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Encyclopedia > Espionage

Espionage (a word from [[Latin language|Latin espionnage) or spying is a practice of obtaining information about an organization or a society that is considered secret or confidential without the permission of the holder of the information. Unlike other forms of intelligence work, espionage involves accessing the place where the desired information is stored, or accessing the people who know the information and will divulge it through some kind of subterfuge.[citation needed]It also can be used as a general term to describe spying activities. Look up spy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Secret agent may refer to: A spy. ... Espionage is the act of spying for the purpose of covertly gathering valuable information. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... For other uses, see Society (disambiguation). ... Secrecy is the practice of sharing information among a group of people, which can be as small as one person, while hiding it from others. ... Intelligence (abbreviated or ) is the process and the result of gathering information and analyzing it to answer questions or obtain advance warnings needed to plan for the future. ...

Espionage is usually part of an institutional effort (i.e., governmental or corporate espionage), and the term is most readily associated with state spying on potential or actual enemies, primarily for military purposes, but this has been extended to spying involving corporations, known specifically as industrial espionage. Many nations routinely spy on both their enemies and allies, although they maintain a policy of not making comment on this. In addition to utilizing agencies within a government many also employ private companies to collect information on their behalf such as SCG International Risk and others. Black's Law Dictionary (1990) defines espionage as: "...gathering, transmitting, or losing...information related to the national defense." For the government in parliamentary systems, see Executive (government) A government is a body that has the power to make and the authority to enforce rules and laws within a civil, corporate, religious, academic, or other organization or group. ... For other uses, see State (disambiguation). ... A corporation (usually known in the United Kingdom and Ireland as a company) is a legal entity (distinct from a natural person) that often has similar rights in law to those of a Civil law systems may refer to corporations as moral persons; they may also go by the name... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Competitive Intelligence. ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... A Gentlemens agreement is an informal agreement between two parties. ... SCG International Risk is a private military contractor and security firm based in the U.S. state of Mississippi and Virginia with satellite support offices in Kabul, Dubai and London. ... Blacks Law Dictionary, 7th edition Blacks Law Dictionary is the definitive law dictionary for the law of the United States. ... Any activity or effort performed to protect a nation against attack or other threats. ...

A spy is a person employed to obtain such secrets. The term intelligence officer is also used to describe a member of the armed forces, police, or civilian intelligence agency who specialises in the gathering, fusion, and analysis of information and intelligence in order to provide advice to their government or another organisation. In general, intelligence officers travel to foreign countries to recruit and "run" intelligence agents, who in turn spy on their own governments. These agents can be moles (who are recruited before they get access to secrets) or defectors (who are recruited after they get access to secrets). This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... A mole is a spy who works for an enemy nation and works within his nations government. ... A defector is generally a person who gives up allegiance to a certain country in exchange for allegiance to another. ...



Incidents of espionage are well documented throughout history. The ancient writings of Chinese and Indian military strategists such as Sun-Tzu and Chanakya contain information on deception and subversion. Chanakya's student Chandragupta Maurya, founder of the Maurya Empire, made use of assassinations, spies and secret agents, which are described in Chanakya's Arthasastra. The ancient Egyptians had a thoroughly developed system for the acquisition of intelligence, and the Hebrews used spies as well, as in the story of Rahab. Feudal Japan often used ninja to gather intelligence. More recently, spies played a significant part in Elizabethan England (see Francis Walsingham). Many modern espionage methods were well established even then. [1] History studies time in human terms. ... For the mathematician, see Sun Tzu (mathematician). ... Chānakya (Sanskrit: चाणक्य) (c. ... Subversion is an overturning or uprooting. ... Allegiance: Maurya Dynasty Rank: Emperor Succeeded by: Bindusara Maurya Reign: 322 BC-298 BC Place of birth: Indian subcontinent Chandragupta Maurya (Sanskrit: चन्द्रगुप्त मौर्य; Romanized Greek: Sandrakottos), whilst often referred to as Sandrakottos outside India, is also known simply as Chandragupta (born c. ... A representation of the Lion Capital of Ashoka, which was erected around 250 BCE. It is the emblem of India. ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... Arthashastra is an ancient Indian treatise on economics and politics written by king maker Chanakya (also known as Kautilya) in the 4th century B.C during the rule of the Mauryan dynasty. ... Khafres Pyramid and the Great Sphinx of Giza, built about 2550 BC during the Fourth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom,[1] are enduring symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt Ancient Egypt was a civilization in Northeastern Africa concentrated along the middle to lower reaches of the Nile River... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the video game character from Legacy of Kain Series, see Rahab (Legacy of Kain). ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Pre-History/The Origin of History Jomon Period Main... Jiraiya, ninja and title character of the Japanese folktale Jiraiya Goketsu Monogatari. ... The Elizabethan Era is the period associated with the reign of Queen Elizabeth I (1558 - 1603) and is often considered to be a golden age in English history. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Francis Walsingham by John de Critz (detail) Sir Francis Walsingham (c. ...

