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Encyclopedia > Estonia
Eesti Vabariik
Republic of Estonia
Flag of Estonia Coat of arms of Estonia
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemMu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm
(English: "My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy")
Location of  Estonia  (dark green)

– on the European continent  (light green & dark grey)
– in the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend] Estonia is the name of: Estonia - a country in Northern Europe, an independent nation since 1918 (occupied 1940-1991) Swedish Estonia - from 1561 a dominion of Sweden, constituted by the northern part of present-day Estonia Russian Estonia - from 1719 to 1918 a territory of the Russian Empire, constituted by... Image File history File links Flag_of_Estonia. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Flag ratio: 7:11 Flag of the President. ... The Greater Coat of Arms The Lesser Coat of Arms Coat of Arms of Estonia. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that evokes and eulogizes the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a countrys government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm (My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy) was adopted as the national anthem (language of Estonia: hümn or riigihümn) of the Republic of Estonia in 1920, and again in 1990. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...

Capital
(and largest city)
Tallinn
59°25′N, 24°45′E
Official languages Estonian1
Demonym Estonian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Toomas Hendrik Ilves
 -  Prime Minister Andrus Ansip (RE)
Independence from Russia and Germany 
 -  Autonomy declared 12 April 1917 
 -  Independence declared
Officially recognised
24 February 1918
2 February 1920 
 -  1st Soviet occupation 1940-1941 
 -  German occupation 1941-1944 
 -  2nd Soviet occupation 1944-1991 
 -  Independence restored 20 August 1991 
EU accession May 1, 2004
Area
 -  Total 45,226 km² (132nd2)
17,413 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.56%
Population
 -  Jan. 01, 2007 estimate 1,340,602[1] (151th)
 -  2000 census 1,376,743 
 -  Density 29/km² (173rd)
75/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $26.85 billion (103th)
 -  Per capita $21,800[2] 
GDP (nominal) 2006 estimate
 -  Total $16,410 billion (91st)
 -  Per capita $15,310 (41st)
Gini (2005) 34 (medium
HDI (2007) 0.86 (high) (38th)
Currency Estonian kroon (EEK)
Time zone EET (UTC+2)
 -  Summer (DST) EEST (UTC+3)
Internet TLD .ee3
Calling code +372
1 Võro and Seto in southern counties are spoken along with Estonian. Russian is widely spoken in Ida-Virumaa due to the Soviet program promoting mass immigration of urban industrial workers from USSR during the occupation.
2 47,549 km² were defined according to the Tartu Peace Treaty in 1920 between Estonia and Russia. Today the remaining 2,323 km² is still illegally annexed by Russia.
The ceded areas include the Petserimaa county and the boundary in the north of Lake Peipus as the Lands behind the city of Narva including Ivangorod (Jaanilinn).[3],[4]
3 .eu is also shared with other member states of the European Union.

Estonia, officially the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti or Eesti Vabariik) is a country in Northern Europe in the Baltic region. It is bordered to the north by Finland across the Gulf of Finland, to the west by Sweden, to the south by Latvia, and to the east by the Russian Federation. The territory of Estonia covers 45,226 km² and is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Not to be confused with capitol. ... The name Eesti, or Estonia, could be derived from the word Aestii, the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the peoples living northeast of the Vistula River. ... Image File history File links Description: Greater coat of arms of Tallinn town, Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... A demonym or gentilic is a word that denotes the members of a people or the inhabitants of a place. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmÉ‘s hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Estonian Reform Party (Estonian: Eesti Reformierakond) is a free market liberal party in Estonia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Estland was located approximately on the later territory of Estonia (above, green), declared February 23, 1918. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... Estonian Declaration of Independence[1] 24 February 1918. ... The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... After Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941,the Wehrmacht reached Estonia in (July 1941). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Austria Poland Belgium Bulgaria Cyprus Czech   Rep. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Map of countries by population for the year 2007. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... Population density by country, 2006 List of countries and dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The list includes sovereign states and self-governing dependent territories that are recognized by the United Nations. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ... There are three lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) (the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... World map of GDP (Nominal and PPP). ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Map of countries by 2006 GDP (nominal) per capita (IMF, October 2007). ... Graphical representation of the Gini coefficient The Gini coefficient is a measure of inequality of income distribution or inequality of wealth distribution. ... This page talks about Human Development Index, for other HDIs see HDI (disambiguation) World map indicating Human Development Index (2007). ... This talks about the countries in the Human Development Index, for information on the Human Development Index, please Click Here World map indicating Human Development Index (2007) (Colour-blind compliant map) For red-green color vision problems. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Eastern European Time (EET) is one of the names of UTC+2 time zone, 2 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... Although DST is common in Europe and North America, most of the worlds people do not use it. ... Eastern European Summer Time (EEST) is one of the names of UTC+3 time zone, 3 hours ahead of Coordinated Universal Time. ... UTC redirects here. ... A country code top-level domain (ccTLD) is a top-level domain used and reserved for a country or a dependent territory. ... .ee is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of Estonia. ... This is a list of country calling codes defined by ITU-T recommendation E.164. ... Country Code: 372 Dialing rules: Emergency calls: 112 - fire and medical services, 110 - police. ... The Vyronian language (võro kiil) is a language belonging to the Baltic-Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Seto or Setu language is a dialect of the Finnic South Estonian or Võro language (or a separate language, which is a disputed claim) and also the name denoting its speakers, Seto people, who mostly inhabit the area near Estonias southeastern border with Russia, in the county of... Capital Võru Governor Ãœlo Tulik Area 2,305 km² (12th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 38,967 (7th) 16. ... Estonian ( ; IPA: ) is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1. ... Ida-Viru County or Eastern Virumaa (Estonian: Ida-Viru maakond or Ida-Virumaa) is one of the counties of Estonia. ... The name Eesti, or Estonia, could be derived from the word Aestii, the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the peoples living northeast of the Vistula River. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The Treaties of Tartu were treaties between Bolshevist Russia on one side and the newly independent Estonia and Finland, previously belonging to Imperial Russia, on the other. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pechory (Russian: Печоры, Estonian: Petseri) is a town located in Pskovsky Oblast, Russia. ... Lake Peipus (Estonian: Peipsi-Pihkva järv, Russian: (Chud Lake), German: Peipussee) is a large fresh water lake, on the border between Estonia and Russia in Northern Europe. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... Population density in the wider Baltic region. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... In geography, temperate latitudes of the globe lie between the tropics and the polar circles. ...


The Estonians are a Finnic people closely related to the Finns, with the Estonian language sharing many similarities to Finnish. The modern name of Estonia is thought to originate from the Roman historian Tacitus, who in his book Germania (ca. AD 98) described a people called the Aestii. Similarly, ancient Scandinavian sagas refer to a land called Eistland. Early Latin and other ancient versions of the name are Estia and Hestia. Until the late 1930s, the name was often written as "Esthonia" in most western countries. Finnic peoples (Fennic, sometimes Baltic-Finnic) refer, particularly in present-day English usage of Finland and Estonia, to what are perceived as culturally related ethnic groups, i. ... Estonian ( ; IPA: ) is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Tacitus (disambiguation). ... Map of the Roman Empire and Germania Magna in the early 2nd century, with the location of some Germanic tribes as described by Tacitus. ... The Roman historian Tacitus in his book Germania mentions a Aesti or Aestii people. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


Estonia is a democratic parliamentary republic and is divided into fifteen counties (Maakonnad). The capital and largest city is Tallinn. Estonia has been a member of the United Nations since 17 September 1991,[5] of the European Union since 1 May 2004,[6] and of NATO since 29 March 2004.[7] Estonia has also signed the Kyoto protocol. With only 1.3 million inhabitants, it comprises one of the smallest populations of the European Union countries. Democracy is a form of government under which the power to alter the laws and structures of government lies, ultimately, with the citizenry. ... Parliamentary republics around the world, shown in Orange (Parliamentary republics with a non-executive President) and Green (Parliamentary republics with an executive President linked to Parliament). ... Fifteen may refer to: 15, the cardinal number between 14 and 16 The year 15 Fifteen, a chain of restaurants created by Jamie Oliver Fifteen, a teen soap on Nickelodeon during the 1990s (known in Canada as Hillside) Fifteen, the punk rock band Fifteen (15), the movie Fifteen, 2006 Buckcherry... A County (est: Maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Opened for signature December 11, 1997 in Kyoto, Japan Entered into force February 16, 2005. ... A resident is a person who lives in a particular place permanently, or for an extended period of time, i. ...


The area was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After the Northern Crusades, being conquered by Danes and Germans in 1227, Estonia was ruled by Denmark in the north and by Livonian Order in the south. From 1228-1562 the whole Estonia was a part of Livonian Confederation. Estonia became a part of the Swedish Empire from the 16th century to 1721, when it was ceded to the Russian Empire. The Estophile Enlightenment Period in 1750-1840 led to the Estonian national awakening in the mid-19th century. In 1918 the Estonian Declaration of Independence was issued. The Estonian War of Independence ensued on two fronts between the Bolshevist Russia and the German Empire, resulting in the Tartu Peace Treaty recognising Estonian independence in perpetuity. Shortly after World War II began, Estonia was occupied and illegally annexed by the Soviet Union[8][9][10] in accordance with the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact. During World War II, Estonia was occupied by Third Reich, then re-occupied by the Soviet Union in 1944. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... (10th millennium BC – 9th millennium BC – 8th millennium BC – other millennia) Beginning of the Neolithic time period of the Holocene epoch. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... The Danish nation is a concept closely connected to 19th century ethnic nationalism. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ... The Livonian Brothers of the Sword (Latin Fratres militiae Christi, literally the brothers of the army of Christ), also known as the Christ Knights, Sword Brethren or The Militia of Christ of Livonia, was a military order started in 1202 by Albert von Buxhövden, bishop of Riga (or Prince-Bishop... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... Year 1562 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Coat of arms Capital Walk Language(s) Low German Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Confederation Legislature Landtag Historical era Middle Ages  - Conquest of Estonia 1208–27  - Established 1228  - Reval (Tallinn) gains Lübeck Rights 1248  - Reval joins Hanseatic League late 13th century  - Landtag formed 1419  - Livonian War 1558–82  - Wilno... Sweden between the years 1611 and 1718 is known as the Swedish Empire. ... Events A Roman army of 90,000 men commanded by Germanicus gains a victory at Idistaviso, defeating the German war chief Arminius and capturing his wife Thusnelda, and recovering the lost eagles of Varus legions. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Tarto maa rahwa Näddali Leht (Estonian for Tartu Peasants Weekly) was one of the first regular Estonian language publications, published in 1807. ... Year 1750 (MDCCL) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald reads the manuscript of Kalevipoeg. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Estonian Declaration of Independence[1] 24 February 1918. ... Combatants  Estonia, Finnish and Scandinavian volunteers, White Russians Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Landeswehr Commanders Johan Laidoner Jukums Vācietis Sergei Kamenev Rüdiger von der Goltz Strength 74,500 (Estonian Army), ca 4000 Finnish volunteers, White Russians, about 200-400 Scandinavians 160 000+ 9500 Casualties 5,600 killed 15... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Bolshevik side in the Russian Civil War, or more specifically the Russian government between the October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Treaty of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally Tartu peace) between Estonia and Bolshevist Russia was signed in February 2, 1920 after the Estonian War of Independence. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Contents

History

Main articles: History of Estonia and Ancient Estonia

Human settlement in Estonia became possible 11,000 to 13,000 years ago, when the ice from the last glacial era melted away. The oldest known settlement in Estonia is the Pulli settlement, which was located on the banks of the river Pärnu, near the town of Sindi, in southern Estonia. According to radiocarbon dating, it was settled around 11,000 years ago, at the beginning of the 9th millennium BC. The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... Ancient Estonia concerns the period of independance prior to the conquest and subjugation of the Estonian people in the Thirteenth Century. ... Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Pulli is a settlement on the east bank of the Parnu River. ... The Pärnu (Estonian: ) is a river in Estonia that drains into the Gulf of Riga at Pärnu. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mati Mettus Area km² Population (as of 2005)  - Density 4,322 /km² Time zone  - Summer (DST) EET (UTC+2) EEST (UTC+3) Coordinates [1] [[Image:|250px|Location of Sindi]] Location of Sindi Sindi is a town in Pärnu County, Estonia with a population of... 9 (nine) is the natural number following 8 and preceding 10. ...


Prehistory

Estonian territory 13,000 years ago during the Ice Age.

Evidence has been found of hunting and fishing communities existing around 6500 BC near the town of Kunda in northern Estonia. Bone and stone artifacts similar to those found at Kunda have been discovered elsewhere in Estonia, as well as in Latvia, northern Lithuania and in southern Finland. The Kunda culture belongs to the middle stone age, or Mesolithic period. Variations in CO2, temperature and dust from the Vostok ice core over the last 400 000 years For the animated movie, see Ice Age (movie). ... Kunda is a town (founded May 1, 1938) in Estonia, located on the coast of the Gulf of Finland. ... Kunda Culture, mesolithic hunter-gatherer communities of the east Baltic forest zone extending eastwards into northern Russia dating to the period 8000–5000 BC. Most Kunda settlements are located near the edge of the forests beside rivers, lakes, or marshes. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... Look up period in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The end of the Bronze Age and the early Iron Age were marked by great cultural changes. The most significant was the transition to farming, which has remained at the core of Estonian economy and culture. From approximately the first to 5th centuries AD, resident farming was widely established, the population grew, and settlement expanded. Cultural influences from the Roman Empire reached Estonia, and this era is therefore also known as the Roman Iron Age. The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Roman Bronze figurine, Öland, Sweden The Roman Iron Age (1-400) is the name that Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius gave to a part of the Iron Age in Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the Netherlands. ...


A more troubled and war-ridden middle Iron Age followed with external dangers coming both from the Baltic tribes, who attacked across the southern land border, and from overseas. Several Scandinavian sagas refer to campaigns against Estonia. Estonian pirates conducted similar raids in the Viking age and sacked and burned the Swedish town of Sigtuna in 1187.[11] Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... http://www. ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... Estonian pirates appear at least twice in history and legend. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... Sigtuna is a city in central Sweden in the metropolitan area of Stockholm. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ...

Ancient Estonian handicraft found at Türsamäe, Unipiha
and Jaagupi.

In the first centuries AD political and administrative subdivisions began to emerge in Estonia. Two larger subdivisions appeared: the province (Estonian: kihelkond) and the land (Estonian: maakond). The province consisted of several elderships or villages. Nearly all provinces had at least one fortress. The defense of the local area was directed by the highest official, the king or elder. The terra was composed of one or several provinces, also headed by an elder, king or their collegium. By the 13th century the following major lands had developed in Estonia: Revala, Harjumaa, Saaremaa, Hiiumaa, Läänemaa, Alempois, Sakala, Ugandi, Jogentagana, Soopoolitse, Vaiga, Mõhu, Nurmekund, Järvamaa and Virumaa.[12] A province is a territorial unit, almost always a country subdivision. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An elder can refer to various topics: Elder (administrative title) Elder (religious) Elder - person of knowledge or high degree Elderberry plant (Sambucus) Box-elder plant (maple) Box elder bug (Leptocoris trivittatus or Boisea trivittatus) Elderly person - see: Old age William Henry Elder bishop and Archbishop of Cincinnati Joycelyn Elders Elder... Harju County or Harjumaa (Estonian Harju maakond or Harjumaa) is a County or maakond of Estonia on the south coast of the Gulf of Finland. ... Saare County, or Saare maakond, is a county or maakond of Estonia. ... Capital Kärdla Governor Hannes Maasel Area 1,023 km² (15th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 10,289 (15th) 10. ... Capital Haapsalu Governor Sulev Vare Area 2,383. ... sakala (word) -- a Sanskrit word meaning all, everything; Sakala (district) -- ancient district in Estonia, now Viljandimaa; Sakala (heights) -- hills in Viljandimaa; Sakala (academic corporation) -- an Estonian academic corporation founded in Tartu 1909, named after Sakala (district); Sakala (newspaper) -- a newspaper founded by Carl Robert Jakobson in 1878. ... National motto: None Ugaunia corresponded roughly to the present territory of Tartu, Põlva, Võru and a half of Valga maakond. ... Järva County or Järvamaa (Estonian: Järva maakond or Järvamaa) is one of the counties of Estonia. ... National motto: None Vironia corresponded to the present territory of Lääne-Viru maakond & Ida-Viru maakond. ...


