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Encyclopedia > Esophageal cancer
Esophageal cancer
Classification & external resources
Endoscopic image of patient with esophageal adenocarcinoma seen at gastro-esophageal junction.
ICD-10 C15
ICD-9 150

Esophageal cancer is malignancy of the esophagus. There are various subtypes. Esophageal tumors usually lead to dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), pain and other symptoms, and are diagnosed with biopsy. Small and localized tumors are treated with surgery, and advanced tumors are treated with chemotherapy, radiotherapy or combinations. Prognosis depends on the extent of the disease and other medical problems, but is fairly poor.[1] Image File history File linksMetadata Esophageal_adenoca. ... Endoscopic still of esophageal ulcers seen after banding of esophageal varices, at time of esophagogastroduodenosocopy In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualises the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus), or gullet is the muscular tube in vertebrates through which ingested food passes from the mouth area to the stomach. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/œsophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... Dysphagia () is a medical term defined as difficulty swallowing. ... Swallowing, known scientifically as deglutition, is the reflex in the human body that makes something pass from the mouth, to the pharynx, into the esophagus, with the shutting of the epiglottis. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...

Contents

Classification

Esophageal cancers are typically carcinomas, which arise from the epithelium, or surface lining of the esophagus. Most esophageal cancer fall into one of two classes: squamous cell carcinomas, which are similar to head and neck cancer in their appearance and association with tobacco and alcohol consumption, and adenocarcinomas, which are often associated with a history of gastroesophageal reflux disease and Barrett's esophagus. In medicine, carcinoma is any cancer that arises from epithelial cells. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... Shredded tobacco leaf for pipe smoking Tobacco can also be pressed into plugs and sliced into flakes Tobacco is an agricultural product processed from the fresh leaves of plants in the genus Nicotiana. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD; or GORD when spelling Å“sophageal, the BrE form) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux in the esophagus[1]. This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. ... Barretts esophagus (sometimes called Barretts syndrome, CELLO, columnar epithelium lined lower (o)esophagus or colloquially as Barretts) refers to an abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the lower end of the esophagus thought to be caused by damage from chronic acid exposure, or reflux esophagitis. ...


Signs and symptoms

Dysphagia (difficulty swallowing) is the first symptom in most patients. Odynophagia (painful swallowing) may be present. Fluids and soft foods are usually tolerated, while hard or bulky substances (such as bread or meat) cause much more difficulty. Substantial weight loss is characteristic as a result of poor nutrition and the active cancer. Pain, often of a burning nature, may be severe and worsened by swallowing, and can be spasmodic in character. An early sign may be an unusually husky or raspy voice. Odynophagia refers to a medical term that describes a painful swallowing experience. ... For other uses, see Bread (disambiguation). ... This article is about the food. ... Weight loss, in the context of medicine or health or physical fitness, is a reduction of the total body weight, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue and/or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon and other connective tissue. ... “Hurting” redirects here. ...


The presence of the tumor may disrupt normal peristalsis (the organised swallowing reflex), leading to nausea and vomiting, regurgitation of food, coughing and an increased risk of aspiration pneumonia. The tumor surface may be fragile and bleed, causing hematemesis (vomiting up blood). Compression of local structures occurs in advanced disease, leading to such problems as superior vena cava syndrome. Fistulas may develop between the esophagus and the trachea, increasing the pneumonia risk; this symptom is usually heralded by cough, fever or aspiration.[1] In much of the digestive tract, muscles contract in sequence to produce a peristaltic wave which forces food (called bolus while in the esophagus and chyme below the esophagus) along the alimentary canal. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Emesis redirects here. ... Regurgitation is the passive flow of stomach contents back into the esophagus and mouth. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hematemesis or haematemesis is the vomiting of fresh red blood. ... Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is a result of obstruction of the superior vena cava. ... In medicine, a fistula (pl. ... The trachea, or windpipe, is a tube that has an inner diameter of about 12mm and a length of about 10-16cm. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


If the disease has spread elsewhere, this may lead to symptoms related to this: liver metastasis could cause jaundice and ascites, lung metastasis could cause shortness of breath, pleural effusions, etc. For the musical composition, see Metastasis (Xenakis composition). ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Jaundice, also known as icterus (attributive adjective: icteric), is a yellowing of the skin, conjunctiva (a clear covering over the sclera, or whites of the eyes) and mucous membranes caused by hyperbilirubinemia (increased levels of bilirubin in red blooded animals). ... Human respiratory system The lungs flank the heart and great vessels in the chest cavity. ... Dyspnea (R06. ... Pleural effusion Chest x-ray of a pleural effusion. ...


