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Encyclopedia > Esterhazy

The House of Esterházy (- German, in Hungarian: Eszterházy, in Slovak: Esterházi) was a noble family in the Kingdom of Hungary since the Middle Ages, which was among the great territorial magnates of the Kingdom of Hungary, during the time it was part of the Austrian Habsburg Empire. The Kingdom of Hungary is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ...

Contents


History

Initially, the Esterházys were part of low gentry in what is today south-western Slovakia (at that time part of the Kingdom of Hungary).


The family rose to prominence under Count Nikolaus Esterházy (1583-1645) and his son, Prince Paul Esterházy (1635-1713). In the 17th century, after Nicolaus' acquisitions, the family split into 4 basic family lines: Events August 5 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert establishes first English colony in North America, at what is now St Johns, Newfoundland. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ... Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... // Events April 11 - War of the Spanish Succession: Treaty of Utrecht June 23 - French residents of Acadia given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia Canada first Orrery built by George Graham Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ...

  • the older Forchtenstein (Hungarian: Fraknó) line : founded by Nicolaus Esterházy, main seat: Eisenstadt (Hungarian: Kismarton)
  • the younger Forchtenstein line
  • the Zvolen (Hungarian: Zólyom) line: founded by Paul Esterházy (died 1641)
  • the Czesznek line: founded by Daniel Esterházy (died 1654)

In 1626, the Esterházys were granted the title of Count and in 1712, the older Forchtenstein line got the title of (Ruling) Prince. Eisenstadt (Hungarian Kismarton, Croatian Željezno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland. ... Zvolen (German: Altsohl, Hungarian Zólyom) is a town in central Slovakia, close to Banská Bystrica, at the Hron river. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... Events April 5 - Signing of the Treaty of Westminster, ending the First Anglo-Dutch War. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ... A count is a nobleman in most European countries, equivalent in rank to a British earl, whose wife is still a countess (for lack of an Anglo-Saxon term). ... // Events Treaty of Aargau signed between Catholic and Protestants. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The success of the family arose from the steady accumulation of land, and loyalty both to the Roman Catholic Church and to the Habsburg Emperor. The latter factor was perhaps the most important. A consistent theme of Hungarian history was an ardent and sometimes violent wish to become free of Austrian rule, a wish that was finally fulfilled at end of the First World War. But the Esterházy princes were consistently loyal to the Habsburg monarchy, and on several occasions rendered vital services to it in times of crisis. These included the Turkish siege of Vienna in 1683 and the outright occupation of the city by Napoleon in 1809. The Roman Catholic Church is the largest Christian body in the world. ... Habsburg (sometimes spelled Hapsburg, but never so in official use) was one of the major ruling houses of Europe. ... World War I was primarily a European conflict with many facets: immense human sacrifice, stalemate trench warfare, and the use of new, devastating weapons - tanks, aircraft, machineguns, and poison gas. ... The Battle of Vienna in 1683 (as distinct from the Siege of Vienna in 1529) was the decisive battle of the Great Turkish War. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


Ultimately, at the beginning of the 20th century, they became among the largest landowners in the Habsburg Empire. Most of their lands were situated in present-day Slovakia.


Homes

The family derived its name from the settlement Esterháza near Dunajská Streda in today's south-western Slovakia (the settlement does not exist anymore and is not to be confused with the later castle of the same name), which they inhabited since the Middle Ages. Since 1421 they became the owners of a property in Galanta. Galanta (Hungarian: Galánta) is a small town situated in Slovakia. ...


Another important seat of the Esterházys was in Eisenstadt, where they occupied a palace built in the 14th century and rebuilt 1663-72. Eisenstadt now lies in the eastern portion of Austria, but at the time of the Esterházy princes (and until 1920), it was within the legal borders of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its Hungarian name is Kismarton. Eisenstadt (Hungarian Kismarton, Croatian Željezno) is a city in Austria, the state capital of Burgenland. ... (13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... // Events Prix de Rome scholarship established for students of the arts. ... Events England, France, Munster and Cologne invade the United Provinces, therefore this name is know as ´het rampjaar´ (the disaster year) in the Netherlands. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


The Esterházys maintained a number of other residences all over the Kingdom of Hungary and Transylvania, and those Esterházy princes who preferred the stylish life of the capital spent most of their time in Vienna. In the 1770s, Prince Nikolaus Esterházy, who disliked Vienna, had a magnificent new palace constructed at Eszterháza, in rural Hungary on the site of a former hunting lodge. This is the most admired of the Esterházy homes, often called the "Hungarian Versailles," and is a prominent tourist attraction today. Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Hungarian: Bécs) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... Events and Trends United States Declaration of Independence ratified by the Continental Congress (July 3, 1776). ... FertÅ‘d (former Esterháza and Süttör unified in 1950) is a city in Hungary near the Austria region and it bounds to GyÅ‘r-Moson-Sopron province. ... Versailles, formerly the unofficial capital city of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ...


