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Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, (ETA)
ETA symbol
ETA symbol
Operational 1959–present
Led by Mikel Garikoitz Aspiazu Rubina "Txeroki"[citation needed]
Objectives The creation of an independent socialist Basque Country (Euskal Herria)
Active region(s) Spain and France (Basque Country)
Ideology Basque nationalism, Marxism-Leninism
Status Designated as Foreign Terrorist Organization by the U.S. State Department
Designated as Proscribed Group by the UK Home Office
Designated as terrorist group by EU Common Foreign and Security Policy

Euskadi Ta Askatasuna or ETA (Basque for "Basque Homeland and Freedom"; pronounced [ˈɛːta]), is an armed Basque nationalist separatist organization. Founded in 1959, it evolved from a group advocating traditional cultural ways to an armed group demanding Basque independence.[1] Look up eta, ETA in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque Country domain. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque Country domain. ... Political Spain in 1854, after the first Carlist War The Arrano beltza (black eagle) flag is waved by radical Basque nationalists, mainly supporters of ETA and HB, along the Ikurriña and the Navarrese flag as a claim of unity of the Basque lands. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... The U.S. State Departments list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations is a list of non-US organizations that are designated as terrorist by the United States Secretary of State in accordance with section 219 of the Immigration and Nationality Act (INA). ... Department of State redirects here. ... The Terrorism Act 2000 is a current United Kingdom Act of Parliament - An Act to make provision about terrorism; and to make temporary provision for Northern Ireland about the prosecution and punishment of certain offences, the preservation of peace and the maintenance of order. ... The modern concept of Small Office and Home Office or SoHo , or Small or Home Office deals with the category of business which can be from 1 to 10 workers. ... The Common Foreign and Security Policy, or CFSP, was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in the Maastricht treaty of 1992, and further defined and broadened in the Amsterdam Treaty of 1999. ... Basque (native name: euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). ...


According to official Spanish government figures, since 1968 ETA has killed 823 people,[2] having committed dozens of kidnappings over this period as well. The group is proscribed as a terrorist organisation by both the Spanish and French[3] authorities as well as the European Union as a whole,[4] and the United States.[5] More than 700 members of the organisation are incarcerated in prisons in Spain, France, and other countries.[6] This article is becoming very long. ... In politics, authority generally refers to the ability to make laws, independent of the power to enforce them, or the ability to permit something. ...


All formulations of ETA's goals have centered on sovereignty and self-determination for the Basque Country.[7] The group's ideology is Marxist-Leninist.[8] Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque Country domain. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ...


ETA's motto is Bietan jarrai ("Keep up on both"). This refers to the two figures in its symbol, a snake (representing politics) wrapped around an axe (representing armed fight).[9][10][11]

Contents

Structure

ETA members fire salvoes during the Day of the Basque Soldier.
ETA members fire salvoes during the Day of the Basque Soldier.

ETA has changed several times its internal structure for different reasons, commonly security ones. The band used to have a very hierarchical organisation with a leading cupola on the top, delegating into three substructures: the logistic, military and political sections. Reports from the Spanish, Basque and French police point toward significant changes in the last years in ETA's structures. ETA has divided the three substructures into a total of eleven. The change was a response to recent captures, and possible infiltration, by the different law enforcement agencies. ETA intention is to disperse its members and reduce the impact of detentions. Image File history File links ArmaTiroPumEtaMilikiliklik26_8. ... Image File history File links ArmaTiroPumEtaMilikiliklik26_8. ... Euzko Gudarostea (modern spelling: Eusko Gudarostea, Basque army) was the name of the army commanded by the government of the Basque Autonomous Community during the Spanish civil war. ...


The leading committee is formed by 7 to 11 individuals, and ETA's internal documentation refers to it as Zuba, a abbreviation of Zuzendaritza Batzordea (directorial committee). There is another committee named Zuba-hitu that functions as an advisoral committee. The eleven different substructures are: logistics, politics, international relations with fraternal organisations, military operations, reserves, prisoner support, expropriation, information, recruitment, negotiation and treasury.[12]


ETA's armed operations are organized in different taldes ("groups") or commandos, generally composed of three to five members, whose objective is to conduct attacks in a specific geographic zone. The taldes are coordinated by the cúpula militar ("military cupola"). To supply the taldes, support groups maintain safe houses and zulos, the Basque word zulo literally means "hole". Zulos are small rooms concealed in forests, house attics or undergrounds, used to store arms, explosives or, sometimes, kidnapped people. The small cellars used to hide the people kidnapped are named by ETA and ETA's supporters "people's jails"[13]. Currently the most common commandos are the itinerant ones, not linked to any specific area, and thus, more difficult to capture.[14] Cupola of St Peters Basilica, Rome In architecture, a cupola consists of a dome-shaped ornamental structure located on top of a larger roof or dome, often used as a lookout or to admit light and provide ventilation. ... In law enforcement and intelligence jargon of intelligence agencies and police forces, a secured location, suitable for hiding witnesses, agents or other persons perceived as being in danger. ...


Among its members, ETA distinguishes between legales/legalak ("legal ones"), those members who do not have police records and live apparently normal lives; liberados ("liberated") members known to the police that are on ETA's payroll and working fulltime for ETA;apoyos("support") who just give punctual help and logistics support to the organisation when required.[15]. There are also the imprisoned members of the organisation, serving time scattered across Spain and France, that sometimes have still significant influence inside the organisation; and finally the quemados ("burned out"), members freed after having been imprisoned or those that the organisation suspect under police vigilance. There was also in the past the figure of the deportees, expelled by the French government to remote countries where they live free. France stopped the practice of deporting ETA members to other places than to Spain to be judged.


ETA's internal bulletin is named Zutabe ("Column"), replacing the earlier one(1962) Zutik ("Standing"). Zutik (Standing in Basque) was the internal organ of the Basque clandestine armed organization ETA. It was founded in 1962. ...


ETA also promotes the kale borroka ("street fight"), that is, violent acts against public transportation, political parties offices or cultural buildings, destruction of private property of politicians, police, military, journalist, council members, and anyone voicing critics against ETA, bank offices, menaces, graffiti of political mottos, and general rioting, usually using Molotov cocktails.[citation needed] These groups are made up mostly of young people, who are directed through youth organisations (such as Jarrai, Haika and Segi). Many of the present-day members of ETA started their collaborations with the organisation as participants in the kale borroka. A PSE-EE club in Bilbao attacked with paint blots. ... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ... SEGI SEGI is a violent Basque nationalist youth organization which is part of the Basque National Liberation Movement and aligned with Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak, Batasuna and ETA. Terrorist: Flag of Convenience?Police in Spain detain 18 members of outlawed Basque youth groupBasque youths battle police, 3 arrestedState repression of the...


Political support

The political party Batasuna (formerly known as Euskal Herritarrok and "Herri Batasuna"), banned today by the Spanish Law as a non-democratic organisation (Ley de Partidos Políticos[16]), pursues the same political goals as ETA and does not condemn ETA's use of violence. It generally received 8 to 15% of the vote in the Basque Autonomous Community [17]. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Batasuna (Unity) is a Basque political party based mainly in Spain but with a French presence, which is presumed to be associated with the Basque separatist armed group ETA. Their relation is similar to that of Northern Irelands Sinn Féin and the IRA. History and outline The party was... Batasuna (Unity) is a Basque political party based mainly in Spain but with a French presence, which is presumed to be associated with the Basque separatist armed group ETA. Their relation is similar to that of Northern Irelands Sinn Féin and the IRA. History and outline The party was...


Batasuna's political status has been a very controversial issue. It is considered to be the political wing of ETA[18][19] although the party itself denies that this is the case, despite the fact that double membership -simultaneous or alternative- between Batasuna and ETA is often recorded, such as with the cases of prominent Batasuna leaders like Josu Ternera, Arnaldo Otegi, Jon Salaberria and others[20][21]. The Spanish Cortes (the Spanish Parliament) began the process of declaring the party illegal in August 2002 by issuing a bill entitled the Ley de Partidos Políticos which bars political parties which may be based on a hatred ideology or which advocate political violence. Many within Basque nationalism strongly disputed this move, which they felt was too draconian or even unlawful: they alleged that any party could be made illegal almost by choice, simply for not clearly stating their opposition to an attack. Defenders of the new law argue that the Ley de Partidos does not necessarily require responses to individual acts of violence, but rather a declaration of principles explicitly rejecting violence as a means of achieving political goals anathema to the state. Batasuna has failed to produce such a statement as of February 2008. Arnaldo Otegi (b. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senado de España Congreso de los Diputados President of the Senate Francisco Javier Rojo García, PSOE PSE-EE since 2004 President of the Congress José Bono Martínez, PSOE since 2008 Members 609 259 senators 350 deputies Political groups Senado: PP, PSOE, ECP, PNV, CiU... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In a parallel trial, the Judge Baltasar Garzón suspended the activities of Batasuna and its headquarters were shut down by police as the nature of the relationship between the political party and ETA were investigated. The Supreme Court of Spain finally declared Batasuna illegal on March 18, 2003. The court considered proven that Batasuna had links with ETA and that it constituted in fact part of ETA's structure. Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


A new party called Aukera Guztiak (All the Options) was formed ex profeso for the elections to the Basque Parliament of April 2005. Its supporters claimed no heritage from Batasuna, asserting that their aim was to allow Basque citizens to freely express their political ideas, even those of independence. On the matter of political violence, Aukera Guztiak stated their right not to condemn some kind of violence more than other if they did not see it fit (in this regard, the MLNV regards violent police action as violence, which the law does not). Nevertheless, most of their members and certainly most of their leadership were former Batasuna supporters or affiliates. The Spanish Supreme Court unanimously considered the party to be a sequel to Batasuna and declared a ban on it. The Basque Parliament (Castillian Spanish Parlamento Vasco, Basque Eusko Legebiltzarra) is the autonomous legislative body of the Basque Country and the elected assembly before which the Basque Government is responsible. ... The Basque National Liberation Movement (Spanish: Movimiento de Liberación Nacional Vasco, MLNV; Basque: Euskal Herri Askapenerako Mugimendua) is an umbrella term that comprises all social, political and military organisations that oribited around the ideas of ETA. The wide variety of organisations and their different levels of belonging to this...