Causes and risk factors

Increased risk

Barrett's esophagus is considered to be a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma

There are a number of risk factors for esophageal cancer.[1] Some subtypes of cancer are linked to particular risk factors: Image File history File linksMetadata Barretts_esophagus. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Barretts_esophagus. ... Barretts esophagus (sometimes called Barretts syndrome, CELLO, columnar epithelium lined lower (o)esophagus or colloquially as Barretts) refers to an abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the lower end of the esophagus thought to be caused by damage from chronic acid exposure, or reflux esophagitis. ...

  • Age. Most patients are over 60, and the median in US patients is 67.[1]
  • Gender. It is more common in men.
  • Tobacco smoking and heavy alcohol use increase the risk, and together appear to increase the risk more than these two individually.
  • Swallowing lye or other caustic substances.
  • Particular dietary substances, such as nitrosamine.
  • A medical history of other head and neck cancersincreases the chance of developing a second cancer in the head and neck area, including esophageal cancer.
  • Hereditary
  • Plummer-Vinson syndrome (anemia and esophageal webbing)
  • Tylosis and Howel-Evans syndrome (hereditary thickening of the skin of the palms and soles).
  • Radiation therapy for other conditions in the mediastinum.[1]
  • Celiac disease predisposes towards squamous cell carcinoma.[2]
  • Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and its resultant Barrett's esophagus increase esophageal cancer risk due to the chronic irritation of the mucosal lining (adenocarcinoma is more common in this condition, while all other risk factors predispose more for squamous cell carcinoma).[3]
  • Obesity increases the risk of adenocarcinoma fourfold.[4] It is suspected that increased risk of reflux may be behind this association.[5][6]
  • According to one Italian study of "diet surveys completed by 5,500 Italians" — a study which has raised debates questioning its claims among cancer researchers cited in news reports about it — eating pizza more than once a week appears "to be a favorable indicator of risk for digestive tract neoplasms in this population."[7]

The cigarette is the most common method of smoking tobacco. ... Alcoholic beverages An alcoholic beverage (also known as booze in slang term) is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol, although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds. ... Lye is a caustic solution used for glass and soap making. ... Structure of the nitrosamino group Nitrosamines are chemical compounds of the chemical structure R1N(-R2)-N=O, some of which are carcinogenic. ... Head and neck cancers are malignant growths originating in the lip and oral cavity (mouth), nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, thyroid, paranasal sinuses, salivary glands and cervical lymph nodes of the neck. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... The Plummer-Vinson syndrome, also called Paterson-Kelly syndrome or sideropenic dysphagia is a disorder linked to severe, long-term iron deficiency anemia, which causes swallowing difficulty (dysphagia) due to web-like membranes of tissue growing in the throat (esophageal webs). ... Tylosis is a autosomal dominant disorder. ... Howel-Evans syndrome is an extremely rare condition in which the skin of the palms of the hands, and soles of the feet, are affected (hyperkeratosis). ... Varian Clinac 2100C Linear Accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... FIG. 967– Transverse section through the upper margin of the second thoracic vertebra The mediastinum is a non-delineated group of structures in the thorax (chest), surrounded by loose connective tissue. ... Coeliac disease (also termed non-tropical sprue, celiac disease and gluten intolerance) is an autoimmune disease characterised by chronic inflammation of the proximal portion of the small intestine caused by exposure to certain dietary gluten proteins. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD; or GORD when spelling œsophageal, the BrE form) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux in the esophagus[1]. This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. ... Barretts esophagus (sometimes called Barretts syndrome, CELLO, columnar epithelium lined lower (o)esophagus or colloquially as Barretts) refers to an abnormal change (metaplasia) in the cells of the lower end of the esophagus thought to be caused by damage from chronic acid exposure, or reflux esophagitis. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... For other uses, see Pizza (disambiguation). ...

