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Encyclopedia > Esperanto
Esperanto  
Flag:
Created by: L.L. Zamenhof  1887 
Setting and usage: International auxiliary language
Total speakers: Native: 200 to 2000 (1996, est.)[1];
Fluent speakers: est. 100,000 to 2 million
Category (purpose): constructed language
 International auxiliary language
  Esperanto 
Category (sources): vocabulary from Romance and Germanic languages; phonology from Slavic languages 
Regulated by: Akademio de Esperanto
Language codes
ISO 639-1: eo
ISO 639-2: epo
ISO 639-3: epo

Esperanto  is the most widely spoken constructed international auxiliary language. [2] The name derives from Doktoro Esperanto, the pseudonym under which L. L. Zamenhof published the first book of Esperanto, the Unua Libro, in 1887. The word itself means 'one who hopes'. Zamenhof's goal was to create an easy and flexible language as a universal second language to foster peace and international understanding. Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Esperanto. ... Dr. Ludovic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859–April 14, 1917) was a Polish-Jewish ophthalmologist, philologist, and the initiator of Esperanto, the most widely spoken planned language to date. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) come to be in families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages) is spoken. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Germanic languages are a group of related languages constituting a branch of the Indo-European (IE) language family. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... The Akademio de Esperanto (Academy of Esperanto) is, according to its website, an independent language institute whose task is to conserve and protect the fundamental principles of the language Esperanto and control its evolution. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... Image File history File links Esperanto. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... A pseudonym (Greek: , pseudo + -onym: false name) is an artificial, fictitious name, also known as an alias, used by an individual as an alternative to a persons legal name. ... Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was a Polish eye doctor, philologist, and the virtual inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed languages designed for international communication among speakers of all languages. ... Unua Libro por Rusoj (first edition, 1887, in Russian) Unua Libro por Angloj (first edition in English, 1888) The Unua Libro (First Book) was the first publication to describe the international language, Esperanto (then called Lingvo Internacia, inter-national language). It was first published in Russian on July 26, 1887... 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ...


Although no country has adopted the language officially, it has enjoyed continuous usage by a community estimated at between 100,000 and 2 million speakers for over a century. By most estimates, there are approximately a thousand native speakers.[3] An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) come to be in families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages) is spoken. ...


Today, Esperanto is employed in world travel, correspondence, cultural exchange, conventions, literature, language instruction, television (Internacia Televido), and radio broadcasting.[4] Some state education systems offer elective courses in Esperanto, and in one university, the Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj in San Marino, Esperanto is the language of instruction. There is evidence that learning Esperanto may be more useful than ethnic languages as preparation for later language learning (see Propaedeutic value of Esperanto). Internacia Televido was an internet-based Esperanto-language television station, launched on 5 November 2005. ... The Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino (AIS) or International Academy of Sciences San Marino is a scientific association of universitarian character. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Esperanto
The first Esperanto book by L. L. Zamenhof
The first Esperanto book by L. L. Zamenhof

Esperanto was developed in the late 1870s and early 1880s by ophthalmologist Dr. Ludovic Lazarus Zamenhof, an Ashkenazi Jew from Bialystok, now in Poland and previously in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, but at the time part of the Russian Empire. After some ten years of development, which Zamenhof spent translating literature into the language as well as writing original prose and verse, the first Esperanto grammar was published in Warsaw in July 1887. The number of speakers grew rapidly over the next few decades, at first primarily in the Russian empire and Eastern Europe, then in Western Europe and the Americas, China, and Japan. In the early years speakers of Esperanto kept in contact primarily through correspondence and periodicals, but in 1905 the first world congress of Esperanto speakers was held in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France. Since then world congresses have been held in different countries every year, save for during the two World Wars. Since the Second World War, they have been attended by an average of over 2000 people, and by up to 6000. The constructed international auxiliary language Esperanto was developed in the 1870s and 80s by L. L. Zamenhof, and first published in 1887. ... Image File history File links Unua_Libro. ... Image File history File links Unua_Libro. ... This article is about the branch of medicine. ... Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was a Polish eye doctor, philologist, and the virtual inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed languages designed for international communication among speakers of all languages. ... Ashkenazi (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי, Standard Hebrew Aškanazi, Tiberian Hebrew ʾAškănāzî) Jews or Ashkenazic Jews, also called Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי&#1501... Białystok (pronounce: [bȋa:wistɔk]) (Belarusian: Беласток, Lithuanian: Balstogė) is the largest city (pop. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Prose is writing distinguished from poetry by its greater variety of rhythm and its closer resemblance to everyday speech. ... This article is about the art form. ... Unua Libro por Rusoj (first edition, 1887, in Russian) Unua Libro por Angloj (first edition in English, 1888) The Unua Libro (First Book) was the first publication to describe the international language, Esperanto (then called Lingvo Internacia, inter-national language). It was first published in Russian on July 26, 1887... For other uses, see Warsaw (disambiguation) and Warszawa (disambiguation). ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The World Congress of Esperanto (in Esperanto: Universala Kongreso de Esperanto) has the longest tradition among international Esperanto conventions, with an almost unbroken run of nearly a hundred years. ... Boulogne-sur-Mer is a city and commune in northern France, in the Pas-de-Calais département of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... A world war is a war affecting the majority of the worlds major nations. ...


Esperanto and 20th-century totalitarianism

In his work, Mein Kampf, Hitler mentioned Esperanto as an example of a language that could be used to achieve world dominance by an international Jewish Conspiracy.[5] As a result, this led to the persecution of Esperantists during the Holocaust.[6] Mein Kampf (English translation: My Struggle) is a book by the German-Austrian politician Adolf Hitler, which combines elements of autobiography with an exposition of Hitlers National Socialist political ideology. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ... Look up Persecution in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An Esperantist is a person who participates in the diffusion of Esperanto. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ...


Soviet dictator Joseph Stalin denounced Esperanto as "the language of spies" and had Esperantists in the Soviet Union executed, while United States Senator Joseph McCarthy, known for his rabidly Anti-Communist speeches and instigating the House Un-American Activities Committee, considered knowledge of Esperanto to be "nearly synonymous" with sympathy towards Communism.[7] Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... This article is about the U.S. senator from Wisconsin (1947-1957). ... HUAC hearings House Committee on Un-American Activities (HUAC or HCUA) (1938–1975) was an investigative committee of the United States House of Representatives. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ...


Official use

Esperanto has never been an official language of any recognized country, though there were plans at the beginning of the 20th century to establish Neutral Moresnet as the world's first Esperanto state, and the self-proclaimed artificial island micronation of Rose Island used Esperanto as its official language in 1968. In China, there was talk in some circles after the 1911 Xinhai Revolution about officially replacing Chinese with Esperanto as a means to dramatically bring the country into the twentieth century, though this policy proved untenable. In the summer of 1924, the American Radio Relay League adopted Esperanto as its official international auxiliary language, and hoped that the language would be used by radio amateurs in international communications, but actual use of the language for radio communications was negligible. Esperanto is the working language of several non-profit international organizations such as the Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda, but most others are specifically Esperanto organizations. The largest of these, the World Esperanto Association, has an official consultative relationship with the United Nations and UNESCO. The U.S. Army has published military phrasebooks in Esperanto,[8] to be used in wargames by mock enemy forces. Esperanto is the first language of teaching and administration of the International Academy of Sciences San Marino, which is sometimes called an "Esperanto University". Unofficial flag of Moresnet (1883) Moresnet or Neutral Moresnet was a tiny European territory of about 3. ... Before Mexico City, Tenochtitlan was an artificial island of 250,000 (Dr Atl) Dejima, not allowed direct contact with nearby Nagasaki Formoza (Gdynia) The World in Dubai An artificial island is an island that has been formed by human, rather than natural means. ... This article is about entities that are not officially recognised by world governments or major international organisations. ... A stamp issued by Rose Island and overprinted in black with Esperanto text stating Italian (military) occupation. Rose Island (Esperanto: Insulo de la Rozoj) was a short-lived micronation located on a man-made platform in the Adriatic Sea, seven miles off the coast of Rimini, Italy. ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty Chinese Revolutionary Alliance Commanders Feng Guozhang, Yuan Shikai, and local Qing governors. ... The ARRL Logo. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... Amateur radio station with modern solid-state transceiver featuring LCD and DSP capabilities Amateur radio, often called ham radio, is both a hobby and a service that uses various types of radio communications equipment to communicate with other radio amateurs for public service, recreation and self-training. ... A non-profit organization (abbreviated NPO, or non-profit or not-for-profit) is an organization whose primary objective is to support an issue or matter of private interest or public concern for non-commercial purposes, without concern for monetary profit. ... Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda (SAT; in English, World Anational Association) was founded in 1921 by Eugène LANTI. SAT is a world-wide worker movement active in socialist, peace, trade union, feminist and environmental issues. ... The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with members in 119 countries (as of 2000) and in official relations with the United Nations and UNESCO. In addition to individual members, 95 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated to UEA. Its... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Military simulations, also known informally as war games, are simulations in which theories of warfare can be tested and refined without the need for actual hostilities. ... The Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino (AIS) or International Academy of Sciences San Marino is a scientific association of universitarian character. ...


Linguistic properties

Classification

As a constructed language, Esperanto is not genealogically related to any ethnic language. It has been described as "a language lexically predominantly Romanic, morphologically intensively agglutinative and to a certain degree isolating in character".[9] The phonology, grammar, vocabulary, and semantics are based on the western Indo-European languages. The phonemic inventory is essentially Slavic, as is much of the semantics, while the vocabulary derives primarily from the Romance languages, with a lesser contribution from Germanic. Pragmatics and other aspects of the language not specified by Zamenhof's original documents were influenced by the native languages of early speakers, primarily Russian, Polish, German, and French. A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... Genealogy (from Greek: γενεα, genea, family; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... The term Ethnicity redirects here. ... Look up lexicon in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Morphology. ... For the music festival, see Agglutination Metal Festival. ... An analytic language (or isolating language) is a language in which the vast majority of morphemes are free morphemes and considered to be full-fledged words. By contrast, in a synthetic language, a word is composed of agglutinated or fused morphemes that denote its syntactic meanings. ... Phonology (Greek phonÄ“ = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... For other uses, see Indo-European. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ...  Countries where a West Slavic language is the national language  Countries where an East Slavic language is the national language  Countries where a South Slavic language is the national language The Slavic languages (also called Slavonic languages), a group of closely related languages of the Slavic peoples and a subgroup... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... Pragmatics is the study of the ability of natural language speakers to communicate more than that which is explicitly stated. ...