After Aukera Guztiak had been banned, and less than two weeks before the election, another political group appeared born from an earlier schism from Herri Batasuna, the Communist Party of the Basque Lands (EHAK/PCTV, Euskal Herrialdeetako Alderdi Komunista / Partido Comunista de las Tierras Vascas), a formerly unknown political party which had no representation in the Autonomous Basque Parliament. EHAK made the announcement that they would apply the votes they obtained to the programme of the now banned Aukera Guztiak platform. This move left no time for the Spanish courts to investigate the EHAK in compliance with the Ley de Partidos before the elections were to be held, which eventually allowed the programme of the illegalized Batasuna to keep being represented without having condemned violence as required by the Ley de Partidos. The bulk of Batasuna supporters voted in this election for PCTV, a virtually unknown political formation until then. PCTV obtained 9 seats (12.44% of votes) at the Basque Parliament [22]. EHAK Poster The Communist Party of the Basque Homeland (Spanish: Partido Comunista de las Tierras Vascas, Euskera: Euskal Herrialdeetako Alderdi Komunista, acronym: EHAK-PCTV) is a left nationalist party in the Basque Country, that had limited electoral activities prior to 2005, but rose to national prominence when its leadership adopted...


Social support

Graffiti in Pasaia (2003). "ETA, the people with you" on the left, and Batasuna using several nationalist symbols asking for "Independence!".
Graffiti in Pasaia (2003). "ETA, the people with you" on the left, and Batasuna using several nationalist symbols asking for "Independence!".

The roots of ETA's support lie in attempts of the dictator Franco to suppress Basque nationalism. Since some Basque nationalists had sided with the Republican government in the Spanish Civil War, Franco restricted virtually any public expressions of Basque culture and banned all expressions of Basque nationalism, including public display of the nationalist flag (the Ikurriña), the celebration of nationalist holidays, speaking the Basque language in public or teaching the language in schools and even baptizing children with non-Spanish names. However, the territories which were deemed as "loyal" during the Civil War to the Franco uprising were allowed after his victory to keep their limited self-government. These were Álava and Navarre, where Franco supporters (mostly Carlists) sided with Franco from the start, seeing Franco as a leader who would end anticlericalism and violence against the Catholic Church. Conversely, Biscay and Guipuscoa were considered "rebellious" for having sided with Republican Spain during the Civil War. These regions therefore saw their fueros abrogated by the Francoist regime. Harbor of Pasaia Pasaia (Spanish: Pasajes) is a town and municipality located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Not to be confused with the Spanish Civil War of 1820-1823. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Ikurriña The Ikurriña flag is a Basque symbol and the official flag of the Basque Country, an Autonomous Community (Comunidad Autónomas) of contemporary Spain. ... This article is about the Christian religious act of Baptism. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... For other uses, see Biscay (disambiguation). ... Guipuscoa province. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Muslim Conquest of Iberia Timeline of Muslim Occupation Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ...


During Franco's era, ETA had considerable public support beyond the Basque populace[citation needed], reaching its peak after the 'Burgos Trials' of 1970—which drew international attention to the organisation's cause and highlighted the repressive nature of the Franco regime—and their assassination of Almirante Luis Carrero Blanco in 1973 (Carrero Blanco was appointed by Franco as Prime Minister and "strong-man" to rule Spain after his death). Spain's transition to democracy from 1975 on and ETA's progressive radicalization have resulted in a steady loss of support, which became especially apparent at the time of their 1997 kidnapping and countdown assassination of Miguel Ángel Blanco. Their loss of sympathizers has been reflected in an erosion of support for the political parties identified with the MLNV. Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... Miguel Ángel Blanco Garrido (13 May 1968 – 13 July 1997) was a local politician in Ermua (Biscay), in the Basque autonomous community (Spain) for the Partido Popular. ...


Opinion polls

A more recent poll by the Basque Autonomous Government (December 2006)[23][24][25] shows that 88% of the Basques think that it is necessary for all political parties to launch a dialogue, including a debate on the political framework for the Basque Country (86%). 69% support the idea of ratifying the results of this hypothetical multitipartite dialogue through a referendum. This poll also reveals that the hope of a peaceful resolution to the violent Basque separatist problem has fallen to 78% (from 90% in April).


These polls did not cover Navarre, where support for Basque nationalist electoral options is weaker (around 25% of population) or the Northern Basque Country where support is even weaker (around 15% of population). “Navarra” redirects here. ... Location of the Basque Country Northern Basque Country in green The Northern Basque Country, French Basque Country or Continental Basque Country (French: , Basque: ) constitutes the northern part of the Basque Country and the western part of the French department of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques. ...


History

During Franco's dictatorship

ETA was founded by young nationalists, who were for a time affiliated with the PNV. Started in 1952 as a student discussion group at the University of Deusto in Bilbao, an offshoot of the PNV's youth group EGI, it was originally called EKIN, from the Basque-language verb meaning "to act"; the name had the meaning "get busy". On July 31, 1959 it reconstituted itself as ETA. Their split from the PNV was apparently because they considered the PNV too moderate in its opposition to Franco's dictatorship. They disagreed with the PNV's rejection of violent tactics and advocated a Basque resistance movement using direct action. This was an era of wars of national liberation such as the anti-colonial war in Algeria. The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... The University of Deusto is one of the most distinguished academic institutions in Spain, with campuses in Bilbao and San Sebastian. ... La Muy Noble y Muy Leal e Invicta (The most noble and most loyal and undefeated) Location Location of Bilbao in Spain and Biscay Coordinates : , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Bilbao (Basque) Spanish name Bilbao Nickname El Botxo (the hole) Founded 15... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... is the 212th day of the year (213th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A resistance movement is a group or collection of individual groups, dedicated to fighting an invader in an occupied country or the government of a sovereign nation through either the use of physical force, or nonviolence. ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... Flag of Mozambique — independent since 1975, with the Kalashnikov as symbol of the armed struggle against the Portuguese empire, the book as symbol of instruction and a farm instrument as symbol of economic growth Wars of national liberation are conflicts fought by indigenous military groups against an imperial power in... Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ...


In their platform, formed at their first assembly in Bayonne, France in 1962, ETA called for "historical regenerationism", considering Basque history as a process of construction of a nation. They declared that Basque nationality is defined by the Basque language, Euskara; this was in contrast to the PNV's definition of Basque nationality in terms of ethnicity. In contrast with the explicit Catholicism of the PNV, ETA defined itself as "aconfessional"—meaning ETA does not recognize a special state religion—although using Catholic doctrine to elaborate its social program. They called for socialism and for "independence for Euskadi, compatible with European federalism". Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... This article or section should be merged with ethnic group Ethnicity is the cultural characteristics that connect a particular group or groups of people to each other. ... The term federalist refers to several sets of political beliefs around the world. ...


In 1965, the VI Assembly of ETA adopted a Marxist-Leninist position; its precise political line has varied with time, although they have always advocated some type of socialism. Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism is a political and economic theory which builds upon Marxism; it is a branch of Marxism (and it has been the dominant branch of Marxism in the world since the 1920s). ... Since the 19th century, socialist ideas have developed and separated into many different types of socialism. ...


In its early years, ETA's activity seems to have consisted mostly of theorizing and of protesting by destroying infrastructure and Spanish symbols and by hanging forbidden Basque flags. The Ikurriña, flag designed by the founders of the Basque Nationalist Party EAJ_PNV Luis and Sabino Arana, is regarded as the national symbol of Euskal Herria, or the Basque country. ...

Memorial plate at the place of the assassination of Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco.
Memorial plate at the place of the assassination of Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco.

It is not clear when exactly ETA first began a policy of assassination, nor is it clear who committed the first assassinations identified with ETA. There are sources that single out a failed 1960 attempt to derail a train carrying war veterans as a result of which the litte girl Beatriz Urroz was killed, this attack was not vindicated by ETA or any other group. The first confirmed assassination occurred on June 7, 1968 when Guardia Civil, José Pardines Arcay was shot dead when he tried to halt ETA member Txabi Etxebarrieta during the course of a routinary road check. Etxebarrieta was chased down and killed as he tried to flee[26]. This led to retaliation in the form of the first planned ETA assassination, that of Melitón Manzanas, chief of the secret police in San Sebastián, a widely known torturer and a Gestapo collaborator in World War II.[27] In 1970, several members of ETA were condemned to death in the Proceso de Burgos ("Trial of Burgos"), but international pressure resulted in commutation of the sentences, which, however, had by that time already been applied to some other members of ETA. The nationalists that refused Marxism-Leninism and looked for a National Front appeared as the so-called ETA-V. They kidnapped the German consul in San Sebastian, Eugen Beilh, to exchange him for the Burgos condamnees. The most consequential assassination performed by ETA during Franco's dictatorship was Operación Ogro, the December 1973 assassination by bomb in Madrid of Admiral Luis Carrero Blanco, Franco's chosen successor and president of the government (a position roughly equivalent to being a prime minister). The assassination had been planned for months and was executed by placing a bomb in the sewer below the street where Blanco's car passed every day. The bomb blew up just in time and threw the politician and his car three floors into the air and over the top of a nearby building; the car landed on a balcony in a courtyard the other side from the road. is the 158th day of the year (159th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Patrol boat, Nervion river, Bilbao. ... Txabi Etxebarrieta (born 14 October 1944, Bilbao – died 7 June 1968) was a Basque nationalist and anti-fascist who was a popular leader of the armed separatist organisation Euskadi ta Askatasuna (ETA). ... Melitón Manzanas (San Sebastian, 1906-1968) was a Francoist Spain government official and the first high-profile member of the Spanish government killed by ETA. Manzanas entered the police force in San Sebastian in 1941, collaborating with the Gestapo against political opponents. ... This article is about secret police as organizations. ... The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... In Law, a commutation of sentence occurs when an executive head of government reduces a sentence for a criminal action. ... The name National Front, is used by a number of political parties and coalitions. ... The Operación Ogro (Operation Ogre) was the name given by ETA to the killing of Luis Carrero Blanco the then Prime Minister of Spain in 1973. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ...


This killing was not condemned and in some cases was even applauded by the Spanish opposition in exile. For some Carrero Blanco's death was an instrumental step for the posterior establishment of democracy, by eliminating Franco's choice of successor. In regard to Carrero's death, the former ETA member now turned anti-nationalist author Jon Juaristi contends that ETA's goal with this particular killing was not democratization but a spiral of violence as an attempt to fully destabilize Spain, increase Franco's repression against Basque nationalism and subsequently put the average citizen in the Basque country in the situation where they would have had to accept the lesser evil in the form of ETA's reaction against Franco's unleashed repression.[28] Jon Juaristi Linacero (born in Bilbao, in 1951) is a poet, essayist, and Spanish translator in Castilian and Basque. ... Lesser of Two Evils redirects here. ...


During the transition

After Franco's death, during the Spanish transition to democracy, ETA split into two separate organisations: one faction became ETA political-military or ETA(pm), and another ETA military or ETA(m). The Spanish transition to democracy or new Bourbon restoration was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a liberal democratic state. ... ETA political-military (Spanish: ETA político-militar) or ETA (pm) was the majority faction of the Basque nationalist group ETA, which, during Spains transition to democracy accepted offers of amnesty, abandoned the policy of violence, and integrated into a political party (Euskadiko Ezkerra), which later fused with the... ETA military (Spanish: ETA militar) or ETA (m) was the minority faction of the Basque nationalist group ETA, which, during Spains transition to democracy refused offers of amnesty, instead continuing and intensifying violent struggle. ...