The Cold War involved intense espionage activity between the United States of America and its allies and the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China and their allies, particularly related to nuclear weapons secrets. Recently, espionage agencies have targeted the illegal drug trade and those considered to be terrorists. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... After the end of WWII, American intelligence efforts turned to the Soviet Union. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Panamanian motor vessel Gatun during the largest cocaine bust in United States Coast Guard history (20 tons) off the Coast of Panama The illegal drug trade is a global black market consisting of the cultivation, manufacture, distribution and sale of illegal drugs. ... Terrorist redirects here. ...

For three decades the United States has cultivated its best and brightest to pre-eminence in what is now known as the field of communication and control. As technology has advanced, the means and methods of espionage have advanced from Nixon era wire tapping, through Reagan era programs like ECHELON and Carnivore, to surveillance of all electronic transmissions including cell phone logs, voice mail, email, packet sniffing, trace routing and wireless transmissions. By the mid 20th century humans had achieved a mastery of technology sufficient to leave the surface of the Earth for the first time and explore space. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Telephone tapping or Wire tapping/ Wiretapping (in US) describes the monitoring of telephone conversations by a third party, often by covert means. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967–1975). ... This article is about the Signals Intelligence capability. ... Carnivore is a name given to a system implemented by the Federal Bureau of Investigation that is analogous to wiretapping except in this case, e-mail and other communications are being tapped instead of telephone conversations. ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... Voicemail (or voice mail; abbreviated v-mail or vmail) is a specific application of an interactive voice response system. ... E-mail, or email, is short for electronic mail and is a method of composing, sending, and receiving messages over electronic communication systems. ...

However, the Soviet Union has been said to have had fielded the largest and most advanced spy networks during its time, infiltrating some of the most secure places on the planet, which has caused many scandals.

Since January of 2000, a long list of agencies have been data mining the world's stock exchanges; this program was formalized on October 26, 2001, in the form of the Patriot Act. This helps track the financing of people who might be laundering money. This is done without warrants. This article needs cleanup. ...

In order to gather political and economic information that might be of advantage to the United States, foreign communications are routinely subject to surveillance. In 2002, new programs of satellite surveillance and unmanned low level drones armed with missiles made it possible not only to perform surveillance in real time, but to respond with force.


The risks of espionage vary. A spy breaking the host country's laws may be deported, imprisoned, or even executed. A spy breaking his/her own country's laws can be imprisoned for espionage or/and treason, or even executed, as the Rosenbergs were. For example, when Aldrich Ames handed a stack of dossiers of CIA agents in the Eastern Bloc to his KGB-officer "handler," the KGB "rolled up" several networks, and at least ten people were secretly shot. When Ames was arrested by the FBI, he faced life in prison; his contact, who had diplomatic immunity, was declared persona non grata and taken to the airport. Ames's wife was threatened with life imprisonment if her husband did not cooperate; he did, and she was given a five-year sentence. Hugh Francis Redmond, a CIA officer in China, spent nineteen years in a Chinese prison for espionage—and died there—as he was operating without diplomatic cover and immunity. For other uses, see Treason (disambiguation) or Traitor (disambiguation). ... The Rosenbergs Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953) were American Communists who captured and maintained world attention after being tried, convicted, and executed for spying for the Soviet Union. ... Aldrich Ames Aldrich Hazen Ames (born May 26, 1941) is a former Central Intelligence Agency counterintelligence officer and analyst, who, in 1994, was convicted of spying for the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Persona non grata in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A former World War II paratrooper and native of Yonkers, New York, Hugh Francis Redmond later worked for the CIA. He was in Shanghai disguised as an ice cream machine salesman from 1946 to 1951, returning intelligence information on the Communists. ...

