FACTOID # 2: Puerto Rico has roughly the same gross state product as Montana, Wyoming and North Dakota combined.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Eskimo" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Eskimo

Eskimos or esquimaux are indigenous peoples who have traditionally inhabited the circumpolar region from eastern Siberia, across Alaska and Canada, and all of Greenland. Eskimo may refer to: Eskimo, a term used to refer to people who inhabit northern Alaska, Canada and Greenland (the Inuit) or western Alaska and the Russian Far East (the Yupik) Eskimo, an album by The Residents released in 1979 Eskimo, a song by Damien Rice from his 2003 album... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... Circumpolar stars are those stars which are located near the celestial poles of the celestial sphere, i. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Derivation

There are two main groups referred to as Eskimo: Yupik and Inuit. A third group, Unangam, is related. The Yupik language dialects and cultures in Alaska and eastern Siberia have evolved in place beginning with the original (pre-Dorset) Eskimo culture that developed in Alaska. Approximately 4000 years ago the Unangam (also known as Aleut) culture became distinctly separate, and evolved into a non-Eskimo culture. Approximately 1500-2000 years ago, apparently in Northwestern Alaska, two other distinct variations appeared. The Inuit language branch became distinct and in only several hundred years spread across northern Alaska, Canada and into Greenland. At about the same time, the Thule Technology also developed in northwestern Alaska and very quickly spread over the entire area occupied by Eskimo people, though it was not necessarily adopted by all of them. This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... The Unangam is a culture of arctic circle-dwellers. ... The Dorset culture preceded the Eskimo culture in Arctic North America. ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ...


The earliest known Eskimo cultures were Pre-Dorset Technology, which appear to have been a fully developed Eskimo culture that dates at 5000 years ago. They appear to have evolved in Alaska from people using the Archaic Small Tools Technology, who probably had migrated to Alaska from Siberia at least 2 to 3 thousand years earlier; though they might have been in Alaska as far back as 10 to 12 thousand years or more. There are similar artifacts found in Siberia going back to perhaps 18,000 years ago. It is believed that the Mongols of China, Eskimos, and probably the Korean people too all share a common ancestor in northern Asia.


Today the two main groups of Eskimos are the Inuit of northern Alaska, Canada and Greenland, and the Yupik, comprising speakers of four distinct Yupik languages and originating in western Alaska, in South Central Alaska along the Gulf of Alaska coast, and in the Russian Far East. The Yupik people speak five distinct languages, depending on their location. ... South Central Alaska consists of the portion of the U.S. state of Alaska from the shorelines and uplands of the Gulf of Alaska. ... The Gulf of Alaska is an arm of the Pacific Ocean defined by the curve of the southern coast of Alaska, stretching from the Alaska Peninsula and Kodiak Island in the west to the Alexander Archipelago in the east, where Glacier Bay and the Inside Passage are found. ...


Languages

The Eskimo-Aleut family of languages includes two cognate branches. The Unangam (Aleut) branch and the Eskimo branch. The Eskimo sub-family consists of the Inuit language and Yupik language sub-groups.[1] The Sirenikski language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.[1][2] Sirenikski is virtually extinct.[1][2] Eskimo-Aleut (also called Inuit-Aleut, but both names are considered offensive by some) is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... The Unangam is a culture of arctic circle-dwellers. ... Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language family. ... The Inuit language is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ... For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ...


Inuit languages comprise a dialect continuum, or dialect chain, that stretches from Unalakleet and Norton Sound in Alaska, across northern Alaska and Canada, and east all the way to Greenland. Speakers of two adjacent Inuit dialects can easily understand one another, but speakers of dialects at the extreme distant ends of the range have significant difficulty. Seward Peninsula dialects in Western Alaska, where much of the Inupiat culture has only been in place for perhaps less than 500 years, are greatly affected by phonological influence from the Yupik languages. Eastern Greenlandic, at the opposite end of the Inuit range has had significant word replacement due to a unique form of ritual name avoidance.[1][2] A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Unalakleet is a city in Nome Census Area, Alaska, United States. ... The Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea in western Alaska, south of the Seward Peninsula. ...