Both ETA(m) and ETA(pm) refused offers of amnesty, instead continuing and intensifying their violent struggle. The years 1978–80 were to prove ETA's most deadly, with 68, 76, and 91 fatalities, respectively. [Martinez-Herrera 2002]


During the Francoist dictatorship, ETA was able to take advantage of tolerance by the French government, which allowed its members to move freely through French territory, believing that in this manner they were contributing to the end of Franco's regime. There is much controversy over the degree to which this policy of "sanctuary" continued even after the transition to democracy, but it is generally agreed that currently the French authorities collaborate closely with the Spanish government against ETA. This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... Ajax prepares to violate the sanctuary of Athena by abducting Cassandra by force: red-figure vase, c. ...


In the 80s, ETA(pm) accepted the Spanish government's offer of individual pardons to all ETA prisoners, even those who had committed violent crimes, who publicly abandoned the policy of violence. This caused a new division in ETA(pm) between the VII and VIII assemblies. ETA VII accepted this partial amnesty granted by the now democratic Spanish government and integrated into the political party Euskadiko Ezkerra ("Left of the Basque Country"). Euskadiko Ezkerra (Basque Country Left, in Basque) or EE was a Spanish Basque socialist political organisation. ... Left wing redirects here. ...


ETA VIII, after a brief period of independent activity, eventually integrated in ETA(m), possibly influencing ETA(m) into adopting even more radical and violent positions. With no factions existing anymore, ETA(m) revamped the original name of Euskadi Ta Askatasuna.


Under democracy

ETA performed their first car bomb assassination in Madrid in September 1985, resulting in one death (American citizen Eugene Kent Brown, Johnson&Johnson employee) and sixteen injuries; another bomb in July 1986 killed twelve members of the Guardia Civil and injured 50; on July 19, 1987 the Hipercor bombing was an attack in a shopping center in Barcelona, killing twenty one and injuring forty five; in the last case, entire families were killed. The horror caused then was so striking that ETA felt compelled to issue a communiqué stating that they had given advance warning of the Hipercor bomb, but that the police had declined to evacuate the area. The police claim that the warning came only a few minutes before the bomb exploded. For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 1987. ... Hipercor is a chain of supermarkets and hypermarkets in Spain, belonging to the same group as El Corte Inglés Categories: Stub ... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


In a "dirty war" against ETA, Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (GAL, "Antiterrorist Liberation Groups"), a government-sponsored terrorist group billing themselves as counter-terrorist was active between 1983 and 1987, committing assassinations, kidnappings and torture, not only of ETA members but of civilians supposedly related to those, some of whom turned out to have absolutely nothing to do with ETA. In 1997 a Spanish court convicted and imprisoned several individuals involved in GAL, not only mercenaries and low-level police officials but politicians up to the highest levels of the PSOE government of prime minister Felipe González, including a former Homeland Minister. Although González had been quoted as saying that the government would defend itself in the "sewers of the state" (las cloacas del estado), his role in GAL was never proven. No major cases of foul play on the part of the Spanish government after 1987 (when GAL ceased to operate) have been proven in Spanish courts, although ETA supporters –along some human rights associations[which?]– routinely claim human rights violations[29] and torture by police;[30] international human rights organisations like Amnesty International have backed some of these claims on a regular basis. AI has shown concern for the continuous disregard on the recommendations issued by the agency to prevent the alleged abuses to take place.[31] ETA's manuals have been found telling its members and supporters to claim routinely that they had been tortured while detained[32]. Poster by the Madres de la Plaza de Mayo NGO with photos of disappeared. This article especially refers to the Argentine dirty war; however, the term has been used in other contexts, for example in Morocco; see also lead years. ... Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (Antiterrorist Liberation Groups) were death squads illegally set up by officials within the Spanish government to fight ETA. They were active from 1983 until 1987, under PSOEs cabinets. ... Counter-terrorism refers to the practices, tactics, and strategies that governments, militaries, and other groups adopt in order to fight terrorism. ... The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... Felipe González Márquez (born March 5, 1942) is a Spanish socialist politician. ... For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ...


In 1986 Gesto por la Paz (known in English as Association for Peace in the Basque Country) was founded; they began to convene silent demonstrations in communities throughout the Basque Country the day after any violent killing, whether by ETA or by GAL. These were the first systematic demonstrations in the Basque Country against terrorist violence. Also in 1986, in Ordizia, ETA shot down María Dolores Katarain, known as "Yoyes", while she was walking with her infant son. Yoyes was a former member of ETA who had abandoned the armed struggle and rejoined civil society: they accused her of "desertion" because of her taking advantage of the Spanish reinserción policy which granted amnesty to those prisoners who publicly refused political violence (see below). The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Ordizia is a town and municipality located in the Goierri region of the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of the Basque Country, northern Spain. ...


On January 12, 1988 all Basque political parties except ETA-affiliated Herri Batasuna signed the Ajuria-Enea pact with the intent of ending ETA's violence. Weeks later on January 28, ETA announced a 60-day "ceasefire", later prolonged several times. Negotiations known as the Mesa de Argel ("Algiers Table") took place between the ETA representative Eugenio Etxebeste ("Antxon"), and the then PSOE government of Spain but no successful conclusion was reached, and ETA eventually resumed the use of violence. is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of Algeria. ...


During this period, the Spanish government had a policy referred to as "reinsertion", under which imprisoned ETA members whom the government believed had genuinely abandoned violence could be freed and allowed to rejoin society. Claiming a need to prevent ETA from coercively impeding this reinsertion, the PSOE government decided that imprisoned ETA members, who previously had all been imprisoned within the Basque Country, would instead be dispersed to prisons throughout Spain, some as far from their families as in the Salto del Negro prison in the Canary Islands. France has taken a similar approach. In the event, the only clear effect of this policy was to incite social protest, especially from nationalists and families of the prisoners, claiming cruelty of separating family members from the insurgents. Much of the protest against this policy runs under the slogan "Euskal presoak - Euskal Herrira" (Basque prisoners to the Basque Country, by "Basque prisoners" only ETA members are meant). It has to be noted that almost in any Spanish jail there is a group of ETA prisoners, as the number of ETA prisoners makes it difficult to disperse them. Gestoras pro-Amnistía/Amnistia Aldeko Batzordeak ("Pro-Amnesty Managing Assemblies", currently illegal), later Askatasuna ("Freedom") and Senideak ("The family members") provide support for prisoners and families. The Basque Government and several Nationalist town halls grant money on humanitarian reasons for relatives to visit prisoners. The long road trips had caused accidental deaths that are protested against by ETA supporters. This article is about the islands in the Atlantic Ocean. ... ASKATASUNA: (from the Basque word meaning freedom): According to European Union statements ASKATASUNA is a terrorist organization that is included in ETA (euskadi ta askatuna). ... Capital Vitoria-Gasteiz Official languages Basque and Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 14th  7 234 km²  1,4% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 7th  2 124 846  4,9%  293,73/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€“ Basque  Basque  Vasco/a Euskal Herritar, Euskaldun GDP GDP/Cápita 30. ...


During the ETA ceasefire of the late 1990s, the PSOE government brought back to the mainland the prisoners on the islands and in Africa[citation needed]. Since the end of the ceasefire, ETA prisoners have not been sent back to overseas prisons. Some Basque authorities have established grants for the expenses of visiting families. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


Another Spanish "counter-terrorist" law puts suspected terrorist cases under the central tribunal Audiencia Nacional in Madrid, due to the threats by the group over the Basque courts. Under Article 509 suspected terrorists are subject to being held "incommunicado" for up to thirteen days, during which they have no contact with the outside world other than through the court appointed lawyer, including informing their family of their arrest, consultation with private lawyers or examination by a physician other than the coroners. In comparison the habeas corpus term for other suspects is three days. The Audiencia Nacional de España, is a high court in Spain. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ... For the thrash metal band, see Coroner (band). ... For other uses, see Habeas corpus (disambiguation). ...


In 1992, ETA's three top leaders — "military" leader Francisco Mujika Garmendia ("Pakito"), political leader José Luis Alvarez Santacristina ("Txelis") and logistical leader José María Arregi Erostarbe ("Fiti"), often referred to collectively as the "cúpula" of ETA or as the Artapalo collective [33] — were arrested in the northern Basque town of Bidart, which led to changes in ETA's leadership and direction. After a two-month truce, ETA adopted even more radical positions. The principal consequence of the change appears to have been the creation of the "Y Groups", formed by young militants of ETA parallel organisations (generally minors), dedicated to so-called "kale borroka" — street struggle — and whose activities included burning buses, street lamps, benches, ATMs, garbage containers, and throwing Molotov cocktails. The appearance of these groups was attributed by many to the supposed weakness of ETA, which obliged them to resort to minors to maintain or augment their impact on society after arrests of leading militants, including the "cupola". ETA also began to menace leaders of other parties besides rival Basque nationalist parties. Francisco Mujika Garmendia, aka. ... Bidart (Basque: Bidarte) is a village and commune of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, in southwestern France. ... In law, the term minor (also infant or infancy) is used to refer to a person who is under the age in which one legally assumes adulthood and is legally granted rights afforded to adults in society. ... Outdoor ATMs may be free-standing, like this kiosk, or built into the side of banks or other buildings An automatic teller machine, automated teller machine (ATM) or cash machine is an electronic device that allows a banks customers to make cash withdrawals and check their account balances without... Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


In 1995, the armed organization again launched a peace proposal. The so-called "Democratic Alternative" replaced the earlier KAS Alternative as a minimum proposal for the establishment of Euskal Herria. The Democratic Alternative offered the cessation of all armed ETA activity if the Spanish-government would recognize the Basque people as having sovereignty over Basque territory, the right to self-determination and that it freed all ETA members in prison. The Spanish government ultimately rejected this peace offer as it would go against the Spanish Constitution of 1978. Changing the constitution was not considered. Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ...


Also in 1995 came a failed ETA car bombing attempt directed against José María Aznar, a conservative politician who was leader of the then-opposition Partido Popular (PP) and was shortly after elected to the presidency of the government; there was also an abortive attempt in Majorca on the life of King Juan Carlos I. Still, the act with the largest social impact came the following year. July 10, 1997 PP council member Miguel Ángel Blanco was kidnapped in the Basque town of Ermua, with the separatist group threatening to assassinate him unless the Spanish government met ETA's demand of starting to bring all ETA's inmates to prisons of the Basque Country within two days after the kidnapping. This demand wasn't met by the Spanish government and after three days Miguel Ángel Blanco was found shot dead when the deadline expired. More than six million people took out to the streets to demand his liberation, with massive demonstrations occurring as much in the Basque regions as elsewhere in Spain, chanting cries of "Assassins" and "Basques yes, ETA no". This response came to be known as the "Spirit of Ermua".   (born in Madrid on February 25, 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as Spanish prime minister from 1996 to 2004. ... Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, PP) is the main centre-right political party in Spain. ... Majorca (Spanish and Catalan: ) is the largest island of Spain. ... Juan Carlos I redirects here. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Miguel Ángel Blanco Garrido (13 May 1968 – 13 July 1997) was a local politician in Ermua (Biscay), in the Basque autonomous community (Spain) for the Partido Popular. ... Ermua is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ...