Typologically, Esperanto has prepositions and a pragmatic word order that by default is Subject Verb Object and Adjective Noun. New words are formed through extensive prefixing and suffixing. Linguistic typology is the typology that classifies languages by their features. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... In discourse-based grammatical theory, information flow is any tracking of referential information by speakers. ... In linguistic typology, subject-verb-object (SVO) is the sequence subject verb object in neutral expressions: Sam ate oranges. ... In linguistic typology, word order, or more precisely constituent order refers to the permitted combinations of words or larger constituents. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Writing system

Main article: Esperanto orthography

Esperanto is written with a modified version of the Latin alphabet, including six letters with diacritics: ĉ, ĝ, ĥ, ĵ, ŝ and ŭ (that is, c, g, h, j, s circumflex, and u breve). The alphabet does not include the letters q, w, x, y except in unassimilated foreign names. Esperanto is written in a Latin alphabet of twenty-eight letters, upper and lower case. ... Abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz redirects here. ... A Specimen of typeset fonts and languages, by William Caslon, letter founder; from the 1728 Cyclopaedia. ... Example of a letter with a diacritic A diacritic or diacritical mark, also called an accent, is a small sign added to a letter to alter pronunciation or to distinguish between similar words. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... The circumflex ( ˆ ) (often called a caret, a hat or an uppen) is a diacritic mark used in written Greek, French, Dutch, Esperanto, Norwegian, Romanian, Slovak, Vietnamese, Japanese romaji, Welsh, Portuguese, Italian, Afrikaans and other languages, and formerly in Turkish [citation needed]. It received its English name from Latin circumflexus (bent... A breve (Latin brevis short, brief) is a diacritical mark Ë˜, shaped like a little round cup, designed to indicate a short vowel, as opposed to the macron Â¯ which indicates long vowels. ...


The 28-letter alphabet is:

a b c ĉ d e f g ĝ h ĥ i j ĵ k l m n o p r s ŝ t u ŭ v z

All letters are pronounced approximately as in the IPA, with the exception of c and the accented letters: IPA may refer to: The International Phonetic Alphabet or India Pale Ale ...

Letter c ĉ ĝ ĥ ĵ ŝ ŭ
Pronunciation [ts] [tʃ] [dʒ] [x] [ʒ] [ʃ] [u̯]
(as aŭ, eŭ)

Two ASCII-compatible writing conventions are in use. These substitute digraphs for the accented letters. The original "h-convention" (ch, gh, hh, jh, sh, u) is based on English 'ch' and 'sh', while a more recent "x-convention" (cx, gx, hx, jx, sx, ux) is useful for alphabetic word sorting on a computer (cx comes correctly after cu, sx after sv, etc.) as well as for simple conversion back into the standard orthography. Image:ASCII fullsvg There are 95 printable ASCII characters, numbered 32 to 126. ... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Look up Esperanto in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the machine. ... The orthography of a language specifies the correct way of using a specific writing system to write the language. ...


Phonology

Main article: Esperanto phonology
(For help with the phonetic symbols, see Help:IPA)

Esperanto has 22 consonants, 5 vowels, and two semivowels, which combine with the vowels to form 6 diphthongs. (The consonant /j/ and semivowel /i̯/ are both written <j>.) Tone is not used to distinguish meanings of words. Stress is always on the penultimate vowel, unless a final vowel o is elided, a practice which occurs mostly in poetry. For example, familio "family" is stressed IPA: [fa.mi.ˈli.o], but when found without the final o, famili’, the stress does not shift: [fa.mi.ˈli]. The creator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof, did not specify phonemic-phonetic correspondences for his language. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... It has been suggested that Tonal language be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word. ... In music, see elision (music). ... This article is about the art form. ...


Consonants

The 22 consonants are:

Bilabial Labio-
dental
Alveolar Post-
alveolar
Palatal Velar Glottal
Plosive p b   t d     k g  
Nasal   m     n        
Fricative   f v s z ʃ ʒ   x   h  
Affricate     ʦ   ʧ ʤ      
Lateral approximant       l        
Approximant           j    
Trill       r        

The sound /r/ is usually rolled, but may be tapped [ɾ]. The /v/ has a normative pronunciation like an English v, but is sometimes somewhere between a v and a w, [ʋ], depending on the language background of the speaker. A semivowel /u̯/ normally occurs only in diphthongs after the vowels /a/ and /e/, not as a consonant */w/. Common (if debated) assimilation includes the pronunciation of /nk/ as [ŋk], as in English sink, and /kz/ as [gz], like the x in English example. In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips. ... In phonetics, labiodentals are consonants articulated with the lower lips and the upper teeth, or viceversa. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... A stop or plosive or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The alveolar tap/flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Assimilation is a regular and frequent sound change process by which a phoneme changes to match an adjacent phoneme in a word. ...


A large number of consonant clusters can occur, up to three in initial position and four in medial position, as in instrui "to teach". Final clusters are uncommon except in foreign names, poetic elision of final o, and a very few basic words such as cent "hundred" and post "after".


Vowels

Esperanto has the five "pure" vowels of Classical Latin and Spanish. No distinctions of length are made, and there are no nasal vowels. Classical Latin is the language used by the principal exponents of that language in what is usually regarded as classical Latin literature. ... In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound. ... A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. ...

Front Back
Close i u
Mid e o
Open a

There are six falling diphthongs: uj, oj, ej, aj, aŭ, eŭ (/ui̯, oi̯, ei̯, ai̯, au̯, eu̯/). Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... A back vowel is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... A close vowel is a type of vowel sound used in many spoken languages. ... A mid vowel is a vowel sound used in some spoken languages. ... An open vowel is a vowel sound of a type used in most spoken languages. ...


With only five vowels, a good deal of variation is tolerated. For instance, /e/ commonly ranges from [e] (French é) to [ɛ] (French è). The details often depend on the speaker's native language. A glottal stop may occur between adjacent vowels in some people's speech, especially when the two vowels are the same, as in heroo "hero" ([he.ˈro.o] or [he.ˈro.ʔo]) and praavo "great-grandfather" ([pra.ˈa.vo] or [pra.ˈʔa.vo]). This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Grammar

Main article: Esperanto grammar

Esperanto words are derived by stringing together prefixes, roots, and suffixes. This process is regular, so that people can create new words as they speak and be understood. Compound words are formed with a modifier-first, head-final order, i.e. the same order as in English "birdsong" vs. "songbird". Esperanto is a constructed auxiliary language. ... In linguistics, derivation is the process of creating new lexemes from other lexemes, for example, by adding a derivational affix. ... In linguistics, a prefix is a type of affix that precedes the morphemes to which it can attach. ... The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Look up Suffix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (a word) that consists of more than one other lexeme. ...


The different parts of speech are marked by their own suffixes: all common nouns end in -o, all adjectives in -a, all derived adverbs in -e, and all verbs in one of six tense and mood suffixes, such as present tense -as. In grammar, a part of speech or word class is defined as the role that a word (or sometimes a phrase) plays in a sentence. ... A noun, or noun substantive, is a word or phrase that refers to a person, place, thing, event, substance or quality. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... Grammatical tense is a way languages express the time at which an event described by a sentence occurs. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ...


Plural nouns end in -oj (pronounced "oy"), whereas direct objects end in -on. Plural direct objects end with the combination -ojn (pronounced to rhyme with "coin"): That is, -o for a noun, plus -j for plural, plus -n for direct object. Adjectives agree with their nouns; their endings are plural -aj (pronounced "eye"), direct-object -an, and plural direct-object -ajn (pronounced to rhyme with "fine"). In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... The accusative case of a noun is, generally, the case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ...

Noun Subject Object
Singular -o -on
Plural -oj -ojn
Adjective Subject Object
Singular -a -an
Plural -aj -ajn

(Actually, the suffix -n is used to indicate the goal of movement and a few other things, in addition to the direct object. See Esperanto grammar for details.) In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Esperanto is a constructed auxiliary language. ...


The six verb inflections consist of three tenses and three moods. They are present tense -as, future tense -os, past tense -is, infinitive mood -i, conditional mood -us, and jussive mood -u (used for wishes and commands). Verbs are not marked for person or number. For instance: kanti "to sing"; mi kantas "I sing" mi kantis "I sang"; mi kantos "I will sing"; li kantas "he sings"; vi kantas "you sing". Inflection of the Spanish lexeme for cat, with blue representing the masculine gender, pink representing the feminine gender, grey representing the form used for mixed-gender, and green representing the plural number. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... The jussive mood is a grammatical mood that indicates commands, permission or agreement with a request. ...

Verbal Tense Suffix
Present -as (kantas)
Past -is (kantis)
Future -os (kantos)
Verbal Mood Suffix
Infinitive -i (kanti)
Jussive -u (kantu)
Conditional -us (kantus)

Word order is comparatively free: Adjectives may precede or follow nouns, and subjects, verbs and objects (marked by the suffix -n) may occur in any order. However, the article la "the" and demonstratives such as tiu "this, that" almost always come before the noun, and a preposition such as ĉe "at" must come before it. Similarly, the negative ne "not" and conjunctions such as kaj "both, and" and ke "that" must precede the phrase or clause they introduce. In copular (A = B) clauses, word order is just as important as it is in English clauses like "people are dogs" vs. "dogs are people". For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... The past tense is a verb tense expressing action, activity, state or being in the past. ... It has been suggested that Future perfect tense be merged into this article or section. ... In grammar, infinitive is the name for certain verb forms that exist in many languages. ... The jussive mood is a grammatical mood that indicates commands, permission or agreement with a request. ... The conditional mood (or conditional tense) is the form of the verb used in conditional sentences to refer to a hypothetical state of affairs, or an uncertain event that is contingent on another set of circumstances. ... An article is a word that combines with a noun to indicate the type of reference being made by the noun. ... // Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with adposition. ... Look up phrase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In grammar, a clause is a word or group of words ordinarily consisting of a subject and a predicate, although in some languages and some types of clauses, the subject may not appear explicitly. ... For other uses, see Copula (disambiguation). ...


Correlatives

A correlative is a word used to ask or answer a question of who, where, what, when, or how. Correlatives in Esperanto are set out in a systematic manner that correlates a basic idea (quantity, manner, time, etc.) to a function (questioning, indicating, negating, etc.) A pro-form is a function word that substitutes a word, phrase, clause, or sentence whose meaning is recoverable from the context, and it is used to avoid redundant expressions. ... IDEA may refer to: Electronic Directory of the European Institutions IDEA League Improvement and Development Agency Individuals with Disabilities Education Act Indian Distance Education Association Integrated Data Environments Australia Intelligent Database Environment for Advanced Applications IntelliJ IDEA - a Java IDE Interactive Database for Energy-efficient Architecture International IDEA (International Institute...