Estonia retained a pagan religion centered around a deity called Tharapita. The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia mentions Tharapita as the superior god of Oeselians (inhabitants of Saaremaa island), also well known to Vironian tribes in northern Estonia. According to the chronicle, when the crusaders invaded Vironia in 1220, there was a beautiful wooded hill in Virumaa, where locals believe the Oeselian god Tharapita was born and from which he flew to Saaremaa. The hill is believed to be the Ebavere Hill (Ebavere mägi) in modern Lääne-Viru County. Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Tharapita or Taarapita or Taara is the god of war in Estonian mythology. ... The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Latvian: IndriÄ·a hronika, Latin: Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae, Estonian: Henriku Liivimaa kroonika) is a historic document describing the history of Latvia and Estonia from 1180 to 1227. ... Tharapita or Taarapita or Taara is the god of war in Estonian mythology. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Saaremaa (Swedish and German Ösel) is the largest island (2673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... The Vironians (Virulased in Estonian) is one of the Finnic tribes that later formed the Estonian nation. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... // The world in 1220 Middle Ages in Europe Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Events Mongols first invade Abbasid caliphate - Bukhara and Samarkand taken End of the Kara-Khitan Khanate, destroyed by Genghis Khans Mongolian cavalry Dominican Order approved by Pope Honorius III Frederick II crowned Holy Roman Emperor by Pope... National motto: None Vironia corresponded to the present territory of Lääne-Viru maakond & Ida-Viru maakond. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Lääne-Viru County, Western Virumaa or Western Vironia (Estonian: Lääne-Viru maakond or Lääne-Virumaa) is a County or maakond of Estonia. ...


The Middle Ages period

Estonia was a part of the Livonian Confederation from 1228 to the 1560s. The country was Christianized when the German "Livonian Brothers of the Sword" conquered southern Estonia as part of the Northern Crusades in the early thirteenth century. At the same time, Denmark attempted to take possession of northern Estonia. Estonia was consolidated under the two forces by 1227. Coat of arms Capital Walk Language(s) Low German Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Confederation Legislature Landtag Historical era Middle Ages  - Conquest of Estonia 1208–27  - Established 1228  - Reval (Tallinn) gains Lübeck Rights 1248  - Reval joins Hanseatic League late 13th century  - Landtag formed 1419  - Livonian War 1558–82  - Wilno... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Map of the Livonian Confederation, showing the territories of the Order in 1260 Capital Fellin (Viljandi) Language(s) Low German Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Master of the Livonian Order  - 1204–09 Wenno von Rohrbach  - 1209–36 Volquin  - 1237–38 Hermann Balk¹  - 1559–61 Gotthard Kettler¹ Historical era Middle Ages... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ... In music or music theory a thirteenth is the note thirteen scale degrees from the root of chord and also the interval between the root and the thirteenth. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... January 11 first mention of city of Požega in a charter of Andrew II of Hungary March 19 - Pope Gregory IX succeeds Pope Honorius III as the 178th pope. ...

Northern Estonia remained a possession of Denmark until 1346. Reval (known as Tallinn since 1918) was given its Lübeck Rights in 1248 and joined an alliance of trading guilds called the Hanseatic League at the end of the thirteenth century. In 1343, the people of northern Estonia and Saaremaa rebelled against German rule in the St. George's Night Uprising, which was put down by 1344. Russia attempted unsuccessful invasions in 1481 and 1558. A county (Estonian: maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... The city of Tallinn is the capital city and main seaport of Estonia. ... County Area 159. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Lübecks law was from the 13th century in the Middle Ages the foundation for municipal laws in many neighbouring cities on the Baltic Sea. ... For broader historical context, see 1240s and 13th century. ... Carta marina of the Baltic Sea region (1539). ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... St. ... Events English king Edward III introduces three new gold coins, the florin. ... Year 1481 was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar). ... January 7 - French troops led by Francis, Duke of Guise take Calais, the last continental possession of the Kingdom of England July 13 - Battle of Gravelines: In France, Spanish forces led by Count Lamoral of Egmont defeat the French forces of Marshal Paul des Thermes at Gravelines. ...

The Reformation period

The Reformation in Europe officially began in 1517 with Martin Luther (1483-1546) and his 95 Theses. The Reformation resulted in great change in the Baltic region. Ideas entered the Livonian Confederation very quickly and by the 1520s they were well known. Language, education, religion, and politics were greatly transformed. The Church services were now given in the local vernacular, instead of Latin, as was previously used.[13] During the Livonian War in 1561, northern Estonia submitted to Swedish control, while southern Estonia briefly came under the control of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth in the 1580s. In 1625, mainland Estonia came entirely under Swedish rule. Estonia was administratively divided between the provinces of Estonia in the north and Livonia in southern Estonia and northern Latvia, a division which persisted until the early twentieth century. The Protestant Reformation was a movement which began in the 16th century as a series of attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church, but ended in division and the establishment of new institutions, most importantly Lutheranism, Reformed churches, and Anabaptists. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Year 1517 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... The 95 Theses. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... Coat of arms Capital Walk Language(s) Low German Religion Roman Catholicism Political structure Confederation Legislature Landtag Historical era Middle Ages  - Conquest of Estonia 1208–27  - Established 1228  - Reval (Tallinn) gains Lübeck Rights 1248  - Reval joins Hanseatic League late 13th century  - Landtag formed 1419  - Livonian War 1558–82  - Wilno... ... For other uses, see Politics (disambiguation). ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... // Events The Edict of Orleans suspends the persecution of the Huguenots. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Events and Trends The beginnings of the Golden Age of Literature in England Sir Humphrey Gilbert claims Newfoundland as Englands first overseas colony in 1583 Francis Drake had come back from going around the world, bringing back with him many treasures. ... Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the...

In 1631, the Swedish king Gustaf II Adolf, Gustavus Adolphus, forced the nobility to grant the peasantry greater rights, although serfdom was retained. In 1632 a printing press and university were established in the city of Dorpat (known as Tartu since 1918). This period is known in Estonian history as "the Good Old Swedish Time." Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 580 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Estonia Cities of Estonia Kuressaare... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixels Full resolution (1800 × 1200 pixel, file size: 580 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Estonia Cities of Estonia Kuressaare... County Saare County Mayor Urmas Treiel Area 14. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Lion of the North: Gustavus Adolphus at the famous turning point Battle of Breitenfield (1631) against the forces of the redoubtable Count Tilly. ... Gustav II Adolph Gustav II Adolph (December 9, 1594 - November 6, 1632) (also known as Gustav Adolph the Great, under the Latin name Gustavus Adolphus or the Swedish form Gustav II Adolf) was a King of Sweden. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... The University of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu Ülikool, German: Universität Dorpat) is the national university of Estonia, and the one classical university in Estonia, located in the city of Tartu. ... Image of Tartu street Tartu (German, Polish Dorpat, Russian Юpьeв Yuryev) is the second largest city of Estonia, with its population of 101,246 (the Population Census data is from 2000) in an area of 38. ... County Area 38. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Estonia in the Russian Empire

Following the Great Northern War, the Swedish empire lost Estonia to Russia (1710 de facto, and 1721 de jure, by the Treaty of Nystad). However, the upper classes and the higher middle class remained primarily Baltic German. The war devastated the population of Estonia, but it recovered quickly. Although the rights of peasants were initially weakened, serfdom was abolished in 1816 in the province of Estonia and in 1819 in Livonia. Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Year 1721 (MDCCXXI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Treaty of Nystad (1721), signed at the present-day Finnish town of Uusikaupunki (Swedish Nystad), ended the Great Northern War, in which Russia received the territories of Estonia, Livonia and Ingria, as well as much of Karelia and Tsar Peter I of Russia replaced King Frederick I of Sweden... The Baltic Germans (German: Deutsch-Balten, Deutschbalten, sometimes incorrectly Baltendeutsche), were ethnically German inhabitants of the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea which forms today the countries of Estonia and Latvia. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ...


Declaration of independence

As a result of the abolition of serfdom and the availability of education to the native Estonian-speaking population, an active Estonian nationalist movement developed in the nineteenth century. It began on a cultural level, resulting in the establishment of Estonian language literature, theatre and professional music and led into the formation of the Estonian national identity and late 1800s' Age of Awakening. Among the leaders of the movement were Johann Voldemar Jannsen, Jakob Hurt and Carl Robert Jakobson. Serf redirects here. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Look up movement in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Serge Sudeikins poster for the Bat Theatre (1922). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald reads the manuscript of Kalevipoeg. ... Johann Voldemar Jannsen Johann Voldemar Jannsen (May 16, 1819 Vana-Vändra - July 13, 1890, Tartu) was an Estonian journalist and poet. ... Jakob Hurt as a young pastor in St. ... Carl Robert Jakobson (July 26, 1841 - March 19,1882) was one of the important persons of Estonian waking time at the second half of 19th century. ...

A piece of text of the Estonian Declaration of Independence.
A piece of text of the Estonian Declaration of Independence.

Significant accomplishments were the publication of the national epic, Kalevipoeg, in 1862, and the organization of the first national song festival in 1869. In response to a period of Russification initiated by the Russian empire in the 1890s, Estonian nationalism took on more political tones, with intellectuals first calling for greater autonomy, and later, complete independence from the Russian empire. Following the Bolshevik takeover of power in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917 and German victories against the Russian army, between the Russian Red Army's retreat and the arrival of advancing German troops, the Committee of Elders of the Maapäev issued the Estonian Declaration of Independence[14] in Pärnu on February 23 and in Tallinn on February 24, 1918. Estonian Declaration of Independence[1] 24 February 1918. ... Illustration to Kalevipoeg by Oskar Kallis Kalevipoeg is an epic poem by Friedrich Reinhold Kreutzwald held to be the Estonian national epic. ... This article is about 1862 . ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... For other uses, see Bolshevik (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see October Revolution (disambiguation). ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Maapäev (translated as Day of Land) was the Legislative Assembly of Estonia from 1917—1919. ... Estonian Declaration of Independence[1] 24 February 1918. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ... is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... County Area 159. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...

 Declaration of the independence in Pärnu on 23rd February in 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.
Declaration of the independence in Pärnu on 23rd February in 1918. One of the first images of the Republic.

After winning the Estonian Liberation War against Soviet Russia and at the same time German Freikorps volunteers (the Tartu Peace Treaty was signed on 2 February 1920), Estonia maintained its independence for twenty-two years. Initially a parliamentary democracy, the parliament (Riigikogu) was disbanded in 1934, following political unrest caused by the global economic crisis. Subsequently the country was ruled by decree by Konstantin Päts, who became President in 1938, the year parliamentary elections resumed.

County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ... (Redirected from 23rd February) February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... The Estonian Liberation War (Estonian: Vabadussõda, literally freedom war), also called the Estonian War of Independence, in 1918-1920, was Estonias struggle for independent state in the aftermath of World War I and the Russian Revolution. ... Soviet Russia is sometimes used as a somewhat sloppy synonym to the Soviet Union — although the term Soviet Russia sometimes refers to Bolshevist Russia from the October Revolution in 1917 to 1922 (Although Russian communists officially formed RSFSR in 1918). ... The designation of Freikorps (German for Free Corps) was originally applied to voluntary armies. ... Treaty of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally Tartu peace) between Estonia and Bolshevist Russia was signed in February 2, 1920 after the Estonian War of Independence. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the parliament of Estonia. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Konstantin Päts VR I/1 and III/1 (February 23, 1874 – January 18, 1956) was a politician and the first President of Estonia. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Estonia in World War II

Main article: Estonia in World War II

The fate of Estonia in World War II was decided by the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol of August 1939. World War II losses in Estonia, estimated at around 25% of population, were among the highest in Europe. War and occupation deaths have been estimated at 90,000. These include the Soviet deportations in 1941, the German deportations and Holocaust victims.[15] World War II began with the invasion and subsequent partition of an important regional ally of Estonia – Poland, by a joint operation of Nazi Germany and Soviet Union. Molotov signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact The fate of Estonia in World War II was decided by the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol of August 1939 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Plaque on the building of Government of Estonia, Toompea, commemorating government members killed by communist terror As the Soviet Union had occupied Estonia in 1940 and retaken it from Nazi Germany again in 1944, tens of thousands of Estonias citizens suffered deportation in the 1940s. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The history of Poland from 1939 through 1945 encompasses the German invasion of Poland through to the end of World War II. On September 1, 1939, without a formal declaration of war, Germany invaded Poland. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


Soviet annexation

The fate of the Republic of Estonia before the World War II was decided by the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact of August 1939 after Stalin gained Hitler's agreement to divide Eastern Europe into "spheres of special interest" according to the Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol.[16][17][18] Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... Plaque on the building of Government of Estonia, Toompea, commemorating government members killed by communist terror As the Soviet Union had occupied Estonia in 1940 and retaken it from Nazi Germany again in 1944, tens of thousands of Estonias citizens suffered deportation in the 1940s. ... Look up fate, Fates in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ...

Meeting in Tallinn on July 17, 1940 after the July "elections".[19]

On September 24, 1939, warships of the Red Navy appeared off Estonian ports and Soviet bombers began a patrol over Tallinn and the nearby countryside.[20] The Estonian government was forced to give their assent to an agreement which allowed the USSR to establish military bases and station 25,000 troops on Estonian soil for "mutual defence".[21] On June 12, 1940, the order for a total military blockade on Estonia was given to the Soviet Baltic Fleet.[22][23] On June 14, 1940, while world’s attention was focused on the fall of Paris to Nazi Germany a day earlier, the Soviet military blockade on Estonia went into effect, two Soviet bombers downed a Finnish passenger airplane "Kaleva" flying from Tallinn to Helsinki carrying three diplomatic pouches from the U.S. legations in Tallinn, Riga and Helsinki.[24] On June 16, 1940, the Soviet Union invaded Estonia.[25] The Red Army exited from their military bases in Estonia on June 17.[26] The following day, some 90,000 additional troops entered the country. On June 17, 1940, The Estonian government decided, given the overwhelming Soviet force, not to resist, to avoid bloodshed and open war.[27] is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Soviet Navy (Russian: Военно-морской флот СССР, Voyenno-morskoy flot SSSR, literally Naval military forces of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet armed forces. ... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the air force of the Soviet Union. ... In military tactics, to patrol, or conduct a patrol, is to conduct reconnaissance of a designated area or route. ... County Area 159. ... The Council of Ministers of Estonia or The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Kaleva and its crew prior the the incident. ... County Area 159. ... For other uses, see Riga (disambiguation). ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Tallinn after Soviet air-attacks. National Opera House "Estonia" in March 1944 and in March 2008

The military occupation of Estonia was complete by the June 21 1940.[28] Most of the Estonian Defence Forces and the Estonian Defence League surrendered according to the orders believing that resistance was useless and were disarmed by the Red Army. Only the Estonian Single Signal Battalion stationed in Tallinn at Raua Street continued to resist. As the Red Army brought in additional reinforcements supported by six armoured fighting vehicles, the battle lasted several hours until sundown. There was one dead, several wounded on the Estonian side and about 10 killed and more wounded on the Soviet side. Finally the military resistance was ended with negotiations and the Single Signal Battalion surrendered and was disarmed.[29] County Area 159. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... The Estonian Defence League (Estonian: Kaitseliit) [1] is a voluntary military national defence organisation which is a part of the Estonian Defence Forces and acts in the area of government of the Estonian Ministry of Defence. ... Balian of Ibelin surrendering the city of Jerusalem to Saladin, from Les Passages faits Outremer par les Français contre les Turcs et autres Sarrasins et Maures outremarins, ca. ... County Area 159. ... In military terminology, resistance or organized resistance refers to the ability of a military unit to continue to oppose an attack. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, protected by armour and armed with weapons. ... For other uses, see Negotiation (disambiguation). ...


In August 1940, Estonia was formally annexed by the Soviet Union as the Estonian SSR. Those who had failed to do their "political duty" of voting Estonia into the USSR, specifically those who had failed to have their passports stamped for voting, were condemned to death by Soviet tribunals.[30] The repressions followed with the mass deportations carried out by the Soviets in Estonia on June 14, 1941. Many of the country's political and intellectual leaders were killed or deported to remote areas of the USSR by the Soviet authorities in 1940-1941. Repressive actions were also taken against thousands of ordinary people. State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Deportation is the expelling of someone from a country. ...