The four Yupik languages have existed in place, which probably includes the locations where Eskimo culture and language began, for much longer than the Inuit language. Alutiiq (Sugpiaq), Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Naukan (Naukanski), and Siberian Yupik, are distinct languages with limited mutual intelligibility.[1] Even the dialectic differences within Alutiiq and Central Alaskan Yup'ik sometimes are relatively great for locations that are relatively close geographically.[2] For the Alutiiq people, see Alutiiq. ... For the people, see Yupik. ... Naukan is a dialect of the Eskimo language. ... For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ...


While grammatical structures of Yupik and Inuit languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically and differences of vocabulary between Inuit and any of one of the Yupik languages is greater than between any two Yupik languages.[2]


Nomenclature

See also: Origin of the name Eskimo

In Canada and Greenland [3] [4] [5] [6] the term Eskimo is widely held to be pejorative[3][7] and has fallen out of favor, largely supplanted by the term Inuit. However, while Inuit describes all of the Eskimo peoples in Canada and Greenland, that is not true in Alaska and Siberia. In Alaska the term Eskimo is commonly used, because it includes both Yupik and Inupiat, while Inuit is not accepted as a collective term or even specifically used for Inupiat (which technically is Inuit). No universal replacement term for Eskimo, inclusive of all Inuit and Yupik people, is accepted across the geographical area inhabited by the Inuit and Yupik peoples.[4] Some Algonquian languages call Eskimos by names that mean eaters of raw meat or something that sounds similar. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with pejoration. ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ...


The primary reason that Eskimo is considered derogatory is the false[8][9][10][11] perception that it means "eaters of raw meat".[12][7] There are two different etymologies in scientific literature for the term Eskimo. The most well-known comes from Ives Goddard at the Smithsonian Institution , who says it means "Snowshoe netters".[8] Quebec linguist Jose Mailhot, who speaks Innu-Montagnais (which Mailhot and Goddard agree is the language from which the word originated), published a definitive study in 1978 stating that it means "people who speak a different language".[10][11] R. H. Ives Goddard, III is curator and senior linguist in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan, which comprises most of the Quebec-Labrador peninsula in Eastern Canada. ...


Nevertheless, while the word is not inherently pejorative, since the 1970s in Canada and Greenland Eskimo has widely been considered offensive, owing to folklore and derogatory usage. In government usage the term has been replaced with Inuit. The preferred term in Canada's Central Arctic is Inuinnaq,[13] and in the eastern Canadian Arctic Inuit. The language is often called Inuktitut, though other local designations are also used.


The Inuit of Greenland refer to themselves as Greenlanders or, in their own language, Kalaallit, and to their language as Greenlandic or Kalaallisut.[4]


Because of the linguistic, ethnic, and cultural differences between Yupik and Inuit peoples there is uncertainty as to the acceptance of any term encompassing all Yupik and Inuit people. There has been some movement to use Inuit, and the Inuit Circumpolar Council, representing a circumpolar population of 150,000 Inuit and Yupik people of Greenland, Canada, Alaska, and Siberia, in its charter defines Inuit for use within the ICC as including "the Inupiat, Yupik (Alaska), Inuit, Inuvialuit (Canada), Kalaallit (Greenland) and Yupik (Russia)."[14] However, even the Inuit people in Alaska refer themselves as Inupiat (the language is Inupiaq) and do not typically use the term Inuit. Thus, in Alaska, Eskimo is in common usage, and is the preferred term when speaking collectively of all Inupiat and Yupik people, or of all Inuit and Yupik people of the world.[4] For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


Alaskans also use the term Alaska Native, which is inclusive of all Eskimo, Aleut and Indian people of Alaska, and is of course exclusive of Inuit or Yupik people originating outside the state. The term Alaska Native has important legal usage in Alaska and the rest of the United States as a result of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act of 1971. Alaskan Natives are Aboriginal Americans who live in Alaska. ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act was signed into law on December 18, 1971, and the largest land claims settlement in United States history was concluded. ...


The term "Eskimo" is also used world wide in linguistic or ethnographic works to denote the larger branch of Eskimo-Aleut languages, the smaller branch being Aleut.


