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Encyclopedia > Ethan Allen
An engraving depicting Ethan Allen demanding the surrender of Fort Ticonderoga

Ethan Allen (January 10, 1738[1]February 12, 1789) was an early American revolutionary and guerrilla leader during the era of the Vermont Republic and the New Hampshire Grants. He fought against the settlement of Vermont by the Province of New York, and then for its independence in the American Revolutionary War. Ethan Allen may refer to: Ethan Allen the early American revolutionary Ethan Allen the American armsmaker Ethan Allen the American furniture company [1] Ethan Allen the baseball player This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... http://digital. ... http://digital. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 4 - Court Jew Joseph Suss Oppenheimer is executed in Württenberg April 15 - Premiere in London of Serse, an Italian opera by George Frideric Handel. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1789 (MDCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... “Guerrilla” redirects here. ... Flag of Vermont Republic The Vermont Republic was an independent republic that existed from 1777 until it became the state of Vermont—the 14th state of the United States of America—in 1791. ... The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by the provincial governor of the New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... A map of the Province of New York. ... This article is about military actions only. ...

Contents

Early life

Ethan Allen was born in Litchfield, Connecticut, the first born child of Joseph and Mary Baker Allen. Ethan was the oldest of the eight children. He was the only one to be born in Litchfield, since the family moved to Cornwall shortly after his birth. His brother, Ira, was also prominent in the early history of Vermont. Litchfield is a town in Litchfield County, Connecticut and is known as a affluent summer resort. ... Official language(s) English Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[2] Area  Ranked 48th  - Total 5,543[4] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km)  - % water 12. ... Categories: People stubs ...


Joseph Allen was the leader of a rebellious group of land owners and speculators who held New Hampshire title to land grants in Bennington, Vermont, which at that time was disputed territory, known as the New Hampshire Grants.[2] New York, which held substantial claim to the area, refused to honor the New Hampshire titles and sold competing titles to different people, who generally did not live in Vermont. This led to open rebellion among the population in much of Vermont. In April 1755, Joseph Allen died, leaving Ethan to take care of the family farm and title claims. The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by the provincial governor of the New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth. ...


Profile

Allen had bright red hair and was well over six feet (about 1.80 m) tall. He was outspoken and apparently quite articulate, although he enjoyed using profane language. At the age of 24, he served in the colonial military in the French and Indian War. He was married and had five children. In the early 1770s, he emerged as the military leader of Anti-New York dissidents, known as the Green Mountain Boys, who were fighting New York over the New Hampshire grants. He and The Green Mountain Boys successfully carved out the Republic (1777-1791) and later the State of Vermont. A warrant was issued for his arrest by the government of New York, for what was a substantial reward of 100 pounds. Combatants France First Nations allies: Algonquin Lenape Wyandot Ojibwa Ottawa Shawnee Great Britain American Colonies Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) Casualties 3,000 killed, wounded or captured 10,040 killed, wounded or captured The French and... The Green Mountain Boys was historically, the militia of the Vermont Republic. ... The New Hampshire Grants or Benning Wentworth Grants were land grants made between 1749 and 1764 by the provincial governor of the New Hampshire, Benning Wentworth. ...


Capture of Fort Ticonderoga

In the spring of 1775, following the beginning of the American Revolutionary War, Allen and Benedict Arnold led a raid to capture Fort Ticonderoga. The relative roles of Allen and Arnold are not entirely clear. Nor is it clear to what extent the campaign was formulated by the strongly anti-British faction in Connecticut, to what extent it was the idea of the Green Mountain Boys headquartered at the Catamount Tavern in Bennington. What is clear is that the rebels moved north, managed to get a few dozen men across Lake Champlain (they had considerable trouble finding a boat and the one they found was quite small). In a dawn attack, Ticonderoga was taken from the small British garrison that held it and who were apparently not aware that the war had started. Allen/Arnold's rebels also quickly captured forts at Crown Point, Fort Ann on Isle La Motte near the present Canadian border, and (temporarily) the town of St John (now Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Quebec). The huge stores of cannon and powder seized at Ticonderoga allowed the American rebels to break the stalemate at the siege of Boston, which caused the British to evacuate the city in March 1776. This article is about military actions only. ... For other persons named Benedict Arnold, see Benedict Arnold (disambiguation). ... Combatants Vermont, Connecticut Great Britain Commanders Ethan Allen, Benedict Arnold William Delaplace Strength 83 48 Casualties None 48 captured The capture of Fort Ticonderoga was an event early in the American Revolutionary War. ... The Green Mountain Boys was historically, the militia of the Vermont Republic. ... On the road leading to the Bennington Battle Monument is a statue of a Catamount on a granite pedestal. ... Bennington (town), Vermont Old Bennington, Vermont Bennington County, Vermont North Bennington, Vermont Bennington (CDP), Vermont This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Landsat photo Lake Champlain (French: lac Champlain) is a large lake in North America, mostly within the borders of the United States (states of Vermont and New York) but partially situated across the US-Canada border in the province of Quebec. ... Crown Point is a town located in Essex County, New York. ... Isle La Motte, Vermont Isle La Motte is a town located in Grand Isle County, Vermont. ... Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu is a city in the province of Quebec, Canada about 50 kilometres (31 mi) southeast of Montreal. ... Combatants New England militia, Continental Army Great Britain Commanders Artemas Ward, George Washington Thomas Gage, William Howe Strength 17,000 The Siege of Boston (April 19, 1775 – March 17, 1776) was the opening phase of the American Revolutionary War, in which New England militiamen—and then the Continental Army—surrounded...