When the German Operation Barbarossa started against the Soviet Union, about 34,000 young Estonian men were forcibly drafted into the Red Army. Less than 30% of them survived the war. Political prisoners who could not be evacuated were executed by the NKVD.[31]

Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The NKVD (Narodny Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del  ) (Russian: , ) or Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs was the leading secret police organization of the Soviet Union that was responsible for political repressions during Stalinism. ...

Tallinn after Soviet air-attacks. (Harju Street in March 1944 and in March 2008 - has not been restored)

Many countries, including the United States, did not recognize the annexation of Estonia by the USSR. Such countries recognized Estonian diplomats and consuls who still functioned in many countries in the name of their former governments. These diplomats persisted in this anomalous situation until the ultimate restoration of Baltic independence.[32] Contemporary Russian politicians, however, deny that the Republic of Estonia was illegally annexed by the Soviet Union in 1940. County Area 159. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... ... For modern diplomatic consuls, see Consulate general. ... in art, returning something to a better state, see art conservation and restoration In criminal justice, restoration is another term for restorative justice. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the...


They state that the Soviet troops had entered Estonia in 1940 following the agreements and with the consent of the government of the Republic of Estonia, regardless of how their actions can be interpreted today. They maintain that the USSR was not in a state of war and was not waging any combat activities on the territory of Estonia, therefore there could be no occupation. The official Soviet and present Russian version claims that Estonians decided to lose their statehood voluntarily and officially describes separatist fighters of 1944-1976 as "bandits" or "nazis". The Russian position is not recognized internationally.[33][34] State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Bandits is a 2001 comedy/crime/drama/romance movie directed by Barry Levinson. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ...


German occupation

Main articles: German occupation in Estonia, Germanisation, German Holocaust, Reichskommissariat Ostland, and Generalplan Ost

After the Third Reich invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941,the Wehrmacht reached Estonia in (July 1941). The German Army crossed the Estonian southern border on 7th July. The Red Army retreated behind the Pärnu River- the Emajõgi line on 12 July. Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of so called Eastern Territories of the Third Reich dring World War II, where Ostland (German for Eastern Territories) was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, Belarus and Eastern Poland. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... For other uses, see Border (disambiguation). ... This article is about the year 7. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The Pärnu (Estonian: ) is a river in Estonia that drains into the Gulf of Riga at Pärnu. ... The Emajõgi (German: Embach, Latvian: MÄ“tra, Võro: Imäjõgi) is a river in Estonia which flows from Lake Võrtsjärv through Tartu County into Lake Peipus. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

At the end July the Germans resumed their advance in Estonia working in tandem with the Estonian Forest Brothers. Both German troops and Estonian partisans took Narva on 17 August and the Estonian capital Tallinn on 28 August. After the Soviets were driven out from Estonia German troops disarmed all the partisan groups.[35] Although initially the Germans were perceived by most Estonians as liberators from the USSR and its repressions, and hopes were raised for the restoration of the country's independence, it was soon realized that they were but another occupying power. The Germans pillaged the country for the war effort and unleashed the Holocaust. For the duration of the occupation Estonia was incorporated into the German province of Ostland. This led to many Estonians, unwilling to side with the Nazis, join the Finnish Army to fight against the Soviet Union. The Finnish Infantry Regiment 200 (Estonian: soomepoisid) was formed out of Estonian volunteers in Finland. Although many Estonians were recruited in to the German armed forces (including Waffen-SS), the majority did so only in 1944 when the threat of a new invasion of Estonia by the Red Army had become imminent and it was clear that Germany could not win the war.[36] The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... APC is an abbreviation of: General A Perfect Circle, rock band Advanced process control Air Pollution Control in municipal solid waste incineration plants Angled Physical Contact Fiber Optic Connector Antipop Consortium, an alternative hip-hop group Armoured personnel carrier Armour-piercing capped shot and shell Automatic Passenger Counter Automatic Performance... The University of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu Ülikool, German: Universität Dorpat) is the national university of Estonia, and the one classical university in Estonia, located in the city of Tartu. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi, in Lithuanian miÅ¡ko broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule and for German Nazis during the Soviet invasion and occupation of... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... County Area 159. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of so called Eastern Territories of the Third Reich dring World War II, where Ostland (German for Eastern Territories) was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, Belarus and Eastern Poland. ... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... Infantry Regiment 200 (Fin. ... Estnische SS-Legion - estnisches SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Bataillon Narwa Estnische SS-Freiwilligen-Brigade 3. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ...

Estonian Legion leaving Tallinn's Railway Station. Destination: Sinimäed, Ida-Virumaa (January 1944).

By January 1944, the front was pushed back by the Red Army almost all the way to the former Estonian border. Narva was evacuated. Jüri Uluots, the last legitimate prime minister of the Republic of Estonia (according to the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia) prior to its fall to the Soviet Union in 1940, delivered a radio address that appealed to all able-bodied men born from 1904 through 1923 to report for military service (Before this, Jüri Uluots had opposed Estonian mobilization.) The call drew support from all across the country: 38,000 volunteers jammed registration centers.[37] Several thousand Estonians who had joined the Finnish Army came back across the Gulf of Finland to join the newly formed Territorial Defense Force, assigned to defend Estonia against the Soviet advance. It was hoped that by engaging in such a war Estonia would be able to attract Western support for the cause of Estonia's independence from the USSR and thus ultimately succeed in achieving independence.[38] Estnische SS-Legion - estnisches SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Bataillon Narwa Estnische SS-Freiwilligen-Brigade 3. ... County Area 159. ... The Blue Mountains The Blue Mountains (Sinimäed in Estonian) aka Vaivara Sinimäed are the three federated east-west directional mountains in the Vaivara borough. ... Ida-Viru County or Eastern Virumaa (Estonian: Ida-Viru maakond or Ida-Virumaa) is one of the counties of Estonia. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see January (disambiguation). ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Jüri Uluots (January 13, 1890 - January 9, 1945) was an Estonian prime minister, journalist, and prominent attorney. ... Flag of Estonia The Constitution of Estonia was adopted on 28 June 1992. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1923 (MCMXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Jüri Uluots (January 13, 1890 - January 9, 1945) was an Estonian prime minister, journalist, and prominent attorney. ... The Finnish Army (Finnish: Maavoimat) is one of the branches of the Finnish Defence Forces. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... Look up West in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


Soviet occupation

Main articles: Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Soviet occupation of the Baltic States, and Estonian Government in Exile

The Soviet forces reconquered Estonia in the autumn of 1944 after fierce battles in the northeast of the country on the Narva river and on the Tannenberg Line (Sinimäed) as part of the Baltic Strategic Offensive Operation, a twofold military-political operation to rout forces of the Wehrmacht and the so-called "liberation of the Soviet Baltic peoples"[39]. State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege Official language According to the constition, all languages were equal. ... The Estonian Government in Exile [1] refers to the formally declared governmental authority of the Republic of Estonia in exile, existing from 1953 until the reestablishment of Estonian sovereignty over Estonian territory in 1992. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Nazi Germany (Large numbers of foreign volunteers and conscripts) Soviet Union Commanders Georg von Küchler/Walter Model (Army Group North) Georg Lindemann (18. ... Combatants Germany (Large numbers of foreign volunteers and local conscripts) Soviet Union Commanders Walter Model (Army Group North) Johannes Frießner (Armee-Abteilung Narwa) Felix Steiner (III (Germanic) SS Panzer Corps), Leonid Govorov (Leningrad Front), Kirill Meretskov (Volkhov Front), Strength 45,000 60 tanks / assault guns 200,000 450 tanks... The Blue Mountains (Estonian: ) are three linked hills in northeastern Estonia. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...

Soviet occupation forces on the Freedom Square of Tallinn

In the face of the country being re-occupied by the Red Army, tens of thousands of Estonians (including mayority of the education, culture, science, political and social specialists) (estimates as much as 80,000) chose to either retreat together with the Germans or flee to Finland or Sweden. On 12 January 1949 the Soviet Council of Ministers issued a decree "on the expulsion and deportation" from Baltic states of "all kulaks and their families, the families of bandits and nationalists", and others.[40] More than 200,000 people are estimated to have been deported from the Baltic in 1940-1953. In addition, at least 75,000 were sent to Gulag. More than 10% of the entire adult Baltic population was deported or sent to Soviet labor and deathcamps.[40] In response to the continuing insurgency against Soviet rule,[41] more than 20,000 Estonians were forcibly deported either to labor camps or Siberia (see Gulag).[42] Within the few weeks that followed, almost all of the remaining rural households were collectivized. After World War II, as part of the goal to more fully integrate Baltic countries into the Soviet Union, mass deportations were concluded in the Baltic countries and the policy of encouraging Soviet immigration to the Baltic states continued.[43] In addition to the human and material losses suffered due to war, thousands of civilians were killed and tens of thousands of people deported from Estonia by the Soviet authorities until Joseph Stalin's death in 1953. Soviet redirects here. ... Look up Occupation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Politics is the process by which decisions are made within groups. ... Social refers to human society or its organization. ... is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section should be merged with Peoples Commissar Sovnarkom (Russian language СовНарКом, the abbreviation of the phrase Совет Народных Комиссаров, Sovet Narodnykh Komissarov, the Council of Peoples Commissars, sometimes Russian СНК, the SNK), was the administrative arm of the Soviet government. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Kulaks (from the Russian кулак (kulak, fist)) is a pejorative term extensively used in Soviet political language, originally referring to relatively wealthy peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labor, as a result of the Stolypin reform introduced since 1906. ... Baltic can refer to: The Baltic Sea Council of the Baltic Sea States - an intergovernmental organization Baltic sea countries - countries with access to the Baltic Sea The Baltic region (Balticum) Baltic States - the independent countries of Estonia Latvia Lithuania Baltic Republics - term refers to the three Baltic states under the... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... A labor camp is a simplified detention facility where inmates are engaged in penal labor. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Traditional farming In Imperial Russia, the Stolypin Reform was aimed at the development of capitalism in agriculture by giving incentives for creation of large farms. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Soviet redirects here. ... In politics, authority generally refers to the ability to make laws, independent of the power to enforce them, or the ability to permit something. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ...

The Soviet Holocaust - deported Estonians in Gulags Spassk labour camp

Half of the deported perished, the other half were not allowed to return until the early 1960s (years after Stalin's death). The various repressive activities of Soviet forces in 1940-1941 and after reoccupation sparked a guerrilla war against the Soviet authorities in Estonia which was waged into the early 1950s by "forest brothers" (metsavennad) consisting mostly of Estonian veterans of both the German and Finnish armies as well as some civilians.[44] Material damage caused by the world war and the following Soviet era significantly slowed Estonia's economic growth, resulting in a wide wealth gap in comparison with neighboring Finland and Sweden.[45] Communist terrorism (or Communist terror) is terrorism committed by Communist organizations or Communist states against civilians to achieve political or ideological objectives by creating fear [1] [2][3] After Islamic groups, Communist groups are the largest number of organizations on the U.S. State Department list of Foreign Terrorist Organizations. ... Nikolai Getman Moving out. ... Spassk may refer to: Spassk, Penza Oblast, a town in Penza Oblast, Russia Spassk, Kemerovo Oblast, an urban-type settlement in Kemerovo Oblast, Russia The following places are often referred to as Spassk: Spassk-Dalny, a town in Primorsky Krai, Russia Spassk-Ryazansky, a town in Ryazan Oblast, Russia See... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Guerrilla (also called a partisan) is a term borrowed from Spanish (from guerra meaning war) used to describe small combat groups. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi, in Lithuanian miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule and for German Nazis during the Soviet invasion and occupation of... This article refers to an economy controlled by the state. ... World GDP/capita changed very little for most of human history before the industrial revolution. ... Differences in national income equality around the world as measured by the national Gini coefficient. ...


Militarization was another aspect of the Soviet regime. Large parts of the country, especially the coastal areas were restricted to all but the Soviet military. Most of the sea shore and all sea islands (including Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) were declared "border zones". People not actually resident there were restricted from traveling to them without a permit. A notable closed military installation was the city of Paldiski which was entirely closed to all public access. The city had a support base for the Soviet Baltic Fleet's submarines and several large military bases, including a nuclear submarine training centre complete with a full-scale model of a nuclear submarine with working nuclear reactors. The Paldiski reactors building passed into Estonian control in 1994 after the last Soviet troops left the country.[46],[47] Immigration was another effect of Soviet occupation. Hundreds of thousands of migrants were relocated to Estonia from other parts of Soviet Union to assist industrialization and militarization, contributing an increase of about half million people within 45 years.[48] By 1980, when the Olympic Regatta of the 1980 Olympic Games was held in Tallinn, russification and immigration had achieved a level at which it began to spark popular protests. Militarism (military+-ism) is an ideology which claims that the military is the foundation of a societys security, and thereby claims to be its most important aspect. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Tahkuna peninsula is the most northern part of Hiiumaa, Estonia Hiiumaa is the second largest island (989 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... County Harjumaa Mayor Kaupo Kallas Area 60. ... Russian Baltic Fleet sleeve ensign The Baltic Fleet (Russian: Балтийский флот, in the Soviet period - The Double Red Banner Baltic Fleet - Дважды Краснознамённый Балтийский флот) is located at the Baltic Sea and headquartered in Kaliningrad, the other major base is at Kronstadt, located in the Gulf of Finland. ... USS Los Angeles A submarine is a specialized watercraft that can operate underwater. ... Nuclear power station at Leibstadt, Switzerland. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... The main building at the venue Sailing (also called yachting) at the 1980 Summer Olympics was represented by six events. ... (Redirected from 1980 Olympic Games) There were two Olympic Games in the year 1980: 1980 Summer Olympics 1980 Winter Olympics This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... County Area 159. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ...


Restoration of independence

The United States, United Kingdom and the majority of other western democracies considered the annexation of Estonia by USSR illegal. They retained diplomatic relations with the representatives of the independent Republic of Estonia, never de jure recognized the existence of the Estonian SSR, and never recognized Estonia as a legal constituent part of the Soviet Union.[49] This does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

31 August 1994: the Soviet Army is leaving Estonia.

Estonia's return to independence became possible as the Soviet Union faced internal regime challenges, loosening its hold on outer empire. As the 1980s progressed, a movement for Estonian autonomy started. In the initial period of 1987-1989, this was partially for more economic independence, but as the Soviet Union weakened and it became increasingly obvious that nothing short of full independence would do, the country began a course towards self-determination. is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... This article is about the armed forces of the Soviet Union. ...


In 1989, during the "Singing Revolution", in a landmark demonstration for more independence, called The Baltic Way, a human chain of more than two million people was formed, stretching through Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia. All three nations had similar experiences of occupation and similar aspirations for regaining independence. Estonia formally declared independence on August 20, 1991, reconstituting the pre-1940 state, during the Soviet military coup attempt in Moscow. The first country to diplomatically recognize Estonia's reclaimed independence was Iceland. The last Russian troops left on 31 August 1994. Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... Human chain formed in Lithuania The STEBUKLAS stone in Vilnius Cathedral Square, in the place where, according to an urban legend, the Baltic Way started Baltic way (also Baltic chain, Estonian: Balti kett, Latvian: Baltijas ceļš, Lithuanian: Baltijos kelias) is the event which occurred on August 23, 1989 when approximately... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... During the Soviet Coup of 1991 (August 19-22, 1991), also known as the August Putsch or August Coup, a group of members of the Soviet government briefly deposed Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev and attempted to take control of the country. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ...


Geography

Main articles: Geography of Estonia, Fauna of Estonia, and Protected areas of Estonia

...

Topography

Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea immediately across the Gulf of Finland from Finland on the level northwestern part of the rising east European platform between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E. Average elevation reaches only 50 meters (164 ft) and the country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi in the southeast at 318 meters (1,043 ft).[50] For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... Suur Munamägi is the forested knoll in the background Suur Munamägi (in translation Big Egg Mountain) is the highest peak in Estonia and the Baltic states, ascending 318 meters above the sea level. ...