Inuit

Main article: Inuit
An Inuit family, c.1917
An Inuit family, c.1917

The Inuit inhabit the Arctic and northern Bering Sea coasts of Alaska and Arctic coasts of the Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Quebec, Labrador, and Greenland. Until fairly recent times, there has been a remarkable homogeneity in the culture throughout this area, which traditionally relied on fish, sea mammals, and land animals for food, heat, light, clothing, tools, and shelter. For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Eskimo_Family_NGM-v31-p564-2. ... Image File history File links Eskimo_Family_NGM-v31-p564-2. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic... Satellite photo of the Bering Sea Bering Sea and the North Pacific Ocean Bearing Sea with Kamchatka Peninsula and Alaska The Bering (or Imarpik) Sea is a body of water north of, and separated from, the north Pacific Ocean by the Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... For the former United States territory, see Northwest Territory. ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Alaska's Inupiat

Main article: Inupiat

The Inupiat people are the Inuit people of Alaska's Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region, including the Seward Peninsula. Barrow, the northernmost city in the United States, is in the Inupiaq region. Their language is known as Inupiaq. The Inupiat or Iñupiaq are the Inuit people of Alaskas Northwest Arctic and North Slope boroughs and the Bering Straits region. ... For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... Northwest Arctic Borough is a borough located in the state of Alaska, United States, formed on June 2, 1986. ... North Slope Borough is a borough located largely in the North Slope region of the state of Alaska, USA. As of the 2000 census, the population is 7,385. ... Satellite photo of the Bering Strait Photo across the Bering Strait Nautical chart of the Bering Strait The Bering Strait (Russian: ) is a sea strait between Cape Dezhnev, Russia, the easternmost point (169°43 W) of the Asian continent and Cape Prince of Wales, Alaska, the westernmost point (168°05... The Seward Peninsula is a large peninsula in western Alaska. ... Barrow is a city in North Slope Borough of the U.S. state of Alaska. ... Inupiaq, Iñupiaq, Inupiak or Inupiatun is a group of dialects of the Inuit language spoken in northern and northwestern Alaska. ...


Canada's Inuit

Main article: Inuit

Canadian Inuit live primarily in Nunavut (a territory of Canada), Nunavik (the northern part of Quebec) and in Nunatsiavut (the Inuit settlement region in Labrador). For other uses, see Inuit (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian federal electoral district, see Nunavut (electoral district). ... The Nunavik Region of Quebec, Canada Nunavik (ᓄᓇᕕᒃ) is a region making up the northern third of the province of Quebec, Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian province. ... Capital Hopedale (legislative) Nain (administrative) Area Total Recognized 142,450 km² 72,520 km² Nunatsiavut (Inuktitut: ᓄᓇᑦᓯᐊᕗᑦ) is an area claimed by the Inuit in Canada (not to be confused with the territory Nunavut). ... Labrador (also Coast of Labrador) is a region of Atlantic Canada. ...


Inuvialuit

Main article: Inuvialuit

The Inuvialuit live in the western Canadian Arctic region. Their homeland - the Inuvialuit Settlement Region - covers the Arctic Ocean coastline area from the Alaskan border east to Amundsen Gulf and includes the western Canadian Arctic Islands. The land was demarked in 1984 by the Inuvialuit Final Agreement. The Inuvialuit (Inuit language: real human beings) are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region. ... The North, the Canadian Arctic defined politically. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Amundsen Gulf Amundsen Gulf is a gulf located in the Canadian Northwest Territories at 70° North and 120° West. ... Reference map of Canadian arctic islands. ...


Kalaallit

Main article: Kalaallit

The Kalaallit live in Greenland, which is called Kalaallit Nunaat in Kalaallisut. Kalaallit is the Greenlandic term for the population living in Greenland. ... The Kalaallisut language (also called Western Greenlandic, Greenlandic Eskimo, or Greenlandic Inuktitut) is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken in Greenland. ...