Nomenclature

The main line of the Esterházy family was generally bilingual, in Hungarian (as a result of their ethnicity) and German (as they were aristocrats of the Austrian Empire). Esterházys living in parts of the Kingdom of Hungary where other (esp. Slavic) main languages were spoken also spoke primarily or secondarily those languages.


Indeed, some family members went by both German and (rather distinct) Hungarian names. Thus, Paul Anton (German) was the same person as Pál Antal (Hungarian), and Nikolaus Josef (German) was the same person as Miklós Jozsef. In discussions written in English, the Esterházy princes are occasionally given English versions of their names, as in "Nicholas".


The family name is also rendered variously: Eszterházy (Hungarian spelling), Esterházy (German), and Esterhazy (typographic convenience). The full family name since the 16th century was Eszterházy de Galántha (later also styled von/of Galanta). Galanta (Hungarian: Galánta) is a small town situated in Slovakia. ...


Haydn

The Esterházy family is perhaps best known for its association with the celebrated composer Joseph Haydn, who served as their Kapellmeister. Haydn was hired by Prince Paul Anton in 1761, and worked for most of his years of service (1762-1790) under his successor Nikolaus. During the following reign, that of Prince Anton (1790-1794), the Esterházy family mostly did without the services of musicians, and Haydn, retained on an honorary appointment, spent most of this time in trips to England. Finally, during the reign of Nikolaus II, Haydn performed largely ceremonial duties, principally consisting of composing an annual Mass for the name day of the Prince's wife (and Haydn's friend), Princess Maria Josepha Hermenegild (1768-1845). The aging Haydn continued to perform this annual service, with increasing difficulty, until his health failed entirely in 1802. Franz Joseph Haydn, (March 31 or April 1, 1732 – May 31, 1809) was a leading composer of the Classical period, called the Father of the Symphony and Father of the String Quartet. Although he has come to be popularly known as Franz Joseph Haydn (with many published scores and recordings... A Kapellmeister is nowadays the director or conductor of an orchestra or choir. ... 1761 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Mass is a property of physical objects that, roughly speaking, measures the amount of matter they contain. ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... 1768 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1802 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


The main Esterhazy line (the old Forchtenstein line)

Hungarian names are given in brackets.


Count Nikolaus [Miklós] (1583-1645) Events August 5 - Sir Humphrey Gilbert establishes first English colony in North America, at what is now St Johns, Newfoundland. ... // Events January 10 - Archbishop Laud executed on Tower Hill, London. ...


Born in Galanta. Raised as a Protestant, he later converted to Catholicism. Created Count by the Emperor in 1626, he achieved great wealth in part by marrying (twice) into money. Galanta (Hungarian: Galánta) is a small town situated in Slovakia. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ... Events September 30 - Nurhaci, chieftain of the Jurchens and founder of the Qing Dynasty dies and is succeeded by his son Hong Taiji. ...


Nikolaus was in 1625 elected Palatine, that is, ruler of Royal Hungary under vassalship to the Emperor. Events March 27 - Prince Charles Stuart becomes King Charles I of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... The palatine (Latin: comes palatii, comes palatinus, later: palatinus (regni), Hungarian: nádorispán/ nádor, Slovak: nádvorný župan/ nádvorný špán, later: palatín / nádvorník, German: Palatin) was the highest dignitary in the Kingdom of Hungary after the king (a kind of powerful prime minister... The Kingdom of Hungary is the name of a multiethnic kingdom that existed in Central Europe from 1000 to 1918. ...


Prince Paul [Pál] (1635-1713) Events February 10 - The Académie française in Paris is expanded to become a national academy for the artistic elite. ... // Events April 11 - War of the Spanish Succession: Treaty of Utrecht June 23 - French residents of Acadia given one year to declare allegiance to Britain or leave Nova Scotia Canada first Orrery built by George Graham Ongoing events Great Northern War (1700-1721) War of the Spanish Succession (1702-1713...


Third son of Nicholas, born in Eisenstadt. Elected Palatine in 1681 and created Prince in 1687 by the Emperor. Paul was a poet, a harpsichordist, and a composer; a number of his cantatas survive. He also wrote a number of religious works. Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... Events March 19 - The men under explorer Robert Cavelier de La Salle murder him while searching for the mouth of the Mississippi River. ... Harpsichord in Flemish style; for more info, click the image. ... Cantata (Italian for a song or story set to music), a vocal composition accompanied by instruments and generally containing more than one movement. ...


