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Encyclopedia > Essential oil
Plant oils
Sunflowerseed oil
Types
Vegetable fats (list)
Essential oil (list)
Macerated (list)
Uses
Drying oil - Oil paint
Cooking oil
Fuel - Biodiesel
Aromatherapy
Components
Saturated fat
Monounsaturated fat
Polyunsaturated fat
Trans fat

An essential oil is any concentrated, hydrophobic liquid containing volatile aroma compounds from plants, which are called aromatic herbs or aromatic plants. They are also known as volatile or ethereal oils, or simply as the "oil of" the plant material from which they were extracted, such as oil of clove. An oil is "essential" in the sense that it carries a distinctive scent, or essence, of the plant. Essential oils do not as a group need to have any specific chemical properties in common, beyond conveying characteristic fragrances. They are not to be confused with essential fatty acids. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 400 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1664 × 2496 pixel, file size: 247 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) en: Еhe sonflowerseed oil. ... “Vegetable oil” redirects here. ... Olive oil The following is intended to be a comprehensive list of oils that are extracted from plants. ... Essential oil of Eucalyptus Fennel seeds are used as a mouth freshener in India, and are the source of an essential oil Essential oils are plant oils extracted by distillation. ... Maceration (from Latin maceratus, past participle of macerare, to soften) may refer to: extreme leanness usually caused by starvation or disease a solution prepared by soaking plant material in vegetable oil or water the steeping of grape skins and solids in must, where alcohol acts as a solvent to extract... Commercially-available macerated oils include all these, and others. ... A drying oil is an oil which hardens to a tough, solid film after a period of exposure to air. ... View of Delft in oil paint, by Johannes Vermeer. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with vegetable oil. ... Waste Vegetable Oil which has been filtered. ... This article is about transesterified lipids. ... Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... In chemistry, especially biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (or organic acid), often with a long aliphatic tail (long chains), either saturated or unsaturated. ... Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. ... For discussion how dietary fats affect cardiovascular health, see Diet and heart disease. ... // In nutrition, polyunsaturated fat is an abbreviation of polyunsaturated fatty acid. ... A trans fatty acid (commonly shortened to trans fat) is an unsaturated fatty acid molecule that contains a trans double bond between carbon atoms, which makes the molecule less kinked compared to cis fat. Research suggests a correlation between diets high in trans fats and diseases like atherosclerosis and coronary... In chemistry, hydrophobic or lipophilic species, or hydrophobes, tend to be electrically neutral and nonpolar, and thus prefer other neutral and nonpolar solvents or molecular environments. ... For other uses, see Liquid (disambiguation). ... An aroma compound, also known as odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor, is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor. ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Essential fatty acids, or EFAs, are fatty acids that cannot be constructed within an organism from other components (generally all references are to humans) by any known chemical pathways; and therefore must be obtained from the diet. ...


Essential oils are generally extracted by distillation. Other processes include expression, or solvent extraction. They are used in perfumes, cosmetics and bath products[1], for flavoring food and drink, and for scenting incense and household cleaning products. Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their boiling points. ... In chemistry, liquid-liquid extraction (or more briefly, solvent extraction) is a useful method to separate components (compounds) of a mixture. ... For the book Perfume by Patrick Süskind, see Perfume (book). ... Make-up redirects here. ... Flavouring (or flavoring) is a product which is added to food in order to change or augment its taste. ... Incense is composed of aromatic organic materials. ...


Various essential oils have been used medicinally at different periods in history. Medical applications proposed by those who sell medicinal oils range from skin treatments to remedies for cancer, and are often based on historical use of these oils for these purposes. Such claims are now subject to regulation in most countries, and have grown correspondingly more vague, to stay within these regulations. Many plants have traditional medical uses. ...


Interest in essential oils has revived in recent decades, with the popularity of aromatherapy, a branch of alternative medicine which claims that the specific aromas carried by essential oils have curative effects. Oils are volatilized or diluted in a carrier oil and used in massage, or burned as incense, for example. Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ...

Contents

Production

Fragrance extraction are processes which involve extracting aromatic compounds from the raw materials using various methods such as distillation, solvent extraction, expression, or enfleurage. ...