Table of
Correlatives
Question
(What)
Indication
(This, that)
Indefinite
(Some)
Universal
(Each, every)
Negative
(No)
ki– ti– i– ĉi– neni–
Thing –o kio
(what)
tio
(this, that)
io
(something)
ĉio
(everything)
nenio
(nothing)
Individual –u kiu
(who, which one; which [horse])
tiu
(that one; that [horse])
iu
(someone; some [horse])
ĉiu
(everyone; each [horse], all [horses])
neniu
(no one; no [horse])
Association –es kies
(whose)
ties
(that one's)
ies
(someone's)
ĉies
(everyone's)
nenies
(no one's)
Quality –a kia
(what a)
tia
(such a)
ia
(some sort of)
ĉia
(every kind of)
nenia
(no kind of)
Place –e kie
(where)
tie
(there)
ie
(somewhere)
ĉie
(everywhere)
nenie
(nowhere)
Manner –el kiel
(how, as)
tiel
(thus, as)
iel
(somehow)
ĉiel
(in every way)
neniel
(no-how, in no way)
Reason –al kial
(why)
tial
(therefore)
ial
(for some reason)
ĉial
(for all reasons)
nenial
(for no reason)
Time –am kiam
(when)
tiam
(then)
iam
(sometime)
ĉiam
(always)
neniam
(never)
Amount –om kiom
(how much)
tiom
(that much)
iom
(some, a bit)
ĉiom
(all of it)
neniom
(none)

Examples: Interrogative redirects here. ... // Demonstratives are deictic words (they depend on an external frame of reference) that indicate which entities a speaker refers to, and distinguishes those entities from others. ...

  • Kio estas tio? "What is this?"
  • Kioma estas la horo? "What time is it?" Note kioma rather than Kiu estas la horo? "which is the hour?", when asking for the ranking order of the hour on the clock.
  • Io falis el la ŝranko "Something fell out of the cupboard."
  • Homoj tiaj kiel mi ne konadas timon. "Men such as me know no fear."

Correlatives are declined if the case demands it:

  • Vi devas elekti ian vorton pli simpla "You should choose a (some kind of) simpler word." Ia receives -n because it's part of the direct object.
  • Kian libron vi volas? "What sort of book do you want?" Contrast this with, Kiun libron vi volas? "Which book do you want?"

The accusative case of a noun is, generally, the case used to mark the direct object of a verb. ...

Vocabulary

Main article: Esperanto vocabulary

The core vocabulary of Esperanto was defined by Lingvo internacia, published by Zamenhof in 1887. It comprised 900 roots, which could be expanded into the tens of thousands of words with prefixes, suffixes, and compounding. In 1894, Zamenhof published the first Esperanto dictionary, Universala Vortaro, with a larger set of roots. However, the rules of the language allowed speakers to borrow new roots as needed, recommending only that they look for the most international forms, and then derive related meanings from these. The word base of Esperanto was originally defined by Lingvo internacia, published by Zamenhof in 1887. ... For other uses, see Dictionary (disambiguation). ...


Since then, many words have been borrowed, primarily but not solely from the Western European languages. Not all proposed borrowings catch on, but many do, especially technical and scientific terms. Terms for everyday use, on the other hand, are more likely to be derived from existing roots—for example komputilo (a computer) from komputi (to compute) plus the suffix -ilo (tool)—or to be covered by extending the meanings of existing words (for example muso (a mouse), now also means a computer input device, as in English). There are frequent debates among Esperanto speakers about whether a particular borrowing is justified or whether the need can be met by deriving from or extending the meaning of existing words. Technical terminology is the specialised vocabulary of a profession or of some other activity to which a group of people dedicate significant parts of their lives (for instance, hobbies or a particular segment of industry). ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ...


In addition to the root words and the rules for combining them, a learner of Esperanto must learn some idiomatic compounds that are not entirely straightforward. For example, eldoni, literally "to give out", is used for "to publish" (a calque of words in several European languages with the same derivation), and vortaro, literally "a collection of words", means "a glossary" or "a dictionary". Such forms are modeled after usage in some European languages, and speakers of other languages may find them illogical. Fossilized derivations inherited from Esperanto's source languages may be similarly obscure, such as the opaque connection the root word centralo "power station" has with centro "center". Compounds with -um- are overtly arbitrary, and must be learned individually, as -um- has no defined meaning. It turns dekstren "to the right" into dekstrumen "clockwise", and komuna "common/shared" into komunumo "community", for example. // In linguistics, a calque (pronounced ) or loan translation is a word or phrase borrowed from another language by literal, word-for-word (Latin: verbum pro verbo) or root-for-root translation. ...


Nevertheless, there are not nearly as many idiomatic or slang words in Esperanto as in ethnic languages, as these tend to make international communication difficult, working against Esperanto's main goal. For other uses, see Slang (disambiguation). ...


Useful phrases

Here are some useful Esperanto phrases, with IPA transcriptions:

  • Hello: Saluton /sa.ˈlu.ton/
  • What is your name?: Kiel vi nomiĝas? /ˈki.el vi no.ˈmi.ʤas/
  • My name is...: Mi nomiĝas... /mi no.ˈmi.ʤas/
  • How much?: Kiom? /ˈki.om/
  • Here you are: Jen /jen/
  • Do you speak Esperanto?: Ĉu vi parolas Esperanton? /ˈʧu vi pa.ˈro.las es.pe.ˈran.ton/
  • I don't understand you: Mi ne komprenas vin [mi ˈne kom.ˈpre.nas vin/
  • I like this one: Mi ŝatas tiun ĉi /mi ˈʃa.tas ˈti.un ˈʧi/ or Ĉi tiu plaĉas al mi /ʧi ˈti.u ˈpla.ʧas al ˈmi/
  • Thank you: Dankon /ˈdan.kon/
  • You're welcome: Ne dankinde /ˈne dan.ˈkin.de/
  • Please: Bonvolu /bon.ˈvo.lu/
  • Here's to your health: Je via sano /je ˈvi.a ˈsa.no/
  • Bless you!/Gesundheit!: Sanon! /ˈsa.non/
  • Congratulations!: Gratulon! /ɡra.ˈtu.lon/
  • Okay: Bone /ˈbo.ne/ or Ĝuste /ˈʤus.te/
  • It is a nice day: Estas bela tago /ˈes.tas ˈbe.la ˈta.ɡo/
  • I love you: Mi amas vin /mi ˈa.mas vin/
  • Goodbye: Ĝis (la) (revido) /ʤis (la) (re.ˈvi.do)/
  • I would like a [one] beer, please: Unu bieron, mi petas. /ˈu.nu bi.ˈe.ron mi ˈpe.tas/
  • What is that?: Kio estas tio? /ˈki.o ˈes.tas ˈti.o/
  • That is... : Tio estas... /ˈti.o ˈes.tas/
  • How are you?: Kiel vi (fartas)? /ˈki.el vi ˈfar.tas/
  • Good morning!: Bonan matenon! /ˈbo.nan ma.ˈte.non/
  • Good evening!: Bonan vesperon! /ˈbo.nan ves.ˈpe.ron/
  • Good night!: Bonan nokton! /ˈbo.nan ˈnok.ton/

Sample text

The following short extract gives an idea of the character of Esperanto.[10] (Pronunciation is covered above. The main point for English speakers to remember is that the letter 'J' has the sound of the letter 'Y' in English)

  • Esperanto text
En multaj lokoj de Ĉinio estis temploj de drako-reĝo. Dum trosekeco oni preĝis en la temploj, ke la drako-reĝo donu pluvon al la homa mondo. Tiam drako estis simbolo de la supernatura estaĵo. Kaj pli poste, ĝi fariĝis prapatro de la plej altaj regantoj kaj simbolis la absolutan aŭtoritaton de feŭda imperiestro. La imperiestro pretendis, ke li estas filo de la drako. Ĉiuj liaj vivbezonaĵoj portis la nomon drako kaj estis ornamitaj per diversaj drakofiguroj. Nun ĉie en Ĉinio videblas drako-ornamentaĵoj kaj cirkulas legendoj pri drakoj.
  • English Translation:
In many places in China there were temples of the dragon king. During times of drought, people prayed in the temples, that the dragon king would give rain to the human world. At that time the dragon was a symbol of the supernatural. Later on, it became the ancestor of the highest rulers and symbolised the absolute authority of the feudal emperor. The emperor claimed to be the son of the dragon. All of his personal possessions carried the name dragon and were decorated with various dragon figures. Now everywhere in China dragon decorations can be seen and there circulate legends about dragons.

Esperanto and education

The majority of Esperanto speakers learn the language through self-directed study, online tutorials, and correspondence courses taught by corps of volunteers. In more recent years, teaching websites like lernu! have become popular. Lernu! is a website hosting several free multilanguage courses designed to teach Esperanto. ...


Esperanto instruction is occasionally available at schools, such as a pilot project involving four primary schools under the supervision of the University of Manchester (see below), and by one count at 69 universities[4]. However, outside of China and Hungary, these mostly involve informal arrangements rather than dedicated departments or state sponsorship. (Eötvös Loránd University in Budapest had a department of Interlinguistics and Esperanto from 1966 to 2004, after which time instruction moved to vocational colleges; there are state examinations for Esperanto instructors.[5][6]) This article is about Eötvös Loránd University, which is often referred to as University of Budapest. ...


Various educators have estimated that Esperanto can be learned in anywhere from one quarter to one twentieth the amount of time required for other languages. [7] Some argue, however, that this is only true for native speakers of Western European languages. [8] Claude Piron, a psychologist formerly at the University of Geneva and Chinese-English-Russian-Spanish translator for the United Nations, argued that Esperanto is far more "brain friendly" than many ethnic languages. "Esperanto relies entirely on innate reflexes [and] differs from all other languages in that you can always trust your natural tendency to generalize patterns. [...] The same neuropsychological law [— called by] Jean Piaget generalizing assimilation — applies to word formation as well as to grammar."[11] Claude Piron (born 1931), a linguist and a psychologist, was a translator for the United Nations (from Chinese, English, Russian and Spanish into French) from 1956 to 1961. ... The University of Geneva (Université de Genève) is a university in Geneva, Switzerland. ... Neuropsychology is a branch of psychology and neurology that aims to understand how the structure and function of the brain relate to specific psychological processes and overt behaviors. ... Jean Piaget (August 9, 1896 – September 16, 1980) was a Swiss philosopher, natural scientist and developmental psychologist, well known for his work studying children, his theory of cognitive development and for his epistemological view called genetic epistemology. He created in 1955 the International Centre for Genetic Epistemology in Geneva and...


Esperanto and language acquisition

Four primary schools in Britain, with some 230 pupils, are currently following a course in "propedeutic Esperanto", that is, instruction of Esperanto to raise language awareness and accelerate subsequent learning of foreign languages, under the supervision of the University of Manchester.[9] Several studies demonstrate that studying Esperanto before another foreign language speeds and improves learning the second language, to a greater extent than other languages which have been investigated. This appears to be because learning subsequent foreign languages is easier than learning one's first, while the use of a grammatically simple and culturally flexible auxiliary language like Esperanto lessens the first-language learning hurdle. In one study,[12] a group of European secondary school students studied Esperanto for one year, then French for three years, and ended up with a significantly better command of French than a control group, who studied French for all four years. Similar results were found when the course of study was reduced to two years, of which six months was spent learning Esperanto. Results are not yet available from a study in Australia to see if similar benefits would occur for learning East Asian languages, but the pupils taking Esperanto did better and enjoyed the subject more than those taking other languages.[10] This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Secondary school is a term used to describe an institution where the final stage of compulsory schooling, known as secondary education, takes place. ...


