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Encyclopedia > Estonian Liberation War

The Estonian Liberation War (Estonian: Vabadussõda, literally "freedom war"), also called the Estonian War of Independence, in 1918-1920, was Estonia's struggle for independent state in the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution. 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 8 million Full list Military dead: 3 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 6 million Full... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, which, after the elimination of the Russian autocracy system, and the Provisional Government (Duma), resulted in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


Timeline

In November 1917, upon disintegration of the Russian Empire a Diet (Maapäev), which had been elected in the spring of that year, proclaimed itself the highest authority in Estonia. Soon thereafter, the Bolsheviks dissolved Maapäev and forced the Estonian nationalists temporarily underground. A few months later, using a moment between the Russian Red Army's retreat and the arrival of the advancing German troops, the Committee of Elders of the underground Maapäev issued a proclamation the independent Republic of Estonia on February 24, 1918 and formed a provisional government. This first period of independence was extremely short-lived, as German troops entered Tallinn on the following day. The German authorities recognized neither the provisional government, nor its claim for Estonia's independence. 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... The Maapäev (translated as Day of Land) was the Legislative Assembly of Estonia from 1917—1919. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... The Maapäev (translated as Day of Land) was the Legislative Assembly of Estonia from 1917—1919. ... The Maapäev (translated as Day of Land) was the Legislative Assembly of Estonia from 1917—1919. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... County Harju County Mayor Jüri Ratas Area 159. ...


After Germany's defeat in World War I (November 1918) however, an Estonian provisional government was able to retake office. A new military invasion by Soviet Russia followed a few days later, marking the beginning of the Estonian War of Independence. The first Russian attacks at Narva on 22rd November were met by German and Estonian defenders but the Germans thereafter withdrew westwards. On 28th November Red Army made an assault to capture the city with an artillery support and on 29th November the Red Army captured Narva and Narva-Jõesuu. Estonian bolsheviks declared regional local government in Narva under the name of the Estonian Workers’ Commune (Eesti Töörahva Kommun) The small, poorly-armed Estonian defense force was initially pushed back by the Red Army close to the capital, Tallinn. Only 34 kilometers was a distance between Tallinn and front line. Partly due to the timely arrival of a shipment arms brought by a British naval squadron under Admiral Sinclair the Bolsheviks were stopped. In January 1919 the Estonians launched a counteroffensive under Commander-in-Chief Johan Laidoner. In this the Estonian Army was supported by the Royal Navy as well as some Finnish, Swedish and Danish volunteers. By the end of February 1919 the Red Army was expelled from the entire territory of Estonia. Combatants Allies: • Serbia, • Russia, • France, • Romania, • Belgium, • British Empire and Dominions, • United States, • Italy, • ...and others Central Powers: • Germany, • Austria-Hungary, • Ottoman Empire, • Bulgaria Casualties Military dead: 5 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 8 million Full list Military dead: 3 million Civilian dead: 3 million Total: 6 million Full... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Estonian troops also advanced into northern Latvia. Latvia had been declared an independent state like Estonia, but its pro-British government of Kārlis Ulmanis was toppled by a German general Rüdiger von der Goltz, who had installed a pro-German puppet government in Riga in May 1919. This was possible because under the terms of their armistice with the Western Allies, the Germans had been obliged to maintain their armies in the East to counter the Bolshevik threat. A Baltic German military unit Landeswehr, together with the "Iron Division" of the regular German army, started to advance northwards and demanded that the Estonian army end the "occupation" of parts Northern Latvia. It was widely believed that the real intent of Landeswehr was to annex Estonia into some German-dominated state like United Baltic Duchy which had existed in 1918. In the military conflict that ensued, the Baltic-German Landeswehr were defeated by the advancing Estonian Army in Northern Latvia near the city of Cēsis in June 1919. (June 23, the anniversary of the Battle of Wenden (Võnnu in Estonian) is celebrated in Estonia as a national holiday "Victory Day.") Kārlis Ulmanis (b. ... Rüdiger von der Goltz Gustav Adolf Joachim Rüdiger Graf von der Goltz (born December 8, 1865, in Züllichau, Prussia [now Poland]; died November 4, 1946, in Kinsegg, Allgäu, Germany) was the commander of German units which played an instrumental role in the defeat of Russian Bolsheviks... Riga (Latvian: RÄ«ga), the capital of Latvia, is situated on the Baltic Sea coast on the mouth of River Daugava, at 56°58′N 24°8′E. Riga is the largest city in the Baltic states and serves as a major cultural, educational, political, financial, commercial and industrial center... Official language German Capital Riga Regent Adolf Pilar von Pilchau Area ? km² Population ? Independance 12 April 1918 Admission 22 September 1918 (German State) National anthem ? The United Baltic Duchy (in German: Vereinigtes Baltisches Herzogtum) was a shortlived construct in 1918 made possible through Germanys occupation of Latvia and Estonia... The town of Cesis, in Latvia, is located in the northern part of Vidzeme Central upland, on the river Gauja, on high hillocks with terraces, overlooking the blue woods of the Gauja ancient river valley. ... 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... June 23 is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 191 days remaining. ... Victory Day is the name of a public holiday in various countries to commemorate the victory in an important battle or war in the countrys history. ...