Distillation

See also: distillation

Today, most common essential oils, such as lavender, peppermint, and eucalyptus, are distilled. Raw plant material, consisting of the flowers, leaves, wood, bark, roots, seeds, or peel, is put into an alembic (distillation apparatus) over water. As the water is heated the steam passes through the plant material, vaporizing the volatile compounds. The vapors flow through a coil where they condense back to liquid, which is then collected in the receiving vessel. Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ... An alembic is an alchemical still consisting of two retorts connected by a tube. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ...


Most oils are distilled in a single process. One exception is Ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata), which takes 22 hours to complete through a fractional distillation. Binomial name Cananga odorata (Lam. ... Binomial name Cananga odorata (Lam. ... Fractional distillation is the separation of a mixture into its component parts, or fractions, such as in separating chemical compounds by their boiling point by heating them to a temperature at which several fractions of the compound will evaporate. ...


The recondensed water is referred to as a hydrosol, hydrolat, herbal distillate or plant water essence, which may be sold as another fragrant product. Popular hydrosols are rose water, lavender water, lemon balm, clary sage and orange blossom water. The use of herbal distillates in cosmetics is increasing. Some plant hydrosols have unpleasant smells and are therefore not sold. Herbal distillates are aqueous solutions or colloidal suspensions (hydrosols) of essential oils usually obtained by steam distillation from aromatic plants or herbs. ... Rosewater is the hydrosol portion of the distillate of rose petals. ... Binomial name Melissa officinalis Linnaeus Lemon balm (Melissa officinalis), not to be confused with bee balm, Monarda species, is a perennial herb in the mint family Lamiaceae, native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... Binomial name Salvia sclarea L. ref. ... Make-up redirects here. ...


Expression

Most citrus peel oils are expressed mechanically, or cold-pressed. Due to the large quantities of oil in citrus peel and the relatively low cost to grow and harvest the raw materials, citrus-fruit oils are cheaper than most other essential oils. Lemon or sweet orange oils that are obtained as by-products of the citrus industry are even cheaper. A by-product is a secondary or incidental product deriving from a manufacturing process or chemical reaction, and is not the primary product or service being produced. ...


Prior to the discovery of distillation, essential oils were extracted by pressing. Laboratory distillation set-up: 1: Heat source 2: Still pot 3: Still head 4: Thermometer/Boiling point temperature 5: Condenser 6: Cooling water in 7: Cooling water out 8: Distillate/receiving flask 9: Vacuum/gas inlet 10: Still receiver 11: Heat control 12: Stirrer speed control 13: Stirrer/heat plate...


Solvent extraction

Most flowers contain too little volatile oil to undergo expression and their chemical components are too delicate and easily denatured by the high heat used in steam distillation. Instead, a solvent such as hexane or supercritical carbon dioxide is used to extract the oils. Extracts from hexane and other hydrophobic solvent are called concretes, which is a mixture of essential oil, waxes, resins, and other lipophilic (oil soluble) plant material. For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... the 3rd ingredient in big mac ... Carbon dioxide pressure-temperature phase diagram Supercritical carbon dioxide refers to carbon dioxide with some unique properties. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Although highly fragrant, concretes contain large quantities of non-fragrant waxes and resins. As such another solvent, often ethyl alcohol, which only dissolves the fragrant low-molecular weight compounds, is used to extract the fragrant oil from the concrete. The alcohol is removed by a second distillation, leaving behind the absolute. Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Similar to essential oils, absolutes are concentrated, highly-aromatic, oily mixtures extracted from plants. ...


Supercritical carbon dioxide is used as a solvent in supercritical fluid extraction. This method has many benefits, including avoiding petrochemical residues in the product. It does not yield an absolute directly. The supercritical carbon dioxide will extract both the waxes and the essential oils that make up the concrete. Subsequent processing with liquid carbon dioxide, achieved in the same extractor by merely lowering the extraction temperature, will separate the waxes from the essential oils. This lower temperature process prevents the decomposition and denaturing of compounds and provides for a superior product. When the extraction is complete, the pressure is reduced to ambient and the carbon dioxide reverts back to a gas, leaving no residue. Although supercritical carbon dioxide is also used for making decaffeinated coffee, the actual process is different. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... Decaffeination is the act of removing caffeine from coffee beans. ... For other uses, see Coffee (disambiguation). ...