Imprisonment

The Green Mountain Boys elected Allen's cousin, Seth Warner, as leader; however, Allen commanded a small militia in the American rebels' campaign in Quebec in 1775. As a result of miscommunication or misjudgment, he attacked Montreal with a handful of men and was captured by the British. He was shipped to England where he was imprisoned in Pendennis Castle, Cornwall, and suffered considerable mistreatment. On May 3, 1778, Ethan Allen was marched to a sloop in the harbor at New York, in which he was taken to Staten Island. There, he was admitted to General Campbell’s quarters. Allen was invited to eat and drink with the general and several other British field officers, and treated for two days in a polite manner. On the third day Allen was exchanged for Colonel Archibald Campbell, who was conducted to the exchange by Colonel Elias Boudinot, the American commissary general of prisoners appointed by General George Washington. On the fourth day, the general took him prisoner again, and charged him with treason to the Patriots. u. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia The term Militia is commonly used today to refer to a military force composed of ordinary [1] citizens to provide defense, emergency, law enforcement, or paramilitary service, and those engaged in such activity, without being paid a regular salary or committed to a fixed term of service. ... is the 123rd day of the year (124th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1778 (MDCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Charges of treason

Allen then moved back to Vermont, which had become a hotbed of malcontent, harboring little affection for either England or for the nascent United States. Vermont was also harboring a significant number of deserters from the armies of both. Allen settled a homestead in the delta of the Winooski River in what became the modern city of Burlington. Allen remained active in Vermont politics and was appointed general in the Army of Vermont. In 1778, Allen appeared before the Continental Congress on behalf of a claim by Vermont for recognition as an independent state. Due to the New York (and New Hampshire) claim on Vermont, Congress was reluctant to grant independent statehood to Vermont. Allen then negotiated with the governor of Canada between 1780 and 1783, in order to establish Vermont as a British province, in order to gain military protection for Vermonters. Because of this, the US charged him with treason; however, because the negotiations were demonstrably intended to force action on the Vermont case by the Continental Congress, the charge was never substantiated. The Winooski River is a tributary of Lake Champlain, approximately 90 miles (145 km) long, in northern Vermont in the United States. ... Burlington is the largest city in the U.S. state of Vermont and is the shire town of Chittenden County, Vermont. ...


Family

Ethan had five children with his first wife, Mary Brownson (1732 - 1783)[3]:

  • Loraine (1763 - 1783)
  • Joseph (1765 - 1777)
  • Lucy Caroline (1768 - 1842)
  • Mary Ann (1772 - 1790)
  • Permelia (1779 - 1809)

Ethan's marriage to Mary, who was six years older, does not seem to have been particularly happy.[citation needed] Mary died of tuberculosis in 1783, a few months before her eldest daughter.


Frances Montresor Brush Buchanan

Ethan met his second wife, a widow, Frances Montresor Brush Buchanan, in 1784. They married within a few months on February 16, 1784. They had three children:

  • Fanny (1784-1819)
  • Hannibal (1786-1813)
  • Ethan (1787-1855)

Fanny Margaret Allen (born 1784 in Burlington, Vermont) was the eldest child of Ethan Allen with his second wife, Frances Montresor Brush Buchanan Allen. ...

Memorials

Sculpture of Ethan Allen at the Vermont State House after Larkin Goldsmith Mead.
Sculpture of Ethan Allen at the Vermont State House after Larkin Goldsmith Mead.