Oil shale (or kukersite) and limestone deposits, along with forests which cover 47% of the land, play key economic roles in this generally resource-poor country. Estonia boasts over 1,400 lakes. Most are very small, with the largest, Lake Peipus, (Peipsi in Estonian) being 3555 km² (1372 sq mi). There are many rivers in the country. The largest are the Võhandu (162 km), Pärnu (144 km), and Põltsamaa (135 km).[50] Estonia also boasts numerous bogs, and 3794 kilometers (2,357 mi) of coastline marked by numerous bays, straits, and inlets. The number of islands and islets is estimated at some 1,500. Two are large enough to constitute their own counties: Saaremaa and Hiiumaa.[50] Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Outcrop of Ordovician kukersite oil shale, northern Estonia. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... This is a list of lakes in Estonia. ... Lake Peipus (Estonian: Peipsi-Pihkva järv, Russian: (Chud Lake), German: Peipussee) is a large fresh water lake, on the border between Estonia and Russia in Northern Europe. ... Virgin boreal acid bogs at Browns Lake Bog, Ohio A bog is a wetland type that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material. ... A kilometer (Commonwealth spelling: kilometre), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1,000 metres (from the Greek words χίλια (khilia) = thousand and μέτρο (metro) = count/measure). ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Map of the Estonian archipelago (Saaremaa and Hiiumaa) Landsat satellite photo of Saaremaa Saaremaa is the largest island (2,673 km²) belonging to Estonia. ... Tahkuna peninsula is the most northern part of Hiiumaa, Estonia Hiiumaa is the second largest island (989 km²) belonging to Estonia. ...


Climate

Estonia lies in the northern part of the temperate climate zone and in the transition zone between maritime and continental climate. Because Estonia (and all of Northern Europe) is continuously warmed by the Gulf Stream it has a milder climate despite its northern latitude. The Baltic Sea causes differences between the climate of coastal and inland areas. For the usage in virology, see temperate (virology). ... An oceanic climate (also called marine west coast climate and maritime climate) is the climate typically found along the west coasts at the middle latitudes of all the worlds continents, and in southeastern Australia; similar climates are also found at high elevations within the tropics. ... Regions containing a continental climate exist in portions of Northern Hemisphere continents, and also at higher elevations in certain other parts of the world. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... For the album by Ocean Colour Scene, see North Atlantic Drift (album) The Gulf Stream is orange and yellow in this representation of water temperatures of the Atlantic. ... For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ...


The average annual temperature in Estonia is 5 °C. The average temperature in February, the coldest month of the year, is -5.2 °C. The average temperature in July, which is considered the warmest month of the year, is 18 °C.


The climate is also influenced by the Atlantic Ocean, the North-Atlantic Stream and the Icelandic Minimum, which is an area known for the formation of cyclones and where the average air pressure is lower than in neighbouring areas. The North Atlantic Current (North Atlantic Drift and the North Atlantic Sea Movement) is a powerful warm ocean current that continues the Gulf Stream northeast. ...


Estonia is located in a humid zone in which the amount of precipitation is greater than total evaporation. There are about 160 to 190 rainy days a year, and average precipitation is most plentiful on the western slopes of the Sakala and Haanja Uplands. Snow cover, which is deepest in the south-eastern part of Estonia, usually lasts from mid-December to late March.


Administrative regions

The Republic of Estonia is divided into fifteen counties (Maakonnad) which are the administrative subdivisions of the country. The first documented mentioning of Estonian political and administrative subdivisions comes from the Chronicle of Henry of Livonia, written in the 13th century during the Northern Crusades.[51] A county (Estonian: maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... The Chronicle of Henry of Livonia (Latvian: IndriÄ·a hronika, Latin: Heinrici Cronicon Lyvoniae, Estonian: Henriku Liivimaa kroonika) is a historic document describing the history of Latvia and Estonia from 1180 to 1227. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Teutonic knights in Pskov in 1240. ...

Administrative subdivisions of the Republic of Estonia. Also includes the annexed territories by Russia.[52]
50 km

A county (Estonian: maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... Pechory (Russian: Печоры, Estonian: Petseri) is a town located in Pskovsky Oblast, Russia. ...

Counties

Main article: Counties of Estonia

A maakond (county) is the biggest administrative subdivision. The county government (Maavalitsus) of each county is led by a county governor (Maavanem), who represents the national government at the regional level. Governors are appointed by Eesti Valitsus (government) for a term of five years. Several changes were made to the borders of counties after Estonia became independent, most notably the formation of Valga County (from parts of Võru, Tartu and Viljandi counties) and Petseri County (area acquired from Russia with the 1920 Tartu Peace Treaty). A county (Estonian: maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... For other uses, see Governor (disambiguation). ... For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group . ... The Council of Ministers of Estonia or The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia. ... Capital Valga Governor Georg TraÅ¡anov Area 2,044 km² (14th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 35,059 (12th) 17. ... Capital Võru Governor Ãœlo Tulik Area 2,305 km² (12th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 38,967 (7th) 16. ... Capital Tartu Governor Esta Tamm Area 2,993 km² (6th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 148,872 (3rd) 49. ... Capital Viljandi Governor Kalle Küttis Area 3,422 km² (4th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 56,854 (6th) 16. ... Pechory (Russian: Печоры, Estonian: Petseri) is a town located in Pskovsky Oblast, Russia. ... Year 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display 1920) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Treaties of Tartu were treaties between Bolshevist Russia on one side and the newly independent Estonia and Finland, previously belonging to Imperial Russia, on the other. ...


During the Soviet rule, Petseri County was annexed and ceded to the Russian SFSR in 1945 where it became one the Pskovs districts. Counties were again re-established in 1 January 1990 in the borders of the Soviet-era regions. Due to the numerous differences between the current and historical (pre-1940) layouts, the historical borders are still used in ethnology, representing cultural and linguistic differences better. State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Pechory (Russian: Печоры, Estonian: Petseri) is a town located in Pskovsky Oblast, Russia. ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Pskov (Russian: , ancient Russian spelling Пльсковъ (Plescow)) is an ancient city, located in the north-west of Russia about 20 km east from the Estonian border, on the Velikaya River. ... Oblast (Czech: oblast, Slovak: oblasÅ¥, Russian and Ukrainian: , Belarusian: , Bulgarian: о́бласт) refers to a subnational entity in some countries. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Municipalities and cities

Main articles: Municipalities of Estonia, Boroughs of Estonia, Small boroughs of Estonia, and Populated places in Estonia
Counties Capital Area Population
Harjumaa Tallinn 4,333 km² 521,410
Hiiumaa Kärdla 989 km² 10,289
Ida-Virumaa Jõhvi 3,364 km² 174,809
Järvamaa Paide 2,623 km² 38,255
Jõgevamaa Jõgeva 2,604 km² 37,647
Läänemaa Haapsalu 2,383 km² 28,101
Lääne-Virumaa Rakvere 3,627 km² 68,090
Pärnumaa Pärnu 4,807 km² 89,660
Põlvamaa Põlva 2,165 km² 31,954
Raplamaa Rapla 2,980 km² 37,093
Saaremaa Kuressaare 2,673 km² 35,356
Tartumaa Tartu 2,993 km² 148,872
Valgamaa Valga 2,044 km² 35,059
Viljandimaa Viljandi 3,422 km² 56,854
Võrumaa Võru 2,305 km² 38,967
Petserimaa [53][54]
Annexed in 1945 by Russian SFSR and since 1991 by Russia.
Petseri 1,582 km² 30,000
An omavalitsus (municipality) is the smallest administrative subdivision of Estonia. Each county is further divided into municipalities which are of two types: urban municipality,or linn (town), and rural municipality, or vald (parish). There is no other status distinction between them. Each municipality is a unit of self-government with its representative and executive bodies. The municipalities in Estonia cover the entire territory of the country.

Municipality may contain one or several populated places. Some urban municipalities are divided into linnaosad (districts) with limited self-government, e.g. Tallinn consists of 8 districts (Haabersti, Kesklinn, Kristiine, Lasnamäe, Mustamäe, Nõmme, Pirita and Põhja-Tallinn). This is a list of the rural municipalities (vallad, singular - vald) of Estonia. ... Populated places in Estonia officially are of four kinds: towns (est: linnad, singular - linn), boroughs (est: alevid, singular - alev), small boroughs (est: alevikud, singular - alevik) and villages (est: külad, singular - küla). ... A county (Estonian: maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... Capital Tallinn Area 4,333 km² (2nd) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 521,410 (1st) 120. ... County Area 159. ... Capital Kärdla Governor Hannes Maasel Area 1,023 km² (15th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 10,289 (15th) 10. ... County Hiiu County Mayor Ants Vahtras Area 4. ... Capital Jõhvi Governor Ago Silde Area 3,364 km² (5th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 174,809 (2nd) 52/km² (2nd) ISO 3166-2 EE-44 Ida-Viru County (est: Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. ... County Ida-Viru County Area 7. ... Järva County or Järvamaa (Estonian: Järva maakond or Järvamaa) is one of the counties of Estonia. ... Ruins of Weissenstein Castle. ... Jõgeva County or Jõgevamaa (Estonian: Jõgeva maakond or Jõgevamaa) is one of the counties of Estonia. ... Jõgeva is a small town in Estonia with a population of around 6000 people. ... Lääne County, or Lääne maakond, is a County or maakond of Estonia. ... Haapsalu (Swedish & German: Hapsal) is a resort town on the west coast of Estonia. ... Lääne-Viru County, Western Virumaa or Western Vironia (Estonian: Lääne-Viru maakond or Lääne-Virumaa) is a County or maakond of Estonia. ... County Lääne-Viru County Area 10. ... Pärnu County (Estonian: Pärnumaa) is a County (maakond) in the country of Estonia. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ... Põlvamaa is a county of Estonia. ... County Põlva County Mayor Tarmo Tamm Area 5. ... Capital Rapla Governor Tõnis Blank Area 2,980 km² (7th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 37,093 (10th) 12. ... Rapla is a town in central Estonia, the capital of Rapla County, the administrative centre of rural municipality of Rapla. ... Saare County, or Saare maakond, is a county or maakond of Estonia. ... County Saare County Mayor Urmas Treiel Area 14. ... Capital Tartu Governor Esta Tamm Area 2,993 km² (6th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 148,872 (3rd) 49. ... County Area 38. ... Capital Valga Governor Georg TraÅ¡anov Area 2,044 km² (14th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 35,059 (12th) 17. ... County Valga County Mayor Margus Lepik Area 16. ... Capital Viljandi Governor Kalle Küttis Area 3,422 km² (4th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 56,854 (6th) 16. ... County Viljandi County Area 14. ... Capital Võru Governor Ãœlo Tulik Area 2,305 km² (12th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 38,967 (7th) 16. ... County Võrumaa Mayor Ivi Eenmaa Area 13. ... Pechory (Russian: Печоры, Estonian: Petseri) is a town located in Pskovsky Oblast, Russia. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... State motto: Russian: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Moscow Official language Russian Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until November 7, 1917 December 30, 1922 December 12, 1991 (independence) Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 1st in the USSR 17,075,200 km² 13% Population  - Total   - Density Ranked 1st in the... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Petseri is famous for its Lutheran Chuch. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... A county is generally a sub-unit of regional self-government within a sovereign jurisdiction. ... This is a list of the rural municipalities (vallad, singular - vald) of Estonia. ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, United States, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... A rural municipality is a form of municipality in the Canadian provinces of Manitoba and Saskatchewan. ... A parish is a type of administrative subdivision. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... Populated places in Estonia officially are of four kinds: towns (est: linnad, singular - linn), boroughs (est: alevid, singular - alev), small boroughs (est: alevikud, singular - alevik) and villages (est: külad, singular - küla). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... Self-governance is an abstract concept that refers to several scales of organization. ... Haabersti is the one of 8 administrative districts of Tallinn (capital of Estonia). ... Kesklinn is the one of 8 administrative districts of Tallinn (capital of Estonia). ... Kristiine is the one of 8 administrative districts of Tallinn (capital of Estonia). ... Lasnamäe is the most populated of 8 administrative districts of Tallinn (capital of Estonia). ... Mustamäe is the second-largest district in Tallinn (Lasnamäe being the largest). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pirita is the one of 8 administrative districts of Tallinn (capital of Estonia). ... Põhja-Tallinn is the one of 8 administrative districts of Tallinn (capital of Estonia). ...


Municipalities are ranging in size from Tallinn with 400,000 inhabitants to Ruhnu with as few as 60. As over two-thirds of the municipalities have a population of under 3,000, many of them have found it advantageous to co-operate in providing services and carrying out administrative functions. Since March 2008 there are total of 227 municipalities in Estonia, 33 of them are urban and 194 are rural. County Area 159. ... Ruhnu (Swedish: Runö) is an island situated in the Gulf of Riga in the Baltic Sea. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...

Main article: Cities of Estonia

Tallinn is the capital and largest city of Estonia. It lies on the northern coast of Estonia, along the Gulf of Finland. The city is an important industrial, political and cultural center, and seaport. There are currently 33 cities and several town-parish towns in the county. More than 70% of the entire population lives in the towns. The 20 largest cities are shown on the table below: Cities and towns in Estonia: Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Kärdla Laiuse Lihula Loksa Maardu Mustvee Mõisaküla Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Põltsamaa Põlva... Not to be confused with capitol. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... Cities and towns in Estonia: Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Kärdla Laiuse Lihula Loksa Maardu Mustvee Mõisaküla Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Põltsamaa Põlva... For other uses, see City (disambiguation). ...

Rank City Location Population Rank City Location Population

Tallinn

Narva

Valga
1 Tallinn Harjumaa 403,500 11 Võru Võrumaa 14,555
2 Tartu Tartumaa 101,169 12 Valga Valgamaa 13,930
3 Narva Ida-Virumaa 68,680 13 Haapsalu Läänemaa 11,774
4 Kohtla-Järve Ida-Virumaa 47,679 14 Jõhvi Ida-Virumaa 11,455
5 Pärnu Pärnumaa 45,500 15 Paide Järvamaa 9,751
6 Viljandi Vilandimaa 20,274 16 Keila Harjumaa 9,386
7 Rakvere Lääne-Virumaa 16,698 17 Kiviõli Ida-Virumaa 6,925
8 Sillamäe Ida-Virumaa 16,567 18 Tapa Lääne-Virumaa 6,559
9 Maardu Harjumaa 16,570 19 Põltsamaa Põlvamaa 6,510
10 Kuressaare Saaremaa 14,919 20 Jõgeva Jõgevamaa 6,349
2008 Census

Cities and towns in Estonia: Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Kärdla Laiuse Lihula Loksa Maardu Mustvee Mõisaküla Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Põltsamaa Põlva... Cities and towns in Estonia: Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Kärdla Laiuse Lihula Loksa Maardu Mustvee Mõisaküla Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Põltsamaa Põlva... Cities and towns in Estonia: Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Kärdla Laiuse Lihula Loksa Maardu Mustvee Mõisaküla Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Põltsamaa Põlva... Cities and towns in Estonia: Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Kärdla Laiuse Lihula Loksa Maardu Mustvee Mõisaküla Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Põltsamaa Põlva... County Area 159. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x720, 92 KB) author: Jarmo K I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (960x720, 120 KB) author: Jarmo K I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... County Valga County Mayor Margus Lepik Area 16. ... County Area 159. ... Capital Tallinn Area 4,333 km² (2nd) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 521,410 (1st) 120. ... County Võrumaa Mayor Ivi Eenmaa Area 13. ... Capital Võru Governor Ãœlo Tulik Area 2,305 km² (12th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 38,967 (7th) 16. ... County Area 38. ... Capital Tartu Governor Esta Tamm Area 2,993 km² (6th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 148,872 (3rd) 49. ... County Valga County Mayor Margus Lepik Area 16. ... Capital Valga Governor Georg TraÅ¡anov Area 2,044 km² (14th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 35,059 (12th) 17. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Capital Jõhvi Governor Ago Silde Area 3,364 km² (5th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 174,809 (2nd) 52/km² (2nd) ISO 3166-2 EE-44 Ida-Viru County (est: Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. ... Haapsalu (Swedish & German: Hapsal) is a resort town on the west coast of Estonia. ... Lääne County, or Lääne maakond, is a County or maakond of Estonia. ... County Ida-Viru County Mayor Jevgeni Solovjov Area 41. ... Capital Jõhvi Governor Ago Silde Area 3,364 km² (5th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 174,809 (2nd) 52/km² (2nd) ISO 3166-2 EE-44 Ida-Viru County (est: Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. ... County Ida-Viru County Area 7. ... Capital Jõhvi Governor Ago Silde Area 3,364 km² (5th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 174,809 (2nd) 52/km² (2nd) ISO 3166-2 EE-44 Ida-Viru County (est: Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ... Pärnu County (Estonian: Pärnumaa) is a County (maakond) in the country of Estonia. ... Ruins of Weissenstein Castle. ... Järva County or Järvamaa (Estonian: Järva maakond or Järvamaa) is one of the counties of Estonia. ... County Viljandi County Area 14. ... Capital Viljandi Governor Kalle Küttis Area 3,422 km² (4th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 56,854 (6th) 16. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Capital Tallinn Area 4,333 km² (2nd) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 521,410 (1st) 120. ... County Lääne-Viru County Area 10. ... Lääne-Viru County, Western Virumaa or Western Vironia (Estonian: Lääne-Viru maakond or Lääne-Virumaa) is a County or maakond of Estonia. ... Kiviõli is an industrial town in Ida-Viru County, Estonia with a population of 7400. ... Capital Jõhvi Governor Ago Silde Area 3,364 km² (5th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 174,809 (2nd) 52/km² (2nd) ISO 3166-2 EE-44 Ida-Viru County (est: Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. ... County Ida-Viru County Mayor Ain Kiviorg Area 10. ... Capital Jõhvi Governor Ago Silde Area 3,364 km² (5th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 174,809 (2nd) 52/km² (2nd) ISO 3166-2 EE-44 Ida-Viru County (est: Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. ... The word Tapa can refer to many different things: Tapa is a town in Estonia Tapa is a place in Afghanistan Tapa is a traditional cloth from Polynesia Tapa is a game similar to backgammon Tapa is a Hindu meditation technique. ... Lääne-Viru County, Western Virumaa or Western Vironia (Estonian: Lääne-Viru maakond or Lääne-Virumaa) is a County or maakond of Estonia. ... Categories: Estonia-related stubs | Europe geography stubs | Municipalities of Estonia ... Capital Tallinn Area 4,333 km² (2nd) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 521,410 (1st) 120. ... Põltsamaa (German: ) is a town in Jõgeva County, Estonia. ... Põlvamaa is a county of Estonia. ... County Saare County Mayor Urmas Treiel Area 14. ... Saare County, or Saare maakond, is a county or maakond of Estonia. ... Jõgeva is a small town in Estonia with a population of around 6000 people. ... Jõgeva County or Jõgevamaa (Estonian: Jõgeva maakond or Jõgevamaa) is one of the counties of Estonia. ...