Production quantities

Estimates of total production of essential oils are difficult to obtain. One estimate, compiled from data in 1989, 1990 and 1994 from various sources gives the following total production, in tonnes, of essential oils for which more than 1,000 tonnes were produced.[2]

Oil Tonnes
Sweet orange 12,000
Mentha arvensis 4,800
Peppermint 3,200
Cedarwood 2,600
Lemon 2,300
Eucalyptus globulus 2,070
Litsea cubeba 2,000
Clove (leaf) 2,000
Spearmint 1,300

Binomial name Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck Orange—specifically, sweet orange—refers to the citrus tree Citrus sinensis (syn. ... Binomial name Mentha arvensis L. Mentha arvensis is a species of mint native to most of Europe and Asia. ... Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) is a (usually) sterile hybrid mint, a cross between watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... This article is about the fruit. ... Binomial name Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ... Binomial name Litsea cubeba May Chang Litsea cubeba is an evergreen tree or shrub. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Binomial name Mentha spicata Crantz Spearmint (Mentha spicata, syn ) is a species of mint native to central and southern Europe, where it grows in wet soils. ...

Essential oil use in aromatherapy

Main article: Aromatherapy

Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine, in which healing effects are ascribed to the aromatic compounds in essential oils and other plant extracts. Many common essential oils have medicinal properties that have been applied in folk medicine since ancient times and are still widely used today. For example, many essential oils have antiseptic properties.[3]. Many are also claimed to have an uplifting effect on the mind. The claims are supported in some studies[4][5] and unconfirmed in others.[6] Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... A traditional healer in Côte dIvoire Folk medicine refers collectively to procedures traditionally used for treatment of illness and injury, aid to childbirth, and maintenance of wellness. ... An antiseptic solution of Povidone-iodine applied to an abrasion Antiseptics (Greek αντί, against, and σηπτικός, putrefactive) are antimicrobial substances that are applied to living tissue/skin to reduce the possibility of infection, sepsis, or putrefaction. ...


Dilution

Essential oils are usually lipophilic (literally: "oil-loving") compounds that usually are not miscible with water. Instead, they can be diluted in solvents like pure ethanol (alcohol), polyethylene glycol, or oils. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... For other uses, see Solvent (disambiguation). ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... Polyethylene glycol (PEG) and polyethylene oxide (PEO) are polymers composed of repeating subunits of identical structure, called monomers, and are the most commercially important polyethers. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ...


Raw Materials

Essential oils are derived from various sections of plants. Some plants, like the bitter orange, are sources of several types of essential oil. Essential oil of Eucalyptus Fennel seeds are used as a mouth freshener in India, and are the source of an essential oil Essential oils are plant oils extracted by distillation. ... Binomial name Citrus aurantium L. The bitter orange, refers to a citrus tree (Citrus aurantium) and its fruit. ...

Berries This article is about the fruit. ...

Seeds Binomial name (L.) Merr. ... Species Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ...

Bark For other uses, see Almond (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Pimpinella species, but the name anise is frequently applied to Fennel. ... Binomial name L. Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Geerah redirects here. ... Nutmeg Oil is a volatile oil containing borneol and eugenol. ... For other uses, see Bark (disambiguation). ...

Wood Binomial name Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees Cassia (Cinnamomum aromaticum, synonym ), also called Chinese cinnamon, is an evergreen tree native to southern China and mainland Southeast Asia west to Myanmar. ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... This article is about the Sassafras tree. ... For other uses, see Wood (disambiguation). ...

Rhizome R-phrases 11-20/21/22-36/37/38 S-phrases 16-26-36 RTECS number EX1260000 (R) EX1250000 (S) Supplementary data page Structure and properties n, εr, etc. ... For other uses, see Cedar (disambiguation). ... Rosewood refers to a number of richly hued timbers, brownish with darker veining. ... The branches of a young sandalwood tree found in Hawaii Sandalwood is the fragrant wood of trees in the genus Santalum. ... Agarwood or eaglewood is the most expensive wood in the world. ... For other uses, see Rhizome (disambiguation). ...