Yupik

Main article: Yupik

The Yupik are indigenous or aboriginal peoples who live along the coast of western Alaska, especially on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta and along the Kuskokwim River (Central Alaskan Yup'ik), in southern Alaska (the Alutiiq) and along the eastern coast of Chukotka in the Russian Far East and St. Lawrence Island in western Alaska (the Siberian Yupik). The Yupik economy has traditionally been strongly dominated by the harvest of marine mammals, especially seals, walrus, and whales.[15] This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... The term indigenous peoples or autochthonous peoples can be used to describe any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... The Yukon River is a major watercourse of northwestern North America. ... The Kuskokwim River (Kusquqvak in Central Yupik) is a river, approximately 724 mi (1,165 km) long, in southwest Alaska in the United States. ... Languages Central Alaskan Yupik, English Religions Christianity (mostly Russian Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, or Moravian Church) Related ethnic groups Other Yupik peoples (Siberian Yupik, Alutiiq, Naukan), Inuit, Aleut This article is about people of southwestern Alaska. ... The Alutiiq (plural: Alutiit), also called Pacific Yupik or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Alaskan Yupik. ... The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula, at about 66° North, 169° East, is the northeastern extremity of Asia. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... St. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... A Humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae), a member of Order Cetacea A Leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), a member of infrafamily Pinnipedia A West Indian Manatee (Trichechus manatus), a member of Order Sirenia A pair of Sea Otters (Enhydra lutris), a member of family Mustelidae A Polar bear (Ursus maritimus), a member... Seal or SEAL can refer to: Seal, a device used to produce an official stamp as a symbol of authority. ... For other uses, see Walrus (disambiguation). ... Whales are the largest species of exclusively aquatic placental mammals, members of the order Cetacea, which also includes dolphins and porpoises. ...


Alutiiq

Main article: Alutiiq

The Alutiiq also called Pacific Yupik or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Yupik. They are not to be confused with the Aleuts, who live further to the southwest, including along the Aleutian Islands. They traditionally lived a coastal lifestyle, subsisting primarily on ocean resources such as salmon, halibut, and whale, as well as rich land resources such as berries and land mammals. Alutiiq people today live in coastal fishing communities, where they work in all aspects of the modern economy, while also maintaining the cultural value of subsistence. The Alutiiq language is relatively close to that spoken by the Yupik in the Bethel, Alaska area, but is considered a distinct language with two major dialects: the Koniag dialect, spoken on the Alaska Peninsula and on Kodiak Island, and the Chugach dialect, is spoken on the southern Kenai Peninsula and in Prince William Sound. Residents of Nanwalek, located on southern part of the Kenai Peninsula near Seldovia, speak what they call Sugpiaq and are able to understand those who speak Yupik in Bethel. With a population of approximately 3,000, and the number of speakers in the mere hundreds, Alutiiq communities are currently in the process of revitalizing their language. The Alutiiq (plural: Alutiit), also called Pacific Yupik or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Alaskan Yupik. ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... Aleutians seen from space The Aleutian Islands (possibly from Chukchi aliat, island) are a chain of more than 300 small volcanic islands forming an island arc in the Northern Pacific Ocean, occupying an area of 6,821 sq mi (17,666 km²) and extending about 1,200 mi (1,900... For other uses, see Salmon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the flatfish species; for the United States Navy ships named Halibut see USS Halibut. ... This article is about the animal. ... For the Alutiiq people, see Alutiiq. ... This article is about Yupik peoples in general. ... Bethel (Mamterilleq in Central Alaskan Yupik) is a city located in Bethel Census Area in the U.S. state of Alaska, 340 miles (540 km) west of Anchorage. ... Volcanoes on the Alaska Peninsula The Alaska Peninsula is a peninsula extending about 800 km (500 miles) to the southwest from the mainland of Alaska and ending in the Aleutian Islands. ... Kodiak Island is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait. ... The Kenai Peninsula in Alaska The Kenai Peninsula is a large peninsula jutting from the southern coast of Alaska in the United States. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... Nanwalek is an unincorporated community and census-designated place located in Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska. ... Seldovia is a city located in Kenai Peninsula Borough, Alaska. ...