Although Estonia had been liberated the Bolsheviks were still active and the Estonian high command decided to push their defence lines across the border into Russia. The offensive began on May 13th. By now the Estonian land, naval and air forces comprised 74,500 men including a 3,000-strong White Russian Northern Corps. This had its origins back in the autumn of 1918 as a small White Russian force raised under German approval in the Pskov area, which had retreated from the Bolsheviks and joined up with Estonian National forces. The Estonian May offensive was extremely successful and the Northern Corps mobilised local population in the liberated Russian territory. On June 19th 1919 the Estonian Commander-in-Chief General Laidoner removed the White Russians from his command and they were renamed the North-Western Army. Shortly afterwards General Nikolai N. Yudenich took command. Nikolai Nikolayevich Yudenich (Николай Николаевич Юденич) (1862–1933), Infantry General (1915), leader of the counterrevolution in Northwestern Russia during the Russian Civil War of 1918-1920. ...


The Bolsheviks began a counter-offensive in July 1919 which regained much ground lost during the Estonian offensive but the North-Western Army survived. With arms provided by Britain and France and supported by the Estonian army, Estonian warships and the British Royal Navy, the North-Western Army began an offensive on 28th September 1919 with the aim of capturing Petrograd. White Russian forces got as far as ten miles from Petrograd but the Bolshevik leader Leon Trotsky gathered "an army of workers and soldiers", which was able to repulse Yudenich's troops and force their retreat back into Estonia where the Estonians, fearing the consequences of accepting an armed mob, disarmed and interned them. The Bolsheviks made determined assaults on fortified positions at the Estonian frontier but exhausted themselves and a ceasefire came into effect on 3rd January 1920. (help· info) (Russian: Лев Давидович Троцкий; also transliterated Leo, Lev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (Лев Давидович Бронштейн), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ...


On February 2, 1920, the Peace Treaty of Tartu was signed by the Republic of Estonia and Bolshevist Russia. The terms of the treaty stated that Russia renounced in perpetuity all rights to the territory of Estonia. The agreed frontier roughly corresponded with the position of the front line at the cessation of hostilities. In particular, Estonia retained a strategic strip to the east of the Narva river (Narvataguse) and Setumaa in the southeast, areas which were lost after the incorporation of Estonia into the USSR in 1940. February 2 is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... The Treaties of Tartu were treaties between Bolshevist Russia on one side and the recently independent Estonia and Finland, formerly belonging to Imperial Russia, on the other. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ...


Of interest is the British contribution to the struggle in the Baltic in 1918-19: 1) arrival of British naval forces in December 1918 after lobbying in London by Estonian politicians, which brought needed military equipment, training and also artillery support from Royal Navy ships; 2) protection of the Estonian left flank by naval action in the Gulf of Finland. This included the first combined air/sea assault in history, when British aircraft and torpedo boats attacked and destroyed the Bolshevik fleet in Kronstadt; 3) the British supplied equipment to the White Russian North-Western Army. The equipment included six tanks together with their crews who were the only British troops to fight with the North-Western Army. British tank crews are said to have got closer to Petrograd in the autumn of 1919 than German Panzer crews did to Leningrad in WWII. 1888 map of Kronstadt bay Kronstadt (Russian: Кронштадт; also Kronshtadt, Cronstadt) is a strongly fortified Russian seaport town, located on Kotlin Island, near the head of the Gulf of Finland, at , . It lies 20 miles west of Saint Petersburg, of which it is the chief port. ...


See also

  • History of Estonia

// Pre-history Human settlement became possible when the ice, from the last glacial era, melted away 11,000–13,000 years ago. ...

External links

  • Estonica:Emergence of Estonian independence

  Results from FactBites:
 
Estonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1859 words)
It is separated from Finland in the north by the narrow Gulf of Finland and from Sweden in the west by the middle part of the Baltic Sea.
After the Estonian Liberation War and Treaty of Tartu signed in February 2, 1920 Estonia maintained this independence for twenty-two years, and the very same parliamentary government was reinstated in 1992, after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The Estonian government is intending to adopt the Euro as the country's currency on 1 January 2007, and finalised the design of Estonia's Euro coins in late 2004.
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