Leaves For other uses, see Ginger (disambiguation). ... Look up foliage in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Resin For other uses, see Basil (disambiguation). ... bay leaves Bay leaf in Greek Daphni (plural bay leaves) is the aromatic leaf of several species of the Laurel family (Lauraceae). ... Binomial name J.Presl Cassia (Chinese cinnamon) is also commonly called (and sometimes sold as) cinnamon. ... Binomial name L. Painting from Koehlers Medicinal Plants (1887) Common sage (Salvia officinalis) is a small evergreen subshrub, with woody stems, grayish leaves, and blue to purplish flowers native to southern Europe and the Mediterranean region. ... [[Link title]] This article is about the plant genus. ... Species Over 50: see text Lemon Grass Lemon grass or lemongrass is a perennial herb used in Asian (particularly Thai, Khmer and Vietnamese) and Caribbean cooking. ... Species 236; see List of Melaleuca species Melaleuca is a genus of plants in the myrtle family Myrtaceae. ... Binomial name Origanum vulgare L. Oregano or Pot Marjoram (Origanum vulgare) is a species of Origanum, native to Europe, the Mediterranean region and southern and central Asia. ... Binomial name Benth. ... Binomial name Mentha × piperita L. Peppermint (Mentha × piperita) is a (usually) sterile hybrid mint, a cross between watermint (Mentha aquatica) and spearmint (Mentha spicata). ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... For other uses, see Rosemary (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Mentha spicata Crantz Spearmint (Mentha spicata, syn ) is a species of mint native to central and southern Europe, where it grows in wet soils. ... Tea tree or Ti Tree is a popular name that has been applied to a number of different, unrelated plants: Camellia sinensis, from which tea is obtained. ... Species About 350 species, including: Thymus adamovicii Thymus altaicus Thymus amurensis Thymus bracteosus Thymus broussonetii Thymus caespititius Thymus camphoratus Thymus capitatus Thymus capitellatus Thymus camphoratus Thymus carnosus Thymus cephalotus Thymus cherlerioides Thymus ciliatus Thymus cilicicus Thymus cimicinus Thymus comosus Thymus comptus Thymus curtus Thymus disjunctus Thymus doerfleri Thymus glabrescens Thymus... Wintergreen is a term that can refer to various groups of plants: Wintergreen once commonly referred to plants that continue photosynthesis (remain green) throughout the winter. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Flowers 100g of frankincense resin. ... 100g of Myrrh. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...

Peel Chamomile flowers The name Chamomile or Camomile is ambiguous and can refer to several distinct species. ... Binomial name Salvia sclarea L. ref. ... Binomial name (L.) Merrill & Perry A single dried clove flower bud Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum, syn. ... Not to be confused with germanium. ... Species See text Hyssop (Hyssopus) is a genus of about 10-12 species of herbaceous or semi-woody plants in the family Lamiaceae, native from the Mediterranean east to central Asia. ... This article is about the shrub of genus Jasminum. ... Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Binomial name Leptospermum scoparium J.R.Forst. ... Binomial name L. Marjoram (Origanum majorana, Lamiaceae) is a somewhat cold-sensitive perennial herb or undershrub with sweet pine and citrus flavours. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... For other uses, see Rose (disambiguation). ... Binomial name Cananga odorata (Lam. ... Peel, also known as rind, is the outer protective layer of a fruit. ...

Root Trinomial name Citrus aurantium subsp. ... Binomial name Macfad. ... This article is about the fruit. ... Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name (L.) Osbeck[1] Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults. ... Binomial name Citrus reticulata Blanco For other uses, see Tangerine (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Root (disambiguation). ...

Binomial name L. & Maillefer Valerian (Valeriana officinalis, Valerianaceae) is a hardy perennial flowering plant, with heads of sweetly scented pink or white flowers. ...

Rose oil

Main article: Rose oil

The most well-known essential oil is probably rose oil, produced from the petals of Rosa damascena and Rosa centifolia. Steam-distilled rose oil is known as "rose otto" while the solvent extracted product is known as "rose absolute". Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. ... Rose oil, meaning either rose otto or rose absolute, is the essential oil extracted from the petals of various types of rose. ... Damasks are an important type of Old Roses, also for their prominent place in the pedigree of many other types. ... Binomial name Rosa centifolia L. Rosa centifolia (lit. ...