Before the new electoral situation, which for the first time since the early 80s opened the real prospect of a non-nationalist rule in the Basque autonomous community under the form of a PSOE-PP coalition, Basque nationalist parties (EAJ-PNV, EA, HB) and the Basque branch of IU, EB, signed the Lizarra/Estella Pact in hopes of changing the political situation and reversing what was seen as a menace to Basque nationalism. This meant that the parties which had governed jointly the Basque Autonomous Community most of the time from the early 80s to date -PNV and EA- departed from the previous Ajuria Enea pact which gathered the parties known as "democratic" (PP, PSOE, PNV, EA, in other words, all but HB). Shortly after the Lizarra/Estella Pact was signed, on September 18, 1998, ETA declared a unilateral truce or ceasefire and engaged in a process of dialogue with Spain's PP government. The dialogue continued for some time, but ETA resumed assassinations in 2000, accusing the government of being "inflexible" and of "not wanting dialogue". The communiqué that declared the end of the truce cited the failure of the process initiated in the Lizarra/Estella Pact to achieve political change as the reason for the return to violence. The Spanish government, from the highest levels, accused ETA of having declared a false truce in order to reorganize and rearm. This approach seems to have been proven by the appropriation of part of ETA's internal communications at the time of the truce[citation needed]. Later came acts of violence such as the November 6, 2001 car bomb in Madrid, which injured sixty-five, and attacks on soccer stadiums and tourist destinations. The Spanish Socialist Workers Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español or PSOE) is one of the main parties of Spain. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Eusko Alkartasuna, Basque and Spanish regional political party, translated as Basque Solidarity and abbreviated as EA, is a party which describes itself as a Basque national, democratic, popular, progressive and non-denominational party. ... Izquierda Unida (United Left) is the name of a number of political parties in Spanish-speaking countries: Izquierda Unida, Spain. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Soccer redirects here. ...


The September 11, 2001 attacks appeared to have dealt a hard blow to ETA, owing to the toughening of "antiterrorist" measures (such as the freezing of bank accounts), the increase in international police coordination, and the end of the toleration some countries had, up until then, extended to ETA. In addition, in 2002 the Basque nationalist youth movement Jarrai was outlawed and the law of parties was changed outlawing Herri Batasuna, the "political arm" of ETA (although even before the change in law, Batasuna had been largely paralysed and under judicial investigation by judge Baltasar Garzón). A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ...


With ever-increasing frequency, attempted ETA actions have been frustrated by Spanish security forces.


On Christmas Eve 2003, in San Sebastián and in Hernani, National Police arrested two ETA members who had left dynamite in a railroad car prepared explode in Chamartín Station in Madrid. On March 1, 2004, in a place between Alcalá de Henares and Madrid, a light truck with 536 kg of explosives was discovered by the Guardia Civil. Hernani can mean several things: Hernani is a locality in Eastern Samar, Philippines. ... Interior. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Location Location of Alcalá Coordinates : 40º28’N , 3º22’W Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Alcalá de Henares (Spanish) Spanish name Alcalá de Henares Founded Preromanian Postal code 28. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


ETA was initially blamed for the 2004 Madrid bombings by the outgoing government [34] and large sections of the press.[35] Although the current Spanish government and judiciary now consider the bombs to be the work of Islamic groups, [36] sections of the Spanish right including the main opposition Partido Popular [37] [38] and one of the main Spanish newspapers, El Mundo [39] subsequently continued to assert that there might be some degree of ETA involvement. Eight months after the attacks, the former Prime Minister José María Aznar stated that he still believed that ETA was responsible. [40] Judicial investigation currently states that there is no relationship between ETA and the Madrid bombings. The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known as 11-M, 3/11, 11/3 and M-11) were a series of coordinated bombings against the commuter train system of Madrid, Spain on the morning of 11 March 2004, which killed 191 people and wounded over 1700. ... From the left: Mariano Rajoy, Josep Piqué and José María Aznar during the proclamation act of Josep Piqué in September 2003 The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular) is a large liberal-conservative political party in Spain. ...   (born in Madrid on February 25, 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as Spanish prime minister from 1996 to 2004. ...


Targets, tactics and attacks

Their aspiration, which was outlined in 1995 in their Democratic Alternative publication, is to force the governments of Spain and France to agree on the following:[41][42]

  • Recognition of the right to "self-determination and territoriality" for Euskal Herria.
  • That the Basque citizenry are the "unique subject" ("subject" in the sense of "one who acts") to make decisions about the future of the Basque Country.
  • Amnesty for all militants, whether prisoners or self-imposed exiles
  • Respect for what ETA defines as "the results of the democratic process in the Basque Country".
  • "Total ceasefire" once these points are guaranteed through a political agreement.

All formulations of ETA's goals have centered on sovereignty and self-determination for Euskal Herria (Basque Country, Iparralde and Navarra). ETA's motto in Basque-Euskera is "aizkora bezain zorrotza eta sugea bezain zuhurra" which translates in English as "sharp like an axe and quiet like a snake"[citation needed]. This article is about the traditional Basque domain. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sovereignty is the exclusive right to have control over an area of governance, people, or oneself. ... Self-determination is a principle in international law that a people ought to be able to determine their own governmental forms and structure free from outside influence. ... This article is about the traditional Basque domain. ... This article covers the entire historic Basque Country domain. ... This article is about the traditional Basque domain. ... Navarra is the Spanish name for Navarre (Basque: Nafarroa), an ancient kingdom in the Pyrenees, and now a province and an autonomous community in Spain. ...


ETA has killed hundreds of people, including approximately 340 civilians, and kidnapped dozens, in its actions against what they consider enemies of the Basque people [43][2]. More than 500 ETA militants are held in prison in Spain, France and other countries[6].


The organization has adopted from time to time other secondary tactical causes such as fighting against:

The unfinished Lemoiz power plant in 2006.
The unfinished Lemoiz power plant in 2006.
  • Alleged heroin traffickers, as corruptors of Basque youth and police collaborators, a fix for a tip.
  • The nuclear power plant facilities at Lemoiz (Bizkaia). After the Basque ecologist movement had opposed this project, ETA adhered to this point of view. Five workers were assassinated by the organization, including the execution of a kidnapped engineer Jose Maria Rayan[44]. Following a peaceful and co-ordinated campaign of switching electrical appliances on and off across Bizkaia, thus overloading and tripping all the substations and connections, causing wide spread black outs, and a huge effort to reset those,[citation needed] the reactor core which was actually delivered to the site was taken away[citation needed]. The site remains deserted. The objection to the power plant was its implicit reliance on the Spanish Government for support and maintenance for thousands of years to come.[citation needed].
  • The A-15 highway which was to run through the Leizaran Valley between Navarre and Guipuscoa. It was inaugurated in 1995, during the construction 4 people related to the construction were killed by ETA[44], and over 280 million pesetas were paid by public institutions to cover the losses[45][46].
  • The so called Basque Y, a plan to make the AVE high-speed railways connect the three capital cities of the Basque Autonomous Community[47].

This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A nuclear power station. ... Lemoiz is a town located in the province of Bizkaia, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... A15 or A-15 may be: A15 road, a major road in England A15, a highway in Portugal One of the ECO codes for the English Opening in chess Category: ... The Leitzaran (or Leizaran) is a river in the Basque Country. ... The peseta (₧) was the currency of Spain (and Andorra, along with the French franc) until December 31, 1998. ... For other uses, see AVE (disambiguation). ...

Targets

ETA's victims have expanded from the former military/police-related personnel and their families, to a wider array, which today includes the following:

Flowers and a plate remember Ertzaina Txema Agirre, shot dead by ETA gunmen in 1997 while protecting the Guggenheim Bilbao Museum (visible on the background).
Flowers and a plate remember Ertzaina Txema Agirre, shot dead by ETA gunmen in 1997 while protecting the Guggenheim Bilbao Museum (visible on the background).
  • Spanish military and police personnel. As the autonomous police (Basque Ertzaintza and Catalan Mossos d'Esquadra) took a greater role in combating ETA, they were added to their list of targets. The barracks of the Guardia Civil also provide housing for their families, thus, attacks on the barracks have also resulted in deaths of relatives, including children.
  • Businessmen (such as Javier Ybarra or Joxe Mari Korta): these are mainly targeted in order to extort them for the so-called "revolutionary tax". Refusal to pay has been punished with assassinations, kidnappings for ransom or bombings of their business.
  • Prison officers such as José Antonio Ortega Lara.
  • Elected parliamentarians, city councillors and ex-councillors, politicians in general: these had not been targeted by ETA before 1995 (whereas people holding political positions were attacked during the Francoist's dictatorship, most prominently Luis Carrero Blanco, killed in 1973). This scenario changed with the killing of Gregorio Ordóñez in 1995. From this year onwards, politicians were also made targets by ETA. Dozens of politicians belonging to the People's Party (PP) and Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) have been assassinated or maimed. Some Basque nationalist politicians from the PNV party, such as Juan Mari Atutxa, have also received threats. Hundreds of politicians in Spain require a constant bodyguard service. Bodyguards are contingent victims as well. In 2005 ETA announced that it would no longer "target" elected politicians[48]. In this regard, ETA killed ex-council member Isaías Carrasco in Mondragon/Arrasate on March 8th, 2008[49].
Reparations in the Balmaseda law courts after a bombing in 2006.
Reparations in the Balmaseda law courts after a bombing in 2006.
  • Judges and prosecutors[50]. Particularly threatened are the members of the Spanish special court: the Audiencia Nacional.
  • University professors who publicly express ideas that counter armed Basque separatism[51]: such as Manuel Broseta or Francisco Tomás y Valiente . In the latter case, the shooting resulted in more than half a million people protesting against ETA.[52]
  • Journalists: some of these professionals began to be labeled by ETA as targets starting with the killing of journalist José Luis López de la Calle, assassinated in May 2000. As a result of ETA's violence and threats against journalists, Spain has been included in all six editions of Reporters Without Borders's watchlist on press freedom[53]. This NGO has also included ETA in its watchlist "predators of press freedom". [54]
  • Economic targets: a wide array of private or public property considered valuable assets of Spain, especially railroads, tourist sites, industries, or malls.
  • Exceptionally, ETA has also assassinated former ETA members such as Maria Dolores González Catarain as a reprisal for having left the organization[55].
  • A number of ETA attacks by car bomb have caused civilian casualties, including ETA's bloodiest attack to date, the bombing in 1987 of the subterranean parking lot of the Hipercor supermarket in Barcelona [56][57] which killed 21 civilians and left 45 seriously wounded, of whom 20 were left disabled; also the attack of Plaza de Callao in Madrid[58].