The Esperanto community

Geography and demography

A map showing possible lodgings and hosting locations by Pasporta Servo in 2005
A map showing possible lodgings and hosting locations by Pasporta Servo in 2005

Esperanto speakers are more numerous in Europe and East Asia than in the Americas, Africa, and Oceania, and more numerous in urban than in rural areas.[13] Esperanto is particularly prevalent in the northern and eastern countries of Europe; in China, Korea, Japan, and Iran within Asia; in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico in the Americas;[11] and in Togo in Africa.[12] Image File history File links Pasporta-servo. ... Image File history File links Pasporta-servo. ... The Pasporta Servo (Passport Service) is a publication in Esperanto. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see Oceania (disambiguation). ... Cities with at least a million inhabitants in 2006 An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China Rural areas (also referred to as the country, countryside) are settled places outside towns and cities. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ...


Number of speakers

An estimate of the number of Esperanto speakers was made by the late Sidney S. Culbert, a retired psychology professor of the University of Washington and a longtime Esperantist, who tracked down and tested Esperanto speakers in sample areas of dozens of countries over a period of twenty years. Culbert concluded that between one and two million people speak Esperanto at Foreign Service Level 3, "professionally proficient" (able to communicate moderately complex ideas without hesitation, and to follow speeches, radio broadcasts, etc.).[14] Culbert's estimate was not made for Esperanto alone, but formed part of his listing of estimates for all languages of over 1 million speakers, published annually in the World Almanac and Book of Facts. Culbert's most detailed account of his methodology is found in a 1989 letter to David Wolff. Since Culbert never published detailed intermediate results for particular countries and regions, it is difficult to independently gauge the accuracy of his results. Sidney S. Culbert (1913 - October 28, 2003) psychologist and Esperantist. ... Retirement is the point where a person stops employment completely. ... Psychological science redirects here. ... The meaning of the word professor (Latin: [1]) varies. ... The University of Washington, founded in 1861, is a public research university in Seattle, Washington. ... The Interagency Language Roundtable (ILR) scale is a set of descriptions of abilities to communicate in a language. ... The World Almanac and Book of Facts is a book considered to be a top reference work. ...


In the Almanac, his estimates for numbers of language speakers were rounded to the nearest million, thus the number for Esperanto speakers is shown as 2 million. This latter figure appears in Ethnologue. Assuming that this figure is accurate, that means that about 0.03% of the world's population speaks the language. This falls short of Zamenhof's goal of a universal language, but it represents a level of popularity unmatched by any other constructed language. Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web and print publication of SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics), a Christian linguistic service organization which studies lesser-known languages primarily to provide the speakers with Bibles in their native language. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ...


Marcus Sikosek has challenged this figure of 1.6 million as exaggerated. Sikosek estimated that even if Esperanto speakers were evenly distributed, assuming one million Esperanto speakers worldwide would lead one to expect about 180 in the city of Cologne. Sikosek finds only 30 fluent speakers in that city, and similarly smaller than expected figures in several other places thought to have a larger-than-average concentration of Esperanto speakers. He also notes that there are a total of about 20,000 members of the various Esperanto organizations (other estimates are higher). Though there are undoubtedly many Esperanto speakers who are not members of any Esperanto organization, he thinks it unlikely that there are fifty times more speakers than organization members.[13] The article about perfume can be found at Eau de Cologne. ... Fluency is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise. ...


The Finnish linguist Jouko Lindstedt, an expert on native-born Esperanto speakers, presented the following scheme[15] to show the overall proportions of language capabilities within the Esperanto community: For the journal, see Linguistics (journal). ...

  • 1,000 have Esperanto as their native language
  • 10,000 speak it fluently
  • 100,000 can use it actively
  • 1,000,000 understand a large amount passively
  • 10,000,000 have studied it to some extent at some time.

In the absence of Dr. Culbert's detailed sampling data, or any other census data, it is impossible to state the number of speakers with certainty. Few observers, probably, would challenge the following statement from the website of the World Esperanto Association: A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with members in 119 countries (as of 2000) and in official relations with the United Nations and UNESCO. In addition to individual members, 95 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated to UEA. Its...

Numbers of textbooks sold and membership of local societies put the number of people with some knowledge of the language in the hundreds of thousands and possibly millions. [13]

Three textbooks. ...

Native speakers

Ethnologue estimates that there are 200 to 2000 native Esperanto speakers (denaskuloj), who have learned the language from birth from their Esperanto-speaking parents.[16] (This usually happens when Esperanto is the chief or only common language in an international family, but sometimes in a family of devoted Esperantists.) Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) come to be in families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages) is spoken. ...


The most famous native speaker of Esperanto is businessman George Soros[17]. Also notable is young Holocaust victim Petr Ginz, whose drawing of the planet Earth as viewed from the moon was carried aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia. Soros redirects here. ... Earth as seen by the moon, drawn by Petr Ginz and taken onto the Space Shuttle Columbia Petr Ginz (1928–1944) was a young Jewish boy who was deported to the Terezín concentration camp, during the Holocaust. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ...


Culture

Esperanto is often used to access an international culture, including a large corpus of original as well as translated literature. There are over 25,000 Esperanto books (originals and translations) as well as over a hundred regularly distributed Esperanto magazines[citation needed]. Many Esperanto speakers use the language for free travel throughout the world using the Pasporta Servo[citation needed]. Others[attribution needed] like the idea of having pen pals in many countries around the world using services like the Esperanto Pen Pal Service. Every year, 1500-3000 Esperanto speakers meet for the World Congress of Esperanto (Universala Kongreso de Esperanto).[18] The Eǔropa Esperanto-Unio regroups the national Esperanto associations of the EU member states and holds congresses every two years. The most recent was in Maribor, Slovenia, in July-August 2007. It attracted 256 delegates from 28 countries, including 2 members of the European Parliament, Ms. Małgorzata Handzlik of Poland and Ms. Ljudmila Novak of Slovenia. The language Esperanto is often used to access an international culture. ... Since Esperanto is the largest planned language, there are over 25,000 books in Esperanto and the largest Esperanto book service at the World Esperanto Association sells over 4,000 books. ... // There are four feature films known to have been shot exclusively in the constructed language Esperanto. ... Music in a variety of styles is written, recorded, and performed in Esperanto, a planned language used for international communication. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... Since Esperanto is the largest planned language, there are over 25,000 books in Esperanto and the largest Esperanto book service at the World Esperanto Association sells over 4,000 books. ... The first Esperanto magazine was La Esperantisto, which began publication on September 1, 1889. ... The Pasporta Servo (Passport Service) is a publication in Esperanto. ... Pen pals (or penpals or pen friends) are people who regularly write each other, in particular in the case of snail mail. ... The World Congress of Esperanto (in Esperanto: Universala Kongreso de Esperanto) has the longest tradition among international Esperanto conventions, with an almost unbroken run of nearly a hundred years. ...


Historically most of the music published in Esperanto has been in various folk traditions; in recent decades more rock and other modern genres have appeared.[citation needed] Music in a variety of styles is written, recorded, and performed in Esperanto, a planned language used for international communication. ...


To some extent there are also shared traditions, like the Zamenhof Day, and shared behaviour patterns, like avoiding the usage of one's national language at Esperanto meetings unless there is good reason for its use.[citation needed] For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... December 15 (Zamenhof Day, Zamenhofa Festo) is the birthday of L. L. Zamenhof, the initiator of Esperanto. ... Behavior or behaviour refers to the actions or reactions of an object or organism, usually in relation to the environment. ...


Two full-length feature films have been produced with dialogue entirely in Esperanto, namely Angoroj in 1964 and Incubus starring William Shatner in 1965. Other amateur productions have been made, such as a dramatisation of the novel Gerda Malaperis (Gerda Has Disappeared). A number of "mainstream" films in national languages have used Esperanto in some way, such as Gattaca. In Charlie Chaplin's masterpiece The Great Dictator all of the signs in the Jewish Ghetto are in Esperanto. A reel of film, which predates digital cinematography. ... For other uses, see Dialogue (disambiguation). ... Angoroj (1964; Esperanto for Agonies) was the first feature film to be produced entirely in Esperanto. ... Incubus (Esperanto: Inkubo) is a black and white horror film originally released in 1965 and later restored in 2001. ... William Alan Shatner (born on March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor who gained fame for playing James Tiberius Kirk of the USS Enterprise in the television show Star Trek from 1966 to 1969 and in seven of the subsequent movies. ... Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ...


Esperanto is frequently criticized by the uninitiated for "having no culture". Proponents, such as Professor Humphrey Tonkin of Hartford University observe that Esperanto is culturally neutral by design, as it was intended to be a facilitator between cultures, not to be the carrier of any one national culture. The Scottish Esperanto author, William Auld, has written extensively on the subject, arguing that Esperanto is the expression a common human culture, unencumbered by national frontiers. Thus it is considered a culture on its own.[citation needed] (See Esperanto as an international language.) Others point to Esperanto's potential for strengthening a common European identity, as it combines features of most European languages. Esperanto was conceived as a language of international communication, more precisely as a universal second language. ...


Esperanto in Science

In 1921 the French Academy of Sciences recommended using Esperanto for international scientific communication. A few scientists and mathematicians, such as Maurice Fréchet (mathematics), John C. Wells (linguistics), Helmar Frank (pedagogy and cybernetics), and Nobel laureate Reinhard Selten (economics), have published part of their work in Esperanto. Frank and Selten were among the founders of the International Academy of Sciences, San Marino, sometimes called the "Esperanto University", where Esperanto is the primary language of teaching and administration. Louis XIV visiting the Académie in 1671 The French Academy of Sciences (Académie des sciences) is a learned society, founded in 1666 by Louis XIV at the suggestion of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, to encourage and protect the spirit of French scientific research. ... Maurice Fréchet (born September 2, 1878, died June 4, 1973) was a French mathematician. ... John Christopher Wells, MA (Cantab), Ph. ... Helmar Frank Helmar Gunter Frank, born February 19, 1933, is a German mathematician and pedagogist. ... The Sveriges Riksbank Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel, commonly called the Nobel Prize in Economics, is a prize awarded each year for outstanding intellectual contributions in the field of economics. ... Reinhard Selten (born October 5, 1930) is a German economist. ... The Akademio Internacia de la Sciencoj San Marino (AIS) or International Academy of Sciences San Marino is a scientific association of universitarian character. ...