Central Alaskan Yup'ik

Yup'ik, with an apostrophe, denotes the speakers of the Central Alaskan Yup'ik language, who live in western Alaska and southwestern Alaska from southern Norton Sound to the north side of Bristol Bay, on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, and on Nelson Island. The use of the apostrophe in the name Yup'ik denotes a longer pronunciation of the p sound than found in Siberian Yupik. Of all the Alaska Native languages, Central Alaskan Yup'ik has the most speakers, with about 10,000 of a total Yup'ik population of 21,000 still speaking the language. There are five dialects of Central Alaskan Yup'ik, including General Central Yup'ik and the Egegik, Norton Sound, Hooper Bay-Chevak, Nunivak, dialects. In the latter two dialects, both the language and the people are called Cup'ik.[16] Languages Central Alaskan Yupik, English Religions Christianity (mostly Russian Orthodoxy, Roman Catholicism, or Moravian Church) Related ethnic groups Other Yupik peoples (Siberian Yupik, Alutiiq, Naukan), Inuit, Aleut This article is about people of southwestern Alaska. ... For the people, see Yupik. ... The Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea in western Alaska, south of the Seward Peninsula. ... Shore of Bristol Bay near Naknek. ... The Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta region is a treeless tundra located in southwestern Alaska. ... Nelson Island or Qaluyaaq Island (Qaluyaaq in Central Yupik) is an island in western Alaska, at . ...


Siberian Yupik

Main article: Siberian Yupik

Siberian Yupik reside along the Bering Sea coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in Siberia in the Russian Far East[2] and in the villages of Gambell and Savoonga on St. Lawrence Island in Alaska.[17] The Central Siberian Yupik spoken on the Chukchi Peninsula and on St. Lawrence Island is nearly identical. About 1,050 of a total Alaska population of 1,100 Siberian Yupik people in Alaska still speak the language, and it is still the first language of the home for most St. Lawrence Island children. In Siberia, about 300 of a total of 900 Siberian Yupik people still learn the language, though it is no longer learned as a first language by children.[17] Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula, at about 66° North, 169° East, is the northeastern extremity of Asia. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... Far Eastern Federal District (highlighted in red) Russian Far East (Russian: ; IPA: ) is a term that refers to the Russian part of the Far East, i. ... Gambell is a city in Nome Census Area, Alaska, United States. ... Savoonga is a city located in Nome Census Area, Alaska, one of two on St Lawrence Island in the Bering Sea. ... St. ... For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ...


Naukan

Main article: Naukan

About 70 of 400 Naukan people still speak the Naukanski. The Naukan originate on the Chukot Peninsula in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Siberia.[2] Naukan is a dialect of the Eskimo language. ... Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (Russian: , transliteration: Chukotsky avtonomny okrug; Chukchi: Чукоткакэн автономныкэн округ), or Chukotka (), is a federal subject of Russia (an autonomous okrug) located in the Far Eastern Federal District. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ...


Sireniki Eskimos

Main article: Sireniki Eskimos

Some speakers of Siberian Yupik languages used to speak a very peculiar Eskimo language in the past, before they underwent a language shift. These former speakers of Sireniki Eskimo language inhabited settlements Sireniki, Imtuk, and some small villages stretching to the west from Sireniki along south-eastern coasts of Chukchi Peninsula,[18] they lived in neighborhood with Siberian Yupik and Chukchi peoples. As early as in 1895, Imtuk was already a settlement with mixed population, Sireniki Eskimos and Ungazigmit[19] (the latter belonging to Siberian Yupik). Sireniki Eskimo culture has been influenced by that of Chukchi (witnessed also by folktale motifs[20]), also the language shows Chukchi language influences.[21] For the language, see Sireniki Eskimo language. ... For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ... Language shift is the process whereby an entire speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language. ... For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ... The Chukchi Peninsula, Chukotski Peninsula or Chukotsk Peninsula, at about 66° North, 169° East, is the northeastern extremity of Asia. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... Chukchi, or Chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the Russian Far East on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ... For other uses, see Motive. ... The Chukchi language (лыгъоравэтлъан йилйил, lygoravetlan jiljil) also known as Luoravetlan, Chukot and Chukcha is a Palaeosiberian language spoken by Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. ...


The above mentioned peculiarities of this (already extinct) Eskimo language amounted to mutual unintelligibility even with its nearest language relatives:[22] in the past, Sireniki Eskimos even had to use the unrelated Chukchi language as a lingua franca for communicating with Siberian Yupik.[21] An extinct language is a language which no longer has any native speakers, in contrast to a dead language, which is is a language which has stopped changing in grammar, vocabulary, and the complete meaning of a sentence. ... The Chukchi language (лыгъоравэтлъан йилйил, lygoravetlan jiljil) also known as Luoravetlan, Chukot and Chukcha is a Palaeosiberian language spoken by Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. ... Lingua franca, literally Frankish language in Italian, was originally a mixed language consisting largely of Italian plus a vocabulary drawn from Turkish, Persian, French, Greek and Arabic and used for communication throughout the Middle East. ...