Decreased risk

  • Risk appears to be less in patients using aspirin or related drugs (NSAIDs).[8]
  • The role of Helicobacter pylori in progression to esophageal adenocarcinoma is still uncertain, but, on the basis of population data, it may carry a protective effect.[9][10] It is postulated that H. pylori prevents chronic gastritis, which is a risk factor for reflux, which in turn is a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma.[11]
  • According to the National Cancer Institute, "diets high in cruciferous (cabbage, broccoli, cauliflower) and green and yellow vegetables and fruits are associated with a decreased risk of esophageal cancer."[12] Moderate coffee consumption is also associated with a decreased risk.[13]

This article is about the drug. ... Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, usually abbreviated to NSAIDs, are drugs with analgesic, antipyretic and anti-inflammatory effects - they reduce pain, fever and inflammation. ... Binomial name ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) ICD-9 code: 041. ... Binomial name ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) ICD-9 code: 041. ... Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD; or GORD when spelling Å“sophageal, the BrE form) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux in the esophagus[1]. This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. ... The National Cancer Institute (NCI) is part of the United States Federal governments National Institutes of Health. ... For the several U.S. counties named Coffee, see Coffee County. ...

Diagnosis

Endoscopy and radial endoscopic ultrasound images of submucosal tumour in mid-esophagus.

Image File history File links Mid_esophageal_mass. ... Image File history File links Mid_esophageal_mass. ... Endoscopic still of esophageal ulcers seen after banding of esophageal varices, at time of esophagogastroduodenosocopy In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualises the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. ... Endoscopic ultrasound is an ultrasound that is placed into the stomach and duodenum via the upper GI tract. ... The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ...

Clinical evaluation

Although an occlusive tumor may be suspected on a barium swallow or barium meal, the diagnosis is best made with esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD, endoscopy); this involves the passing of a flexible tube down the esophagus and visualising the wall. Biopsies taken of suspicious lesions are then examined histologically for signs of malignancy. A barium meal is a procedure in which barium barium sulfate is ingested by a patient and, in conjunction with X-rays, images depicting the the distal esophagus, stomach and duodenum can be obtained digestive system. ... Preprepared Barium Sulfate suspension for oral consumption A barium meal is a procedure in which barium sulfate is ingested by a patient and, in conjunction with X-rays, images depicting the digestive system: the distal esophagus, stomach and duodenum, are obtained. ... Endoscopic still of esophageal ulcers seen after banding of esophageal varices, at time of esophagogastroduodenosocopy In medicine (gastroenterology), esophagogastroduodenoscopy is a diagnostic endoscopic procedure that visualises the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract up to the duodenum. ... Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer A flexible endoscope. ... Brain biopsy A biopsy (in Greek: bios = life and opsy = look/appearance) is a medical test involving the removal of cells or tissues for examination. ... A thin section of lung tissue stained with hematoxylin and eosin. ...


Additional testing is usually performed to estimate the tumor stage. Computed tomography (CT) of the chest, abdomen and pelvis, can evaluate whether the cancer has spread to adjacent tissues or distant organs (especially liver and lymph nodes). The sensitivity of CT scan is limited by its ability to detect masses (e.g. enlarged lymph nodes or involved organs) generally larger than 1cm. FDG-PET (positron emission tomography) scan is also being used to estimate whether enlarged masses are metabolically active, indicating faster-growing cells that might be expected in cancer. Esophageal endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) can provide staging information regarding the level of tumor invasion, and possible spread to regional lymph nodes. negron305 Cat scan redirects here. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system. ... Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Endoscopic ultrasound is an ultrasound that is placed into the stomach and duodenum via the upper GI tract. ...


The location of the tumor is generally measured by the distance from the teeth. The esophagus (25 cm or 10 inches long) is commonly divided into three parts for purposes of determining the location. Adenocarcinomas tend to occur distally and squamous cell carcinomas proximally, but the converse may also be the case.


