Titans North pole. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2540x1800, 1301 KB) Summary Cassini radar image of Titans North pole. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ... “Air” redirects here. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... This page refers to concentration in the chemical sense. ... Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons, primarily coal and petroleum (fuel oil or natural gas), formed from the fossilized remains of dead plants and animals[1] by exposure to heat and pressure in the Earths crust over hundreds of millions of years[2]. The theory that hydrocarbons were formed from these... Top: Increasing atmospheric CO2 levels as measured in the atmosphere and ice cores. ... Metroplex (in shadow) and Giant Planet Gigantion, or Giant Planet, is a fictional planet home to giant Transformers in the animated television program, Transformers: Cybertron; it is referred to as Gigalonia in Transformers: Galaxy Force, the Japanese version of the show. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Titan (, from Ancient Greek Τῑτάν) or Saturn VI is the largest moon of Saturn and the only moon known to have a dense atmosphere. ...


Atmospheric ethane results from the Sun's photochemical action on methane gas, also present in these atmospheres: ultraviolet photons of shorter wavelengths than 160 nm can photo-dissociate the methane molecule into a methyl radical and a hydrogen atom. When two methyl radicals recombine, the result is ethane: Photochemistry is the study of the interaction of light and chemicals. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... The wavelength is the distance between repeating units of a wave pattern. ... A nanometre (American spelling: nanometer) is 1. ... In chemistry a methyl-group is a hydrophobic Alkyl functional group which is derived from methane (CH4). ... General Name, Symbol, Number hydrogen, H, 1 Chemical series nonmetals Group, Period, Block 1, 1, s Appearance colorless Atomic mass 1. ...

CH4 → CH3• + •H
CH3• + •CH3 → C2H6

In the case of Titan, it was once widely hypothesized that ethane produced in this fashion rained back onto the moon's surface, and over time had accumulated into hydrocarbon seas or oceans covering much of the moon's surface. Infrared telescopic observations cast significant doubt on this hypothesis, and the Huygens probe, which landed on Titan in 2005, failed to observe any surface liquids, although it did photograph features that could be presently dry drainage channels. The Cassini probe though has found evidence of lakes at the poles of Titan, where it is hypothesised, that it is cold enough for methane and ethane to liquify. Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula CH4. ... The Huygens probe, supplied by the European Space Agency (ESA) and named after the Dutch 17th century astronomer Christiaan Huygens, is an atmospheric entry probe carried to Saturns moon Titan as part of the Cassini-Huygens mission. ...


In 1996, ethane was detected in Comet Hyakutake, and it has since been detected in some other comets. The existence of ethane in these distant solar system bodies may implicate ethane as a primordial component of the solar nebula from which the sun and planets are believed to have formed. Comet Hyakutake (Japanese: 百武彗星 Hyakutake suisei, IPA ; formally designated C/1996 B2) is a comet that was discovered in January 1996, which passed very close to Earth in March of that year. ... Comet Hale-Bopp, showing a white dust tail and blue gas tail (February 1997) A comet is a small astronomical object similar to an asteroid but composed largely of ice. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


References

  • Michael Faraday (1834). Experimental researches in electricity: Seventh series. Philosophical Transactions, 124:77–122.
  • Hermann Kolbe, Edward Frankland (1849). On the products of the action of potassium on cyanide of ethyl. Journal of the Chemical Society, 1:60–74.
  • Edward Frankland (1850). On the isolation of the organic radicals. Journal of the Chemical Society, 2:263–296.
  • Hermann Kolbe (1850). Researches on the electrolysis of organic compounds. Journal of the Chemical Society, 2:157–184.
  • Carl Schorlemmer (1864). Annalen der Chimie, 132:234.
  • Michael J. Mumma et al. (1996). Detection of Abundant Ethane and Methane, Along with Carbon Monoxide and Water, in Comet C/1996 B2 Hyakutake: Evidence for Interstellar Origin. Science, 272:1310–1314.

External links

  1. ^ Trace gases
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  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethane at AllExperts (1528 words)
Ethane is isolated on an industrial scale from natural gas, and as a byproduct of petroleum refining.
Ethane was first prepared synthetically in 1834 by Michael Faraday, by the electrolysis of a potassium acetate solution, but at the time, he mistook the hydrocarbon product of this reaction for methane, and did not investigate it further.
Ethane is favored for ethylene production because the steam cracking of ethane is fairly selective for ethylene, while the steam cracking of heavier hydrocarbons yields a product mixture poorer in ethylene, and richer in heavier olefins such as propylene and butadiene, and in aromatic hydrocarbons.
L29. Destruction of Ethane in Corona Discharge: Experiment and Modeling (899 words)
Ethane has ionization energy lower than that of molecular oxygen, therefore it was expected that the destruction of ethane would be similar to the destruction of the majority of hydrocarbons (this expectation was confirmed in the current experiments).
Mixtures of ethane and Zero Air (12, 109, 1033 and 10000 ppm) were passed through the reactor with the flow rates of 0.17 – 4.8 sccs.
At the highest ethane concentration used (1%) the discrepancy between the predicted and observed efficiencies of destruction is ca.
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