Goals of the Esperanto movement

Zamenhof's intention was to create an easy-to-learn language to foster international understanding. It was to serve as an international auxiliary language, that is, as a universal second language, not to replace ethnic languages. This goal was widely shared among Esperanto speakers in the early decades of the movement. Later, Esperanto speakers began to see the language and the culture that had grown up around it as ends in themselves, even if Esperanto is never adopted by the United Nations or other international organizations.


Those Esperanto speakers who want to see Esperanto adopted officially or on a large scale worldwide are commonly called finvenkistoj, from fina venko, meaning "final victory", or pracelistoj, from pracelo, meaning "original goal".[19] Those who focus on the intrinsic value of the language are commonly called raŭmistoj, from Rauma, Finland, where a declaration on the near-term unlikelihood of the "fina venko" and the value of Esperanto culture was made at the International Youth Congress in 1980[20] (see Raumism). These categories are, however, not mutually exclusive. (See Finvenkismo) Rauma, or Raumo in Swedish, is a town of ca. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Finvenkismo is an ideological current within the Esperanto-movement dating back to Zamenhof, the initiator of Esperanto. ...


The Prague Manifesto (1996) presents the views of the mainstream of the Esperanto movement and of its main organisation, the World Esperanto Association (UEA).[21] The Prague Manifesto (or Manifesto de Prago) is a set of seven widely-shared principles of the Esperanto movement. ... The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with members in 119 countries (as of 2000) and in official relations with the United Nations and UNESCO. In addition to individual members, 95 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated to UEA. Its...


Symbols and flags

"Jubilee" symbol
Main article: Esperanto symbols

In 1893, C. Rjabinis and P. Deullin designed and manufactured a lapel pin for Esperantists to identify each other. The design was a circular pin with a white background and a five pointed green star. The theme of the design was the hope of the five continents being united by a common language.[14] Image File history File links Jubilea_simbolo. ... Image File history File links Jubilea_simbolo. ... The Esperanto flag (or verda stelo, literally green star) is composed of a green background with a white square in the upper lefthand corner, which in turn contains a green star. ...


The earliest flag, and the one most commonly used today, features a green five-pointed star against a white canton, upon a field of green. It was proposed to Zamenhof by Irishman, Richard Geoghegan, author of the first Esperanto textbook for English speakers, in 1887. In 1905, delegates to the first conference of Esperantists at Boulogne-sur-Mer, unanimously approved a version, differing from the modern only by the superimposition of an "E" over the green star.[15] Other variants [16] include that for Christian Esperantists, with a white Christian cross superimposed upon the green star, and that for Leftists, with the color of the field changed from green to red.


In 1987, a second flag design was chosen in a contest by the UEA for the first centennial of the language. It featured a white background with two stylised curved "E"s facing each other. Dubbed the "jubilea simbolo" (jubilee symbol) [17], it attracted criticism from some Esperantists, who dubbed it the "melono" (melon) because of the design's elliptical shape. It is still in use, though to a lesser degree than the traditional symbol, known as the "verda stelo" (green star). [18] Esperanto Jubilee Symbol This is the Esperanto jubilea simbolo (jubilee symbol). ...


Esperanto and religion

Esperanto has served an important role in several religions, such as Oomoto from Japan and Baha'i from Iran, and has been encouraged by others.


Oomoto

The Oomoto religion encourages the use of Esperanto among their followers and includes Zamenhof as one of its deified spirits.[22] Oomoto (大本, literally foundation), also known as Omoto-kyo (大本教) or similar Omoto, is a Japanese religion, often categorized as a new Japanese religion and offshoot of Shinto. ...


Bahá'í Faith

The Bahá'í Faith encourages the use of an auxiliary international language. While endorsing no specific language, some Bahá'ís see Esperanto as having great potential in this role.[23] This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... Auxiliary language in the Baháí Faith focuses on a particular teaching; that the world should adopt an international auxiliary language, and everyone should have to learn only one or two languages. ...


Lidja Zamenhof, daughter of Esperanto's founder, became a Bahá'í. Lidia Zamenhof (sometimes Lidja in Esperanto) was the youngest daughter of Dr. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto. ...


Various volumes of the Bahá'í scriptures and other Baha'i books have been translated into Esperanto. Baháí literature, like much religious text, covers a variety of topics and forms, including scripture and inspiration, interpretation, history and biography, introduction and study materials, and apologia. ...


It should be noted that between 1979 and 1981 (the Bahá'í interest in Esperanto goes back over a century), the Islamic Republic of Iran through the mullahs had also encouraged the use of Esperanto.[24] Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Mullah (Persian: ملا) is a title given to some Islamic clergy, coming from the Arabic word mawla, meaning both vicar and guardian. ...


Spiritism

Esperanto is also actively promoted, at least in Brazil, by followers of Spiritism. The Brazilian Spiritist Federation publishes Esperanto coursebooks, translations of Spiritism's basic books and encourages Spiritists to become Esperantists.[25] This article is about Kardecist spiritism. ... Spiritist Codification is the customary name given by spiritists to the set of books written by Allan Kardec between the years 1857 and 1868 which are considered to contain the fundaments of Spiritism: // The Spirits Book First published in 1857, this book deals with the fundamentals of the Spiritist Doctrine...


Bible translations

The first translation of the Bible into Esperanto was a translation of the Tanach or Old Testament done by L. L. Zamenhof. The translation was reviewed and compared with other languages' translations of the Bible by a group of British clergy and scholars before publishing it at the British and Foreign Bible Society in 1910. In 1926 this was published along with a New Testament translation, in an edition commonly called the "Londona Biblio". In the 1960s, Internacia Asocio de Bibliistoj kaj Orientalistoj tried to organize a new, ecumenical Esperanto Bible version.[26] Since then, the Dutch Lutheran pastor Gerrit Berveling has translated the Deuterocanonical or apocryphal books in addition to new translations of the Gospels, some of the New Testament epistles, and some books of the Tanakh or Old Testament; these have been published in various separate booklets, or serialized in Dia Regno, but the Deuterocanonical books have appeared in recent editions of the Londona Biblio. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... 11th century Targum Tanakh [&#1514;&#1504;&#1524;&#1498;] (also spelt Tanach or Tenach) is an acronym for the three parts of the Hebrew Bible, based upon the initial Hebrew letters of each part: Torah [&#1514;&#1493;&#1512;&#1492;] (The Law; also: Teaching or Instruction), Chumash [&#1495;&#1493;&#1502;&#1513;] (The... Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was a Polish eye doctor, philologist, and the virtual inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed languages designed for international communication among speakers of all languages. ... The British and Foreign Bible Society, often known in Britain as simply as the Bible Society, is a non-denominational Christian charity that exists to make the Bible available throughout the world. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ... The deuterocanonical books are the books that Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Oriental Orthodoxy include in the Old Testament that were not part of the Jewish Tanakh. ...


Christianity

Two Roman Catholic popes (John Paul II and Benedict XVI) have regularly used Esperanto in their multilingual urbi et orbi blessings, at Easter and Christmas each year since Easter 1994. Christian Esperanto organizations include two that were formed early in the history of Esperanto, the International Union of Catholic Esperantists and the International Christian Esperantists League. An issue of "The Friend" describes the activities of the Quaker Esperanto Society.[27] There are instances of Christian apologists and teachers who use Esperanto as a medium. Nigerian Pastor Bayo Afolaranmi's "Spirita nutraĵo" (spiritual food) Yahoo mailing list, for example, has hosted weekly messages since 2003.[28] Chick Publications, publisher of Protestant fundamentalist themed evangelistic tracts, has published a number of comic book style tracts by Jack T. Chick translated into Esperanto, including "This Was Your Life!" ("Jen Via Tuto Vivo!") Coat of Arms of Pope John Paul II. The Letter M is for Mary, the mother of Jesus, to whom he held strong devotion Pope John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: Giovanni Paolo II, Polish: Jan PaweÅ‚ II) born   []; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of... Papal Arms of Pope Benedict XVI. The papal tiara was replaced with a bishops mitre, and pallium of the Pope was added beneath the coat of arms. ... Urbi et Orbi, literally to the City [of Rome] and to the World, was a standard opening of Roman proclamations. ... The Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as Quakers, or Friends, is a religious community founded in England in the 17th century. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      A pastor is an... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chick Publications is an American publishing company run by Jack Chick which produces and markets Protestant fundamentalist pamphlets, DVDs, VCDs, videos, books, and posters. ... Fundamentalist Christianity, or Christian fundamentalism, is a movement that arose mainly within British and American Protestantism in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by conservative evangelical Christians, who, in a reaction to modernism, actively affirmed a fundamental set of Christian beliefs: the inerrancy of the Bible, Sola Scriptura, the... A frame from the Chick tract Doom Town Jack Thomas Chick (born April 13, 1924) of Chick Publications is the creator of comic-style tracts and larger comic books for the purpose of Christian evangelism in a fundamentalist theology. ...


Islam

Ayatollah Khomeini of Iran officially called on Muslims to learn Esperanto and praised the use of Esperanto as a medium for a better understanding among peoples of different religious backgrounds. After he suggested Esperanto replace English as an International lingua franca, it found its way to the seminaries of Qom. An Esperanto translation of the Qur'an was published by the state shortly thereafter. [29][30] Khomeini, and the Iranian government later began to oppose Esperanto in 1981 after realising that followers of the Bahá'í Faith were interested in Esperanto.[29] Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (&#1570;&#1740;&#1578;&#8204;&#1575;&#1604;&#1604;&#1607; &#1585;&#1608;&#1581;&#8204;&#1575;&#1604;&#1604;&#1607; &#1582;&#1605;&#1740;&#1606;&#1740; in Persian) (May 17, 1900 &#8211; June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ... Qom (Persian: قم, also known as Qum or Kom) is a city in Iran and the Qom (River) flows through the town. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ...


Criticism of Esperanto

Esperanto was conceived as a language of international communication, more precisely as a universal second language. Since publication, there has been debate over whether it is possible for Esperanto to attain this position, and whether it would be an improvement for international communication if it did. Esperanto was conceived as a language of international communication, more precisely as a universal second language. ... A second language (L2) is any language learned after the first language or mother tongue (L1). ...


Since Esperanto is a planned language, there have been many, often passionate, criticisms of minor points which are too numerous to cover here, such as Zamenhof's choice of the word edzo over something like spozo for "husband, spouse", or his choice of the Classic Greek and Old Latin singular and plural endings -o, -oj, -a, -aj over their Medieval contractions -o, -i, -a, -e. (Both these changes were adopted by the Ido reform, though Ido dispensed with adjectival agreement altogether.) See the links below for examples of more general criticism. The more common points include: Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... This article is about the language. ...