Histopathology

Most tumors of the esophagus are malignant. A very small proportion (under 10%) is leiomyoma (smooth muscle tumor) or gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Malignant tumors are generally adenocarcinomas, squamous cell carcinomas, and occasionally small-cell carcinomas. The latter share many properties with small-cell lung cancer, and are relatively sensitive to chemotherapy compared to the other types. A leiomyoma (plural is leiomyomata) is a benign smooth muscle neoplasm that is not premalignant. ... Endoscopic image of GIST in fundus of stomach, seen on retroflexion. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... Biopsy of a highly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ...


Treatment

General approaches

Self-expandable metallic stents are used for the palliation of esophageal cancer
Shows cancer blocking esophagus. Insets show enlarged area of cancer and a stent placed in the esophagus to keep it open.
Shows cancer blocking esophagus. Insets show enlarged area of cancer and a stent placed in the esophagus to keep it open.

The treatment is determined by the cellular type of cancer (adenocarcinoma or squamous cell carcinoma vs other types), the stage of the disease, the general condition of the patient and other diseases present. On the whole, adequate nutrition needs to be assured, and adequate dental care is vital. Image File history File linksMetadata SEMS_endo. ... Image File history File linksMetadata SEMS_endo. ... Endoscopic view of a self-expandable metallic stent used to palliate an esophageal cancer A self-expandable metallic stent (or SEMS) is a metallic tube, or stent, used in order to hold open a structure in the gastrointestinal tract in order to allow the passage of food, chyme, stool, or... Palliative care (from Latin palliare, to cloak) is any form of medical care or treatment that concentrates on reducing the severity of disease symptoms, rather than providing a cure. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 715 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1377 × 1154 pixel, file size: 168 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Public domain image from cancer. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 715 × 599 pixels Full resolution (1377 × 1154 pixel, file size: 168 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Public domain image from cancer. ... The updated USDA food pyramid, published in 2005, is a general nutrition guide for recommended food consumption for humans. ...


If the patient cannot swallow at all, a stent may be inserted to keep the esophagus patent; stents may also assist in occluding fistulas. A nasogastric tube may be necessary to continue feeding while treatment for the tumor is given, and some patients require a gastrostomy (feeding hole in the skin that gives direct access to the stomach). The latter two are especially important if the patient tends to aspirate food or saliva into the airways, predisposing for aspiration pneumonia. Endoscopic image of self-expanding metallic stent in esophagus, which was used to palliatively treat esophageal cancer. ... A nasogastric tube (NG tube) is a plastic tube, inserted into a nostril through the nose, into the throat, down the oesophagus and into the stomach. ... Gastrostomy refers to a surgical opening into the stomach. ... Aspiration pneumonia is a specific form of lung infection (pneumonia) that develops when oral or gastric contents (including food, saliva, or nasal secretions) enter the bronchial tree. ...


Tumor treatments

Surgery is possible if the disease is localised, which is the case in 20-30% of all patients. If the tumor is larger but localised, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy may occasionally shrink the tumor to the extent that it becomes "operable"; however, this combination of treatments (referred to as neoadjuvant chemoradiation) is still somewhat controversial in most medical circles. Esophagectomy is the removal of a segment of the esophagus; as this shortens the distance between the throat and the stomach, some other segment of the digestive tract (typically the stomach or part of the colon) is placed in the chest cavity and interposed.[14] If the tumor is metastatic, surgical resection is not considered worthwhile, but palliative surgery may offer some benefit. “Surgeon” redirects here. ... Surgical excision of part of or the entire esophagus Categories: Medicine stubs ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Large intestine. ...


Laser therapy is the use of high-intensity light to destroy tumor cells; it affects only the treated area. This is typically done if the cancer cannot be removed by surgery. The relief of a blockage can help to reduce dysphagia and pain. Photodynamic therapy (PDT), a type of laser therapy, involves the use of drugs that are absorbed by cancer cells; when exposed to a special light, the drugs become active and destroy the cancer cells. For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Shown is close up of surgeons hands in an operating room with a beam of light traveling along fiber optics for photodynamic therapy. ...