Image File history File links Flag_of_Argentina. ... Secretaría de Inteligencia (Intelligence Secretariat, S.I) is the premier intelligence agency of the Argentine Republic and head of its National Intelligence System. ... Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia Criminal (National Directorate of Criminal Intelligence, DNIC) it is an organism part of the Argentine Intelligence System. ... Dirección Nacional de Inteligencia Estratégica Militar (National Directorate of Strategic Military Intelligence) is an organism part of the Argentine Intelligence System, created by the 2001 Argentine Intelligence Reform. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... ASIO Central Office, Canberra. ... R. G. Casey House, the headquarters of the Australian Secret Intelligence Service The Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) is the Australian government intelligence agency responsible for collecting foreign intelligence, undertaking counter-intelligence activities and cooperation with other intelligence agencies overseas. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “CSIS” redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Czech_Republic. ... Emblem of the BIS Bezpečnostní informační služba (Czech: ), is a Czech national intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Logo of Francess Direction Générale de la Sécurité Extérieure (DGSE) / General Directorate for External Security. ... The Direction Centrale des Renseignements Généraux (Central Direction of General Intelligence), often called Renseignements Généraux (RG), is the intelligence service of the French police, under orders of the Direction Générale de la Police Nationale (DGPN), and ultimately of the Ministry of the Interior. ... The Direction de la Surveillance du Territoire (DST; Directorate of Territorial Surveillance) is a directorate of the French National Police operating as a domestic intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... The Bundesnachrichtendienst (Federal Intelligence Service, BND) is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, under the control of the Bundeskanzleramt (Federal Chancellery). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... This article is about the Indian intelligence agency. ... The Intelligence Bureau is Indias internal intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... The Ministry of Intelligence and National Security (Persian: وزارت اطلاعات و امنیت کشور) is the primary intelligence agency of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... For the Haganah branch responsible for coordinating Jewish immigration into the British Mandate of Palestine, see Mossad Lealiyah Bet. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... SISDE is the Italian Domestic Intelligence and Security Agency. ... SISMI logo Servizio per le Informazioni e la Sicurezza Militare (Military Intelligence and Security Service, SISMI) is the military intelligence agency of Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mexico. ... Centro de Investigación y Seguridad Nacional (National Security and Investigation Center, CISEN) is a Mexican intelligence agency controlled by the Office of Coordination of the Presidency. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the Pakistani intelligence agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Logo of the Netherlands Algemene Inlichtingen-en Veiligheidsdienst (AIVD) / General Intelligence and Security Service Algemene Inlichtingen-en Veiligheidsdienst (AIVD), formerly known as the BVD (Binnenlandse Veiligheidsdienst) is the General Intelligence and Security Service of the Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... The New Zealand Security Intelligence Service (NZSIS or SIS) is an intelligence agency of the New Zealand government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Russia. ... Emblem of FSB The FSB (ФСБ) is a state security organization in Russia, and is the domestic successor organization to the KGB. Its name is an acronym from the Russian Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation (Федера́льная слу́жба безопа́сности Росси́йской Федера́ции) (Federalnaya Sluzhba Bezopasnosti Rossiyskoi Federatsii). ... Sluzhba Vneshney Razvedki (Служба внешней разведки) (SVR) is Russian for Foreign Intelligence Service and is the name of Russias primary external intelligence agency. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa. ... Logo of South Africas National Intelligence Agency (NIA) The National Intelligence Agency (NIA) is a South African intelligence agency. ... The South African Secret Service (SASS) is a South African intelligence agency. ... South African National Defence Force Intelligence Division (SANDF) is a military intelligence agency of South Africa. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... The Centro Nacional de Inteligencia is a Spanish official secret service agency. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... MI5 Logo. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6),[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Special Branch is the arm of the British, Irish and many Commonwealth police forces that deals with national security matters. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... “CIA” redirects here. ... The Defense Intelligence Agency, or DIA, is a major producer and manager of military intelligence for the United States Department of Defense. ...