The Guggenheim Museum Bilbao is a modern and contemporary art museum located in Bilbao, Basque Country, Spain. ... Ertzaintza is the police force of the Basque Country, one of the autonomous communities of Spain. ... Mosso dEsquadra in dress uniform Mossos dEsquadra (lit. ... Patrol boat, Nervion river, Bilbao. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Generalísimo Francisco Franco, caudillo de España por la gracia de Dios Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until... Monument to Luis Carrero Blanco in Santoña (Cantabria, Spain) by Juan de Ávalos Luis Carrero Blanco (March 4, 1903, Santoña, Cantabria – December 20, 1973, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish admiral and statesman. ... The Peoples Party (Spanish: Partido Popular, PP) is the main centre-right political party in Spain. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mondragon is a town and commune of the Vaucluse département, in Provence, France. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1882x1513, 291 KB) // Sumario ES:español Descripción: Juzgado de Balmaseda, Vizcaya, en reparaciones después de la explosión de una bolsa con entre diez y quince kilos de explosivo, la noche del 25 al 26 de enero de... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1882x1513, 291 KB) // Sumario ES:español Descripción: Juzgado de Balmaseda, Vizcaya, en reparaciones después de la explosión de una bolsa con entre diez y quince kilos de explosivo, la noche del 25 al 26 de enero de... Balmaseda (Basque language; the formerly-used Spanish name was Valmaseda) is a town in the Encartaciones/Enkarterriak region of Bizkaia, Basque Autonomous Community, Spain. ... The Audiencia Nacional de España (National Court of Spain), is a high court in Spain. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ... Freedom of the Press (or Press Freedom) is the guarantee by a government of free public press for its citizens and their associations, extended to members of news gathering organizations, and their published reporting. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Tactics

ETA's tactics include:

  • Direct attacks: killing, e.g. by shooting, generally in the back of the victim [59][60][61].
  • Bombings (often with car bombs). Generally one or more telephone calls are made to newspapers speaking in the name of ETA; normally the contacted newspapers are Egin, Gara, or Egunkaria. Charities (usually Detente Y Ayuda—DYA) have also been used to announce the threat if the bomb is in a populated area. When the bombs target individuals no calls are made in advance. The type of explosives used in these attacks were initially Goma-2 or self-produced ammonal. After a number of successful robberies in France, ETA began using Titadyne.
  • Shells: hand-made mortars (the Jo ta ke model)[62]have been used occasionally to attack military or police bases. Their lack of precision is probably the reason they are not used anymore.
  • Anonymous threats: often delivered in the Basque Country by placards or graffiti. Such threats have forced many people into hiding or into exile from the Basque Country, and have been used to prevent people from freely expressing political ideas other than nationalist ones.
  • Extortion or blackmail: called by ETA a "revolutionary tax", ETA demands money from a business owner in the Basque Country or elsewhere in Spain, under threats to him and his family, up to and including death threats. Occasionally some French Basques have also been threatened in this manner, such as the soccer player Bixente Lizarazu.[63] ETA moves the extorted funds to accounts in Liechtenstein and other fiscal havens.[64] According to French judiciary sources, ETA exacts an estimated 900,000 euros/year in this manner.[65]
  • Kidnapping: often as a punishment for failing to pay the blackmail known as "revolutionary tax", but also has been used to try to force the government to free ETA's prisoners under the threat of killing the kidnapped, as in the kidnapping and following execution of Miguel Angel Blanco. ETA hides the kidnapped in underground chambers without windows, denominated zulos, of very reduced dimmensions for extended periods.[66][67] Also, people robbed of their vehicles are usually tied and abandoned in an isolated place to allow those who assaulted them to escape.
  • Robbery: ETA members rob weapons, explosives, machines for license plates and vehicles.

ETA operates mainly in Spain, particularly in the Basque Country, Navarre, and (to a lesser degree) Madrid, Barcelona, and the tourist areas of the Spanish Mediterranean coast. Actions in France usually consist of assaults on arsenals or military industries in order to steal weapons or explosives; these are usually stored in large quantities in hide-outs located in the French Basque Country rather than Spain. The French judge Laurence Le Vert has been threatened by ETA and a plot arguably aiming to assassinate her was unveiled[68]. Only very rarely have ETA members engaged in shootings with the French Gendarmerie. This has often occurred mainly when members of the organization were confronted at checkpoints. For other uses, see Car bomb (disambiguation). ... Egin (Armenian Agn, the spring), an important town in the Mamuret el-Aziz vilayet of Asiatic Turkey (altitude 3300 ft. ... Gara (We are in Basque) is a bilingual (Basque/Spanish) Spanish newspaper published in the city of Donostia (San Sebastián in Spanish) in the Basque Country. ... Egunkaria was, for thirteen years, the only Basque language newspaper in circulation, until it was closed down on 20th February, 2003 by the Spanish authorities, due to allegations of an illegal association with ETA, the armed Basque seperatist group. ... Goma-2 Eco is a type of high explosive manufactured for industrial use (chiefly mining) by Unión Española de Explosivos S.A. It is a gelatinous, nitroglycerin-based explosive widely used within Spain and exported abroad. ... Ammonal is an explosive mixture of ammonium nitrate, aluminium dust and stearic acid. ... Titadyne is a brand of dynamite regularly used by the terrorist group ETA since 2000. ... Shells of WWI. From left to right: 90 mm fragmentation shell - 120 mm pig iron incendiary shell 77/14 model - 75 mm high explosive shell model 16 - 75 mm fragmentation shell A shell is a payload-carrying projectile, which, as opposed to a bullet, contains an explosive or other filling... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Extortion is a criminal offense, which occurs when a person either obtains money, property or services from another through coercion or intimidation or threatens one with physical harm unless they are paid money or property. ... Bixente Lizarazu (Basque: //; French: //) (born December 9, 1969 in Saint-Jean-de-Luz, Pays Basque, France) is a former football (soccer) left defender for Bayern Munich and three other professional teams, as well as the French national team. ... Miguel Ángel Blanco (d. ... “Navarra” redirects here. ... A gendarmerie or gendarmery (pronounced ) is a military body charged with police duties among civilian populations. ...


In spite of this, ETA killed in France on December 1, 2007 two Spanish Civil Guards on counter-terrorist surveillance duties in Capbreton, Landes[69]. This has been its first cold blood killing after it ended its self-styled "permanent ceasefire" and the first killing committed by ETA in France of a Spanish police agent ever since 1976, when they kidnapped, tortured and assassinated two Spanish inspectors in Hendaye[70] is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Río Nervión patrol boat, in Bilbao. ... Landes (Occitan: Lanas) is a département in southern France. ... Hendaye (Basque Hendaia) is the most southwesterly town in France. ...


A police file, dating from 1996, indicated that ETA needed about 15 million pesetas (about 90,000 Euros) daily in order to finance its operations[citation needed]. More recently, 2007 police reports point out that, after the serious blows suffered by ETA and its political counterparts during the 2000s, its budget would have been adjusted to 2,000,000 euros annually[71]. The peseta is the former currency of Spain and, (along with the French Franc), of Andorra. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Although ETA used robbery as a means of financing its activities in its early days, it has since been accused both of arms trafficking and of benefiting economically from its political counterpart Batasuna.


Arrested ETA members often carry false documentation, especially in France, including Spanish police badges.


Attacks

Main article: List of ETA attacks

This page is a list of attacks perpetrated by the Euskadi Ta Askatasuna, or ETA, the armed Basque separatist movement, mainly in Spain. ...

Basque Nationalist context

ETA is considered to form part of what is informally known as the Basque National Liberation Movement, a movement born much after ETA's creation. This loose term refers to a range of political organizations that are ideologically akin, comprising several distinct organizations that promote a type of leftist Basque nationalism that is often referred to by the Basque-language term Ezker Abertzalea (Nationalist Left). Other groups typically considered to belong to this independentist movement are: the political party Batasuna, the nationalist youth organization Segi, the labour union Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak (LAB), and Askatasuna among others. There are often strong interconnections between these groups, double or even triple membership are not unfrequent[21]. The Basque National Liberation Movement (Spanish: Movimiento de Liberación Nacional Vasco, MLNV; Basque: Euskal Herri Askapenerako Mugimendua) is an umbrella term that comprises all social, political and military organisations that oribited around the ideas of ETA. The wide variety of organisations and their different levels of belonging to this... Left wing redirects here. ... Abertzale in the Basque language means roughly, patriot, and is used to mean Basque nationalist. It comes from the fusion of aberri(a) (fatherland, a neologism created by Sabino Arana) with the suffix -(t)zale (someone who loves, is a friend of, has affection towards, or dedicates him- or herself... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... SEGI SEGI is a violent Basque nationalist youth organization which is part of the Basque National Liberation Movement and aligned with Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak, Batasuna and ETA. Terrorist: Flag of Convenience?Police in Spain detain 18 members of outlawed Basque youth groupBasque youths battle police, 3 arrestedState repression of the... LAB (Langile Abertzaleen Batzordeak, nationalist workers trade union) is a Basque trade union operating mainly in Spain. ... ASKATASUNA: (from the Basque word meaning freedom): According to European Union statements ASKATASUNA is a terrorist organization that is included in ETA (euskadi ta askatuna). ...


There are Basque nationalist parties with similar goals as those of ETA (namely, independence) but who openly reject their violent means. They are: EAJ-PNV, Eusko Alkartasuna, Aralar and, in the French Basque country, Abertzaleen Batasuna. In addition a number of left-wing parties, such as Ezker Batua, Batzarre and some sectors of the EAJ-PNV party, also support self-determination but are not in favour of independence. The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ... Eusko Alkartasuna, Basque and Spanish regional political party, translated as Basque Solidarity and abbreviated as EA, is a party which describes itself as a Basque national, democratic, popular, progressive and non-denominational party. ... Aralar is a Basque nationalist political group in Spain. ... This article is about the traditional Basque domain. ... The Abertzaleen Batasuna (Abertzale Unity) is a Basque political party in France. ... Izquierda Unida (United Left) is the name of a number of political parties in Spanish-speaking countries: Izquierda Unida, Spain. ... Zutik symbol Zutik is a political party in Basque Country, Spain. ... The Basque Nationalist Party is a political party in the Basque region of Spain. ...