Politics

Politics of Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. Politics of Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Political parties in Estonia lists political parties in Estonia. ... Elections in Estonia gives information on election and election results in Estonia. ... Politics of Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... States currently utilizing parliamentary systems are denoted in red and orange—the former being constitutional monarchies where authority is vested in a parliament, the the latter being parliamentary republics whose parliaments are effectively supreme over a separate head of state. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ... The head of government is the chief officer of the executive branch of a government, often presiding over a cabinet. ...

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 157 KB) Photo of Estonian parliament building, Tallinn, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Estonia ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1067, 157 KB) Photo of Estonian parliament building, Tallinn, taken August 2003 by User:Stan Shebs File links The following pages link to this file: Estonia ... Riigikogu is the name of the national parliament of Estonia. ... County Area 159. ...

Parliament

Main article: Parliament of Estonia

Estonia is a parliamentary, representative democratic republic. The Estonian political system operates under a framework laid out in the 1992 constitutional document. Estonia elects a legislature on the national level. The Riigikogu, exercising the legislative power , has 101 members, elected for a four year term by proportional representation. A head of state - the president - is elected for a five year term by parliament (1st-3rd round) or an electoral college (4th and subsequent rounds). Locally, Estonia elects local government councils, which vary in size, but by the election law there are minimum size of councils depending on the size of municipality. Local government councils are elected by proportional representation too. The Riigikogu is the legislative assembly of Estonia. ... A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. ... Representative democracy is a form of government founded on the principles of popular sovereignty by the peoples representatives. ... For other uses, see Democracy (disambiguation) and Democratic Party. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Constitution (disambiguation). ... This article is about the political process. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the parliament of Estonia. ... A legislature is a governmental deliberative body with the power to adopt laws. ... Proportional representation (sometimes referred to as full representation, or PR), is a category of electoral formula aiming at a close match between the percentage of votes that groups of candidates (grouped by a certain measure) obtain in elections and the percentage of seats they receive (usually in legislative assemblies). ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ...


Government and e-Government

The Government of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) or the executive branch is formed by the Prime Minister of Estonia, nominated by the president and approved by the parliament. The Council of Ministers of Estonia or The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... The Council of Ministers of Estonia or The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia. ... The executive is the branch of a government charged with implementing, or executing, the law and running the day-to-day affairs of the government or state. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ...

The government exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution of Estonia and the laws of the Republic of Estonia and consists of 12 ministers, including the prime minister. The prime minister also has the right to appoint other ministers, whom he or she will assign with a subject to deal with and who will not have a ministry to control, becoming a 'minister without portfolio'. The prime minister has the right to appoint a maximum of 3 such ministers, as the limit of ministers in one government is 15. It is also known as the cabinet. The cabinet carries out the country’s domestic and foreign policy, shaped by parliament (Riigikogu); it directs and co-ordinates the work of government institutions and bears full responsibility for everything occurring within the authority of executive power. The government, headed by the Prime Minister, thus represents the political leadership of the country and makes decisions in the name of the whole executive power. The Council of Ministers of Estonia or The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia. ... Flag of Estonia The Constitution of Estonia was adopted on 28 June 1992. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article is about the governmental body. ... The Prime Minister of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Vabariigi Peaminister) is the head of government of the Republic of Estonia. ...


Estonia has pursued the development of the e-state and e-government. Internet voting is used in elections in Estonia [1]. The first Internet voting took place in the 2005 local elections and the first in a parliamentary election was made available for the 2007 elections, in which 30,275 individuals voted over the Internet. Voters have a chance to invalidate their vote in traditional elections, if they wish to. In its 2007 Worldwide Press Freedom Index, Reporters Without Borders ranked Estonia 3rd out of 169 countries. E-state is used to refer to a location with superior internet and/or mobile phone connectedness. ... The term (in all its uses) is generally agreed to derive from electronic government which introduces the notion and practicalities of electronic technology into the various dimensions and ramifications of government. ... Electronic voting machine by Premier Election Solutions (formerly Diebold Election Systems) used in all Brazilian elections and plebiscites. ... Parliamentary elections took place in Estonia on Sunday, March 4, 2007. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Reporters Without Borders, or RWB (French: Reporters sans frontières, Spanish: Reporteros Sin Fronteras, or RSF) is a French origin international non-governmental organization that advocates freedom of the press, founded by its current general-secretary, Robert Menard. ...


Law and court

The supreme judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court or Riigikohus, with 17 justices. The Chief Justice is appointed by the parliament for nine years on nomination by the president. Flag of Estonia The Constitution of Estonia was adopted on 28 June 1992. ... The judiciary, also referred to as the judicature, consists of justices, judges and magistrates among other types of adjudicators. ... The supreme court functions as a court of last resort whose rulings cannot be challenged, in some countries, provinces and states. ... The Supreme Court of Estonia is a court of cassation, also fulfilling the functions of a constitutional court. ...

The Estonian Governments building - the House of Stenbock at Toompea.

The official Head of State is the President of Estonia, who gives assent to the laws passed by Riigikogu, also having the right of sending them back and proposing new laws. The president, however, does not use these rights very often, having a largely ceremonial role. He or she is elected by Riigikogu, with two-thirds of the votes required. If the candidate does not gain the amount of votes required, the right to elect the president goes over to an electoral body, consisting of the 101 members of Riigikogu and representatives from local councils. As other spheres, Estonian law-making has been successfully integrated with the Information Age. The Council of Ministers of Estonia or The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia. ... Toompea is a hill in Tallinn centre. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... Acceptance, in spirituality, mindfulness, and human psychology, usually refers to the experience of a situation without an intention to change that situation. ... The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the parliament of Estonia. ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the parliament of Estonia. ... A university computer lab containing many desktop PCs The transition of communication technology: Oral Culture, Manuscript Culture, Print Culture, and Information Age Information Age is a term that has been used to refer to the present economic era. ...

Foreign relations

Main articles: Foreign relations of Estonia, Estonia-Russia relations, and Estonia-United States relations

Since regaining independence, Estonia has pursued a foreign policy of close cooperation with its Western European neighbors. Following restoration of independence from the Soviet Union, Estonias immediate priority was the withdrawal of Russian (formerly Soviet) forces from Estonian territory. ... Estonia-Russia relations refers to the relationships between Estonia and Russia. ...

President Toomas Hendrik Ilves and President George W. Bush, in Estonia 2006.

The two most important policy objectives in this regard have been accession into NATO and the European Union, achieved in March and May of 2004 respectively. Estonia's international realignment toward the West has been accompanied by a general deterioration in relations with Russia, most recently demonstrated by the controversy surrounding relocation of the Bronze Soldier WWII memorial in Tallinn.[55] Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmɑs hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Bronze Soldier in Tallinn. ...


An important element in Estonia's post-independence reorientation has been closer ties with the Nordic countries, especially Finland and Sweden. Indeed, Estonians consider themselves a Nordic people rather than Balts,[56][57] based on their historical ties with Sweden, Denmark and particularly Finland. In December 1999 Estonian foreign minister (and since 2006, president of Estonia) Toomas Hendrik Ilves delivered a speech entitled "Estonia as a Nordic Country" to the Swedish Institute for International Affairs.[58] In 2003, the foreign ministry also hosted an exhibit called "Estonia: Nordic with a Twist".[59] And in 2005, Estonia joined the European Union's Nordic Battle Group. It has also shown continued interest in joining the Nordic Council. Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ... The three Baltic states: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmɑs hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... The Swedish Institute for International Affairs (Swedish: ) is a public-service organization located in central Stockholm, Sweden. ... A foreign minister is a cabinet minister that helps to form foreign policy for sovereign nations. ... The Nordic Battle Group (NBG) is one of eighteen European Union Battlegroups. ... Political map of the Nordic countries and associated islands. ...


Whereas in 1992 Russia accounted for 92% of Estonia's inter­national trade,[60] today there is extensive economic interdependence between Estonia and its Nordic neighbors: three quarters of foreign investment in Estonia originates in the Nordic countries (principally Finland and Sweden), to which Estonia sends 42% of its exports (as compared to 6.5% going to Russia, 8.8% to Latvia, and 4.7% to Lithuania). On the other hand, the Estonian political system, its flat rate of income tax, and its non-welfare-state model distinguish it from the other Nordic states, and indeed from many other European countries.[61] Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... A flat tax, also called a proportional tax, is a system that taxes all entities in a class (typically either citizens or corporations) at the same rate (as a proportion on income), as opposed to a graduated, or progressive, scheme. ...


Military

Main article: Military of Estonia
Estonian Army armoured personnel carriers on the Independence Day parade in Pärnu (February 2008)

Estonian military - the Estonian Defence Forces - is the name of the unified armed forces of the Republic of Estonia with Maavägi (Army), Merevägi (Navy), Õhuvägi (Air Force) and a paramilitary organization Kaitseliit (Defence League). The national defence policy aims to guarantee the preservation of the independence and sovereignty of the state, the integrity of its land area, territorial waters and airspace and its constitutional order. Its main goals remain the development and maintenance of a credible capability to defend the nation's vital interests and development of the Defence Forces in a way that ensures their interoperability with the armed forces of NATO and European Union member states and their capability to participate in the full range of Alliance missions.[62]
The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5,120 persons in uniform. ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... Armoured personnel carriers (APCs) are armoured fighting vehicles developed to transport infantry on the battlefield. ... Estonian Declaration of Independence[1] 24 February 1918. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... The Estonian Air Force insignia The Estonian Air Force (Estonian: Eesti Õhuvägi) is the air force of Estonia. ... The Estonian Defence League (Estonian: Kaitseliit) [1] is a voluntary military national defence organisation which is a part of the Estonian Defence Forces and acts in the area of government of the Estonian Ministry of Defence. ... Look up preservation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... This article is about the ethical concept. ... This article or section should be merged with Capability (computers) and Capability. ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... Interoperability is connecting people, data and diverse systems. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Ajateenistus (Military Service) is compulsory for men between 18 and 28, and conscripts serve eight-month to eleven-month tours of duty depending on the army branch they serve in. Estonia has retained conscription unlike Latvia and Lithuania and has no plan to transition to a contract armed forces. For military service in the meaning of an army as a military defense organization, see armed forces. ... 8 (eight) is the natural number following 7 and preceding 9. ... Eleven may refer to: ducks or people that eat anything yummy. ... For other uses, see Army (disambiguation). ...

Estonian Army soldiers in Afghanistan on a patrol mission (December 2007)
Estonian Army soldiers in Afghanistan on a patrol mission (December 2007)

In 2008, the military spending will reach to 1.85% - 5 billion krones of the GDP and will continue to increase till 2010 when the 2.0% level is achieved.[63] As of January 2008, the Estonian military had almost 300 troops stationed in foreign countries as part of various international peacekeeping forces, including 35 Defence League troops stationed in Kosovo; 120 Ground Forces soldiers in the NATO-led ISAF force in Afghanistan; 80 soldiers stationed as a part of MNF in the Iraq; and 2 Estonian officers in Bosnia-Herzegovina and 2 Estonian military agents in Israel in Golan Heights.[64] The Estonian Defence Forces have had previously military missions also in Croatia from March till October 1995, in Lebanon from December 1996 till June 1997 and in Macedonia from May till December 2003.[65] Estonia participates in the Nordic Battlegroup and has announced readiness to send soldiers also to Sudan to Darfur if necessary, creating the very first African peacekeeping mission for the armed forces of Estonia. The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... In military tactics, to patrol, or conduct a patrol, is to conduct reconnaissance of a designated area or route. ... Look up mission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5120 persons in uniform. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Logo of ISAF. Pashto writing: کمک و همکاری (Komak wa Hamkari) means Help and Cooperation. International Security Assistance Force (10) (ISAF) is the name of a NATO-led security and development mission in Afghanistan which was established by the United Nations Security Council on 20 December 2001[1] and consists of about 35... Monday Night Football is a television broadcast of one of the premier National Football League games of the week. ... This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Nordic battlegroup (NBG) is one of many European Union Battlegroups. ... For other uses, see Darfur (disambiguation). ... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Look up mission in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

E-Military

Main articles: E-Military of Estonia and Cyberattacks on Estonia 2007

The Military of Estonia is introducing a new 21st century based cyber warfare and defence formation in order to protect the vital infrastructure and e-infrastructure of Estonia. Currently the leading organization in the Estonian cyber defence is the CERT (the Computer Emergency Response Team of Estonia), established in 2006, as an organisation responsible for the management of security incidents in .ee computer networks. Its task is to assist Estonian internet users in the implementation of preventive measures in order to reduce possible damage from security incidents and to help them in responding to security threats. The unit deals with security incidents that occur in Estonian networks, are started there, or have been notified of by citizens or institutions either in Estonia or abroad.[66] Cyberattacks on Estonia (a. ... The Estonian Defence Forces consists of 5,120 persons in uniform. ... 20XX redirects here. ... Cyber-warfare is the use of computers and the Internet in conducting warfare in cyberspace. ... deFENCE project. ... This article is about the military unit. ... For the more general networking concept, see computer network, computer networking, and internetworking. ...


On June 25, 2007, Estonian president Toomas Hendrik Ilves met with the president of USA, George W. Bush.[67] Among the topics discussed were the attacks on Estonian e-infrastructure. [68] The attacks triggered a number of military organisations around the world to reconsider the importance of network security to modern military doctrine. On June 14, 2007, defence ministers of NATO members held a meeting in Brussels, issuing a joint communiqué promising immediate action. First public results are estimated to arrive by autumn 2007.[69] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Toomas Hendrik Ilves [IPA: toːmÉ‘s hendrik ilves] (born December 26, 1953) is the current President of Estonia. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... For other places with the same name, see Brussels (disambiguation). ... Communiqué is the second album by British rock band Dire Straits, released in 1979 (see 1979 in music). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


As to the placement of a newly planned NATO Cybernetic Defence Centre, Bush proclaimed the policy of USA as supporting Estonia as this centre's location.[70] In the aftermath of the Cyberattacks on Estonia 2007, plans to combine network defence with Estonian military doctrine, and related NATO plans to create a Cybernetic Defence Centre in Estonia, have been nicknamed the "Tiger's Defence" (Estonian: Tiigrikaitse), in reference to Tiigrihüpe.[71] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Cyberattacks on Estonia (a. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Estonia

The Republic of Estonia is currently a member of the European Union since 1 May 2004 and its economy is rated as high income by the World Bank. Level of the Estonian economy Estonian economical miracle has been often being described as the Baltic Tiger. Estonia, as a new member of the WTO, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... World Bank Group logo The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations responsible for providing finance and advice to countries for the purposes of economic development and eliminating poverty. ... In economics, the term boom and bust refers to the movement of an economy through economic cycles due to changes in aggregate demand. ... A glass skyscraper – an icon of Estonias economic boom Baltic Tiger is a term used to refer to any of the three Baltic states – Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania – during their periods of economic boom, which started after the year 2000 and continues up to the present moment. ...