Two ships of the United States Navy have been named Ethan Allen in his honor, as well as Fort Ethan Allen, a cavalry outpost, in Colchester and Essex, Vermont. The Spirit of Ethan Allen is the name of a tour boat line in Lake Champlain. The Ethan Allen Express, the Amtrak train line running from New York City to Rutland, Vermont, is also named after him. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Vermont State House The Vermont State House, located in Montpelier, Vermont, is the capitol and seat of government of the U.S. state of Vermont. ... Larkin Goldsmith Mead (January 3, 1835 - 1910) was an American sculptor. ... USN redirects here. ... Two ships of the United States Navy have been named USS Ethan Allen in honor of Ethan Allen, the guerilla leader of the Green Mountain Boys. ... Fort Ethan Allen was a cavalry outpost in the U.S. state of Vermont named for American Revolutionary War figure Ethan Allen. ...


A statue of Allen represents Vermont in Statuary Hall in the U.S. Capitol.[4]


Publications

Allen is known to have written the following publications:

  • Narrative of Colonel Ethan Allen's Captivity (1779)
  • Vindication of the Opposition of Vermont to the Government of New York (1779)
  • Reason the Only Oracle of Man, or A Compendious System of Natural Religion (1784) (co-authored with Dr. Thomas Young)

Dr. Thomas Young was an American radical during the American Revolutionary War who advocated for independence from Britain. ...

Other Associates

  • Dr. Thomas Young, a radical who advocated for independence from Britain, was a mentor for Allen.
  • Thomas Rowley was known as his spokesman, the "Bard of the Green Mountains" who "Set the Hills on Fire" for Ethan Allen.

Dr. Thomas Young was an American radical during the American Revolutionary War who advocated for independence from Britain. ... Thomas Rowley (1721-1796) was a famous poet of Vermont, known both as the spokesman for Ethan Allen and daubed “The Bard of the Green Mountains. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Allen was born when Britain and her colonies still used the Old Style (O.S.) Julian calendar. After 1752 when the New Style (N.S.) Gregorian came into effect, many important British-American dates were changed to reflect New Style. Both birth and death dates reflect N.S. In O.S., Allen's birth date is January 10, 1737.
  2. ^ Henry Walter De Puy (1861), Ethan Allen and the Green-Mountain Heroes of '76, Phinney, Blakeman & Mason, p. 129, <http://books.google.com/books?id=UITB-YskPQkC&pg=PA129&lpg=PA129&dq=%22joseph+allen%22+%22new+hampshire+grants%22&source=web&ots=1h5BxQ6e4f&sig=MfUhLLbKxvIUs4x9GWR3AuopXB0>. Retrieved on 2007-11-28
  3. ^ http://jrm.phys.ksu.edu/Genealogy/Needham/d0001/I2208.html
  4. ^ http://www.aoc.gov/cc/art/nsh/allen_e.cfm

Old Style redirects here. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ...

Further reading

  • Allen, Ira, "The Natural and Political History of the State of Vermont." 1798, Charles E. Tuttle Co.: Publishers
  • Bellesiles, Michael A. Revolutionary Outlaws: Ethan Allen and the Struggle for Independence on the Early American Frontier. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1993.
  • Hall, Henry. Ethan Allen. New York, 1893.
  • Holbrook, Stewart H. "Ethan Allen", New York: The MacMillan Company, 1940
  • Hoyt, Edwin P. "The Damndest Yankee: Ethan Allen & his Clan". Brattleboro, Vermont: The Stephen Greene Press, 1976.
  • Jellison, Charles A. Ethan Allen: Frontier Rebel. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 1969.
  • Pell, John. Ethan Allen. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1929.

Michael A. Bellesiles was a former professor of Colonial history at Emory University, and former Director of Emorys Center for the Study of Violence. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Ethan Allen

  Results from FactBites:
 
Ethan Allen - definition of Ethan Allen in Encyclopedia (701 words)
Ethan Allen (January 21, 1738—February 12, 1789) was an early American revolutionary and guerrilla leader during the era of the Vermont Republic and the New Hampshire Grants.
Allen settled a homestead in the delta of the Winooski River near the modern city of Burlington.
Allen died in 1789 of a stroke at the age of 51.
AllRefer.com - Ethan Allen (U.S. History, Biography) - Encyclopedia (553 words)
Ethan Allen 1738–89, hero of the American Revolution, leader of the Green Mountain Boys, and promoter of the independence and statehood of Vermont, b.
He and his brothers, notably Ira Allen, became the leaders of the New England settlers and speculators in the disputed lands : inveterate enemies of the Yorkers (settlers under New York patents) and violent opponents of all attempts of New York to exert control in the area.
Allen went on the expedition and, in a rash effort to capture Montreal before the main Continental army arrived, was captured (Sept., 1775) by the British.
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