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Encyclopedia > Estonian Swedes

The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (Swedish: Estlandssvenskar, or "Estonia Swedes", colloquially Aibofolke, or "Island People", Estonian: Rannarootslased) are a group of ethnic Swedes residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia. The beginning of the continuous settlement of Estonian Swedes in these areas (known as Aiboland) dates back to the 14th and 13th centuries, and possibly earlier, when their Germanic Swedish-speaking ancestors arrived in Estonia from what is now Sweden and Finland. Most of Estonia's Swedish-speaking minority fled to Sweden during World War II, and only a small number of them are permanently resident in Estonia today. Swede redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...



Early history

There has been a Swedish population in Estonia for more than 700 years. The first written mention of the Swedish population in Estonia comes from 1294, in the laws of the town of Haapsalu. Further early mentions of Swedes in Estonia came in 1341 and 1345 (when an Estonian monastery in Padise sold "the Laoküla Estate" and Suur-Pakri Island to a group of Swedes). During the 13th through 15th centuries, large numbers of Swedes arrived in coastal Estonia from Finland, which was under Swedish control (and would remain so for hundreds of years), often settling on Church-owned land. The first documented record of the island of Ruhnu (Swedish: Runö), and of its Swedish population, is also a 1341 letter sent by the Bishop of Courland which confirmed the islanders' right to reside and manage their property in accordance with Swedish law. For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Haapsalu (Swedish & German: Hapsal) is a resort town on the west coast of Estonia. ... Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Events Miracle of the Host Births October 31 - King Fernando I of Portugal (died 1383) Agnès of Valois, daughter of John II of France (died 1349) Eleanor Maltravers, English noblewoman (died 1405) Deaths April 14 - Richard Aungerville, English writer and bishop (born 1287) September 16 - John IV, Duke of... Padise Parish - Padise vald (Estonian) Padise is a village in the Harju County, Estonia, the center of the municipality of Padise. ... Suur-Pakri (Swedish: RÃ¥gö) is an Estonian island off lying of the northern coast of Estonia just west of the town of Paldiski. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Ruhnu (Swedish: Runö) is an island situated in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea. ... Coat of arms of Courland Courland (Latvian: ; German: ; Latin: Curonia / Couronia; Lithuanian: ; Estonian: ; Polish: ; Russian: ) is an historical Baltic province now part of Latvia. ...

Swedish Estonia

The Swedish Empire in 1658, including the Dominion of Swedish Estonia.

In 1561, Sweden established the Dominion of Swedish Estonia, which it would hold until 1710 (formally until 1721, when the territory was ceded to Russia under the Treaty of Nystad). The Estonia-Swedes prospered during this period. Swedish, along with German and Estonian, was one of the official languages. Image File history File links Sweden_in_1658. ... Image File history File links Sweden_in_1658. ... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Events January 13 - Edward Sexby, who had plotted against Oliver Cromwell, dies in Tower of London February 6 - Swedish troops of Charles X Gustav of Sweden cross The Great Belt (Storebælt) in Denmark over frozen sea May 1 - Publication of Hydriotaphia, Urn Burial and The Garden of Cyrus by... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... A dominion, often Dominion, is the territory or the authority of a dominus (a lord or master). ... Estonia was a dominion of Sweden from 1561 until 1719, when it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad, following the outcome in the Great Northern War. ... // Events April 10 - The worlds first copyright legislation became effective, Britains Statute of Anne Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713) Births January 3 - Richard Gridley, American Revolutionary soldier (d. ... // Events Pope Innocent XIII becomes pope Johann Sebastian Bach composes the Brandenburg Concertos April 4 - Robert Walpole becomes the first prime minister of Britain September 10 - Treaty of Nystad is signed, bringing an end to the Great Northern War November 2 - Peter I is proclaimed Emperor of All the Russias... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden...

Russian rule

After the Teutonic Order lost much of its power in the 16th century and the Dominion of Swedish Estonia was lost to Russia following the Great Northern War (1700-1721), conditions worsened for Swedes in Estonia: the lands they had settled were often confiscated from the Church and given to local nobility, and taxes increased. This situation remained the same during Russian rule, and the Estonian Swedes' suffering continued as, for example, the Agrarian reforms which liberated the land of Estonian serfs in 1816, did not apply to Estonian (mostly non-serf) Swedes. Teutonic Knights, charging into battle. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Estonia was a dominion of Sweden from 1561 until 1719, when it was ceded to Russia in the Treaty of Nystad, following the outcome in the Great Northern War. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Poland-Lithuania Saxony later also Prussia, Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Augustus II the Strong Frederick IV of Denmark Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Agrarian reform can refer either, narrowly, to government-initiated or government-backed redistribution of agricultural land (see land reform) or can refer more broadly to an overall redirection of the agrarian system of the country, which often includes land reform measures. ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... 1816 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

Forced emigrations

The Swedish church in Gammalsvenskby

At certain times during Russian Estonia period, groups of Estonian Swedes were forced to leave Estonia for other parts of the Russian Empire. Most notably, Empress Catherine II of Russia forced the 1000 Swedes of Hiiumaa (Swedish: Dagö), to move to the Ukraine in 1781, where they established the community of Gammalsvenskby. Estonia became a governorate-general of Russia in 1710, when it was conquered from Sweden. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... Catherine the Great redirects here. ... Tahkuna peninsula is the most northern part of Hiiumaa, Estonia Hiiumaa is the second largest island (989 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Verbivka (Swedish: Gammalsvenskby, Old Swedish Village) is a part of the village Zmijevka in Khersonska oblast, Ukraine which has a Swedish cultural heritage. ...