Under Paul the palace in Eisenstadt was rebuilt.


Paul's troops were among the coalition that raised the siege of Vienna in 1683. He also played an important role in suppressing the autonomy of the existing Hungarian nobility. The Battle of Vienna in 1683 (as distinct from the Siege of Vienna in 1529) was the decisive battle of the Great Turkish War. ... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ...


Prince Michael [Mihály](1671-1721) Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... 1721 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


son of Paul


Prince Joseph [Joszef Simon Antal] (1688-1721) // Events A high-powered conspiracy of notables, the Immortal Seven, invite William and Mary to depose James II of England. ... 1721 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Half-brother of Michael, he reigned for only 11 weeks. His wife Maria Octavia (ca. 1686-1762) served as regent during Paul Anton's minority, and introduced the German language to the court. Events The League of Augsburg is founded. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Prince Paul Anton [Pál Antal] (1711-1762) // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ... 1762 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Son of Joseph, a soldier who rose to the rank of Field Marshall.


Paul Anton was the Esterhazy prince who engaged Haydn. He could play the violin, the flute, and the lute. The violin is a stringed musical instrument that has four strings tuned a perfect fifth apart. ... This article pertains to the musical instrument. ... The lute is a plucked string instrument with a fretted neck and a deep round back. ...


Prince Nikolaus "the Magnificent" [Miklós Jozsef] (1714-1790) // Events August 1 - George, elector of Hanover becomes King George I of Great Britain. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Son of Joseph, in his youth a decorated soldier. He was the primary patron of Haydn and builder of Esterháza (see above).


Nikolaus was "magnificent" not just in his palaces and patronage of music, but also in his choice of apparel, which included a famous jacket studded with diamonds.


Nikolaus played the cello, the viola da gamba, and (his favorite instrument), the difficult and now-obscure baryton. For the latter instrument, Haydn wrote a great deal of chamber music, which is seldom played today. A cropped image to show the relative size of a cello to a human (Uncropped Version) The violoncello, or as it is more commonly to refered to as the cello or cello (pronounced Cheh-loh), is a stringed instrument and a member of the violin family. ... Various Viola da gamba The viol or viola da gamba family of musical instruments is related to the vihuela, rebec, etc. ... A drawing of a baryton from 1880 The baryton is an obsolete bowed stringed instrument, in regular use up until the end of the 18th century. ...


In his later life Nikolaus played much less and became something of a couch potato, listening to ceaseless performances of operas produced by Haydn and his troupe both for the main theater and for the marionette theater at Esterhaza. Haydn wrote several of these operas himself, and these are likewise among his least remembered works.


There is no sign that Nikolaus had any real interest in Haydn's string quartets, now considered among his greatest works. The resident string quartet of the Library of Congress in 1963 A string quartet is a musical ensemble of four string instruments—usually two violins, a viola and cello—or a piece written to be performed by such a group. ...


However, this is one area of Haydn's oeuvre where Nikolaus can be uncontroversially considered a great patron of musical arts, as he was the primary sponsor of Haydn's series of symphonies. Of the 106 symphonies, those coming after the few written for Count Morzin (Haydn's first employer) and for Paul Anton, and before the "Paris" symphonies of the late 1780s, were written specifically at Nikolaus's instigation. They were premiered by a small orchestra that Nikolaus provided to Haydn, giving the composer ample rehearsal time, salary levels to attract top personnel, and full artistic control. Few composers can ever have claimed to have possessed such an incubator for their creations, and the symphonies that Haydn wrote for this ensemble can fairly be regarded as Nikolaus's (inadvertent) gift to posterity. A symphony is an extended piece of music usually for orchestra and comprising several movements. ... Events and Trends 1787 United States Constitution 1788 Great Britain established the prison colony of New South Wales in Australia. ...


Nikolaus was disconsolate when his wife died in 1790, and Haydn found himself hard pressed trying to keep his employer's spirits up with music during the few months that the prince survived his wife. The composer was touchingly loyal to his prince, but probably felt a certain sense of relief when the Prince finally died. 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Prince Anton [Antal] (1738-1794) Events January 1 - Bouvet Island is discovered by French explorer Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Son of Nikolaus I, disbanded the Esterhazy musical establishment for the duration of his reign.


Prince Nikolaus II [Miklós Ferdinand] (1765-1833) 1765 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Son of Anton. In his youth he served as an officer in the Guards and took the Grand Tour. Later on he served the Empire as a diplomat. For the bicycle racing term Grand Tour, see Grand Tour (cycling). ...