Economical map of the Estonia. Also includes areas where local resources can be found and mined.
50 km

By 1929, a stable currency, the Kroon (crown), was established. It is issued by the Bank of Estonia, the country's central bank. Trade focused on the local market and the West, particularly Germany and the United Kingdom. Only 3% of all commerce was with the USSR. Before the Second World War Estonia was mainly an agriculture country whose products such as butter, milk and cheese was widely known on the western European markets. The USSR's forcible annexation of Estonia in 1940 and the ensuing Nazi and Soviet destruction during World War II crippled the Estonian economy. Post-war Sovietization of life continued with the integration of Estonia's economy and industry into the USSR's centrally planned structure. Since re-establishing independence, Estonia has styled itself as the gateway between East and West and aggressively pursued economic reform and integration with the West. Estonia's market reforms put it among the economic leaders in the former COMECON area. A balanced budget, almost non-existent public debt, flat-rate income tax, free trade regime, fully convertible currency backed by currency board and a strong peg to the euro, competitive commercial banking sector, hospitable environment for foreign investment, innovative e-Services and even mobile-based services are all hallmarks of Estonia's free-market-based economy.[citation needed] Estonia also has made excellent progress in regard to structural adjustment.[citation needed] Estonia, as a new member of the WTO, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... The Bank of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Pank), is the central bank of Estonia. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Butter (disambiguation). ... A glass of cows milk. ... Cheese is a solid food made from the milk of cows, goats, sheep, and other mammals. ... Western Europe is distinguished from Central Europe and Eastern Europe by differences of history and culture rather than by geography. ... Look up Market in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... CCCP redirects here. ... This article should be transwikied to wiktionary The term post-war is generally used for the period after the end of World War II, i. ... Sovietization is term that may be used with two distinct (but related) meanings: the adoption of a political system based on the model of soviets (workers councils). ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ... The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... For the rental car company, see Budget Rent a Car. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Tax rates around the world Tax revenue as % of GDP Economic policy Monetary policy Central bank   Money supply Fiscal policy Spending   Deficit   Debt Trade policy Tariff   Trade agreement Finance Financial market Financial market participants Corporate   Personal Public   Banking   Regulation        An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income... Free trade is an economic concept referring to the selling of products between countries without tariffs or other trade barriers. ... // A currency board is a monetary authority which is required to maintain an exchange rate with a foreign currency. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... Investment is a term with several closely-related meanings in finance and economics. ... Innovation is the implementation of a new or significantly improved idea, good, service, process or practice that is intended to be useful. ... e-Services is a term usually referring to the provision of services via the Internet (the prefix e standing for electronic, as it does in many other uses). ... Structural adjustment is a term used to describe the policy changes implemented by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank (the Bretton Woods Institutions) in developing countries. ...


Resources

Resource Location Reservs
Oil-shale
North-East Estonia 1,137,700,000 mln t
Sea mud (medical) South-Estonia 1,356,400,000 mln t
Construction sand across the country 166,700,000 mln m³
Construction gravel North-Estonia 32,800,000 mln m³
Lake mud (medical) across the country 1,133,300 mln t
Lake mud (fertilizer) East-Estonia 170,900 t
Ceramic clay across the country 10,600,000 mln m³
Ceramsid clay (for gravel) across the country 2,600,000 mln m³
Technological dolomite West-Estonia 16,600,000 mln m³
Technologicallubjakivi North-Estonia 13,800,000 mln m³
Decoration dolomite West-Estonia 2,900,000 mln m³
Construction dolomite West-Estonia 32,900,000 mln m³
Blue clay across the country 2,044,000 mln t
Granite across the country 1,245,100,000 mln m³
Peat across the country 230,300,000 mln t
Construction limestone North-Estonia 110,300,000 mln m³
Limestone cement North-Estonia 9,400,000 mln m³
Clay cement North-Estonia 15,6000,000 mln m³
Dictyonema flabelliforme[72] North-Estonia 64,000,000,000 mln t
Wood across the country 15,6000,000 mln m³
Technological sand North-Estonia 3,300,000 mln m³
Lake lime North-Estonia
South-Estonia
808,000 t
Phosphorite North-Estonia over 350,000,000 mln t (estimated)
Subsoil across the country 21,1 km³
In 1994, Estonia became one of the first countries in the world to adopt a flat tax, with a uniform rate of 26% regardless of personal income. In January 2005 the personal income tax rate was reduced to 24%. A subsequent reduction to 23% followed in January 2006. The income tax rate will be decreased by 1% annually to reach 18% by January 2010. The Government of Estonia finalized the design of Estonia's euro coins in late 2004, and is now intending to adopt the euro as the country's currency between 2011 and 2013, later than planned due to continued high inflation. In 1999, Estonia experienced its worst year economically since it regained independence in 1991, largely because of the impact of the August 1998 Russian financial crisis. Estonia joined the WTO in November 1999. With assistance from the European Union, the World Bank and the Nordic Investment Bank, Estonia completed most of its preparations for European Union membership by the end of 2002 and now has one of the strongest economies of the new member states of the European Union.

Infrastructure and e-Infrastructure

Main article: Transport in Estonia

Transport and logistics play a vital role in the Estonian economy. The country’s favorable geographic location, along with its well-developed infrastructure, offers excellent opportunities for all transport and logistics related activities. Estonia has become an important transit center as its location is ideal for the creation of efficient transportation links and distribution chains of goods and services for companies in Europe and in other parts of the world. Approximately 7.5% of the country’s workforce is employed in transportation and road management, and over the past years the share of transportation and telecommunications in the economic activity has steadily increased and currently constitutes ca. 15% of the GDP. Railway transport dominates the cargo sector, comprising 70% of all carried goods, domestic and international. Road transport is the one that prevails in the passenger sector, accounting for over 90% of all transported passengers. The Estonian transportation and logistics sector is comprised of a successful combination of transportation services, transit trade, distribution centers and value-added logistics. Transit services constitute a profitable form of exports for the nation, and their future success ranks highly among the priorities of Estonia’s economic policy. Rainforest on Fatu-Hiva, Marquesas Islands Natural resources are naturally occurring substances that are considered valuable in their relatively unmodified (natural) form. ... Resources comprise the base material for an activity or industry: factors of production, the economics term human capital, human resources (HR) and innovation natural resources resource (computer science) resource (Web) resource (Windows) resource (Macintosh) resource (political) resource (project management) Resource Distribution, human influence and the effects of trade. ... Oil shale Oil shale is a general term applied to a fine-grained sedimentary rock containing significant traces of kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) that have not been buried for sufficient time to produce conventional fossil fuels. ... Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... Gravel (largest fragment in this photo is about 4 cm) Gravel is rock that is of a certain particle size range. ... Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. ... Richardson Bay mudflats of are exposed layers of bay mud Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles. ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... Technology (Gr. ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Dolomite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see granite (disambiguation). ... Peat in Lewis, Scotland Peat is an accumulation of partially decayed vegetation matter. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Clay (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical element. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Sand (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Apatite is a group of minerals, usually referring to: hydroxylapatite, fluorapatite, and chlorapatite, named for high concentrations of OH-, F-, or Cl- ions, respectively, in the crystal lattice. ... 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The Council of Ministers of Estonia or The Government of the Republic of Estonia (Estonian: Vabariigi Valitsus) exercises executive power pursuant to the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Estonia. ... The euro (EUR or €) is the currency of 13 European Union (EU) member states (Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Slovenia, and Spain), three European microstates which have currency agreements with the EU (Monaco, San Marino and the Vatican City State), Andorra, Montenegro and the... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... 2011 (MMXI) will be a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2013 (MMXIII) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Inkombank was one of the most high-profile casualties of the events of August 1998. ... WTO redirects here. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The Nordic Investment Bank (NIB) is an investment bank and multilateral development bank owned by eight nordic and northern european countries. ... // total: 1,018 km common carrier lines only; does not include dedicated industrial lines broad gauge: 1,018 km 1. ... Look up Logistics in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Estonia, as a new member of the WTO, is steadily moving toward a modern market economy with increasing ties to the West, including the pegging of its currency to the euro. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see World (disambiguation). ... The workforce is the labour pool in employment. ... GDP is an acronym which can stand for more than one thing: (in economics) an abbreviation for Gross Domestic Product. ...


Located in the Baltic Sea region, Estonia has captured an increasing share of the rapidly growing trade through the Baltic Sea. 5 major cargo ports offer easy navigational access, deep waters, and good ice conditions. There are 12 airports and 1 heliport in Estonia. Tallinn International Airport is the largest airport in Estonia, providing services to a number of international carriers flying to 23 destinations. For other uses, see Baltic (disambiguation). ... This article is about transported goods. ... Categories: Stub | Commercial item transport and distribution | Transportation ... Airport - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...

Estonia has a strong information technology (IT) sector, partly due to the Tiigrihüpe project undertaken in mid 1990s, and has been mentioned as the most "wired" and advanced country in Europe in the terms of e-government.[73] Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Look up It in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A sector is a part of a whole. ... Tiigrihüpe (Estonian for Tigers Leap) was a project undertaken by Republic of Estonia to heavily invest in development and expansion of computer and network infrastructure in Estonia, with a particular emphasis on education. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Trade and investment

Proximity to the Nordic markets, location between Eastern and Western Europe, competitive cost structure and high-skill labour force have been the major Estonian comparative advantages since the 1990s. For the band, see 1990s (band). ...

A view upon a typical Estonian motorway.

Estonia has a modern market-based economy and one of the highest per capita income levels in Central Europe. The economy benefits from strong electronics and telecommunications sectors and strong trade ties with Finland, Sweden and Germany. The current government has pursued relatively sound fiscal policies, resulting in balanced budgets and low public debt. In 2007, however, a large current account deficit and rising inflation put pressure on Estonia's currency, which is pegged to the euro, highlighting the need for growth in export-generating industries. This article is about the German, Austrian and Swiss road system. ... A market economy is a term used to describe an economy where economic decisions, such as pricing of goods and services, are made in a decentralized manner by the economys participants and manifested by trade. ... Per capita is a Latin phrase meaning for each head. ... Income, generally defined, is the money that is received as a result of the normal business activities of an individual or a business. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... This article is about the engineering discipline. ... Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... Fiscal municipality in Huesca, Spain The term fiscal refers to government debt, expenditures and revenues, or to finance (particularly financial revenue) in general. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... ISO 4217 Code EEK User(s) Estonia Inflation 4. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Estonia exports machinery and equipment (33% of all exports annually), wood and paper (15% of all exports annually), textiles (14% of all exports annually), food products (8% of all exports annually), furniture (7% of all exports annually), and metals and chemical products.[74] Estonia also exports 1.562 billion kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[74] This article is about metallic materials. ... A chemical substance is any material substance used in or obtained by a process in chemistry: A chemical compound is a substance consisting of two or more chemical elements that are chemically combined in fixed proportions. ... The kilowatt (symbol: kW) is a unit for measuring power, equal to one thousand watts. ... Electricity (from New Latin Ä“lectricus, amberlike) is a general term for a variety of phenomena resulting from the presence and flow of electric charge. ...

Estonia Export Import
Finland 18.4% 18.2%
Sweden 12.4% 9%
Latvia 8.9% 5.7%
Russia 8.1% 13.1%
Germany 5.1% 12.4%
Lithuania 4.8% 6.4%
Estonia imports machinery and equipment (33.5% of all imports annually), chemical products (11.6% of all imports annually), textiles (10.3'% of all imports annually), food products (9.4% of all imports annually), and transportation equipment (8.9% of all imports annually).[74] Estonia imports 200 million kilowatt hours of electricity annually.[74]

Demographics

With only 1.3 million inhabitants, Estonia is one of the least populous countries in the European Union. The current fertility rate is 1.41 children per mother.[75] Estonia has a small number of larger cities, the most populous being Tallinn, Tartu, Narva, Kohtla-Järve and Pärnu. The name Eesti, or Estonia, could be derived from the word Aestii, the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the peoples living northeast of the Vistula River. ... Map of countries and territories by fertility rate The total fertility rate (TFR, also called fertility rate or total period fertility rate) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if she were to experience the current age-specific... County Area 159. ... County Area 38. ... The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... County Ida-Viru County Mayor Jevgeni Solovjov Area 41. ... County Pärnu County Mayor Mart Viisitamm Area 32. ...

Demographical situation of the Republic of Estonia in 2007.
50 km

By far the largest conurbation is the Tallinn region, including cities of Maardu, Saue and smaller municipalities of Viimsi, Tabasalu, Vääna-Jõesuu and Männiku. The name Eesti, or Estonia, could be derived from the word Aestii, the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the peoples living northeast of the Vistula River. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A conurbation is an urban area comprising a number of cities, towns and villages which, through population growth and expansion, have physically merged to form one continuous built up area. ... County Area 159. ... Categories: Estonia-related stubs | Europe geography stubs | Municipalities of Estonia ... County Harju County Mayor Ero Liivik Area 3. ...


Ethnic and cultural diversity

Main articles: Estonian Germans, Estonian Swedes, Estonian Russians, Estonian Jews, Setos, and Võros

Different nationalities have always lived together in Estonia. Tolerance and democracy are illustrated by the Law on the Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities, passed already in 1925, which was not only the first in Europe at the time but also very progressive. Prior to World War II, Estonia was a relatively homogeneous society – ethnic Estonians constituted 88% of the population, with national minorities constituting the remaining 12%.[76] The largest minority groups in 1934 were Russians, Germans, Swedes, Latvians, Jews, Poles, Finns and Ingrians. Cultural autonomies could be granted to minorities numbering more than 3,000 people with longstanding ties to the Republic of Estonia. Prior to the Soviet occupation, the Germans and Jewish minorities managed to elect a cultural council. The Law on Cultural Autonomy for National Minorities was reinstated in 1993. In 2005, the Ingrian Finnish minority in Estonia elected a cultural council and was granted cultural autonomy. The Estonian Swedish minority similarly received cultural autonomy in 2007. The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (Swedish: Estlandssvenskar, or Estonia Swedes, colloquially Aibofolke, or Island People, Estonian: Rannarootslased) are a group of ethnic Swedes residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia. ... Setos (setoq) are an autochthonous ethnic and linguistic minority in south-eastern Estonia and north-western Russia. ... Võros (võrokõsõq) are an autochthonous linguistic minority in south-eastern Estonia. ... Year 1925 (MCMXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Look up Homogeneous in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Latvians or Letts (Latvian: latvieÅ¡i), the indigenous Baltic people of Latvia, occasionally refer to themselves by the ancient name of Latvji, which may have originated from the word Latve which is a name of the river that presumably flowed through what is now eastern Latvia. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Ingrians refer to the Finnic people that before the foundation of Saint Petersburg inhabited Ingria (east and south of the Gulf of Finland) Ingrian Finns (Lutherans) Izhorians (Orthodox) Categories: Finnic peoples ... In sociology and in voting theory, a minority is a sub-group that is outnumbered by persons who do not belong to it. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerin suomalainen) is a Lutheran Finnic people traditionally inhabiting the Saint Petersburg area and Northern Estonia (Ingria). ... The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (Swedish: Estlandssvenskar, or Estonia Swedes, colloquially Aibofolke, or Island People, Estonian: Rannarootslased) are a group of ethnic Swedes residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Estonia Population %
Estonians 921,062 68.6%
Russians 344,280 25.6%
Ukrainians 28,158 2.1%
Belarussians 16,134 1.2%
Finns 11,035 0.8%
Tatars 2,487 0.2%
Latvians 2,216 0.2%
Poles 2,216 0.2%
Lithuanians 2,077 0.1%
Jews 1,900 0.1%
Germans 1,900 0.1%
Others 9,084 0.7%
Historically, large parts of Estonia’s north-western coast and islands have been populated by indigenous ethnically Rannarootslased (Coastal Swedes). The majority of Estonia's Swedish population of 3,800 fled to Sweden or were deported in 1944, escaping the advancing Red Army. In the recent years the numbers of Coastal Swedes has risen again, numbering in 2008 almost 500 people, due to the property reforms in the beginning of 1990s.