Chemotherapy depends on the tumor type, but tends to be cisplatin-based (or carboplatin or oxaliplatin) every three weeks with fluorouracil (5-FU) either continuously or every three weeks. In more recent studies, addition of epirubicin (ECF) was better than other comparable regimens in advanced nonresectable cancer.[15] Chemotherapy may be given after surgery (adjuvant, i.e. to reduce risk of recurrence), before surgery (neoadjuvant) or if surgery is not possible; in this case, cisplatin and 5-FU are used. Ongoing trials compare various combinations of chemotherapy; the phase II/III REAL-2 trial - for example - compares four regimens containing epirubicin and either cisplatin or oxaliplatin and either continuously infused fluorouracil or capecitabine. Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... Cisplatin, cisplatinum or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e. ... Carboplatin is a chemotherapy drug used against some forms of cancer. ... Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug in the same family as cisplatin and carboplatin. ... Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a drug that is used in the treatment of cancer. ... Epirubicin (marketed by Pfizer under the trade name Ellence®) is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy. ... Epirubicin (marketed by Pfizer under the trade name Ellence®) is an anthracycline drug used for chemotherapy. ... Cisplatin, cisplatinum or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug used to treat various types of cancers, including sarcomas, some carcinomas (e. ... Oxaliplatin is a platinum-based chemotherapy drug in the same family as cisplatin and carboplatin. ... Capecitabine (INN) (IPA: ) is an orally-administered chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of metastatic breast and colorectal cancers. ...


Radiotherapy is given before, during or after chemotherapy or surgery, and sometimes on its own to control symptoms. In patients with localised disease but contraindications to surgery, "radical radiotherapy" may be used with curative intent. Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ...


Follow-up

Patients are followed up frequently after a treatment regimen has been completed. Frequently, other treatments are necessary to improve symptoms and maximize nutrition.


Prognosis

The prognosis of esophageal cancer is quite poor. Even in patients who undergo surgery with curative intent, the five year survival rate is only 25%. The prognosis is even more dismal in those who are not fit for surgery.


Epidemiology

Esophageal cancer is a relatively rare form of cancer, but some world areas have a markedly higher incidence than others: China, India and Japan, as well as the United Kingdom, appear to have a higher incidence, as well as the region around the Caspian Sea.[16] The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the worlds largest lake or a full-fledged sea. ...


The American Cancer Society estimates that during 2007, approximately 15,560 new esophageal cancer cases will be diagnosed in the United States.[17]


The esophageal cancer incidence and mortality rates for people of African-Americans have been higher than the rate for Caucasians. [18] According to the NCI, incidence of adenocarcinoma of the esophagus, which is associated with Barrett's esophagus, is rising in the United States. This type is more common in Caucasian men over the age of 60. Languages Predominantly American English Religions Predominantly Christianity and Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Caucasian is originally a geographical term, meaning relative or pertaining to the Caucasus region of eastern Europe. ...


Multiple reports indicate that esophageal adenocarcinoma incidence has increased during the past 20 yr, especially in non-Hispanic white men. Esophageal adenocarcinoma age-adjusted incidence increased in New Mexico from 1973 to 1997. This increase was found in non-Hispanic whites and Hispanics and became predominant in non-Hispanic whites. [19] Hispanic, as used in the United States, is one of several terms used to categorize US citizens, permanent residents and temporary immigrants, whose background hail either from the Spanish-speaking countries of Latin America or relating to a Spanish-speaking culture. ...