  • Esperanto has failed the expectations of its founder to become a universal second language. Although many promoters of Esperanto stress the few successes it has had, the fact remains that well over a century since its publication, the portion of the world that speaks Esperanto, and the number of primary and secondary schools which teach it, remain minuscule. It simply can't compete with English in this regard. Many Esperantists accept this and use the language for personal rather than idealistic reasons. This includes many who have failed to learn one of the ethnic international languages, such as Spanish, and have turned to Esperanto as a last resort.
  • The vocabulary and grammar are European, not universal. Often this criticism is specific to a few points such as adjectival agreement and the accusative case (generally such obvious details are all that reform projects suggest changing), but sometimes it is more general: Both the grammar and the 'international' vocabulary are difficult for many Asians, among others, and give an unfair advantage to speakers of European languages. Note however that while it is true that Esperanto is not a universal language in this sense, this is due to a decision by Zamenhof to base it on the languages most widely taught for international communication in schools around the world, so that a large portion of the vocabulary would be recognizable to educated people; and that therefore he included very little from his own native language, Russian, itself a major international language but without the number of foreign learners of French or English.
    One attempt to address this issue is Lojban, which draws from the six populous languages Arabic, Chinese, English, Hindi, Russian, and Spanish, and whose grammar is designed for computer parsing.
  • The vocabulary, diacritic letters, and grammar are too dissimilar from the major Western European languages, and therefore Esperanto is not as easy as it could be for speakers of those languages to learn.
    Attempts to address this issue include the younger planned languages Ido and Interlingua. Note that this is at odds with the previous criticism.
  • Esperanto phonology is unimaginatively provincial, being essentially Belorussian with regularized stress, leaving out only the nasal vowels, palatalized consonants, and /dz/. For example, Esperanto has phonemes such as /x/, /ʒ/, /ts/, /eu̯/ (ĥ, ĵ, c, eŭ) which are rare as distinct phonemes outside Europe. (Note that none of these are found in initial position in English.) However, none of these carry a high functional load (that is, they aren't terribly important to the language), and one of them, /x/, is falling out of use.[31]
  • Esperanto has no culture. Although it has a large international literature, Esperanto does not encapsulate a specific culture. Note that doing so would compromise its ability to be universal, as it would then be an ethnic language.
  • Esperanto is culturally European. This is due to the European derivation of its vocabulary, and more insidiously, its semantics; both infuse the language with a European world view. Again, this is at odds with the previous criticism.
  • The vocabulary is too large. Rather than deriving new words from existing roots, large numbers of new roots are adopted into the language by people who think they're international, when in fact they're only European. This makes the language much more difficult for non-Europeans than it needs to be.[19] Note that this is a separate criticism than whether the core of the language is too European.
  • Esperanto is sexist. As in English, there is no neutral pronoun for s/he, and most kin terms and titles are masculine by default and only feminine when so specified. Note that this is an Anglophone definition of sexism; many Germans, for example, feel the opposite, that overt feminine morphology prevents women from being subsumed under men. (However, if Esperanto were completely gender neutral, overt gender could still be specified if so desired.)
    There have been many attempts to address this issue; one of the better known is Riism.
  • Esperanto is (or looks, or sounds) artificial. This criticism is primarily due to the letters with circumflex diacritics, which some find odd or cumbersome, and to the lack of fluent speakers: Few Esperantists have spent much time with fluent, let alone native, speakers, and many learn Esperanto relatively late in life, and so speak haltingly, which can create a negative impression among non-speakers. Among fluent speakers, Esperanto sounds no more artificial than any other language. Others claim that an artificial language will necessarily be deficient, due to its very nature, but the Hungarian Academy of Sciences has found that Esperanto fulfills all the requirements of a living language.[32]

Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Hindi (DevanāgarÄ«: or , IAST: , IPA:  ), an Indo-European language spoken all over India in varying degrees and extensively in northern and central India, is one of the 22 official languages of India and is used, along with English, for central government administrative purposes. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Belarusian is the language of the Belarusian nation. ... A nasal vowel is a vowel that is produced with a lowering of the velum so that air escapes both through nose as well as the mouth. ... Palatalization means pronouncing a sound nearer to the hard palate, making it more like a palatal consonant; this is towards the front of the mouth for a velar or uvular consonant, but towards the back of the mouth for a front (e. ... In linguistics and especially phonology, functional load refers to the importance of certain features in making distinctions in a language. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... Riism (Riismo in Esperanto) is a modification of Esperanto to simplify it, to make it symmetric, and to incorporate non-sexist language and gender-neutral pronouns into it. ... The Hungarian Academy of Sciences (in short: HAS, in Hungarian: Magyar Tudományos Akadémia) was founded in 1825, when Count István Széchenyi offered one years income of his estate for the purposes of a Learned Society at a district session of the Diet in Bratislava (seat...

Modifications of Esperanto

Main article: Esperantido

Though Esperanto itself has changed little since the publication of the Fundamento de Esperanto ("Foundation of Esperanto"), a number of reform projects have been proposed over the years, starting with Zamenhof's proposals in 1894 and Ido in 1907. Several later constructed languages, such as Fasile, were based on Esperanto. It has been suggested that Baza (language) be merged into this article or section. ... The Fundamento de Esperanto (Foundation of Esperanto) is a book by L. L. Zamenhof, published in the spring of 1905. ... Reformed Esperanto was a reformed version of Esperanto created in 1894. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ...


In modern times, attempts have been made to eliminate perceived sexism in the language. One example of this is Riism. However, as Esperanto has become a living language, changes are as difficult to implement as in ethnic languages. Riism (Riismo in Esperanto) is a modification of Esperanto to simplify it, to make it symmetric, and to incorporate non-sexist language and gender-neutral pronouns into it. ...


Esperanto in popular culture

Esperanto has been used in a number of films and novels. Typically, this is done either to add the exoticness of a foreign language without representing any particular ethnicity, or to avoid going to the trouble of inventing a new language. The Charlie Chaplin film The Great Dictator (1940) showed shops designated in Esperanto, each with the general Esperanto suffix -ejo (meaning "place for..."), in order to convey the atmosphere of some 'foreign' East European country without reference to a particular East European language. The Canadian actor William Shatner learned Esperanto to a limited level so that he could star in the all-Esperanto B-movie horror film Incubus. In the British comedy Red Dwarf, Arnold Rimmer is seen attempting to learn Esperanto in a number of early episodes, including Queeg. Esperanto can be overheard on the public address system in the US film Gattaca (1997). Esperanto is used as the universal language in the far future of Harry Harrison's Stainless Steel Rat stories. References to Esperanto, a constructed language, have been made in a number of films and novels. ... The Great Dictator is a film directed by and starring Charlie Chaplin. ... William Alan Shatner (born on March 22, 1931) is a Canadian actor who gained fame for playing James Tiberius Kirk of the USS Enterprise in the television show Star Trek from 1966 to 1969 and in seven of the subsequent movies. ... Incubus (Esperanto: Inkubo) is a black and white horror film originally released in 1965 and later restored in 2001. ... For the type of star, see Red dwarf. ... Arnold Judas Rimmer BSc, SSc (Bronze Swimming certificate, Silver Swimming certificate), who sometimes goes by Arnold Jonathan Rimmer, is a fictional character in the television series Red Dwarf, played by Chris Barrie. ... Character descriptions and casting details for the Red Dwarf BBC sitcom and series of novels by Rob Grant and Doug Naylor. ... Gattaca is a 1997 science fiction drama film written and directed by Andrew Niccol, starring Ethan Hawke, Uma Thurman and Jude Law with supporting roles played by Loren Dean, Gore Vidal and Alan Arkin. ... At the 63rd World Science Fiction Convention in Glasgow, August 2005 Harry Harrison (born Henry Maxwell Dempsey, March 12, 1925 in Stamford, Connecticut) is an American science fiction author who has lived in many parts of the world including Mexico, England, Denmark and Italy. ... The Stainless Steel Rat refers to a fictional character and the series of novels involving the character. ...


