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Encyclopedia > Establishment of Turkish national movement

"Establishment of Turkish national movement" explains the initial stages of the alliance that will become Turkish revolutionaries which waged an independence war that resulted in decleration of Republic of Turkey. It is a commoan ground building process through a series of agreements and conferences through out Anatolia and thrace. The process was aimed to unite independent movements around the country to build a comman voice. The people who master mind the Turkish National Movement: Mustafa Kemal Ataturk Ismet Inonu Fevzi Cakmak Kazim Karabekir Ali Fuat Cebesoy ... Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Thrace (Greek Θρᾴκη, Thrákē, Bulgarian Тракия, Trakija, Turkish Trakya; Latin: Thracia or Threcia) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe spread over southern Bulgaria, northeastern Greece (Western Thrace), and European Turkey. ...

Whole process is attributed to Mustafa Kemal as he was the image. Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Mustafa Kemal Atatürk (1881 – November 10, 1938), Turkish soldier and statesman, was the founder and first President of the Republic of Turkey. ...


Amasya Agreement

The Amasya Agreement was important in many respects. It was the first call to the national movement against the occupying powers. It consisted of talks about national independence, based on provinces, not race. Even in this declaration we saw the roots of what constitutes the "Turk" as a political term, there was no distinction or reference to race or religion. The message read as follows:

  • The unity of the motherland and national independence are in danger.
  • The Istanbul government is unable to carry out its responsibilities.
  • It is only through the nation's effort and determination that national independence will be won.
  • It is necessary to establish a national committee, free from all external influences and control, that will review the national situation and make known to the world the peoples desires for justice.
  • It has been decided to hold immediately a National Congress in Sivas, the most secure place in Anatolia.
  • Three representatives from each province should be sent immediately to the Sivas Congress.
  • To be prepared for every eventuality, this subject should be kept a national secret.

This agreement was signed by Atatürk, Rauf Orbay, Ali Fuat Cebesoy, Refet Bele and later Kazim Karabekir. This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ...

Erzurum Congress

On American Mandate: On 1 August 1919, the King-Crane Commission tried to contact a large groups of interested parties in Istanbul (Ottoman Control), to obtain their positions with a view toward reporting them to the Paris Peace Conference. Kazim Karabekir learned that a memorandum was adopted by an amalgamation of political groups in Istanbul and consequently, the Erzurum Congress, which has been in session since 23 July (until 7 August 1919) sent a memorandum to President Wilson on the same day (1 August). It was probably also meant to remind all other parties of Wilson's 14 Points and the fact that the Nationalists were aware of them. Among the objectives of the Nationalists was, it appears, to signal the resolve of the Nationalists to the interested parties, and display their intent not to tolerate indiscriminate political pressure. What began as a suggestion to the Nationalists to accept the American Mandate at the time of the Erzurum Congress, became a major campaign immediately afterwards. By the time Sivas Congress was convened, no less than three channels were working on the Nationalist leadership to persuade them at least to "consider" the American Mandate, if not outright adopt a resolution in favor of it at the Sivas Congress. This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, tone, style, and voice). ... United States President Woodrow Wilson delivered a speech to Congress on January 8, 1918, outlining Fourteen Points for reconstructing a new Europe following World War I. While many of the points were specific, others were more general, including freedom of the seas, abolishing secret treaties, disarmament, restored sovereignty of some...

Balıkesir Congress

Alaşehir Congress

Sivas Congress

Mustafa Kemal with Refet-Rauf-Bekir and representatives

Mustafa Kemal opened the National Congress at Sivas, with delegates from the entire nation taking part. The Erzurum resolutions were transformed into a national appeal, and the name of the organization changed to the Society to Defend the Rights and Interests of the Provinces of Anatolia and Rumeli. The Erzurum resolutions were reaffirmed with minor additions, these included new clauses such as article 3 which states that the formation of an independent Greece on the Aydin, Manisa, and Bahikesir fronts was unacceptable. The Sivas Congress essentially reinforced the stance taken at the Erzurum Congress. All these were performed while the Harbord Commission arrived in Istanbul. Image File history File links Ataturk-(1967)_-_Sivas_congress_Refet-Rauf-bekir. ... Image File history File links Ataturk-(1967)_-_Sivas_congress_Refet-Rauf-bekir. ...

Amasya Protocole

Group picture
Group picture

Image File history File linksMetadata Amasya_agreement-Samsun_local_goverment_museum. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Amasya_agreement-Samsun_local_goverment_museum. ...



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