Government response

Historically members of ETA have often taken refuge in France, particularly in the French Basque Country. ETA leaders have typically chosen to live in France for security reasons, as police pressure on the group has tended to be usually lower on the French side of the border.[citation needed] This used to be tolerated by the French government, especially during the rule of Franco in Spain. Some ETA members were executed during the Franco era (capital punishment was later on suppressed in Spain with the advent of democracy after the Spanish Constitution of 1978 was passed). This article is about the political and administrative structures of the French government. ... The Spanish Constitution of 1978 is the culmination of the Spanish transition to democracy. ...


After Franco's death, in the mid 1970s and the 1980s, ETA members and its suspected supporters were the target of right-wing violence and violence by government agents such as GAL, whose actions have been considered a case of "state terrorism"[72] Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (Antiterrorist Liberation Groups) were death squads illegally set up by officials within the Spanish government to fight ETA. They were active from 1983 until 1987, under PSOEs cabinets. ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


The GAL was dissolved in 1987, four years after its foundation.[73] The airing of the state-sponsored "dirty war" scheme and the imprisonment of officials responsible for GAL in the early 1990s led to a political scandal in Spain. These events marked the end of the armed "counter-terrorist" period in Spain (although some minor attacks were carried out during the early 1990s under the name of GANE and other acronyms). With the new situation, the French government considered that detainees' rights were being adequately defended in Spain. France changed its position in the matter and initiated a period of active cooperation with the Spanish government against ETA, including fast-track transfers of detainees to Spanish tribunals that are regarded as fully compliant with European Union legislation in human rights and the legal representation of detainees. This cooperation is still active. Human rights are rights which some hold to be inalienable and belonging to all humans. ...


In response to this new situation, ETA carried out attacks against French policemen and made threats to some French judges and prosecutors. This implied a drastic change from the organization's previously low-profile activity in the French Basque Country, from where ETA had been discreetly managing their activities in the south.[citation needed]


ETA members and supporters always allege torture at the hands of any police organization.[citation needed] While these claims are hard to verify, some convictions are based on confessions obtained while prisoners are held incommunicado and without access to a lawyer of their choice, for a maximum of three days. These confessions are routinely repudiated by the defendants during trials as having been extracted under torture. There have been some successful prosecutions of proven tortures during the "dirty war" period of the mid-1980s, although the penalties have been considered by Amnesty International as unjustifiably light and lenient with co-conspirators and enablers.[74][75] For other uses, see Torture (disambiguation). ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience...


ETA considers its prisoners political prisoners. Until 2003,[76] ETA consequently forbade them to ask penal authorities for progression to tercer grado (a form of open prison that allows single-day or weekend furloughs) or parole. Before that date, those who did so were menaced and expelled from the group. Some were assassinated by ETA for leaving the band and going through reinsertion programs[55]. A political prisoner is someone held in prison or otherwise detained, perhaps under house arrest, because their ideas or image are deemed by a government to either challenge or threaten the authority of the state. ... In the United Kingdom, prisons and their inmates are grouped into four categories - A, B, C and D - according to the level of threat posed by the prisoners, the level of supervision they require and their likelihood of attempting escape. ... Look up Furlough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary A furlough (IPA: ) is temporary leave of absence, especially from duty in the armed services or from a prison term. ... It has been suggested that Medical parole be merged into this article or section. ...


A more recent tactic of the Spanish Governments' campaign against ETA has been to target its social support network.[citation needed] The most important measure has been the passing of the Ley de Partidos Políticos. This is a law barring political parties which support violence, don't condemn terrorist actions or are involved with terrorist groups [77]. The law has resulted in the banning of Herri Batasuna and its successor parties unless they condemn explicitly terrorist actions and, at times, imprisoning or processing some of its leaders who have been indicted for cooperation with ETA. Batasuna (Unity) is a Basque political party based mainly in Spain but with a French presence, which is presumed to be associated with the Basque separatist armed group ETA. Their relation is similar to that of Northern Irelands Sinn Féin and the IRA. History and outline The party was...


Judge Baltasar Garzón has initiated a judicial procedure (coded as 18/98), aimed towards the support structure of ETA. This procedure started in 1998 with the preventive closure of the newspaper Egin (and its associated radio-station Egin Irratia), accused of being linked to ETA, and temporary imprisoning the editor of its "investigative unit", Pepe Rei, under similar accusations. In August of 1999 Judge Baltasar Garzón authorized the reopening of the newspaper and the radio, but they coulndn't reopen due to economic difficulties. Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ... Egin (Armenian Agn, the spring), an important town in the Mamuret el-Aziz vilayet of Asiatic Turkey (altitude 3300 ft. ... Baltasar Garzón (Photo credit: Presidency of Argentina. ...


Judicial procedure 18/98 has many ramifications, including the following:

  • A trial against a little-known organization called Xaki, acquitted in 2001 as the "international network" of ETA.
  • A trial against the youths' movement Jarrai-Haika-Segi, accused of contributing to street violence in an organized form and in connivance with ETA.
  • Another trial against Pepe Rei and his new investigation magazine Ardi Beltza (Black Sheep). The magazine was also closed down.
  • A trial against the political organization Ekin (Action), accused of promoting civil disobedience.
  • A trial against the organization Joxemi Zumalabe Fundazioa, which was once again accused of promoting civil disobedience.
  • A trial against the prisoner support movement Amnistiaren Aldeko Komiteak.
  • A trial against Batasuna and the Herriko Tabernak (people's taverns), accused of acting as a network of meeting centres for members and supporters of ETA. Batasuna was outlawed in all forms. Most taverns continue working normally as their ownership is not directly linked to Batasuna.
  • A trial against the league of Basque-language academies AEK. The case was dropped in 2001.
  • Another trial against Ekin, accusing Iker Casnova of managing the finances of ETA.
  • A trial against the association of Basque municipalities Udalbiltza.
  • The closing of the newspaper Euskaldunon Egunkaria in 2003 and the imprisonment and processing of its editor, Martxelo Otamendi, due to links with ETA accounting and fundraising, and other journalists (some of whom reported torture)[78].

As of June 2007, indicted members of the youth movements Haika, Segi and Jarrai have been found guilty (January 2007) of a crime of connivance with terrorism. Most of the other trials are still under process. For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... AEK is the name of several sports teams, including: AEK Athens FC, in Athens, Greece AEK Athens BC, a basketball team associated with AEK Athens FC AEK Larnaca FC, in Larnaca, Cyprus AEK Patras FC, a fourth division football/soccer team in Patras This page concerning a three-letter acronym... 2007 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A legal finding of connivance may be made when an accuser has assisted in the act about which they are complaining. ...


On Tuesday 20 May 2008, leading ETA figures were arrested in Southern France. Francisco Javier Lopez Pena, also known as 'Thierry,' had been on the run for twenty years before his arrest. [79] A final total of arrests brought in six people, including ETA members and supporters, including the ex-Mayor of Andoain, José Antonio Barandiarán, who is rumoured to have led police to 'Thierry'.[80]. The Spanish Interior Ministry claimed the relevance of the arrests would come in time with the investigation. Furthermore, the Interior Minister said that those members of ETA now arrested had ordered the latest terrorist attacks, and that the man considered to be the head of the terrorists, Francisco Javier López Peña was "not just another arrest because he is, in all probability, the man who has most political and military weight in the terrorist group." [81] is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Andoain is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ...


International response

The European Union and the United States list ETA as a terrorist organization in their relevant watch lists. The United Kingdom lists ETA as a terrorist group in the Terrorism Act of 2000. The Canadian Parliament listed ETA as a terrorist organization on April 2, 2003 [82]. ... Motto (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  -  Governor General Michaëlle Jean  -  Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment  -  Act of Union February... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


France and Spain have often showed co-operation in the fight against ETA, despite France's lack of co-operation during the Franco Era. In late 2007, two Spanish guards were shot to death in France when on a joint operation with their French counterparts. Furthermore, in May 2008 the arrests of four persons in Bourdeax led to a major breakthrough against ETA, according to the Spanish Interior Ministry. [6]


ETA's most recent declaration of a "permanent ceasefire" and current events

Barajas Airport parking after the bomb.
Barajas Airport parking after the bomb.
Main article: ETA's 2006 "permanent ceasefire"

In the context of negotiation with the Spanish government, ETA has declared what it has described as "truce" a number of times since its creation. Police in the damaged parking building. ...


The most recent is the one of 22 March 2006, when ETA sent a DVD message to the Basque Network Euskal Irrati-Telebista[83] and the journals Gara[84] and Berria with a communiqué from the organization announcing what it called a "permanent ceasefire" that was broadcast over Spanish TV. is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ETB (also EiTB) is short for Euskal Irrati Telebista (Basque Radio-television), the name of the Basque Countrys public broadcast service. ... Gara (We are in Basque) is a bilingual (Basque/Spanish) Spanish newspaper published in the city of Donostia (San Sebastián in Spanish) in the Basque Country. ... Berria is the only newspaper published wholly in the Basque language and which can be read in the entirety of the Basque country. ...


Talks with the group were then officially opened by Spanish Presidente del Gobierno José Luís Rodríguez Zapatero. José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born August 4, 1960) is the Prime Minister of Spain. ...


These took place all over 2006, not free from incidents such as an ETA cell stealing some 300 handguns, ammunition and spare parts in France on October 2006.[85] or a series of warnings made by ETA such as the one of September 23, when masked ETA militants declared that the organization would "keep taking up arms" until achieving "independence and socialism in the Basque country"[86], which were regarded by some as a way to increase pressure on the talks, by others as a tactic to reinforce ETA's position in the negotiations.


Finally, on 30 December, 2006 ETA detonated a van bomb after three confusing warning calls, in a parking building at the Madrid Barajas international airport. The explosion caused the collapse of the building and killed two Ecuadorian immigrants who were napping inside their cars in the parking building.[87] At 6:00 P.M., José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero released a statement stating that the "peace process" had been discontinued.[88] Police in the damaged parking building. ... This article is about the Spanish capital. ...


On December 1, 2008 ETA gunmen -after an unplanned encounter- killed a plainclothes civil guard and seriously injured another (who died days later) on a surveillance mission in Capbreton, France [89][90]. Río Nervión patrol boat, in Bilbao. ...


In January 2008, ETA stated that its call for independence is similar to that of the Kosovo status and Scotland.[91] Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav) government and Kosovos largely ethnic-Albanian population. ... Scottish independence is a political ambition of a number of political parties, pressure groups and individuals within and outside of Scotland. ...


On March 7, 2008 ETA killed Isaías Carrasco in Mondragón-Arrasate, an ex-councillor for the Socialist party the PSOE, who was shot five times as he was walking in the street with his family.[92][93][94]. is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...


On May 14, 2008 a car bomb was detonated in front of a Civil Guard lodging compound where 15 families lived, killing policeman Juan Manuel Piñuel Villalón and leaving four others injured. ETA claimed responsibility for the attack.[95] is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Civil Guard logo For the Spanish Civil Guard, see Guardia Civil. ...