Conditions improve

The Estonian Swedes' positions improved during the 1850s and 1860s, due to further agrarian reforms, but discrimination remained during the rest of the period of Tsarist rule in Estonia. After the First World War and the Russian Revolution, the independent Republic of Estonia was created in 1918. The constitution of independent Estonia granted the ethnic minority groups the control over their language of education, the right to form institutions for their national and social rights, the right to use their native language in official capacities where they formed majorities of the population, and the choice of nationality. Swedes, Baltic Germans, Russians, and Jews all had ministers in the new national government. Svenska Folkförbundet, a Swedish political organization (which published a newspaper of the same name), was formed. In 1925, a new law giving more cultural autonomy was passed, although the Russians and Swedes in Estonia did not take advantage of these new freedoms, mainly for economic reasons. // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Baltic Germans (German: , Deutschbalten; literally German Balts) were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea, which today forms the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

World War II

In 1939, the Soviet Union forced Estonia to sign a treaty concerning military bases. Many of the islands upon which Estonian Swedes lived were confiscated, bases were built on them, and their inhabitants were forced to leave their homes. A year later, Estonia was occupied by, and annexed into, the Soviet Union, and their voice in government was lost. Estonian Swedish men were conscripted into the Red Army and, during the German occupation, into the German armed forces. Most of the remaining Estonian Swedes fled to Sweden prior to the second invasion of Estonia by the Soviet army in 1944. Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... Occupation of Estonia by Nazi Germany. ... Wehrmacht   (armed forces, literally defence force(s)) was the name of the armed forces of Nazi Germany from 1935 to 1945. ...


Maria Murman (1911-2004), an Estonian Swede who remained in Estonia after the Second World War, in Vormsi (Ormsö), 1994.

Today, small groups of remaining Estonian Swedes are regrouping and reestablishing their heritage, by studying Swedish language and culture. They are led by the Estonian Swedish Council, which is backed by the Estonian government. In 2000, Swedes were the 21st largest ethnic group in Estonia, numbering only 300.

Areas of population and demographics

An older German-language map of the Estonian Archipelago, in which the Estonian Swedish population was concentrated.

Population figures during the early centuries of Swedish settlement are not available. At the end of the Teutonic period, there were probably around 1,000 Estonian Swedish families, with some 1,500 Swedes in the capital Tallinn (Reval), giving a total population of roughly 5-7 thousand, some 2-3% of the population of what is now Estonia at the time. County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ...

The 1922 census gives Estonia a total population of 1,107,000 of which Estonia-Swedes made up only .7%, some 7,850 people, who made up majorities in some places, such as Ruhnu (Runö), Vormsi (Ormsö), Riguldi (Rickull). By the time of the Second World War, the population was nearly 10,000, and roughly 9,000 of these people fled to Sweden. Towns with large pre-war Swedish populations include Haapsalu (Hapsal) and Tallinn (Reval). Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar). ... Ruhnu (Swedish: Runö) is an island situated in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea. ... Estonias fourth biggest island, Vormsi is located between Hiiumaa and mainland with total area 92 sq. ... Haapsalu (Swedish & German: Hapsal) is a resort town on the west coast of Estonia. ...

The numbers of Swedes in Estonia continued to fall: there were 435 in 1970, and only 297 in 1989, when they placed 26th on the list of Estonia's minority groups (before the Second World War, they were third in number). 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ...

In Ukraine

Location of Gammalsvenskby in Ukraine

In the Ukraine, the village of Gammalsvenskby, founded by Estonian Swedish refugees, had considerable Swedish population until August 1, 1929, when 885 of the villagers fled for Sweden. There are a few hundred people of Estonian Swedish descent in Gammalsvenskby today. Map of Ukraine with specific pointers to Gammalsvenskby. File links The following pages link to this file: Swedish language ... Map of Ukraine with specific pointers to Gammalsvenskby. File links The following pages link to this file: Swedish language ... Verbivka (Swedish: Gammalsvenskby, Old Swedish Village) is a part of the village Zmijevka in Khersonska oblast, Ukraine which has a Swedish cultural heritage. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Main article: Swedish dialects
Traditional Swedish Sprachraum, with Estonian dialects marked.

There was no one Estonian-Swedish dialect, but several. The Estonian-Swedish dialects are subdivisions of the Eastern varieties of Standard Swedish. Ruhnu had its own dialect, the Vormsi-Noarootsi-Riguldi dialect was spoken on those islands, there was also a Pakri-Vihterpalu variety. The dialect of Hiiumaa is still spoken by a few in Gammalsvenskby (which is called Gammölsvänskbi in the Hiiumaa/Gammmalsvenskby dialect). Swedish dialects can be categorized into Traditional Dialects (with no Standard Swedish influence) and Modern Dialects (with various degrees of Standard Swedish influence). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A dialect (from the Greek word διάλεκτος, dialektos) is a variety of a language characteristic of a particular group of the languages speakers. ... Standard Swedish (standardsvenska, rikssvenska or högsvenska) denotes Swedish as a spoken and written standard language in Sweden and Finland. ... Ruhnu (Swedish: Runö) is an island situated in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea. ...




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