See also

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Esperanto | Grammar | Letters | Phonology | Orthography | Vocabulary
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Image File history File links Flag_of_Esperanto. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Esperanto. ... Esperanto is a constructed auxiliary language. ... The creator of Esperanto, L. L. Zamenhof, did not specify phonemic-phonetic correspondences for his language. ... Esperanto is written in a Latin alphabet of twenty-eight letters, upper and lower case. ... The word base of Esperanto was originally defined by Lingvo internacia, published by Zamenhof in 1887. ... The constructed international auxiliary language Esperanto was developed in the 1870s and 80s by L. L. Zamenhof, and first published in 1887. ... Ludvic Lazarus (Ludwik Lejzer, Ludwik Łazarz) Zamenhof (December 15, 1859 – April 14, 1917) was a Polish eye doctor, philologist, and the virtual inventor of Esperanto, the most widely spoken and successful constructed languages designed for international communication among speakers of all languages. ... Proto-Esperanto (or pra-Esperanto in the language itself) is the modern term for any of the stages in the evolution of L. L. Zamenhofs language project, prior to the publication of his Unua Libro in 1887. ... Unua Libro por Rusoj (first edition, 1887, in Russian) Unua Libro por Angloj (first edition in English, 1888) The Unua Libro (First Book) was the first publication to describe the international language, Esperanto (then called Lingvo Internacia, inter-national language). It was first published in Russian on July 26, 1887... The Declaration of Boulogne (Bulonja Deklaracio) was a document written by L. L. Zamenhof and endorsed by the attendees of the first world congress of Esperanto in Boulogne-sur-Mer, France in 1905. ... The Fundamento de Esperanto (Foundation of Esperanto) is a book by L. L. Zamenhof, published in the spring of 1905. ... The Montevideo Resolution is the common name for Resolution IV.4. ... The Prague Manifesto (or Manifesto de Prago) is a set of seven widely-shared principles of the Esperanto movement. ... The language Esperanto is often used to access an international culture. ... An Esperantist is a person who participates in the diffusion of Esperanto. ... Esperantujo, also Esperantio, is a term used by speakers of the planned international language Esperanto to refer to the sphere of activity taking place in that language. ... // There are four feature films known to have been shot exclusively in the constructed language Esperanto. ... La Espero (The Hope) is a poem written by L. L. Zamenhof (1859-1917), the initiator of the Esperanto language. ... The following Esperanto libraries and collections of works in the Esperanto language are worthy of note: The Montagu Butler Library of Esperanto materials, maintained by the British Esperanto Association, whose collection of 30,000 items is often quoted. ... Since Esperanto is the largest planned language, there are over 25,000 books in Esperanto and the largest Esperanto book service at the World Esperanto Association sells over 4,000 books. ... Music in a variety of styles is written, recorded, and performed in Esperanto, a planned language used for international communication. ... Native Esperanto speakers (in Esperanto denaskuloj) come to be in families in which Esperanto (and usually other languages) is spoken. ... References to Esperanto, a constructed language, have been made in a number of films and novels. ... December 15 (Zamenhof Day, Zamenhofa Festo) is the birthday of L. L. Zamenhof, the initiator of Esperanto. ... Junularo Esperantista Brita (JEB) is the organisation for young Esperantists in the British Isles. ... SATEB (Workers&#8217; Esperanto Movement) is the British affiliate of the non-nationalist world organisation SAT (Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda) which is a world-wide worker movement active in socialist, peace, trade union, feminist and environmental issues. ... This is a list of Esperanto organizations. ... Amikeca Reto (Friendship Network) is a directory of people around the world who do not necessarily want to host other Esperanto speakers, but want to work together and exchange ideas with others around the world. ... The Akademio de Esperanto (Academy of Esperanto) is, according to its website, an independent language institute whose task is to conserve and protect the fundamental principles of the language Esperanto and control its evolution. ... Kurso de Esperanto is a free language course software with 12 units for the constructed language Esperanto. ... Encyclopedia of Esperanto may refer to three different attempts of creating an encyclopedia of all Esperanto topics. ... The Pasporta Servo (Passport Service) is a publication in Esperanto. ... The Breton village of Plouézec has hosted an International Meeting annually since 1997. ... TEJO is the Tutmonda Esperantista Junulara Organizo, or World Esperanto Youth Organization. ... The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with members in 119 countries (as of 2000) and in official relations with the United Nations and UNESCO. In addition to individual members, 95 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated to UEA. Its... Sennacieca Asocio Tutmonda (SAT; in English, World Anational Association) was founded in 1921 by Eugène LANTI. SAT is a world-wide worker movement active in socialist, peace, trade union, feminist and environmental issues. ... The World Congress of Esperanto (in Esperanto: Universala Kongreso de Esperanto) has the longest tradition among international Esperanto conventions, with an almost unbroken run of nearly a hundred years. ... The International Youth Congress of Esperanto or Internacia Junulara Kongreso is the biggest annual meeting of young esperantists in the world and participants usually number around 300 but have been know to have more than 1000 esperanto-speakers from all over the world coming for the entire week. ... The third universal congress of Esperanto was held in 1907 in Cambridge, England. ... Esperanto was conceived as a language of international communication, more precisely as a universal second language. ... It has been suggested that Baza (language) be merged into this article or section. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Reformed Esperanto was a reformed version of Esperanto created in 1894. ... Riism (Riismo in Esperanto) is a modification of Esperanto to simplify it, to make it symmetric, and to incorporate non-sexist language and gender-neutral pronouns into it. ... This article attempts to highlight the main differences between Esperanto and Ido, two constructed languages that have a related past but have since parted ways. ... Esperanto and Interlingua are two planned languages which have taken radically different approaches to the problem of providing an International auxiliary language (IAL). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Novial // Alphabet and Pronunciation Both Esperanto and Novial are written using versions of the Latin alphabet. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... This article is about the auxiliary language created by the International Auxiliary Language Association. ... Novial [nov- (new) + IAL, International Auxiliary Language] is a constructed international auxiliary language (IAL) intended to facilitate international communication and friendship, without displacing anyones native language. ... Volapük is a constructed language, created in 1879–1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. ... Signuno alphabet & numerals Signuno is signed Esperanto, derived from Gestuno roots and Esperanto morphology by an anonymous author. ... Anationalism is a term originating from the community of Esperanto speakers. ... Distributed Language Translation (DLT) was a project to develop a machine translation system for twelve European languages. ... Encyclopedia of Esperanto may refer to three different attempts of creating an encyclopedia of all Esperanto topics. ... Eola is the name of at least two places in the United States: Eola, Oregon Eola, Texas This is a disambiguation page &#8212; a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Esperantic Studies Foundation is a foundation which strives to solve international language problems. ... It has been suggested that Baza (language) be merged into this article or section. ... An Esperantist is a person who participates in the diffusion of Esperanto. ... This article attempts to highlight the main differences between Esperanto and Ido, two constructed languages that have a related past but have since parted ways. ... Esperanto and Interlingua are two planned languages which have taken radically different approaches to the problem of providing an International auxiliary language (IAL). ... Wikibooks has more about this subject: Novial // Alphabet and Pronunciation Both Esperanto and Novial are written using versions of the Latin alphabet. ... Esperanto AntaÅ­en (meaning Esperanto Forward) was founded in April 2001 by David Yaki, with the support of research scientists at the Alstom Power Research Facilities in Baden-Dättwil, Switzerland as well as individual speakers of Esperanto from four continents. ... Esperanto was conceived as a language of international communication, more precisely as a universal second language. ... References to Esperanto, a constructed language, have been made in a number of films and novels. ... The following Esperanto libraries and collections of works in the Esperanto language are worthy of note: The Montagu Butler Library of Esperanto materials, maintained by the British Esperanto Association, whose collection of 30,000 items is often quoted. ... The first Esperanto magazine was La Esperantisto, which began publication on September 1, 1889. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Esperantujo, also Esperantio, is a term used by speakers of the planned international language Esperanto to refer to the sphere of activity taking place in that language. ... Äœangalo (jungle in Esperanto) is an Esperanto-language internet news website. ... The Indigenous Dialogues Foundation (Indi&#285;enaj Dialogoj or ID) is an international organisation which seeks to empower organisations of indigenous peoples worldwide to communicate directly, freely, and affordably, allowing them to more effectively work together for their common interests. ... This is a list of Esperanto organizations. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ... Recent cover of Monato Monato is a monthly magazine produced in Esperanto which carries articles on politics, culture and economics. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Reformed Esperanto was a reformed version of Esperanto created in 1894. ... The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with members in 119 countries (as of 2000) and in official relations with the United Nations and UNESCO. In addition to individual members, 95 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated to UEA. Its...

References and notes

  1. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=epo
  2. ^ Byram, Michael (2001). Routledge Encyclopedia of Language Teaching and Learning. Routledge, p. 464. ISBN 0-4153-3286-9. 
  3. ^ Jouko Lindstedt (January 2006). "Native Esperanto as a Test Case for Natural Language" (pdf). University of Helsinki - Department of Slavonic and Baltic Languages and Literatures.
  4. ^ In 2007 Polskie Radio made its last radio broadcast, moving programming to the internet. However, other nations such as China and the Vatican continue radio broadcasts.[1]
  5. ^ Adolf Hitler (1924). Mein Kampf. Volume 1, Chapter XI. Retrieved on 2007-05-22.
  6. ^ About ESW and the Holocaust Museum
  7. ^ http://www.funtrivia.com/en/World/Esperanto-15136.html
  8. ^ The Maneuver Enemy website
  9. ^ Blank, Detlev (1985). Internationale Plansprachen. Eine Einführung ("International Planned Languages. An Introduction"). Akademie-Verlag. ISSN 0138-55 X. 
  10. ^ Maire Mullarney Everyone's Own Language, p147, Nitobe Press, Channel Islands, 1999
  11. ^ Piron, Claude: "The hidden perverse effect of the current system of international communication", published lecture notes
  12. ^ Williams, N. (1965) 'A language teaching experiment', Canadian Modern Language Review 22.1: 26-28
  13. ^ a b Sikosek, Ziko M. Esperanto Sen Mitoj ("Esperanto without Myths"). Second edition. Antwerp: Flandra Esperanto-Ligo, 2003.
  14. ^ Culbert, Sidney S. Three letters about his method for estimating the number of Esperanto speakers, scanned and HTMLized by David Wolff
  15. ^ Lindstedt, Jouko. "Re: Kiom?" (posting). [email protected], 22 April 1996.
  16. ^ http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=epo
  17. ^ UEA state that his father was an Esperantist, see [2]
  18. ^ Ziko van Dijk. Sed homoj kun homoj: Universalaj Kongresoj de Esperanto 1905–2005. Rotterdam: UEA, 2005.
  19. ^ "Esperanto" by Mark Feeney. The Boston Globe, 12 May 1999
  20. ^ "Kion Signifas Raŭmismo", by Giorgio Silfer.
  21. ^ "Prague Manifesto" (English version). Universala Esperanto-Asocio, updated 2003-03-26.
  22. ^ The Oomoto Esperanto portal
  23. ^ The Baha'i Faith and Esperanto. Bahaa Esperanto-Ligo ( B.E.L. ). Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  24. ^ Esperanto - Have any governments opposed Esperanto?. Donald J. Harlow. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  25. ^ Uma só língua, uma só bandeira, um só pastor: Spiritism and Esperanto in Brazil by David Pardue. University of Kansas Libraries. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  26. ^ La Sankta Biblio - "Londona text". Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  27. ^ Eric Walker (May 27, 2005). "Esperanto Lives On". The Friend. 
  28. ^ Bayo Afolaranmi. Spirita nutraĵo. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.
  29. ^ a b Esperanto - Have any governments opposed Esperanto?. Donald J. Harlow. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  30. ^ Esperanto in Iran (in Persian). Porneniu. Retrieved on 2006-08-26.
  31. ^ Wells 1989
  32. ^ Laŭ la komuna opinio de gvidaj fakuloj de la Instituo, Esperanto apartenas al la kategorio de vivaj lingvoj. Pli detale traktante la temon, konsiderante la historion kaj la nunan staton de Esperanto, a.) ĝi estas grandmezure normigita, b.) amplekse sociiĝinta, c.) ne-etna viva lingvo, kiu en sekundara lingva komunumo plenumas ĉiujn eblajn lingvajn funkciojn, kaj samtempe ĝi funkcias kiel pera lingvo. - Ĉi supre diritaj respegulas la sciencan starpunkton de nia Instituto.[3]

Polish Radio and Television (Polish: Polskie Radio i Telewizja) is a public-service broadcaster in Poland. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 142nd day of the year (143rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with members in 119 countries (as of 2000) and in official relations with the United Nations and UNESCO. In addition to individual members, 95 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated to UEA. Its... Teodoro Åœvarc (or Schwartz or Soros Tivadar; 1894-1968) was a Hungarian Jewish doctor, lawyer, author and editor. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Emily van Someren. [20]. Republication of the thesis 'The EU Language Regime, Lingual and Translational Problems'.
  • Ludovikologia dokumentaro I Tokyo: Ludovikito, 1991. Facsimile reprints of the Unua Libro in Russian, Polish, French, German, English and Swedish, with the earliest Esperanto dictionaries for those languages.
  • Fundamento de Esperanto. HTML reprint of 1905 Fundamento, from the Academy of Esperanto.
  • Auld, William. La Fenomeno Esperanto ("The Esperanto Phenomenon"). Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1988.
  • Butler, Montagu C. Step by Step in Esperanto. ELNA 1965/1991. ISBN 0-939785-01-3
  • DeSoto, Clinton (1936). 200 Meters and Down. West Hartford, Connecticut, USA: American Radio Relay League, p. 92.
  • Everson, Michael. The Alphabets of Europe: EsperantoPDF (25.4 KiB). Evertype, 2001.
  • Forster, Peter G. The Esperanto Movement. The Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1982. ISBN 90-279-3399-5.
  • Harlow, Don. The Esperanto Book. Self-published on the web (1995-96).
  • Wells, John. Lingvistikaj aspektoj de Esperanto ("Linguistic aspects of Esperanto"). Second edition. Rotterdam: Universala Esperanto-Asocio, 1989.
  • Zamenhof, Ludovic Lazarus, Dr. Esperanto's International Language: Introduction & Complete Grammar The original 1887 Unua Libro, English translation by Richard H. Geoghegan; HTML online version 2006. Print edition (2007) also available from ELNA or UEA.