On May 20th 2008 a number of senior ETA members were arrested in Bordeaux, France, in a joint Spanish-French operation. Among those arrested was Francisco Javier Lopez Pena, the group's military chief. For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ...


Other armed movements

The Batallón Vasco Español (English: Basque Spanish Battalion) was a Spanish right-wing terrorist group active from 1975 to 1981, primarily in Iparralde, the northern Basque country under French administration. ... Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación (Antiterrorist Liberation Groups) were death squads illegally set up by officials within the Spanish government to fight ETA. They were active from 1983 until 1987, under PSOEs cabinets. ... Guerrilleros de Cristo Rey (Spanish language for Regnant Christ Guerrillas) was a paramlitary group that operated in Spain in the late 1970s. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms that refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially but not exclusively in the American sense of the word... Iraultza, meaning Revolution in Basque language, was a small Basque militant armed group of Troskist tendency that may be remembered for being the only of its kind not to have killed anyone except two of its own members, who died preparing an explosive device in the early 1990s. ... The Comandos Autónomos Anticapitalistas (CAA) were a minoritary Basque armed group that followed the tendency of Workers Autonomy. ... Irrintzi is an armed Basque nationalist organization that acts in Iparralde (basque noun for Northern Basque Country or French Basque Country). ...

International links

  • ETA is known to have had 'fraternal' contacts with the Provisional Irish Republican Army; the two groups have both, at times, characterized their struggles as parallel. It has also had links with other militant left-wing movements in Europe and in other places throughout the world.
  • ETA commandos teamed in 1999 with the (now self-dissolved) Breton Revolutionary Army to steal explosives from magazines in Brittany.
  • The Colombian government stated that there are contacts between ETA and the Colombian guerrilla FARC. The recent capture of FARC's leaders computers, and leaked email exchanges between both groups, shows that ETA members received training from the FARC. Apparently the FARC asked for help from ETA in order to conduct future attacks in Spain. [96][97][98]
  • Some ex-militants have received political asylum in Latin American countries, such as Mexico and Venezuela.
  • Several ex-militants were sent from France through Panama to reside in Cuba after an agreement of the Spanish government (under Felipe González) with Cuba.[99] The United States Department of State has no information on their activities on Cuban territory[100].

The Provisional Irish Republican Army (Irish: Óglaigh na hÉireann) (IRA; also referred to as the PIRA, the Provos, or by some of its supporters as the Army or the RA.[2]) is an Irish Republican, left wing[3] paramilitary organisation that, until the Belfast Agreement, sought to end Northern... The Breton Revolutionary Army (French: Armee Revolutionnaire Bretonne, ARB), is an illegal armed organization that is part of the Breton nationalism movement in the Brittany region of France. ... Titadyne is a brand of dynamite regularly used by the terrorist group ETA since 2000. ... This article is about the historical kingdom, duchy and French province, as well as one of the Celtic nations. ... The FARC-EPs flag The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – Peoples Army, or FARC-EP) is a militant and revolutionary guerrilla group established in 1964-1966 as the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party, and is Colombias... The FARC-EPs flag The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – Peoples Army, or FARC-EP) is a militant and revolutionary guerrilla group established in 1964-1966 as the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party, and is Colombias... The FARC-EPs flag The Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia – Ejército del Pueblo (Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia – Peoples Army, or FARC-EP) is a militant and revolutionary guerrilla group established in 1964-1966 as the military wing of the Colombian Communist Party, and is Colombias... Power lines leading to a trash dump hover just overhead in El Carpio, a Nicaraguan refugee camp in Costa Rica Under international law, a refugee is a person who is outside his/her country of nationality or habitual residence; has a well-founded fear of persecution because of his/her... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Felipe González Márquez (born March 5, 1942) is a Spanish socialist politician. ... Department of State redirects here. ...

Documentary films

Documentary films about ETA Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ...

For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... Fernando Buesa Blanco (29 May 1946 - 22 February 2000) was a Spanish Basque politician in the PSE-EE branch of Socialdemocratic party PSOE (Spanish Socialist Workers Party). ... Poster for La pelota vasca La pelota vasca: la piel contra la piedra (English The Basque Ball: Skin Against Stone; Basque Euskal pilota: larrua harriaren kontra) is a 2003 documentary motion picture by Spanish filmmaker Julio Medem. ... Julio Medem (born 21 October 1958) is a Spanish writer and film director. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... Elías Querejeta, (Hernani ,Guipúzcoa, 27 October 1930) is a Spanish film producer. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...

Other films

Other fact-based films about ETA

For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... The factual accuracy of part of this article is disputed. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ... Mikel Lejarza was a member of Spanish intelligence service. ... A double agent pretends to spy on a target organization on behalf of a controlling organization, but in fact is loyal to the target organization. ... For the in-memory database management system, see In-memory database. ...

Fictional films featuring ETA members and actions

  • El caso Almería ("The Almería Case", Pedro Costa, 1983)
  • La muerte de Mikel ("The Death of Mikel", Imanol Uribe, 1983). A young Basque man dies in a plot involving ETA and drug traffic.
  • Goma 2 (José Antonio de la Loma, 1984)
  • Ander y Yul ("Ander and Yul", Ana Díez, 1988)
  • Días de humo ("Days of Smoke", Antton Eceiza, 1989)
  • Sombras en una batalla ("Shadows in a Battle", Mario Camus, 1993)
  • Días contados ("Storied Days", Imanol Uribe, 1994)
  • A ciegas ("Blindly", Daniel Calparsoro, 1997)
  • El viaje de Arián ("Arián's Voyage", Eduard Bosch, 2001)
  • La voz de su amo ("His Master's Voice", Emilio Martínez Lázaro, 2001)
  • Esos cielos ("Those skies", Aitzpea Goenaga, 2006)
  • Todos estamos invitados ("We are all invited", Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón, 2008)

Pedro Costa is a Portuguese film director born in 1959. ... Imanol Uribe (born February 28, 1950) is an awarded Spanish screenwriter and film director. ... Mario Camus (Santander,April 20, 1935) is a Spanish screenwriter and film director. ... Emilio Martinez (born April 10, 1981) is a Paraguayan football player who, as of 2004 was playing for Club Libertad. ... Manuel Gutiérrez Aragón (Torrelavega, Cantabria January 2, 1940) is an awarded Spanish screenwriter and film director. ...

Novels

Novels about ETA A novel is an extended work of written, narrative, prose fiction, usually in story form; the writer of a novel is a novelist. ...

Charles Cumming (born April 5, 1971, Ayr, Scotland) is a British writer of spy fiction. ...