Spies in various conflicts

See also: Intelligence agency, Special Operations Executive, and United States government security breaches

An intelligence agency is a governmental organization that for the purposes of national security is devoted to the gathering of information (known in the context as intelligence) by means of espionage, communication interception, cryptanalysis, cooperation with other institutions, and evaluation of public sources. ... The Special Operations Executive (SOE), sometimes referred to as the Baker Street Irregulars after Sherlock Holmess fictional group of spies, was a World War II organization initiated by Winston Churchill and Hugh Dalton in July 1940 as a mechanism for conducting warfare by means other than direct military engagement. ... This page is a time-line of published security lapses in the United States government. ... The most useful military intelligence of the American Civil War was probably provided to Union officers by slaves and smugglers. ... After the end of WWII, American intelligence efforts turned to the Soviet Union. ...

Espionage technology and techniques

See also: Tradecraft and List of intelligence gathering disciplines

Tradecraft are the techniques used in modern espionage. ... Intelligence Gathering Disciplines HUMINT - Human Intelligence - gathered from a person on the ground. ... Agent handler is a generic term common to many intelligence organizations which can be applied to Case Officers, those who aspire to be Case officers, controllers, contacts, couriers and other assorted trainees. ... Black Bag Operations were conducted by FBI agents wherein they illegally entered offices of targeted individuals and/or organizations, and photographed information found in their records. ... American dollar coin used for concealment Concealment devices, as the term suggests, are used to hide things for the purpose of secrecy. ... A bug is the common name for a covert listening device, usually a combination of a miniature radio transmitter with a microphone. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... A dead drop or dead letter box, is a location used to secretly pass items between two people, without requiring them to meet. ... To eavesdrop is to surreptitiously overhear a private conversation. ... “False colors” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Honeypot. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Nonofficial cover is a term used in espionage (particularly by the CIA) for an agent or operative who assumes a covert role in an organization without ties to the government he or she is working for. ... Numbers stations are shortwave radio stations of uncertain origin. ... A one-way voice link (OWVL) is a shortwave radio broadcast used by spy networks to communicate with agents in the field. ... Secure communication describes means by which people can share information with varying degrees of certainty that third parties cannot know what was said. ... Steganography is the art and science of writing hidden messages in such a way that no one apart from the intended recipient knows of the existence of the message; this is in contrast to cryptography, where the existence of the message itself is not disguised, but the content is obscured. ... For other uses, see Surveillance (disambiguation). ... í For other uses, see Tempest. ...

Spy fiction

Main article: Spy fiction

During the many 20th century spy scandals, a large amount of information became publicly known about national spy agencies and dozens of real-life secret agents. These sensational stories piqued public interest in a profession largely off-limits to human interest news reporting, a natural consequence of the secrecy inherent to their work. To fill in the blanks, the popular conception of the secret agent has been formed largely by 20th and 21st century literature and cinema. While it is obvious from reading news accounts that many real spies, such as Valerie Plame, are attractive and sociable, the fictional secret agent is oftentimes a loner, sometimes amoral—an existential hero operating outside the everyday constraints of society. Loner spy personalities may have been a stereotype of convenience for authors who already knew how to write loner private investigator characters that sold well from the 1920s to the present. For the video game, see Spy Fiction (video game). ... Old book bindings at the Merton College library. ... Valerie E. Wilson (born Valerie Elise Plame April 19, 1963, in Anchorage, Alaska) is a former United States Central Intelligence Agency officer who held non-official cover (NOC) status prior to the public disclosure of her classified covert CIA identity in a syndicated American newspaper column. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement which claims that individual human beings create the meanings of their own lives. ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... A private investigator, private detective, PI, or private eye, is a person who undertakes investigations, usually for a private citizen or some other entity not involved with a government or police organization. ...