References

  1. ^ a b c d e Enzinger PC, Mayer RJ. Esophageal cancer. N Engl J Med 2003;349:2241-52. PMID 14657432.
  2. ^ Green PH, Fleischauer AT, Bhagat G, Goyal R, Jabri B, Neugut AI (2003). "Risk of malignancy in patients with celiac disease". Am. J. Med. 115 (3): 191-5. PMID 12935825. 
  3. ^ Lagergren J, Bergstrom R, Lindgren A, Nyren O. Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma. N Engl J Med 1999;340:825-31. PMID 10080844.
  4. ^ Merry AH, Schouten LJ, Goldbohm RA, van den Brandt PA (2007). "Body Mass Index, height and risk of adenocarcinoma of the oesophagus and gastric cardia: a prospective cohort study". doi:10.1136/gut.2006.116665. PMID 17337464. 
  5. ^ Lagergren J, Bergström R, Lindgren A, Nyrén O (1999). "Symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux as a risk factor for esophageal adenocarcinoma". N. Engl. J. Med. 340 (11): 825-31. PMID 10080844. 
  6. ^ Layke JC, Lopez PP (2006). "Esophageal cancer: a review and update". American family physician 73 (12): 2187-94. PMID 16836035. 
  7. ^ Gallus S, Bosetti C, Negri E, Talamini R, Montella M, Conti E, Franceschi S, La Vecchia C. Does pizza protect against cancer? Int J Cancer 2003;107:283-4. PMID 12949808. Cited and qtd. by WebMD and BBC News.
  8. ^ Corley DA, Kerlikowske K, Verma R, Buffler P. Protective association of aspirin/NSAIDs and esophageal cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Gastroenterology 2003;124:47-56. PMID 12512029. See also NCI - "Esophageal Cancer (PDQ®): Prevention".
  9. ^ Wong A, Fitzgerald RC. Epidemiologic risk factors for Barrett's esophagus and associated adenocarcinoma. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2005 Jan;3(1):1-10. PMID 15645398
  10. ^ Ye W, Held M, Lagergren J, Engstrand L, Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Nyren O. Helicobacter pylori infection and gastric atrophy: risk of adenocarcinoma and squamous-cell carcinoma of the esophagus and adenocarcinoma of the gastric cardia. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2004 Mar 3;96(5):388-96. PMID 14996860
  11. ^ Nakajima S, Hattori T. Oesophageal adenocarcinoma or gastric cancer with or without eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection in chronic atrophic gastritis patients: a hypothetical opinion from a systematic review. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2004 Jul;20 Suppl 1:54-61. PMID 15298606
  12. ^ NCI Prevention: Dietary Factors, based on Chainani-Wu N. Diet and oral, pharyngeal, and esophageal cancer. Nutr Cancer 2002;44:104-26. PMID 12734057.
  13. ^ Tavani, A; Bertuzzi M, Talamini R, Gallus S, Parpinel M, Franceschi S, Levi F, La Vecchia C. (10 2003). "Coffee and tea intake and risk of oral, pharyngeal and esophageal cancer". Oral Oncol. 39 (7): 695-700. PMID 12907209. 
  14. ^ Deschamps C, Nichols FC, Cassivi SD, et al. (2005). "Long-term function and quality of life after esophageal resection for cancer and Barrett’s". Surgical Clinics of North America 85 (3): 649-656. PMID 15927658. 
  15. ^ Ross P, Nicolson M, Cunningham D, Valle J, Seymour M, Harper P, Price T, Anderson H, Iveson T, Hickish T, Lofts F, Norman A. Prospective randomized trial comparing mitomycin, cisplatin, and protracted venous-infusion fluorouracil (PVI 5-FU) with epirubicin, cisplatin, and PVI 5-FU in advanced esophagogastric cancer. J Clin Oncol 2002;20:1996-2004. PMID 11956258.
  16. ^ Stewart BW, Kleihues P (editors). World cancer report. Lyon: IARC, 2003. ISBN 92-832-0411-5.
  17. ^ What Are the Key Statistics About Cancer of the Esophagus?. Detailed Guide: Esophagus Cancer (Aug 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  18. ^ Incidence and Mortality Rate Trends. A Snapshot of Esophageal Cancer (Sep 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  19. ^ Kenneth J. Vega, M.D., M. Mazen JamaM.D.l (Sep 2000). Changing pattern of esophageal cancer incidence in New Mexico. Changing pattern of esophageal cancer incidence in New Mexico. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.

The New England Journal of Medicine (NEJM) is a peer-reviewed medical journal published by the Massachusetts Medical Society. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC, or CIRC in its French acronym) is an intergovernmental agency forming part of the World Health Organisation of the United Nations. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Esophageal cancer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1600 words)
Esophageal tumors usually lead to dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), pain and other symptoms, and is diagnosed with biopsy.
Statistically, it appears that Helicobacter pylori, known for increasing risk for gastric cancer, actually decreases the risk of esophageal cancer; the exact mechanism for this phenomenon is unclear.
Esophageal cancer is a relatively rare form of cancer, but some world areas have a markedly higher incidence than others: China, India and Japan, as well as the United Kingdom, appear to have a higher incidence, as well as the region around the Caspian Sea.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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