World War II along with Soviet and Nazi occupations interrupted the natural development of inter-ethnic relations, deforming the inner features of Estonian society. By 1989, minorities constituted more than 1/3 of the population, the number of non-Estonians had grown almost 5-fold, while the percentage of ethnic Estonians in the total population decreased by 27%. At the end of the 1980s, Estonians perceived their demographic change as a national catastrophe. This was a result of the migration policies essential to the Soviet Nationalisation Programme aiming to russify Estonia – forceful administrative and military immigration of non-Estonians from the USSR coupled with the mass deportations of Estonians to the USSR. During the purges up to 110,000 Estonians were killed or deported. Demographics refers to selected population characteristics as used in government, marketing or opinion research, or the demographic profiles used in such research. ... Belarusians or Belarusans (Belarusian: , previously also spelled Belarussians, Byelorussians and Belorussians) are an East Slavic people who populate the majority of the Republic of Belarus and form minorities in neighboring Poland (especially former Bialystok province), Russia, Lithuania and Ukraine. ... This article is about the people. ... Latvians or Letts (Latvian: latvieÅ¡i), the indigenous Baltic people of Latvia, occasionally refer to themselves by the ancient name of Latvji, which may have originated from the word Latve which is a name of the river that presumably flowed through what is now eastern Latvia. ... Lithuanians are the Baltic ethnic group native to Lithuania, where they number a little over 3 million [8]. Another million or more make up the Lithuanian diaspora, largely found in countries such as the United States, Brazil, Canada and Russia. ... Languages Historical Jewish languages Hebrew, Yiddish, Ladino, others Liturgical languages: Hebrew and Aramaic Predominant spoken languages: The vernacular language of the home nation in the Diaspora, significantly including English, Hebrew, Yiddish, and Russian Religions Judaism Related ethnic groups Arabs and other Semitic groups For the Jewish religion, see Judaism. ... Look up others in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Estonian Swedes, Estonia-Swedes, or Coastal Swedes (Swedish: Estlandssvenskar, or Estonia Swedes, colloquially Aibofolke, or Island People, Estonian: Rannarootslased) are a group of ethnic Swedes residing in the coastal areas and islands of what is now western and northern Estonia. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... Soviet redirects here. ... National Socialism redirects here. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... For other uses, see Disaster (disambiguation). ... Look up migration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... State motto (Russian): Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Capital Moscow Official language None; Russian (de facto) Government Federation of Soviet republics Area  - Total  - % water 1st before collapse 22,402,200 km² Approx. ...


According to the 2000 census, altogether 109 languages are spoken in Estonia. 83.4% of Estonian citizens speak Estonian as their mother tongue, 15.3% – Russian and 1% speak other languages. Of Estonian residents, 83.6% are Estonian citizens, 7.4% are citizens of other countries and 9% – citizens with undetermined citizenship. The number of Estonian citizens who have become citizens through naturalization process (more than 140,000 persons) exceeds the number of residents of undetermined citizenship (120,000 persons).[77] Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ... A judge swears in a new citizen. ...

Estonians in their ethnic clothing in 2007.

The country's official language is Estonian, which belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. Estonian is thus closely related to Finnish, spoken on the other side of the Gulf of Finland, and is one of the few languages of Europe that is not of an Indo-European origin. Despite some overlaps in the vocabulary due to borrowings, in terms of its origin, Estonian is not related to its nearest neighbours, Swedish, Latvian and Russian, which are all Indo-European languages. Russian is widely spoken as a secondary language by thirty- to seventy-year-old ethnic Estonians, because Russian was the unofficial language of the occupied Estonia from 1944 to 1991 taught as a compulsory second language during the Soviet era. First and second generation of industrial immigrants from various parts of the former Soviet Union (mainly Russia) do not speak Estonian.[78] The latter, mostly Russian-speaking ethnic minorities, reside predominantly in the capital city (Tallinn) and the industrial urban areas in Ida-Virumaa. Most common foreign languages learned by Estonians are English, German, Russian, Swedish, Finnish and in recent years also Latvian. Estonian ( ; IPA: ) is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1. ... The Vyronian language (võro kiil) is a language belonging to the Baltic-Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Seto or Setu language is a dialect of the Finnic South Estonian or Võro language (or a separate language, which is a disputed claim) and also the name denoting its speakers, Seto people, who mostly inhabit the area near Estonias southeastern border with Russia, in the county of... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Soviet redirects here. ... County Area 159. ... Capital Jõhvi Governor Ago Silde Area 3,364 km² (5th) Population (as of 2004)  - Density 174,809 (2nd) 52/km² (2nd) ISO 3166-2 EE-44 Ida-Viru County (est: Ida-Viru maakond), or Ida-Virumaa, is one of 15 counties of Estonia. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Science

Education

The history of formal education in Estonia dates back to the 1314th centuries when the first monastic and cathedral schools were founded. The first primer in the Estonian language was published in 1575. The oldest university is the University of Tartu, founded in 1632. In 1919, university courses were first taught in the Estonian language. A wide network of schools and supporting educational institutions has been established. The Estonian educational system consists of state, municipal, public and private educational institutions: This article is about the year 13. ... Events First year of tianfeng era of the Chinese Xin Dynasty. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos—a solitary person) is the religious practice of renouncing all worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... In medieval europe, cathedral schools were schools operated by cathedrals, typically having fewer than 100 students. ... Year 1575 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... The University of Tartu (Estonian: ; Russian: ; German: ) is a classical university in the city of Tartu, Estonia. ... See also: 1632 (novel) Events February 22 - Galileos Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems is published July 23 - 300 colonists for New France depart Dieppe November 8 - Wladyslaw IV Waza elected king of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth after Zygmunt III Waza death November 16 - Battle of Lützen... Year 1919 (MCMXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... An institution is a group, tenet, maxim, or organization created by a group of humans. ...

  • preschool children’s institutions
  • kindergarten-primary schools
  • primary schools
  • basic schools
  • secondary schools (gümnaasium)
  • vocational educational institutions
  • professional higher schools
  • universities
  • further education institutions
  • hobby schools and other educational institutions.

The Education Act states that in accordance with the UNESCO international standard of education classification, education has the following levels: UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ...

  • preprimary education
  • basic education
  • secondary education
  • higher education.

Society

Cinema and media

Estonian media is a vibrant sector at the forefront of change in Estonian society. There is a plethora of weekly newspapers and magazines. This article is about the magazine as a published medium. ...

Tallinn TV Tower - with 314 m it is the highest building in the country.
Tallinn TV Tower - with 314 m it is the highest building in the country.

Estonians face a choice of 4 domestic TV channels and a host of radio stations. The Constitution guarantees freedom of speech and the fact that Estonia does have a free press is recognized by various international press freedom bodies, like the US-based Freedom House. Estonia has two news agencies. The Estonian News Agency (Eesti Teadeteagentuur, ETA) is a domestic agency owned by the government. The Baltic News Service (BNS), founded in 1990, is a private regional news agency covering Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania. Image File history File linksMetadata Tallinn_tv_tower. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Tallinn_tv_tower. ... Tallinn TV Tower, looking up at the top. ... See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... For the geographical meanings of this word, see channel (geography). ... Freedom House is a United States-based international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on democracy, political freedom and human rights. ... This article is about the year. ...


The first public TV broadcast in Estonia was in July 1955. Regular, live radio-broadcasts began already in December 1926. Deregulation in the field of electronic media has brought radical changes compared to the beginning of 1990s. The first licenses for private TV broadcasters were issued in 1992. The first private radio station went on the air in 1990. Eesti Raadio (Estonian Radio) and Eesti Televisioon (Estonian TV) are public legal entities which are independent in the creation of their programmes, but whose activities are supervised by a Broadcasting Council, appointed by the Riigikogu (Parliament). Today, the public station Eesti Televisioon has a daily Russian news programme, plus a half-hour magazine programme and longer shows over the weekend. See TV (disambiguation) for other uses and Television (band) for the rock band European networks National In much of Europe television broadcasting has historically been state dominated, rather than commercially organised, although commercial stations have grown in number recently. ... The word broadcast can refer to: Broadcasting, the transmission of audio and video signals. ... July is the seventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... Look up December in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1992 Gregorian calendar). ... The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the parliament of Estonia. ... Eesti Televisioon or ETV is the national public television station of Estonia. ...

The biggest football stadium in Tallinn: A. Le Coq Arena.

Look up Football in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The new Wembley Stadium in London is the most expensive stadium ever built; it has a seating capacity of 90,000 This article is about the building type. ... County Area 159. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_package_network. ... The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... Ancient Estonia concerns the period of independance prior to the conquest and subjugation of the Estonian people in the Thirteenth Century. ... Molotov signs the German-Soviet non-aggression pact. ... State motto: Kõigi maade proletaarlased, ühinege (Translated: Workers of the world, unite!) Official language Estonian, Russian (de facto) Capital Tallinn Chairman of the Supreme Council Arnold Rüütel (at the time of regaining independence) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until July 21, 1940 August 6, 1940 August 20, 1991... Politics of Estonia takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Estonia is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... Political parties in Estonia lists political parties in Estonia. ... Elections in Estonia gives information on election and election results in Estonia. ... The Estonian Government in Exile [1] refers to the formally declared governmental authority of the Republic of Estonia in exile, existing from 1953 until the reestablishment of Estonian sovereignty over Estonian territory in 1992. ... A county (Estonian: maakond) is an administrative subdivision of Estonia. ... This is a list of the rural municipalities (vallad, singular - vald) of Estonia. ... Cities and towns in Estonia: Abja-Paluoja Antsla Elva Haapsalu Jõgeva Jõhvi Kallaste Karksi-Nuia Kehra Keila Kilingi-Nõmme Kiviõli Kohtla-Järve Kunda Kuressaare Kärdla Laiuse Lihula Loksa Maardu Mustvee Mõisaküla Narva Narva-Jõesuu Otepää Paide Paldiski Põltsamaa Põlva... Populated places in Estonia officially are of four kinds: towns (est: linnad, singular - linn), boroughs (est: alevid, singular - alev), small boroughs (est: alevikud, singular - alevik) and villages (est: külad, singular - küla). ... The Bank of Estonia (Estonian: Eesti Pank), is the central bank of Estonia. ... The name Eesti, or Estonia, could be derived from the word Aestii, the name given by the ancient Germanic people to the peoples living northeast of the Vistula River. ... Estonian ( ; IPA: ) is the official language of Estonia, spoken by about 1. ... The Estonia Theatre is an opera house and concert hall in Tallinn, Estonia. ... The Estonians are related to the Finns, and their music shares some similarities. ... Below is a list of newspapers in Estonia. ... Flag ratio: 7:11 Flag of the President. ... Mu isamaa, mu õnn ja rõõm (My Fatherland, My Happiness and Joy) was adopted as the national anthem (language of Estonia: hümn or riigihümn) of the Republic of Estonia in 1920, and again in 1990. ... The Greater Coat of Arms The Lesser Coat of Arms Coat of Arms of Estonia. ... The Reformation reached Livonia in the 1520s. ... Battle of Paju was fought near Valga on January 31, 1919 during the Estonian War of Independence. ... Combatants  Estonia, Finnish and Scandinavian volunteers, White Russians Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Landeswehr Commanders Johan Laidoner Jukums Vācietis Sergei Kamenev Rüdiger von der Goltz Strength 74,500 (Estonian Army), ca 4000 Finnish volunteers, White Russians, about 200-400 Scandinavians 160 000+ 9500 Casualties 5,600 killed 15... Treaty of Tartu (Estonian: Tartu rahu, literally Tartu peace) between Estonia and Bolshevist Russia was signed in February 2, 1920 after the Estonian War of Independence. ... Molotov signing the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact The fate of Estonia in World War II was decided by the German-Soviet Nonaggression Pact and its Secret Additional Protocol of August 1939 between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union. ... The Forest Brothers (also: Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren; Forest Brotherhood; in Estonian: metsavennad, in Latvian meža brāļi, in Lithuanian miÅ¡ko broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged guerrilla warfare against Soviet rule and for German Nazis during the Soviet invasion and occupation of... The occupation of Baltic states generally refers to the occupation of the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania) by the Soviet Union or Nazi Germany during World War II, and to the Soviet presence in the Baltics from 1945 until the re-establishment of their independence. ... Plaque on the building of Government of Estonia, Toompea, commemorating government members killed by communist terror As the Soviet Union had occupied Estonia in 1940 and retaken it from Nazi Germany again in 1944, tens of thousands of Estonias citizens suffered deportation in the 1940s. ... After Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941,the Wehrmacht reached Estonia in (July 1941). ... Reichskommissariat Ostland was the German name for the Nazi civil administration of so called Eastern Territories of the Third Reich dring World War II, where Ostland (German for Eastern Territories) was the name given to the German occupied territories of the Baltic states, Belarus and Eastern Poland. ... Estnische SS-Legion - estnisches SS-Freiwilligen-Panzergrenadier-Bataillon Narwa Estnische SS-Freiwilligen-Brigade 3. ... The main building at the venue Sailing (also called yachting) at the 1980 Summer Olympics was represented by six events. ... Football in Estonia is governed by the Estonian Football Association (Eesti Jalgpalli Liit). ... Following restoration of independence from the Soviet Union, Estonias immediate priority was the withdrawal of Russian (formerly Soviet) forces from Estonian territory. ... Following restoration of independence from the Soviet Union, Estonias immediate priority was the withdrawal of Russian (formerly Soviet) forces from Estonian territory. ... Estonia-Russia relations refers to the relationships between Estonia and Russia. ...

Further reading

  • Hiden, John; and Patrick Salmon (1991). The Baltic Nations and Europe: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in the Twentieth Century. London: Longman. ISBN 0-582-08246-3. 
  • Laar, Mart (1992). War in the Woods: Estonia's Struggle for Survival, 1944-1956, trans. Tiina Ets, Washington, D.C.: Compass Press. ISBN 0-929590-08-2. 
  • Lieven, Anatol (1993). The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, and the Path to Independence. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-05552-8. 
  • Raun, Toivo U. (1987). Estonia and the Estonians. Stanford, Calif.: Hoover Institution Press, Stanford University. ISBN 0-8179-8511-5. 
  • Smith, David J. (2001). Estonia: Independence and European Integration. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-26728-5. 
  • Smith, Graham (ed.) (1994). The Baltic States: The National Self-determination of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. New York: St. Martin's Press. ISBN 0-312-12060-5. 
  • Taagepera, Rein (1993). Estonia: Return to Independence. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press. ISBN 0-8133-1199-3. 
  • Taylor, Neil (2004). Estonia, 4th ed., Chalfont St. Peter: Bradt. ISBN 1-84162-095-5. 
  • Williams, Nicola; Debra Herrmann, and Cathryn Kemp (2003). Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania, 3rd ed., London: Lonely Planet. ISBN 1-74059-132-1. 
  • Subrenat, Jean-Jacques (Ed.) (2004). Estonia, identity and independence. Rodopi. ISBN 90-420-0890-3. 