References

General
Specific
  1. ^ http://www.goizargi.com/2003/queeselmlnv3.htm "What is the MNLV (3)"
  2. ^ a b Spanish Ministerio del Interior page
  3. ^ (French) French list of terrorist organisations, in the annex of Chapter XIV
  4. ^ EU list of terrorist organisationsPDF (43.6 KiB), 29 May 2006
  5. ^ Foreign Terrorist Organizations (FTOs)
  6. ^ a b (Spanish) La cifra de presos de ETA es la más alta de la última década con 728 encarcelados El Confidencial, 07 January 2008
  7. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Who are Eta?
  8. ^ http://www.goizargi.com/2003/queeselmlnv4.htm"What is the MNLV (4)"
  9. ^ Article in Spanish citing the meaning of the axe and the serpent
  10. ^ Article in Spanish including the ETA logo
  11. ^ Article in Spanish including a handmade ETA logo
  12. ^ [1]
  13. ^ «El técnico» construyó los zulos de ETA, La Razón, 18 October 2004.
  14. ^ [2]
  15. ^ [3]
  16. ^ Party Law in Spanish
  17. ^ elmundo.es | Elecciones en el País Vasco 2005
  18. ^ BBC News | EUROPE | ETA's political wing elects new leaders
  19. ^ Batasuna (Basque org.) - Britannica Online Encyclopedia
  20. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Basque nationalist leader jailed
  21. ^ a b De la dirección de Batasuna a la de ETA • ELPAÍS.com
  22. ^ elmundo.es | Elecciones en el País Vasco 2005
  23. ^ Gabinete de Prospección Sociológica (Gobierno Vasco): list of sociological studies 2006
  24. ^ Gara:Más del 85% apuesta por el derecho a decidir y por el diálogo sobre el marco
  25. ^ Deia: Ocho de cada diez vascos confían en el proceso de paz pese a su estancamiento
  26. ^ [4]
  27. ^ Hablan las Víctimas de Melitón Manzanas. EL PAÍS. Retrieved on 2008-06-19. Article in Spanish
  28. ^ Sacra Némesis: Nuevas historias de nacionalistas vascos, pages 143-145, Jon Juaristi, Editorial Espasa Calpe, 1999, ISBN 84-239-7791-9
  29. ^ La Mayoría de los Condenados por Torturas han sido Indultados. Newspaper GARA. Retrieved on 2008-06-19. Article in Spanish.
  30. ^ Images and Testimonies by TAT. Torturaren Aurkako Taldeak. Retrieved on 2008-06-19. Site in English, Basque etc.
  31. ^ 2008 Report on Spain. Amnesty International. Retrieved on 2008-06-19.
  32. ^ [5]
  33. ^ Informativos Telecinco.com - Internacional - Trece muertos y más de cincuenta heridos en dos atentados suicidas en Bangladesh
  34. ^ ANALYSIS-Spain's PM down but not out after ETA bomb | Reuters
  35. ^ Spanish newspapers blame ETA for Madrid bombings
  36. ^ MADRID: THE AFTERMATH: Spain admits bombs were the work of Islamists | Independent, The (London) | Find Articles at BNET.com
  37. ^ Zaplana says that PSOE afraid of "the truth" about Madrid bombings
  38. ^ Article | The American Prospect
  39. ^ elmundo.es - Los agujeros negros del 11-M
  40. ^ News - Telegraph
  41. ^ (English) Democratic Alternative
  42. ^ (Basque) EUSKAL HERRIARENTZAKO ALTERNATIBA DEMOKRATIKOA (Berria, original Basque text)
  43. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/539781.stm
  44. ^ a b ABC.es Hemeroteca: el fantasma de lemoniz
  45. ^ RESOLUCIÓN n.º 58/1997, de 13 de octubre, del Presidente del Tribunal Vasco de Cuentas Públicas, por la que se hace público el Informe de Fiscalización "Autovía Irurtzun-Andoain: Tramo guipuzcoano (II)", Boletín Oficial del País Vasco 1997203 - 23/10/1997, page 16890.
  46. ^ Boletín Oficial del Parlamento de Navarra Nº 38, 27 May 1997, page 9.
  47. ^ ETA convierte las obras del Tren de Alta Velocidad en un objetivo estratégico, Óscar B. de Otálora, El Diario Vasco, 4th November 2007.
  48. ^ Anger and doubts greet promise by Eta not to target Spanish politicians | World news | The Guardian
  49. ^ Spain cancels election rallies after murder | World news | The Guardian
  50. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/963869.stm
  51. ^ The Independent (London), 19 October 2000
  52. ^ New York Times, 18 July 1997
  53. ^ Reporters Without Borders points out problems with free press in Spain due to ETA's threats and violence, 2006
  54. ^ ETA listed as a "predator of press freedom" by Reporters Without Borders
  55. ^ a b BBC News | EUROPE | Spanish cinema breaks ETA taboo
  56. ^ MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base, Spain: 1987 Overview
  57. ^ Ana María Ortiz, Jessica, la ultima victima de Hipercor, El Mundo (Crónica number 347) nu 9 June 2002
  58. ^ Madrid bomb injures eight, BBC News / Europe, 12 July 2000
  59. ^ BBC News | EUROPE | European press review
  60. ^ CNN.com - Prosecutor dies after 'ETA-style' shooting - October 9, 2000
  61. ^ Eta to end attacks on elected politicians | World news | The Observer
  62. ^ ETA retoma el uso de las granadas Jotake para atentar contra cuarteles
  63. ^ ETA tries to justify 'tax' on Lizarazu - International, Football - The Independent
  64. ^ Bank accounts linked to Eta are frozen in Liechtenstein - Europe, News - The Independent
  65. ^ ETA recauda anualmente 900.000 €, según la Policía francesa - elConfidencial.com
  66. ^ Los secuestros de ETA - El zulo de Aldaya y Delclaux
  67. ^ Spanish Police Free 2 Kidnapped by the Basques - New York Times
  68. ^ Plot unveiled to assassinate anti-terrorist French judge
  69. ^ ETA kills two Spanish policemen on duty in France
  70. ^ Dec. 1st; ETA kills two policemen, its first cold blood assassination since they ended their self styled "permanent ceasefire"
  71. ^ ETA maneja un presupuesto de dos millones de euros al año
  72. ^ World: Europe Former Spanish ministers jailed for 'terrorism' .
  73. ^ Rick Hurley, Death Squad Trial Revelations Threaten Government Stability
  74. ^ October 2002 AI Index: EUR 41/12/2002: SPAIN: A briefing for the United Nations Committee against Torture: Although convictions of torturers occur, these are rare. […] examining judges and prosecutors may not always be displaying due diligence […] trials involving torture complaints are often delayed for long periods. Where torture has been found to have occurred and torturers are convicted, awards of compensation by courts to torture victims are usually low and may take between seven and 19 years to be decided.
  75. ^ AI Index: EUR 41/014/2002: 1 November 2002: SPAIN: A Briefing for the UN Committee against Torture: Update: The Committee also expressed concern about: the length of judicial investigations into torture complaints, which could give rise to the granting of pardons to convicted torturers, or the failure to impose appropriate sentences, owing to the period of time that had elapsed since the crime was committed;
  76. ^ ETA pide el tercer grado para sus presos Libertad Digital, 5 October 2003, quoted in La dispersión de los presos de ETAPDF (47.2 KiB) (page 9), a PDF in the ¡Basta Ya! site.
  77. ^ Ley Orgánica 6/2002, de 27 de junio
  78. ^ Testimony by Martxelo Otamendi at the Universal Forum of Cultures, Barcelona (May 2004).
  79. ^ ETA terror leader's arrest hailed as 'heavy blow' - 22 May 2008 - NZ Herald: World / International News
  80. ^ The Fall of Spain's Most Wanted - TIME
  81. ^ http://www.typicallyspanish.com/news/publish/article_16604.shtml
  82. ^ Currently listed entities
  83. ^ ETA cease-fire, eitb24, 23 March 2006.
  84. ^ (Spanish) (French) (Basque) ETA declara un alto el fuego permanente para impulsar un proceso democrático ("ETA declares a permanent ceasefire to give impetus to a democratic process"), Gara, 3 March 2006 (article in Spanish, text of announcement in Basque, Spanish and French.
  85. ^ (Spanish) La Policía sospecha que fue ETA quien robó anteayer 350 pistolas en Nimes ("The police suspect that it was ETA who stole 350 guns yesterday in Nîmes"), Gara, 25 October 2006
  86. ^ (Spanish) El Mundo 24 Sept. 2006
  87. ^ (Spanish) ETA cargó la bomba de Barajas con al menos 200 kilos de explosivo El País, 30 December 2006
  88. ^ (Spanish) Zapatero: "He ordenado suspender todas las iniciativas para desarrollar el diálogo con ETA" El País, 30 December 2006
  89. ^ ETA gunmen kill Spanish guard - CNN.com
  90. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Eta blamed for killing in France
  91. ^ B92 ETA to follow Kosovo example
  92. ^ ETA irrumpe en la campaña electoral y asesina a un ex concejal del PSE en Mondragón | elmundo.es
  93. ^ AFP: Spain set to vote with ETA in spotlight after assassination
  94. ^ [http://www.eitb24.com/new/en/B24_92892/politics/COMMUNIQUE-ETA-claims-responsibility-for-Isaias/ ETA claims responsibility for Isaias Carrasco’s murder
  95. ^ ETA claims Spanish bomb attack
  96. ^ Colombia: Sospechan relación de ETA con las FARC General Commander Fernando Tapias on August 2001.
  97. ^ [http://www.france24.com/en/20080530-colombia-farc-sought-launch-attack-with-eta-colombia-spain-terrorism&navi=MONDE Colombia: FARC sought to launch attack with ETA.
  98. ^ http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=170006 Colombia VP says FARC sought ETA ties for attack in Spain
  99. ^ Conferencia de Prensa ofrecida por Felipe Pérez Roque, Ministro de Relaciones Exteriores de Cuba. Centro de Convenciones “Atlapa” de la Ciudad de Panamá. 7 November 2000.
  100. ^ Country Reports on Terrorism: Released by the Office of the Coordinator for Counterterrorism (April 28, 2006): The Government of Cuba maintains close relationships with other state sponsors of terrorism such as Iran and North Korea, and has provided safe haven to members of ETA, FARC, and the ELN. There is no information concerning activities of these or other organizations on Cuban territory. Press reports indicate that fugitives from US justice and ETA members are living legally in Cuba, just like fugitives from Cuban justice live legally in the US. The United States says it is not aware of specific terrorist enclaves in the country.

“PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... La Razón (Spanish: Reason) is sometimes used as a name for newspapers in the Spanish-speaking world. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Jon Juaristi Linacero (born in Bilbao, in 1951) is a poet, essayist, and Spanish translator in Castilian and Basque. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Libertad Digital is an online newspaper edited in Madrid, Spain. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... “PDF” redirects here. ... ¡Basta Ya! (Enough is Enough!) is a Spanish grassroots organization uniting individuals of various political positions against terrorism, notably against ETA and the proposal for a new Statute of Autonomy of the Basque Country released by the government of President Juan José Ibarretxe. ... Universal Forum of Cultures logo The Universal Forum of Cultures is an international cultural event intended to take place every four years (except for the 2007 Forum). ... Felipe Pérez Roque is the foreign minister of the Republic of Cuba. ... is the 118th day of the year (119th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Ejército de Liberación Nacional (usually abbreviated to ELN), or National Liberation Army, is a revolutionary, Marxist, insurgent guerrilla group that has been operating in several regions of Colombia since 1966. ...

External links

  • The Other Terrorism, City Journal, Spring 2008
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
ETA
  • http://www.tkb.org/Group.jsp?groupID=31 - MIPT Terrorism Knowledge Base (ETA)
  • Who are Eta? - A BBC profile (including a map of the territory "claimed" by ETA)
  • Text of ETA cease-fire statement
  • (Spanish) Fotos del Horror, photos and other documentation of ETA members, attacks, and popular protests against ETA.
  • (Spanish) Resumen de Atentados de ETA
  • The Basque Conflict: New Ideas and Prospects for Peace U.S. Institute of Peace Special Report, April 2006
  • ETA and Spain, according to Amnesty International
  • (Spanish) Asociación de Víctimas del Terrorismo Biggest organisation in Spain for support to the victims of terrorist
  • (Spanish) Fundación Víctimas del terrorismo Organisation for the victims's support
  • (Spanish) Basta Ya, Basque organisation protesting against Basque nationalist violence and threats.
  • (Spanish) Fundación para la Libertad Organisation against terrorist murders, threats and daily violence
  • (Spanish) Fundación Miguel Ángel Blanco Founded by the family of Miguel Ángel Blanco, a symbolic victim of ETA
  • Foro de Ermua Organisation created after the murder of Miguel Ángel Blanco
  • on FAS Intelligence Resource Program
  • (Spanish) A dossier from Gara (now in the Wayback Machine) about the prisoner dispersion including a map of the distribution of ETA prisoners in Spain and France. It defines the arrested terrorists as "political prisoners"
  • Interesting Article on ETA
  • (Spanish) R. Sola, Benta-Haundi-cruce-caminos-para-historia Benta Haundi, cruce the caminos para la historia. Article in Gara newspaper on the historical events that lead to the beginning of ETA's armed actions in 1968 (in the 40th anniversary).
  • (Spanish) El Mundo Section in El Mundo newspaper about ETA and its actions
For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... The United States Institute of Peace is an independent, nonpartisan federal institution created by Congress to promote the prevention, management, and peaceful resolution of international conflicts. ... Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amnesty international Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is an international non-governmental organization which defines its mission as to undertake research and action focused on preventing and ending grave abuses of the rights to physical and mental integrity, freedom of conscience... Miguel Ángel Blanco Garrido (13 May 1968 – 13 July 1997) was a local politician in Ermua (Biscay), in the Basque autonomous community (Spain) for the Partido Popular. ... Miguel Ángel Blanco Garrido (13 May 1968 – 13 July 1997) was a local politician in Ermua (Biscay), in the Basque autonomous community (Spain) for the Partido Popular. ... Gara (We are in Basque) is a bilingual (Basque/Spanish) Spanish newspaper published in the city of Donostia (San Sebastián in Spanish) in the Basque Country. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) (Spain, separatists) - Council on Foreign Relations (1368 words)
ETA is a leftist group that uses terrorism in hopes of forming an independent Basque state in parts of northern Spain and southwest France.
In November 2001, ETA killed a judge and two police officers in the Basque region, and a French gendarme was shot, reportedly by ETA.
In June 2007, ETA announced an end to the cease-fire amid reports that the group was planning attacks for later in the summer.
Internet Visa Services Australia (269 words)
From 21 April 2008, the Australian Department of Immigration and Citizenship is implementing changes to the ETA system.
If your ETA cannot be issued immediately please check back in 12 hours to confirm whether your application has been successful.
Please apply for your ETA as early as possible prior to travel to allow sufficient time for your application to be processed.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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