Many words are formed from entirely different roots than in Siberian Yupik,[23] but even the grammar has several peculiarities not only among Eskimo languages, but even inside the entire language family, thus, even compared to Aleut. For example, it is the only Eskimo-Aleut language that lacks dual number,[24] even its neighboring Siberian Yupik relatives have dual.[25] The root is the primary lexical unit of a word, which carries the most significant aspects of semantic content and cannot be reduced into smaller constituents. ... Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language family. ... Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... Common Slavic had a complete singular-dual-plural number system, although the dual paradigms showed considerable syncretism. ... For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ...


Little is known about the origin of this diversity. According to a supposition, the peculiarities of this language may be the result of a supposed long isolation from other Eskimo groups,[26][27] being in contact only with speakers of unrelated languages for many centuries. Influence by Chukchi language is clear.[21] The Chukchi language (лыгъоравэтлъан йилйил, lygoravetlan jiljil) also known as Luoravetlan, Chukot and Chukcha is a Palaeosiberian language spoken by Chukchi people in the easternmost extremity of Siberia, mainly in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. ...


Because of all these, the mere classification of Sireniki Eskimo language is not settled yet:[28] Sireniki language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of Eskimo (at least, its possibility is mentioned),[28][29][30] but sometimes it is regarded rather as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.[31][32] The Yupik people speak five distinct languages, depending on their location. ...


Dialects

Main article: Eskimo-Aleut languages

Inuit languages comprise a dialect continuum, or dialect chain, that stretches from Unalaska and Norton Sound in Alaska, across northern Alaska and Canada, and east all the way to Greenland. Changes from western (Inupiaq) to eastern dialects are marked by the dropping of vestigial Yupik-related features, increasing consonant assimilation (e.g., kumlu, meaning "thumb," changes to kuvlu, changes to kublu,[33] changes to kulluk,[33] changes to kulluq[33]), and increased consonant lengthening, and lexical change. Thus, speakers of two adjacent Inuit dialects would usually be able to understand one another, but speakers from dialects distant from each other on the dialect continuum would have difficulty understanding one another.[2] Eskimo-Aleut languages Eskimo-Aleut is a language family native to Greenland, the Canadian Arctic, Alaska, and parts of Siberia. ... A dialect continuum is a range of dialects spoken across a large geographical area, differing only slightly between areas that are geographically close, and gradually decreasing in mutual intelligibility as the distances become greater. ... Unalakleet is a city in Nome Census Area, Alaska, United States. ... The Norton Sound is an inlet of the Bering Sea in western Alaska, south of the Seward Peninsula. ...


The four Yupik languages, including Alutiiq (Sugpiaq), Central Alaskan Yup'ik, Naukan (Naukanski), and Siberian Yupik are distinct languages with phonological, morphological, and lexical differences, and demonstrating limited mutual intelligibility. Additionally, both Alutiiq Central Yup'ik have considerable dialect diversity. The northernmost Yupik languages — Siberian Yupik and Naukanski Yupik — are linguistically only slightly closer to Inuit than is Alutiiq, which is the southernmost of the Yupik languages. Although the grammatical structures of Yupik and Inuit languages are similar, they have pronounced differences phonologically, and differences of vocabulary between Inuit and any of one of the Yupik languages is greater than between any two Yupik languages.[2] For the Alutiiq people, see Alutiiq. ... For the people, see Yupik. ... Naukan is a dialect of the Eskimo language. ... Siberian Yupik are an indigenous people who reside along the coast of the Chukchi Peninsula in the far northeast of the Russian Federation and the St. ...


The Sirenikski language is sometimes regarded as a third branch of the Eskimo language family, but other sources regard it as a group belonging to the Yupik branch.[2] For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ...