This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Anatol Lieven is a British author, journalist, and policy analyst. ... Rein Taagepera (born 28 February 1933) is an Estonian-American political scientist and politician. ... Jean-Jacques Subrenat (1940-) is a French diplomat who has served as the ambassador to the WEU in Brussels (1995-1998), to Estonia (1998-2002), and to Finland (2002-2005). ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ http://www.stat.ee/main-indicators Estonian Statistics Byroo
  2. ^ CIA - The World Factbook - Estonia
  3. ^ Territorial_changes_of_the_Baltic_states#Actual territorial changes after World War II Soviet territorial changes against Estonia after World War II
  4. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pechory Pechory under Russian control
  5. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Nations_member_states Estonian date of admission into the United Nations
  6. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Union_member_state Estonian date of admission into the European Union
  7. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nato#Membership Estonian date of admission into the NATO
  8. ^ U.S.-Baltic Relations: Celebrating 85 Years of Friendship at state.gov
  9. ^ Motion for a resolution on the Situation in Estonia by EU
  10. ^ European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States
  11. ^ Raid on Sigtuna
  12. ^ Estonia and the Estonians (Studies of Nationalities) Toivo U. Raun p.11 ISBN 0817928529
  13. ^ Protestant Reformation in the Baltic at University of Washington
  14. ^ Estonian Declaration of Independence 24 February 1918 at www.president.ee
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Baltic states, World War II losses
  16. ^ The World Book Encyclopedia ISBN 0716601036
  17. ^ The History of the Baltic States by Kevin O'Connor ISBN 0313323550
  18. ^ The History of the Baltic States by Kevin O'Connor ISBN 0313323550
  19. ^ Image stored by the Estonian film archive, image ID: 0-153447. Image information: Meeting held in Tallinn, Estonia on July 17, 1940, after the 14. - 15. July elections. - Photo by O. Viikholm
  20. ^ Moscow's Week at Time Magazine on Monday, October 9, 1939
  21. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by David J. Smith, Page 24, ISBN 0415285801
  22. ^ (Finnish) Pavel Petrov at Finnish Defence Forces home page
  23. ^ (Russian) documents published from the State Archive of the Russian Navy
  24. ^ The Last Flight from Tallinn at American Foreign Service Association
  25. ^ Five Years of Dates at Time magazine on Monday, Jun. 24, 1940
  26. ^ Estonia: Identity and Independence by Jean-Jacques Subrenat, David Cousins, Alexander Harding, Richard C. Waterhouse ISBN 9042008903
  27. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by David J. Smith p.19 ISBN 0415285801
  28. ^ The Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania by David J. Smith, Page 27, ISBN 0415285801
  29. ^ (Estonian)51 years from the Raua Street Battle at Estonian Defence Forces Home Page
  30. ^ Justice in The Balticat Time magazine on Monday, Aug. 19, 1940
  31. ^ The Baltic Revolution: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and the Path to Independence by Anatol Lieven p424 ISBN 0300060785
  32. ^ Diplomats Without a Country: Baltic Diplomacy, International Law, and the Cold War by James T. McHugh , James S. Pacy ISBN 0313318786
  33. ^ Russia denies it illegally annexed the Baltic republics in 1940 - Pravda.Ru
  34. ^ Presidential aide: the term "occupation" inapplicable for Baltic States - Pravda.Ru
  35. ^ Resistance! Occupied Europe and Its Defiance of Hitler by Dave Lande on Page 188, ISBN 0760307458
  36. ^ Estonia 1940-1945, Estonian International Commission for the Investigation of Crimes Against Humanity, p.613 ISBN 9949-13-040-9
  37. ^ Resistance! Occupied Europe and Its Defiance of Hitler (Paperback) by Dave Lande on Page 200 ISBN 0760307458
  38. ^ The Baltic States: The National Self-Determination of Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania Graham Smith p.91 ISBN 0312161921
  39. ^ Д. Муриев, Описание подготовки и проведения балтийской операции 1944 года, Военно-исторический журнал, сентябрь 1984. Translation available, D. Muriyev, Preparations, Conduct of 1944 Baltic Operation Described, Military History Journal (USSR Report, Military affairs), 1984-9, pp. 22-28
  40. ^ a b Stephane Courtois; Werth, Nicolas; Panne, Jean-Louis; Paczkowski, Andrzej; Bartosek, Karel; Margolin, Jean-Louis & Kramer, Mark (1999). The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression. Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-07608-7.
  41. ^ Heinrihs Strods, Matthew Kott, The file on operation "Priboi": A re-assessment of the mass deportations of 1949, Journal of Baltic Studies, Volume 33, Issue 1 Spring 2002 , pages 1 - 36
  42. ^ Valge raamat, page 18
  43. ^ Background Note: Latvia at US Department of State
  44. ^ Valge raamat, pages 25-30
  45. ^ Valge raamat, pages 125, 148
  46. ^ [http://www.envir.ee/kiirgus/image/Nonpro_Eesti.pdf Tuumarelvade leviku tõkestamisega seotud probleemidest Eestis]
  47. ^ Estonia had a nuclear submarine fleet - The Paldiski nuclear object
  48. ^ Valge raamat
  49. ^ European Parliament (January 13, 1983). "Resolution on the situation in Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania". Official Journal of the European Communities C 42/78.  "whereas the Soviet annexias of the three Baltic States still has not been formally recognized by most European States and the USA, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and the Vatican still adhere to the concept of the Baltic States".
  50. ^ a b c World InfoZone - Estonia. World InfoZone. World InfoZonek, LTD..
  51. ^ History of Estonia History of Estonia
  52. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu_Peace_Treaty Soviet territorial changes against Estonia
  53. ^ Constitution_of_Estonia#Chapter_1:_General_Provisions Constitution of Estonia "All the territories of Estonia are indivisible and part of a unitary state"
  54. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartu_Peace_Treaty Soviet territorial changes against Estonia
  55. ^ BBC NEWS | Europe | Estonia blames Russia for unrest
  56. ^ Estonian foreign ministry publication, 2004
  57. ^ Estonian foreign ministry publication, 2002
  58. ^ NATO :: NATO :: Estonia as a Nordic Country
  59. ^ Estonia - Nordic with a Twist
  60. ^ The Estonian Economic Miracle
  61. ^ http://www.investinestonia.com/pdf/ForeignTrade2007.pdf Foreign investment
  62. ^ http://mil.ee/index_eng.php Estonian National Defence Policy
  63. ^ http://www.mod.gov.ee/?op=body&id=6 Estonian Defence Budget
  64. ^ http://operatsioonid.kmin.ee/index.php?page=86& Estonian military missions in Middle-East
  65. ^ http://www.mil.ee/?menu=operatsioonid&sisu=operatsioonid6 Former operations
  66. ^ http://www.ria.ee/?id=28201 CERT Estonia
  67. ^ White House May 4, 2007: President Bush to Welcome President Toomas Ilves of Estonia
  68. ^ Yahoo/AFP June 25, 2007: Bush, Ilves eye tougher tack on cybercrime
  69. ^ Eesti Päevaleht June 15, 2007: NATO andis rohelise tule Eesti küberkaitse kavale by Ahto Lobjakas
  70. ^ Eesti Päevaleht June 28, 2007: USA toetab Eesti küberkaitsekeskust by Krister Paris
  71. ^ Office of the President of Estonia June 25, 2007: President Ilves kohtus Ameerika Ühendriikide riigipeaga
  72. ^ http://www.ut.ee/BGGM/maavara/dityoneema.html Uranium production at Sillamäe
  73. ^ Hackers Take Down the Most Wired Country in Europe, August 2007
  74. ^ a b c d CIA World Factbook: Estonia
  75. ^ https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/en.html#Econ CIA Fact book
  76. ^ Ethnic minorities in Estonia: past and present
  77. ^ http://www.vm.ee/estonia/kat_399/pea_172/4305.html Population by Nationality
  78. ^ Kirch, Aksel. "Russians in contemporary Estonia — different strategies of the integration in to the nation-state."

Control by foreign powers in Livonia in 1260. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about: European Union The European Union On-Line Official EU website, europa. ... European Court of Human Rights building in Strasbourg European Court of Human Rights cases on Occupation of Baltic States are landmark rulings by the European Court of Human Rights, which concern activities of the USSR including military and security services in the occupied Baltic states between 1940 and 1991. ... The Encyclopædia Britannica is a general English-language encyclopaedia published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. ... (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Stéphane Courtois is a French historian, currently employed as research director (i. ... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... The Harvard University Press is a publishing house, a division of Harvard University, that is highly respected in academic publishing. ... The land area that now makes up Estonia was settled immediately after the Ice Age, beginning from around 8500 BC. After being conquered by Danish and German crusaders in 1227, Estonia was ruled initially in the north by Danes, then by German Bishops. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Eesti Päevaleht is an Estonian newspaper. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... Eesti Päevaleht is an Estonian newspaper. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The President of Estonia is the head of state of the Republic of Estonia. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

External links

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  • Official Estonian Portal
  • E-Estonia Portal
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  • Encyclopedia Estonica

Facts and figures

  • Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
  • Estonia Travel Guide
  • Estonian Institute
  • Statistical Office of Estonia
  • Estonia at the Open Directory Project

Travel The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as dmoz (from , its original domain name), is a multilingual open content directory of World Wide Web links owned by Netscape that is constructed and maintained by a community of volunteer editors. ...

  • Visit-Estonia Portal
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Coordinates: 59°00′N, 26°00′E [1] Of the emerging democracies in central and eastern Europe, Czechia has one of the most developed industrialized economies. ... Tourism, petroleum transhipment, and offshore finance are the mainstays of the Netherlands Antillean economy, which is closely tied to the outside world. ... The United Kingdom has the fifth largest gross domestic product in the world in terms of market exchange rates and the sixth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the Peoples Republic of China is an administrative division of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Motto: Anthem: Today Over Macedonia (Macedonian: Денес Над Македонија, Denes Nad Makedonija) Capital Skopje Largest city Skopje Official language(s) Macedonian1 Government President Prime Minister Parliamentary republic Branko Crvenkovski Vlado Bučkovski Independence Declared From Yugoslavia September 8, 1991 Area  â€¢ Total  â€¢ Water (%)   25,333 km² (146th) 1. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_gaim. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Look up sovereign in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... Annexation is the legal merging of some territory into another body. ... Geographical distribution of Finno-Ugric (Finno-Permic in blue, Ugric in green). ... The Republic of Karelia (Russian: ) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... Khantia-Mansia, or Yugra is an autonomous district of Tyumen Oblast in the Russian Federation. ... Capital Syktyvkar Area - total - % water Ranked 15th - 415,900 km² - negligible Population - Total - Density Ranked 54th - est. ... The Mari El Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Мари́й Эл; Mari: Марий Эл Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Republic of Mordovia (Russian: ; Moksha: Мордовскяй Республикась; Erzya: Мордовской Республикась) or Mordvinia is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... National anthem Sámi soga lávlla Languages Sami, Norwegian, Swedish, Finnish, Russian Area ca. ... The Udmurt Republic (Russian: ; Udmurt: Удмурт Элькун) or Udmurtia (Russian: Удму́ртия) is a federal subject of Russia (a republic). ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... Finno-Ugric group with dark green on map of language families Finno-Ugric (IPA:[ËŒfɪnoʊˈjuːgɹɪk]) is a grouping of languages in the Uralic language family, comprising Hungarian, Finnish and Estonian, and related languages. ... Baltic-Finnic languages, also known as Finnic languages, are a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, and are spoken around the Baltic Sea by about 7 million people. ... The Ingrian Finns (inkeriläinen or inkerinsuomalainen) are an ethnic group who speak a dialect of Finnish language and have traditionally inhabited the area called Ingria (or Ingermanland, in Finnish: Inkeri) situated between what is now Saint Petersburg and the northeastern border of Estonia. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Meänkieli (lit. ... The Ingrian language (also called Izhorian) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken by the (mainly orthodox) Izhorians of Ingria. ... The Karelian language is a variety closely related to Finnish, with which it is not necessarily mutually intelligible. ... Ludic or Ludian is a Baltic Finnic language in the Uralic language family. ... Livonian (LÄ«võ kēļ) belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... South Estonian is a language or a language group which belongs to the Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Seto or Setu language is a dialect of the Finnic South Estonian or Võro language (or a separate language, which is a disputed claim) and also the name denoting its speakers, Seto people, who mostly inhabit the area near Estonias southeastern border with Russia, in the county of... The Vyronian language (võro kiil) is a language belonging to the Baltic-Finnic branch of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Veps language, spoken by the Vepses, belongs to the Baltic-Finnic group of the Finno-Ugric languages. ... Votic or Votian is the language spoken by the Votes of Ingria. ... The Finno-Volgaic languages, also known as the Finno-Mari, Finno-Cheremisic, or Volga-Finnic languages, are a language group within the Uralic language family. ... The Mari language (Mari: марий йылме, Russian марийский язык), spoken by more than 600,000 people, belongs to the Finno-Ugric language group and is part of the Volgaic subgroup of the Finnic languages together with Mordvin (though this relationship is contested; see Klima 2004 for discussion). ... Erzyan (Эрзянь Кель (Erzjanj Kelj)) is spoken in the northern and eastern parts of the republic of Mordovia and adjacent Nizhniy Novgorod, Chuvashia, Penza, Samara, Saratov, Orenburg, Ulyanovsk, Tatarstan and Bashkortostan in Russia. ... The Mokshan language (Moksha), мокшень кяль (mokshanj kälj) is spoken in the western part of the Republic of Mordovia and adjacent Penza, Ryazan, Tambov, Saratov, Samara, Orenburg oblasts, Tatarstan, Bashkortostan republics, Siberia, Far East of Russia and also in Armenia and USA. The number of speakers is around 500,000. ... The Merya language was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Merya tribe, which lived in what is today the Moscow region. ... Meshcherian was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Meshchera tribe, in what is today the Oka River basin in Russia. ... Muromian was the Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Muromian tribe, in what is today the Murom region in Russia. ... Permic languages is a subgroup of the Finno-Ugric language family. ... . Komi language edition of Wikipedia The Komi language, also known as Zyrian, or Komi-Zyrian, is a language spoken by the Komi peoples in the northeastern European part of Russia. ... Коми-Пермяцкӧй (Komi-Permjacköj) Komi-Permyak is spoken in the Autonomous district of the Komi-Permyaks, Russia, in the basin of the Kama River. ... Udmurt (удмурт кыл, udmurt kyl) is a Finno-Ugric language spoken by the Udmurts, natives of the Russian constituent republic of Udmurtia, where it is co-official with the Russian language. ... Sami is a general name for a group of Uralic languages spoken in parts of northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and extreme northwestern Russia, in Northern Europe. ... Akkala Sami is a Sami language that was spoken in the Sami villages of A´kkel and ÄŒu´kksuâl, in the inland parts of the Kola Peninsula in Russia. ... Inari Sami (anarâškielâ) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland by some 300-400 people, the majority of which are middle-aged or older and live in the town of Inari. ... Kemi Sami is a Sami language that was originally spoken in the southernmost district of Finnish Lapland as far south as the Sami siidas around Kuusamo. ... Kildin Sami (also spelled Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish) is a Sami language spoken by approximately 500 people in the Kola Peninsula in northwestern Russia. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Northern or North Sami (also written Sámi or Saami; formerly Lappish or Lapp) is the most widely spoken of all Sami languages. ... Pite Sami, also known as Arjeplog Sami, is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Skolt Sami (Sää´mÇ©iõll) is a Finno-Ugric, Sami language spoken in Finland and nearby parts of Russia. ... Southern Saami is divided into two main dialects: Southern Saami sensu stricto and Ume Saami. ... Ter Sami is a Sami language spoken in the eastern region of the Kola peninsula. ... Ume Sami is a Sami language spoken in Sweden and Norway. ... Ugric languages or Ugrian languages are generally held to be a branch of Finno-Ugric languages. ... Khanty or Xanty language, also known as the Ostyak language, is a language of the Khant peoples. ... The Mansi language (also known as Vogul, though this name is now old-fashioned and largely disused), is a language of the Mansi people. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...



  Results from FactBites:
 
Estonia - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3771 words)
Estonia was administratively divided between the provinces of Estonia in the north and Livonia in southern Estonia and northern Latvia, a division which persisted until the early 20th century.
Estonia was occupied by Soviet troops in June 1940, as a consequence of the secret amendment to the August 1939 Molotov-Ribbentrop Pact between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
Estonia lies on the eastern shores of the Baltic Sea on the level northwestern part of the rising east European platform between 57.3° and 59.5° N and 21.5° and 28.1° E. Average elevation reaches only 50 metres (164 ft), and the country's highest point is the Suur Munamägi in the southeast at 318 metres (1,043 ft).
Index of Economic Freedom 2006 - Estonia (1072 words)
Estonia adopted the trade policies of the European Union when it joined the EU in May 2004.
Estonia's sound, prudently regulated banking sector is considered the strongest and most developed in the Baltic States.
Estonia maintains a minimum wage that affects only 5 percent to 6 percent of the workforce.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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