Dangers

Because of their concentrated nature, essential oils generally should not be applied directly to the skin in their undiluted or "neat" form. Some can cause severe irritation, or provoke an allergic reaction. Instead, essential oils should be blended with a vegetable-based "carrier" oil (a.k.a., a base, or "fixed" oil) before being applied. Common carrier oils include olive, almond, hazelnut and grapeseed. Common ratio of essential oil disbursed in a carrier oil is 0.5–3% (most under 10%), and depends on its intended purpose. Some essential oils, including many of the citrus peel oils, are photosensitizers (i.e., increasing the skin's vulnerability to sunlight, making it more likely to burn). Lavender oil, though generally considered the mildest essential oil, is cytotoxic to human skin cells[7]. For other uses, see Citrus (disambiguation). ... Cytotoxicity is the quality of being poisonous to cells. ...



Industrial users of essential oils should consult the material safety data sheets (MSDS) to determine the hazards and handling requirements of particular oils. An example MSDS in a US format provides guidance for handling a hazardous substance and information on its composition and properties. ...


Gynaecomastia

Some essential oils, particularly lavender and tea tree oil, have been implicated in causing gynaecomastia, an abnormal breast tissue growth, in prepubescent boys. [8] A child hormone specialist at the University of Cambridge claimed "... these oils can mimic oestrogens" and "people should be a little bit careful about using these products". [9] Species About 25-30, including: Lavandula abrotanoides Lavandula angustifolia Lavandula canariensis Lavandula dentata Lavandula lanata Lavandula latifolia Lavandula multifida Lavandula pinnata Lavandula stoechas Lavandula viridis Lavandula x intermedia The Lavenders Lavandula are a genus of about 25-30 species of flowering plants in the mint family, Lamiaceae, native from the... Tea Tree Oil (Melaleuca Oil) Tea tree oil is an extraction from the Melaleuca tree. ... Gynecomastia (gynaecomastia BE) is the development of abnormal breast tissue on men, small or large, and normally on both sides. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Estrogens (or oestrogens) are a group of steroid compounds that function as the primary female sex hormone. ...


Pesticide residues

There is some concern about pesticide residues in essential oils, particularly those used therapeutically. For this reason, many practitioners of aromatherapy choose to buy organically produced oils. A pesticide is a substance or mixture of substances used for preventing, controlling, or lessening the damage caused by a pest. ... Organic farming is a form of agriculture which excludes the use of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides, plant growth regulators, livestock feed additives, and genetically modified organisms. ...


Ingestion

While some advocate the ingestion of essential oils for therapeutic purposes, this should never be done except under the supervision of a professional who is licensed to prescribe such treatment. Some very common essential oils such as Eucalyptus are extremely toxic internally. Pharmacopoeia standards for medicinal oils should be heeded. Essential oils should always be kept out of the reach of children. Some oils can be toxic to some domestic animals, cats in particular. Owners must ensure that their pets do not come into contact with potentially harmful essential oils.[10] The internal use of essential oils should be fully avoided during pregnancy without consulting with a licensed professional, as some can be abortifacients in dose 0.5–10 ml. Back cover of the Chinese pharmacopoeia First Edition (published in 1930) Pharmacopoeia (literally, the art of the drug compounder), in its modern technical sense, is a book containing directions for the identification of samples and the preparation of compound medicines, and published by the authority of a government or a... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... An abortifacient is a substance that induces abortion. ...


Smoke

The smoke from burning essential oils may contain potential carcinogens, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Essential oils are naturally high in volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Look up carcinogen in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An aromatic hydrocarbon (abbreviated as AH), or arene is a hydrocarbon, the molecular structure of which incorporates one or more planar sets of six carbon atoms that are connected by delocalised electrons numbering the same as if they consisted of alternating single and double covalent bonds. ... This article describes a highly specialized aspect of its subject in the Terminology and legal definitions section. ...


Toxicology

LD50 of most essential oils or their main components are 0.5-10 g/kg (orally or skin test).[citation needed] An LD50 test being administered In toxicology, the LD50 or colloquially semilethal dose of a particular substance is a measure of how much constitutes a lethal dose. ...