An overview of the Eskimo-Aleut languages family is given below:

Aleut
Aleut language
Western-Central dialects: Atkan, Attuan, Unangan, Bering (60-80 speakers)
Eastern dialect: Unalaskan, Pribilof (400 speakers)
Eskimo (Yup'ik, Yuit, and Inuit)
Central Alaskan Yup'ik (10,000 speakers)
Alutiiq or Pacific Gulf Yup'ik (400 speakers)
Central Siberian Yupik or Yuit (Chaplinon and St Lawrence Island, 1400 speakers)
Naukan (70 speakers)
Inuit or Inupik (75,000 speakers)
Iñupiaq (northern Alaska, 3,500 speakers)
Inuvialuktun or Inuktun (western Canada; 765 speakers)
Inuktitut (eastern Canada; together with Inuktun and Inuinnaqtun, 30,000 speakers)
Kalaallisut (Greenland, 47,000 speakers)
Sireniki Eskimo language (Sirenikskiy) (extinct)

Aleut (Unangam Tunuu) is a language of the Eskimo-Aleut language family. ... The Yupik (Yupik/Юпик) people speak several distinct languages, depending on their location. ... The Alutiiq (plural: Alutiit), also called Pacific Yupik or Sugpiaq, are a southern, coastal branch of Alaskan Yupik. ... For the people, see Siberian Yupik. ... Naukan is a dialect of the Eskimo language. ... The Inuit language is traditionally spoken across the North American Arctic and to some extent in the subarctic in Labrador. ... Inupiaq, Iñupiaq, Inupiak or Inupiatun is a group of dialects of the Inuit language spoken in northern and northwestern Alaska. ... Inuvialuktun is a word routinely used to describe the variety of the language of the Inuit spoken in the northern Northwest Territories by a band of Canadian Inuit who call themselves Inuvialuit. ... Inuktitut (Inuktitut syllabics: (fonts required), literally like the Inuit) is the name of the varieties of Inuit language spoken in Canada. ... Inuinnaqtun is an indigenous language of Canada. ... The Kalaallisut language (also called Western Greenlandic, Greenlandic Eskimo, or Greenlandic Inuktitut) is an Eskimo-Aleut language spoken in Greenland. ... For the people, see Sireniki Eskimos. ...