While fictional secret agents, such as Johnny Fedora, were popular during the 1950s and 60s, James Bond, the protagonist of Ian Fleming's novels, who went on to spawn an extremely successful film franchise, is the most famous fictional secret agent of all: he uses the best toys and excels at fighting and seduction, completely ignoring the more tedious side of espionage. In direct contrast to this, John LeCarre's character George Smiley is often considered the "anti-Bond" and one of the more realistic fictional spies: he is a finite and imperfect man, initially defeated by enemies within the Secret Service, who eventually prevails by patience, intelligence, and compassion. Another is the boy spy Alex Rider, created by Anthony Horowitz; Rider is said to be useful due to his youth. Other popular spies are the characters Johnny Fedora by Desmond Cory; Quiller by Adam Hall; Nikita, played by Peta Wilson, and Michael Samuelle, played by Roy Dupuis, in the TV series La Femme Nikita (1997–2001), Jack Ryan in numerous Tom Clancy novels, and Sydney Bristow, played by Jennifer Garner, in the subsequent TV series Alias (2001–2006). The British TV series Spooks is another example of spy fiction. Johnny Fedora is a fictional British secret agent who was the protagonist of 16 novels written between 1951 and 1974 by Shaun Lloyd McCarthy, under the pseudonym of Desmond Cory. ... “007” redirects here. ... Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, journalist and Second World War Navy Commander. ... For other uses, see Fiction (disambiguation). ... ... Book cover showing Sir Alec Guiness as George Smiley. ... For the title character of the series, see Alex Rider (character). ... Anthony Horowitz (born 5 April 1956) is an English author and television scriptwriter. ... Johnny Fedora is a fictional British secret agent who was the protagonist of 16 novels written between 1951 and 1974 by Shaun Lloyd McCarthy, under the pseudonym of Desmond Cory. ... Desmond Cory is a pseudonym used by British mystery and thriller writer Shaun Lloyd McCarthy between 1951 and 1991. ... Quiller is the alias of a fictional spy created by English novellist Elleston Trevor and featured in a series of Cold War thrillers written under the pseudonym Adam Hall. ... Elleston Trevor was the pseudonym, and eventually legal name, of the British novelist Trevor Dudley-Smith (February 17, 1920 – 1995), who also wrote as Adam Hall and Simon Rattray, among other names. ... Peta Gia Wilson (born November 18, 1970) is an Australian actress and model. ... Roy Dupuis (April 21, 1963) is a French-Canadian (Québécois) actor. ... Nikita is a television spy drama based upon the French film directed by Luc Besson (see Nikita). ... This article is about the fictional character. ... Thomas Leo Clancy Jr. ... Sydney Anne Bristow (born 17 April 1975), played by Jennifer Garner, is the main character on the television series Alias. ... Jennifer Anne Garner [1] (born April 17, 1972) is a Golden Globe Award- and SAG Award-winning and Emmy Award-nominated American film and television actress, and producer. ... Alias is an American Spy-fi television series created by J. J. Abrams which was broadcast on ABC from September 30, 2001 to May 22, 2006, spanning five seasons. ... For the music band, see The Spooks. ...

Spy fiction has also become prevalent in video gaming, where the "wet work" aspect of espionage is highlighted. Game situations typically involve agents sent into enemy territory for purposes of subversion. These depictions are more action-oriented than would be typical in most cases of espionage, and they tend to focus on infiltration rather than information-gathering. Some examples are GoldenEye 007, Perfect Dark, Thief, Metal Gear and Splinter Cell. Recent incarnations have attempted to introduce more psychological aspects of infiltration, such as social camouflage and moral decision making, into gameplay. Wet work is an euphemism for murder or assassination by governmental agencies that came into use during the Cold War. ... For the film, see GoldenEye. ... Perfect Dark is a 2000 first-person shooter video game for the Nintendo 64 game console. ... Thief is a series of mainly first-person computer games where the player takes the role of Garrett, a thief in a fantasy/steampunk world resembling a cross between the Late Middle Ages and the Victorian era, with some primitive technology thrown in. ... For the original video game titled Metal Gear, see Metal Gear. ... An image from the original Splinter Cell Splinter Cell is a series of video games endorsed by American author Tom Clancy. ...

See also

It has been suggested that Information sensitivity be merged into this article or section. ... Industrial espionage and corporate espionage are phrases used to describe espionage conducted for commercial purposes instead of national security purposes. ... Labor spies may be referred to as spies, operatives, agents, agents provocateurs, saboteurs, infiltrators, informants, spotters, special police, or detectives. ... See also: Category:Cryptographers for an exhaustive list. ... Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... The KGB sword and shield emblem appears on the covers of the three published works by Mitrokhin, co-author Christopher Andrew. ... For other uses, see Sabotage (disambiguation). ... A security clearance is a status granted to individuals, typically members of the military and employees of governments and their contractors, allowing them access to classified information, i. ... Dumpster diving is the practice of rummaging through trash, whether commercial or residential, to find items of use that have been discarded. ...


