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Encyclopedia > Etanercept

Etanercept (Enbrel®, co-marketed by Amgen and Wyeth) is a human recombinant, soluble tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) receptor. It is a small protein (p75, i.e., its molecular weight is 75 kDa) that binds TNFα and decreases its role in inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, juvenile rheumatoid arthritis , psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. It was released soon after infliximab, a monoclonal antibody with anti-TNFα activity, but etanercept is generally tolerated better and it does not seem to cause reactivation of tuberculosis. Amgen Inc. ... Wyeth, formerly known as American Home Products, is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... In medicine, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα, cachexin or cachectin) is an important cytokine involved in systemic inflammation and the acute phase response. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... The Kampfgruppen der Arbeiterklasse (German: Combat Groups of the Working Class) was a paramilitary organisation in East Germany, founded in 1953 and abolished in 1990. ... Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, inflammatory autoimmune disorder that causes the immune system to attack the joints. ... Juvenile arthritis is a type of arthritis typically affects children before the age of sixteen. ... Psoriatic arthritis (or Arthropathic psoriasis) is a type of inflammatory arthritis that affects around 20% of people suffering from the chronic skin condition Psoriasis. ... It has been suggested that Infliximab (Remicade) be merged into this article or section. ... Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) are antibodies that are identical because they were produced by one type of immune cell, all clones of a single parent cell. ... Tuberculosis (commonly shortened to TB) is an infection caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (Miliary tuberculosis), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...

Contents


Invention

Etanercept was developed by the company Immunex which was bought out by Amgen. The product is marketed jointly by Amgen and Wyeth. Amgen Inc. ... Amgen Inc. ... Wyeth, formerly known as American Home Products, is one of the largest pharmaceutical companies in the world. ...


Mode of action

Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) is a cytokine produced by monocytes and macrophages, two types of white blood cells. It mediates the immune response by increasing the transport of white blood cells to sites of inflammation. Inhibition of its action by etanercept reduces the inflammatory response which is especially useful for treating autoimmune diseases. Cytokines are small protein molecules that are the core of communication between immune system cells, and even between these cells and cells belonging to other tissue types. ... A monocyte is a leukocyte, part of the human bodys immune system that protect against blood-borne pathogens and move quickly to sites of infection in the tissues. ... Macrophages (Greek: big eaters) are cells found in tissues that are responsible for phagocytosis of pathogens, dead cells and cellular debris. ... White blood cells (also called leukocytes or immune cells) are a component of blood. ... Inflammation is the first response of the immune system to infection or irritation and may be referred to as the innate cascade. ... Autoimmune diseases arise from an overactive immune response of the body against substances and tissues normally present in the body. ...


There are two types of TNF receptors: those found embedded in white blood cells that respond to TNF by releasing other cytokines, and soluble TNF receptors which are used to deactivate TNF and blunt the immune response. Etanercept mimics the inhibitory effects of naturally occurring soluble TNF receptors. In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific factor (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ...


Structure

Etanercept is made from the combination of two naturally occurring soluble human 75-kilodalton TNF receptors linked to an Fc portion of an IgG1. The effect is an artificially engineered antibody. Schematic of antibody binding to an antigen An antibody is a protein used by the immune system to identify and neutralize foreign objects like bacteria and viruses. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Etanercept - British Association of Dermatologists (1694 words)
Etanercept is a powerful drug that has been specially designed to mimic normal human molecules, and for this reason it is classed as a “biological” drug.
Etanercept is reserved for patients with severe psoriasis who cannot take drugs such as methotrexate, cyclosporin, or use phototherapy (see separate British Association of Dermatologists’ leaflets on these drugs, and on severe psoriasis), or who have failed to respond to those treatments.
Etanercept has not been studied in pregnant women or nursing mothers, so we don’t know what its effects are on pregnant women or babies who are being breast fed. You should tell your doctor if you are pregnant, become pregnant, or are thinking about becoming pregnant.
etanercept (injectable) - [Medication] (1567 words)
Etanercept reduces the actions of chemicals in the body that are involved in inflammatory and immune responses.
Etanercept is used to treat the symptoms of moderate to severe rheumatoid arthritis, polyarticular-course juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
Etanercept is in the FDA pregnancy category B. This means that it is not expected to be harmful to an unborn baby.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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