Notes and references

  1. ^ "Making Scents: Aromatherapy and the Benefits of Essential Oils" Sfbsc.com
  2. ^ ISO TC 54 Business Plan — Essential oils. Retrieved on 2006-09-14. It is unclear from the source what period of time the quoted figures include.
  3. ^ Seenivasan Prabuseenivasan, Manickkam Jayakumar, and Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu (November 30, 2006). "In vitro antibacterial activity of some plant essential oils". BMC Complement Altern Med. 6 (39): 39. doi:10.1186/1472-6882-6-39. 
  4. ^ Komiya M, Takeuchi T, Harada E (September 25, 2006). "Lemon oil vapor causes an anti-stress effect via modulating the 5-HT and DA activities in mice". Behav Brain Res 172 (2): 240-9. doi:10.1016/j.bbr.2006.05.006. PMID 16780969. 
  5. ^ Hiroko Kuriyama, Satoko Watanabe, Takaaki Nakaya, Ichiro Shigemori, Masakazu Kita, Noriko Yoshida, Daiki Masaki, Toshiaki Tadai, Kotaro Ozasa, Kenji Fukui, and Jiro Imanishi (September 15, 2005). "Ambient odors of orange and lavender reduce anxiety and improve mood in a dental office". Physiol Behav 86 (1-2): 92-5. PMID 16095639. 
  6. ^ Lehrner J, Marwinski G, Lehr S, Johren P, Deecke L (June 2005). "Immunological and Psychological Benefits of Aromatherapy Massage". Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2 (2): 179. doi:10.1093/ecam/neh087. 
  7. ^ "Cytotoxicity of lavender oil and its major components to human skin cells" Prashar A, Locke IC, Evans CS
  8. ^ "Prepubertal gynecomastia linked to lavender and tea tree oils" (2007). New England Journal of Medicine 356 (5): 479-85. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa064725. PMID 17267908. 
  9. ^ "Oils make male breasts develop", BBC News, February 1, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-09-09. 
  10. ^ K. Bischoff, F. Guale (1998). "Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) Oil Poisoning in three purebred cats". Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation 10 (108). 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Additional references

  • Kurt Schnaubelt (1999). Advanced Aromatherapy: The Science of Essential Oil Therapy. Healing Arts Press. ISBN 0-89281-743-7. 
  • Wanda Sellar (2001). The Directory of Essential Oils, Reprint, Essex: The C.W. Daniel Company, Ltd. ISBN 0-85207-346-1. 
  • Robert Tisserand (1995). Essential Oil Safety: A Guide for Health Care Professionals. Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 0-443-05260-3. 
  1. Botanical Information and Aromatherapy Uses (HTML). Aromatherapy Books.

See also

Alternative medicine has been described as any of various systems of healing or treating disease (as chiropractic, homeopathy, or faith healing) not included in the traditional medical curricula taught in the United States and Britain.[1] Alternative medicine practices are often based in belief systems not derived from modern science. ... Aromatherapy is a form of alternative medicine that uses volatile liquid plant materials, known as essential oils (EOs), and other aromatic compounds from plants for the purpose of affecting a persons mood or health. ... Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants. ... Fragrance oils, also known as aroma oils, aromatic oils, and flavor oils, are blended synthetic aroma compounds or natural essential oils that are diluted with a carrier like propylene glycol, vegetable oil, or mineral oil. ... Essential oil of Eucalyptus Fennel seeds are used as a mouth freshener in India, and are the source of an essential oil Essential oils are plant oils extracted by distillation. ... Olive oil The following is intended to be a comprehensive list of oils that are extracted from plants. ... The ability of a liquid to evaporate quickly and at relatively low temperatures. ...

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Essential Oil Exporter,Aromatic Essential Oil,Essential Oil Supplier,Aromatic Essential Oil Supplier,India (164 words)
Falcon is a reckoned name in the export of 100% Pure and Natural Essential Oils.
Aromatic in nature, the essential oils are pure and natural and are widely used in distinct herbal treatments and in medications.
Because of their psychological and physiological properties, these oils get absorbed in your body and not just improve your health but also helps in preventing illness.
bella mira essential oil, young living oil, aromatherapy benefit, (1639 words)
Before using essential oils as part of an Aromatherapy treatment, it is important to understand the effect that the oil (s) have, and how it works.
When essential oils are inhaled, olfactory receptor cells are stimulated and the impulse is transmitted to the emotional center of the brain, or "limbic system".
Organic essential oils are taken from organically grown plants and are a pure, unadulterated, therapeutic grade oil.
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