Further reading


  • Andrew, Christopher. For the President's Eyes Only: Secret Intelligence and the American Presidency from Washington to Bush (1996)
  • Black, Ian. Israel's Secret Wars: A History of Israel's Intelligence Services (1992)
  • Bungert, Heike et al eds. Secret Intelligence in the Twentieth Century (2003) essays by scholars
  • Friedman, George. America's Secret War: Inside the Hidden Worldwide Struggle Between the United States and Its Enemies (2005), since 9-11
  • Johnson, Robert, 'Spying for Empire: The Great Game in Central and South Asia, 1757-1947' (London: Greenhill, 2006) British Intelligence and its imperial connection
  • Kahn, David The Codebreakers: The Comprehensive History of Secret Communication from Ancient Times to the Internet (1996), 1200 pages
  • Knightley, Philip. The Second Oldest Profession: Spies and Spying in the Twentieth Century (1986)
  • Lerner, K. Lee and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, eds. Encyclopedia of Espionage, Intelligence and Security (2003), 1100 pages. 850 articles, strongest on technology
  • Lerner, Brenda Wilmoth & K. Lee Lerner, eds. Terrorism : essential primary sources. Thomson Gale, 2006. ISBN 9781414406213 Library of Congress. Jefferson or Adams Bldg General or Area Studies Reading Rms LC Control Number: 2005024002.
  • O'Toole, George. Honorable Treachery: A History of U.S. Intelligence, Espionage, Covert Action from the American Revolution to the CIA (1991)
  • Owen, David. Hidden Secrets: A Complete History of Espionage and the Technology Used to Support It (2002), popular
  • Richelson, Jeffery T. A Century of Spies: Intelligence in the Twentieth Century (1997)
  • Richelson, Jeffery T. The U.S. Intelligence Community (4th ed. 1999)
  • Smith Jr., W. Thomas. Encyclopedia of the Central Intelligence Agency (2003), popular
  • West, Nigel. MI6: British Secret Intelligence Service Operations 1909-1945 (1983)
  • West, Nigel. Secret War: The Story of SOE, Britain's Wartime Sabotage Organization (1992)
  • Wohlstetter, Roberta. Pearl Harbor: Warning and Decision (1962)
  • Jenkins, Peter. "Advanced Surveillance: The Complete Manual of Surveillance Training". ISBN 0953537811

World War I

  • Beesly, Patrick. Room 40. (1982). Covers the breaking of German codes by RN intelligence, including the Turkish bribe, Zimmermann telegram, and failure at Jutland.
  • Burnham, Frederick Russell. Taking Chances; Chapter 2 is about Duquesne (1944)
  • Kahn, David. The Codebreakers. (1996). Covers the breaking of Russian codes and the victory at Tannenberg.
  • May, Ernest (ed.) Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment before the Two World Wars (1984)
  • Tuchman, Barbara W. The Zimmermann Telegram (1966)

Frederick Russell Burnham, DSO (1861-1947), an American scout and world travelling adventurer is best known for his service to the British Army in Colonial Africa and for teaching woodcraft (i. ... Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne (sometimes spelt Du Quesne pronounced in English as “Doo-Cain’’) (born Cape Colony 21 September 1877, died New York City 24 May 1956) was a South African Boer soldier, prisoner of war, big game hunter, journalist, war correspondent, Anglophobe, stockbroker, saboteur, spy, and adventurer whose hatred...

World War II: 1931-1945

  • Babington-Smith, Constance. Air Spy: The Story of Photo Intelligence in World War II (1957)
  • Hinsley, F. H. and Alan Stripp. Codebreakers: The Inside Story of Bletchley Park (2001)
  • Hinsley, F. H. British Intelligence in the Second World War (1996) abridged version of multivolume official history.
  • Hohne, Heinz. Canaris: Hitler's Master Spy (1979)
  • Jones, R. V. The Wizard War: British Scientific Intelligence 1939-1945 (1978)
  • Kahn, David. The Codebreakers. (1996).
  • Kahn, David. Hitler's Spies: German Military Intelligence in World War II (1978)
  • Kahn, David. Seizing the Enigma: The Race to Break the German U-Boat Codes, 1939-1943 (1991) FACE
  • Lewin, Ronald. The American Magic: Codes, Ciphers and the Defeat of Japan (1982)
  • May, Ernest (ed.) Knowing One's Enemies: Intelligence Assessment before the Two World Wars (1984)
  • Persico, Joseph. Roosevelt's Secret War: FDR and World War II Espionage (2001)
  • Persico, Joseph. Casey: The Lives and Secrets of William J. Casey-From the OSS to the CIA (1991)
  • Ronnie, Art. Counterfeit Hero: Fritz Duquesne, Adventurer and Spy (1995) ISBN 1-55750-733-3
  • Sayers, Michael & Albert E. Kahn. Sabotage! The Secret War Against America (1942)
  • Smith, Richard Harris. OSS: The Secret History of America's First Central Intelligence Agency (2005)
  • Stanley, Roy M. World War II Photo Intelligence (1981)
  • Wark, Wesley. The Ultimate Enemy: British Intelligence and Nazi Germany, 1933-1939 (1985)
  • Wark, Wesley K."Cryptographic Innocence: The Origins of Signals Intelligence in Canada in the Second World War", Journal of Contemporary History 22 (1987)