A dramatic moment in Nikolaus's career occurred in (1809) when Napoleon made him an offer to become King of an independent Hungary. Nicholas helped save the Empire by rejecting Napoleon's invitation. Actually, he went further than this, and raised a regiment of volunteers to help defend the Empire, an action he had previously taken in 1797. 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... 1797 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


During his Grand Tour experience Nikolaus developed a taste for the visual arts, and as Prince Nikolaus accumulated a great collection of drawings and paintings. His profligacy as a collector cause financial difficulties for the next two generations of the family.


Haydn biographer Karl Geiringer describes Nicolaus II thus: "He was as complete an autocrat as his grandfather had been, but lacked the latter's charm, kindliness, and genuine understanding of music ... contemporaries described the prince's nature as 'worthy of an Asiatic despot'".


Nikolaus II commissioned the six late masses of Haydn noted above, as well as the Mass in C of Ludwig van Beethoven. At the first performance of the Beethoven Mass, the Prince criticized the work, and Beethoven left his house in a rage. Ludwig van Beethoven Ludwig van Beethoven (baptized December 17, 1770; died March 26, 1827) was a German composer of classical music, who predominantly lived in Vienna, Austria. ...


The Prince could play the clarinet, or so it would appear from one of the portraits of him. A bass clarinet, which sounds an octave lower than the more common Bâ™­ soprano clarinet. ...


The splendor of Nikolaus II's reign was greatly diminished by a financial crisis that shook Austria in 1811. 1811 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


Prince Paul Anton III [Pál Antal] (1786-1866) 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1866 is a common year starting on Monday. ...


Served Austria in a series diplomatic posts, and in 1848 was briefly Foreign Minister. 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The family encountered financial trouble during his reign, and (according to the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica), "the last years of his life were spent in comparative poverty and isolation, as even the Esterhazy-Forchtenstein estates were unequal to the burden of supporting his fabulous extravagance and had to be placed in the hands of curators."


Prince [Miklós Pál] (1817-1894) 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1894 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...


Prince [Pál Antal Miklós] (1843-1898) 1843 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Prince [Miklós Pál] (1869-1920) 1869 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ...


Prince [Pál Maria Alois Antal Miklós Victor] (1901-1989) 1901 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prince [Anton Rudolf Marie Georg Christoph Hubertus Johannes Karl Aglaë] (born 1936) 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The heir to the line is Paul-Anton Nikolaus Maximilian, born in Munich in 1986. The title of Prince has no legal standing today, as noble titles were abolished in Hungary in 1945. 1986 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Other members of the Esterházy family

A minor member of the Esterhazy family was Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy, notorious for his role in the Dreyfus affair. Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy (December 16, 1847–May 21, 1923 ) was French traitor, who served as a spy for Germany. ... Alfred Dreyfus in an army uniform, wearing a mustache. ...


Another was Joseph Eszterházy (nephew to Palatine Paul), the ban of Croatia between 1733 and 1741. Francis Eszterházy also held that title between 1783 and 1785, but he was opposed by Francis Szechenyi. Ban was a title used in some states in central and south-eastern Europe between the 9th century and the 20th century. ... Events February 12 - British colonist James Oglethorpe founds Savannah, Georgia. ... // Events April 10 – Austrian army attack troops of Frederick the Great at Mollwitz December 19 – Vitus Bering dies in his expedition east of Siberia December 25 – Anders Celsius develops his own thermometer scale Celsius William Browning invents mineral water Elizabeth of Russia became czarina. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1785 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The renowned contemporary Hungarian writer Péter Esterházy is a descendent of the historical Esterházys. Péter Esterházy (occasionally written Eszterházy) is one of the most widely known contemporary Hungarian writers. ...


Márton Esterházy is the younger brother of Péter. He was an excellent football player, playing for the Hungarian national team between 1980-1988 and took part in the world championship in 1986, in Mexico. He obtained 29 caps and score 11 goals. At club level, Márton played for Bp. Honvéd and also AEK Athens.


See also

This article deals with some titles of the nobility and royalty in the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Generalfeldmarschall (General Field Marshal, usually translated simply as Field Marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and also of the Holy Roman Empire and Austrian Empire which could be granted to active officers only in wartime. ...

Book

  • The quotation from Karl Geiringer above is from his Haydn: A Creative Life in Music (Norton, New York, 1946).

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ferdinand Walsin Esterhazy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (806 words)
Esterhazy was the perpetrator of the crime of which Alfred Dreyfus had been wrongly accused and convicted.
Born in Paris, Esterhazy belonged to an illustrious Hungarian family, a branch of which had established itself in France at the end of the 17th century, and the head of which had organized there a regiment of hussars.
There being a dearth of officers after the catastrophe of Sedan, Esterhazy was able to pass muster as a French lieutenant, then as a captain, and went through the campaigns of the Loire and of the Jura.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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