The ARRL Logo. ... “PDF” redirects here. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... John Christopher Wells, MA (Cantab), Ph. ... Unua Libro por Rusoj (first edition, 1887, in Russian) Unua Libro por Angloj (first edition in English, 1888) The Unua Libro (First Book) was the first publication to describe the international language, Esperanto (then called Lingvo Internacia, inter-national language). It was first published in Russian on July 26, 1887...

External links

National Esperanto associations (English-speaking countries)

  • Esperanto Association of Britain
  • Junularo Esperantista Brita (British Youth Association)
  • Canadian Esperanto Association
  • New Zealand Esperanto Association
  • Esperanto Association of Ireland
  • Esperanto League for North America (USA)
  • Australian Esperanto Association
  • Melbourne Esperanto Association (Australia)

Information on Esperanto

Wikipedia
Esperanto edition of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Wiktionary
Esperanto edition of Wiktionary, the free dictionary/thesaurus
Find more information on Esperanto by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
Dictionary definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • An Update on Esperanto by the World Esperanto Association
  • Esperanto.net: information in many languages
  • Esperanto: A Language for the Global Village by Sylvan Zaft
  • A Key to the International Language compiled by R. Kent Jones and Christopher Zervic
  • Blueprints for Babel: Esperanto - Commentary and grammatical summary of Esperanto and Riismo, with glossary and links
  • "A Scottish Poet in Esperanto" by William Auld, Esperantist Nobel Prize nominee
  • "Esperanto Studies: An Overview" by Humphrey Tonkin and Mark Fettes (1996)
  • Articles on Esperanto and International communication (multilingual)

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1058x1058, 477 KB) aa Wikipedia logo, version 1058px square, no text Wikipedia logo by Nohat (concept by Paullusmagnus); compare Wikipedia File links The following pages link to this file: Arabic language Talk:Anarcho-capitalism Talk:Algorithm Talk:Anno Domini Talk:The... Wikipedia (IPA: , or ( ) is a multilingual, web-based, free content encyclopedia project, operated by the Wikimedia Foundation, a non-profit organization. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... The World Esperanto Association (in Esperanto UEA: Universala Esperanto-Asocio) is the largest international organization of Esperanto speakers, with members in 119 countries (as of 2000) and in official relations with the United Nations and UNESCO. In addition to individual members, 95 national Esperanto organizations are affiliated to UEA. Its... William Auld (6 November 1924 - 11 September 2006) was a Scottish author and the deputy director of a grammar school. ...

Esperanto courses and pronunciation

  • Lernu.net – see also Lernu!
  • Free Esperanto Course – E-mail correspondence course
  • Kurso de Esperanto – Software and e-mail correspondence course (multilingual)
  • Esperanto - Panorama
  • Parolu, Esperanto pronunciation.
  • La Facila Kurso de Esperanto Very practical and well illustrated, covering common tasks and situations.
  • Esperanto books at Project Gutenberg

Lernu! is a website hosting several free multilanguage courses designed to teach Esperanto. ...

Dictionaries

  • Reta Vortaro, an Esperanto dictionary
  • The Alternative Esperanto Dictionary, a dictionary of vulgarities and slang
  • Esperanto Dictionary: from Webster's Dictionary
  • Esperanto Wiktionary and Wiktionary:Category:Esperanto language
  • jVortaro, an Esperanto dictionary written in Java
  • Freelang Dictionary, a downloadable Esperanto-English dictionary
  • [21], a downloadable Esperanto-English etymological dictionary by Andras Rajki
  • Esperanto books at Project Gutenberg
  • Scii a free Esperanto dictionary for cellphones written in j2me

Glossary and Root Words

  • Esperanto Common Roots Glossary A list compiled by the Esperanto Society of Chicago clearly showing the roots. List was derived from Frekvencmorfemaro de Parolata Esperanto (List of Morpheme Frequency in Spoken Esperanto), a computer analysis of the most commonly used words.
  • Esperanto-English Glossary from the Esperanto Society of Chicago. This contains 650 words and because of Esperanto's word formation is equivalent to around 6,500 English words.

Automatic translation from English and other languages

  • Traduku: Online Machine Translator
  • Esperantilo – Text editor with spell and grammar checking and machine translation from Esperanto to English, German and Polish
  • From English to Esperanto
  • Majstro Multlingva Tradukvortaro - A multilingual translation dictionary that uses Esperanto as a pivot language
  • Logos

Input tools

  • Esperanto Keyboard Layout – Esperanto IME.
  • Melburno Notepad – Converts to Esperanto special characters - cx = ĉ, sx = ŝ etc.
  • EK - Esperanta Klavaro (Esperanto Keyboard); type using x-convention and it will automatically convert special characters
  • UniRed - A unicode plain text editor. Supports many charsets, has syntax coloring, search and replace via regular expressions. Able to run auxiliary programs, ISpell for example (for spellchecking). (project info: http://sourceforge.net/projects/unired)

News in Esperanto

  • Libera Folio - Independent news site
  • KLAKU.net social news site
  • Raporto - Kie la mondo raportas al vi - news site
  • Polish radio in Esperanto
  • China Radio International
  • TERRA-Esperanto expedition
  • Esperanto subreddit at Reddit news site

Portals

  • China Interreta Informa Centro - China's Official Gateway to News & Information in Esperanto
  • Esperanto Pen Pal Service
  • Google in Esperanto
  • Ĝangalo - La mondo en Esperanto - The World in Esperanto (not updated at the moment)
  • Startu.net
  • [22]-activities and resources for learning Esperanto.

Philosophy in Esperanto

  • Enciklopedio Simpozio - All about philosophy in Esperanto

Entertainment

  • Ĉi Tie Nun Podcast in Esperanto
  • esPodkasto Rolfo's podcast
  • Radio Verda Podcast of Arono and Karlina

International Esperanto organisations and institutions

  • Universal Esperanto Association
  • European Esperanto Union
  • Akademio de Esperanto
  • Roman Catholic Esperantists
  • The oldest, still published, Esperanto-magazine

Criticism

  • Learn Not to Speak Esperanto by Justin B. Rye
  • Esperanto - a critique by James Chandler
  • "Why Esperanto is not my favourite Artificial Language"
  • The irregularities of Esperanto from Mark Rosenfelder's Metaverse
  • Is Esperanto's vocabulary too large?

Mark Rosenfelder is the creator of the website Zompist. ...

Handouts, Leaflets

  • Useful handouts for activists A sample of material by the ELNA

A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... An artificial or constructed script (also conscript or neography) is a new writing system specifically created by an individual or group, rather than having evolved as part of a language or culture like a natural script. ... An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... It has been suggested that Vorlin be merged into this article or section. ... Quenya, written in Tengwar and Latin-based alphabets Fictional languages are by far the largest group of artistic languages. ... An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ... A language game (also called secret language) is a system of manipulating spoken words to render them incomprehensible to the untrained ear. ... Logical languages, sometimes called loglangs, are constructed languages usually intended as experiments in logic or philosophy. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Relexification is a term from linguistics used in pidgin and creole studies for the mechanism by which one language changes its lexicon to that of another language. ... The idea of a universal language is at least as old as the Biblical story of Babel. ... A whistled language is the use of whistling to emulate speech and facilitate communication. ... Blissymbolics or Blissymbols were conceived of as an ideographic writing system consisting of several hundred basic symbols, each representing a concept, which can be composed together to generate new symbols that represent new concepts. ... Elvish languages are constructed languages used typically by elves in a fantasy setting. ... This article is about the Angelical Language recorded in the journals of Dr. John Dee. ... Ido (pronounced ) is a constructed language created with the goal of becoming a universal second language for speakers of different linguistic backgrounds as a language easier to learn than ethnic languages. ... Example of Ithkuil script Ithkuil (Iţkuîl) is an extremely complicated constructed human language created by American linguist John Quijada from 1978 till 2004. ... The Klingon language (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... Láadan is a constructed language created by Suzette Haden Elgin in 1982 to test the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis for women, specifically to determine if Western natural languages were better suited for expressing the views of men than women. ... Hildegards 23 litterae ignotae Lingua Ignota (unknown language) is a language described by the German abbess, visionary, artist, composer, physician, and mystic St Hildegard of Bingen in the 12th century, apparently for mystical purposes. ... Loglan is a constructed language originally designed for linguistic research, particularly for investigating the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ... Nadsat is a constructed slang dialect of English with many Russian influences invented by the linguist, novelist, and composer Anthony Burgess. ... Newspeak is a fictional language in George Orwells novel Nineteen Eighty-Four. ... - Please look at the text in Interlingue and actualize this text! Thank you! - Solresol is an artificial language, devised by a Frenchman, François Sudre, beginning in 1817. ... Teonaht is a constructed language that has been developed since 1962 by science fiction writer and University of Rochester English professor Sarah Higley, under the pseudonym of Sally Caves. ... Toki Pona is a constructed language first published online in mid-2001. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Volapük is a constructed language, created in 1879–1880 by Johann Martin Schleyer, a Roman Catholic priest in Baden, Germany. ... A conlanger is person who invents conlangs (constructed languages). ... Ill Bethisad is an ongoing, collaborative alternative history project with currently ca. ... Langmaker is a wiki maintained by Jeffrey Henning and a staff of volunteers that serves largely, but not exclusively, as a database of over 1000 constructed languages, also known as model languages or conlangs. ... The Language Creation Conference (LCC) is a conference about conlanging. ... The Language Construction Kit is a collection of HTML documents written by Mark Rosenfelder and hosted at Zompist. ... A translation relay is a version of the well-known telephone game. ... Zompist. ... This list of constructed languages is in alphabetical order, and divided into auxiliary, engineered, and artistic languages, and their respective subgenres. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Esperanto - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4278 words)
Esperanto is particularly prevalent in the northern and eastern countries of Europe; in China, Korea, Japan, and Iran within Asia; in Brazil, Argentina, and Mexico in the Americas; and in Togo and Madagascar in Africa.
Esperanto is often used to access an international culture, including a large corpus of original as well as translated literature.
Esperanto was the language of the house, and Orwell was disadvantaged by not speaking it, which may account for some antipathy towards the language[2].
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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