Frederick “Fritz” Joubert Duquesne (sometimes spelt Du Quesne pronounced in English as “Doo-Cain’’) (born Cape Colony 21 September 1877, died New York City 24 May 1956) was a South African Boer soldier, prisoner of war, big game hunter, journalist, war correspondent, Anglophobe, stockbroker, saboteur, spy, and adventurer whose hatred...

Cold War Era: 1945-1991

  • Aldrich, Richard J. The Hidden Hand: Britain, America and Cold War Secret Intelligence (2002).
  • Ambrose, Stephen E. Ike's Spies: Eisenhower and the Intelligence Establishment (1981).
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  • Bissell, Richard. Reflections of a Cold Warrior: From Yalta to the Bay of Pigs (1996)
  • Bogle, Lori, ed. Cold War Espionage and Spying (2001), essays by
  • Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB, Basic Books (1999), hardcover, ISBN 978-0-465-00310-5; trade paperback (September, 2000), ISBN 978-0-465-00312-9
  • Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The World Was Going Our Way: The KGB and the Battle for the Third World, Basic Books (2005) hardcover, 677 pages ISBN 0465003117
  • Christopher Andrew and Vasili Mitrokhin, The Mitrokhin Archive: The KGB in Europe and the West, Gardners Books (2000), ISBN 978-0-14-028487-4
  • Craig, R. Bruce (2004). Treasonable Doubt: The Harry Dexter White Spy Case. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 978-0-7006-1311-3. 
  • Dorril, Stephen. MI6: Inside the Covert World of Her Majesty's Secret Intelligence Service (2000).
  • Dziak, John J. Chekisty: A History of the KGB (1988)
  • Gates, Robert M. From The Shadows: The Ultimate Insider's Story Of Five Presidents And How They Won The Cold War (1997)
  • Haynes, John Earl, and Harvey Klehr. Venona: Decoding Soviet Espionage in America (1999).
  • Helms, Richard. A Look over My Shoulder: A Life in the Central Intelligence Agency (2003)
  • Koehler, John O. Stasi: The Untold Story of the East German Secret Police (1999)
  • Murphy, David E., Sergei A. Kondrashev, and George Bailey. Battleground Berlin: CIA vs. KGB in the Cold War (1997).
  • Persico, Joseph. Casey: The Lives and Secrets of William J. Casey-From the OSS to the CIA (1991)
  • Prados, John. Presidents' Secret Wars: CIA and Pentagon Covert Operations Since World War II (1996)
  • Rositzke, Harry. The CIA's Secret Operations: Espionage, Counterespionage, and Covert Action (1988)
  • Srodes, James. Allen Dulles (2000), CIA head to 1961
  • Trahair, Richard C. S. Encyclopedia of Cold War Espionage, Spies and Secret Operations (2004)
  • Von Lockner, Alexander. Always Ready: Communist KGB Master Spy to CIA Operative. [2]
  • Weinstein, Allen, and Alexander Vassiliev. The Haunted Wood: Soviet Espionage in America—The Stalin Era (1999).
  • Spectre, One Man's View

  Results from FactBites:
CI Centre Review of Richard M. Bennett's ESPIONAGE: An Encyclopedia of Spies and Secrets (1728 words)
Nevertheless, his encyclopedia of espionage, the most recent of the many books in this genre, stands alone as the most error filled by any measure.
This is particularly disappointing because reference works of this sort have a special obligation to get it right.
Espionage, spies and spying activities are in the news everyday.
  More results at FactBites »



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