See also

Languages English, Russian, Aleut Religions Christianity, Shamanism Related ethnic groups Inuit, Yupik The Aleuts (self-denomination: , Unangan or Unanga) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. ... Areas in which Athabaskan languages and Eyak and Tlingit are traditionally spoken Athabaskan or Athabascan (also Athapascan or Athapaskan) is the name of a large group of distantly related Native American peoples, also known as the Athabasca Indians or Athapaskes, located in two main Southern and Northern groups in western... Chukchi, or Chukchee (Russian: чукчи (plural), chukcha, чукча (singular)) are an indigenous people inhabiting the Russian Far East on the shores of the Arctic Ocean and Bering Sea. ... The Saqqaq culture is the second earliest known civilization in Greenland. ... Igloo An igloo (Inuit language: iglu, Inuktitut syllabics: ᐃᒡᓗ, house, plural: iglooit or igluit, but in English commonly igloos), translated sometimes as snowhouse, is a shelter constructed from blocks of snow, generally in the form of a dome. ... Eskimo kinship (also referred to as Lineal kinship) is a kinship system used to define family. ... Yupik shaman exorcising evil spirits from a sick boy. ... It is a popular urban legend that the Inuit or Eskimo have an unusually high number of words for snow. ... Inuit mythology has many similarities to the religions of other polar regions. ... In Inuit mythology, Sedna (Inuktitut Sanna, ᓴᓐᓇ) is a sea goddess and mistress of the animals, especially mammals such as seals, of the ocean. ... Nalukataq is the spring whaling festival of the Inupiaq Eskimos of Northern Alaska, and is characterized most famously by the Eskimo blanket toss. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e "Comparative Eskimo Dictionary with Aleut Cognates", Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Kaplan, Lawrence. (2001-12-10). "Comparative Yupik and Inuit". Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  3. ^ a b usage note, Inuit, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000
  4. ^ a b c d Kaplan, Lawrence. (2002). "Inuit or Eskimo: Which names to use?". Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  5. ^ Historical Dictionary of the Inuit By Pamela R. Stern
  6. ^ Ostgroenland-Hilfe Project
  7. ^ a b Setting the Record Straight About Native Languages: What Does "Eskimo" Mean In Cree?
  8. ^ a b "Eskimo" by Mark Israel
  9. ^ Goddard, Ives (1984). Handbook of North American Indians, Vol. 5 (Arctic). Smithsonian Institution. ISBN 978-0160045806. 
  10. ^ a b Mailhot, Jose (1978). "L'etymologie de "esquimau" revuew et corrigee". Etudes/Inuit/Studies Vol. 2 (Issue. 2). 
  11. ^ a b Cree Mailing List Digest November 1997
  12. ^ Eskimo, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language: Fourth Edition, 2000
  13. ^ Ohokak, G.; M. Kadlun, B. Harnum. Inuinnaqtun-English Dictionary. Kitikmeot Heritage Society. 
  14. ^ Inuit Circumpolar Council. (2006). "Charter." Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  15. ^ Yupik. (2008). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved January 13, 2008, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.search.eb.com.offcampus.lib.washington.edu/eb/article-9078135
  16. ^ Alaska Native Language Center. (2001-12-07). "Central Alaskan Yup'ik." Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  17. ^ a b Alaska Native Language Center. (2001-12-07). "Siberian Yupik." Alaska Native Language Center, University of Alaska Fairbanks. Retrieved on 2007-04-06.
  18. ^ Vakhtin 1998: 162
  19. ^ Меновщиков 1964: 7
  20. ^ Меновщиков 1964: 132
  21. ^ a b c Menovshchikov 1990: 70
  22. ^ Меновщиков 1964: 6–7
  23. ^ Меновщиков 1964: 42
  24. ^ Меновщиков 1964: 38
  25. ^ Меновщиков 1964: 81
  26. ^ Меновщиков 1962: 11
  27. ^ Меновщиков 1964: 9
  28. ^ a b Vakhtin 1998: 161
  29. ^ Linguist List's description about Nikolai Vakhtin's book: The Old Sirinek Language: Texts, Lexicon, Grammatical Notes. The author's untransliterated (original) name is “Н.Б. Вахтин”.
  30. ^ Языки эскимосов (Russian). ICC Chukotka. Inuit Circumpolar Council.
  31. ^ Ethnologue Report for Eskimo-Aleut
  32. ^ Kaplan 1990: 136
  33. ^ a b c thumb. Asuilaak Living Dictionary. Retrieved on 2007-11-25.

Native languages of Alaska, copyright © 1982 Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center was established by State of Alaska legislation in 1972 as a center for research and documentation of the twenty Native languages of Alaska. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... Native languages of Alaska, copyright © 1982 Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center was established by State of Alaska legislation in 1972 as a center for research and documentation of the twenty Native languages of Alaska. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... Native languages of Alaska, copyright © 1982 Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center was established by State of Alaska legislation in 1972 as a center for research and documentation of the twenty Native languages of Alaska. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... R. H. Ives Goddard, III is curator and senior linguist in the Department of Anthropology of the National Museum of Natural History at the Smithsonian Institution. ... The Smithsonian Institution Building or Castle on the National Mall serves as the Institutions headquarters. ... Native languages of Alaska, copyright © 1982 Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center was established by State of Alaska legislation in 1972 as a center for research and documentation of the twenty Native languages of Alaska. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... Native languages of Alaska, copyright © 1982 Alaska Native Language Center The Alaska Native Language Center was established by State of Alaska legislation in 1972 as a center for research and documentation of the twenty Native languages of Alaska. ... The University of Alaska Fairbanks, located in Fairbanks, Alaska, USA, is the second largest campus of the University of Alaska System, and is abbreviated as UAF. UAF is a land-grant, sea-grant, and space-grant institution, as well as participating in the sun-grant program through Oregon State University. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Kaplan, Lawrence D. (1990). "The Language of the Alaskan Inuit", in Dirmid R. F. Collis: Arctic Languages. An Awakening (pdf), Vendôme: UNESCO, 131–158. ISBN 92-3-102661-5. 
  • Menovshchikov, Georgy (= Г. А. Меновщиков) (1990). "Contemporary Studies of the Eskimo-Aleut Languages and Dialects: A Progress Report", in Dirmid R. F. Collis: Arctic Languages. An Awakening (pdf), Vendôme: UNESCO, 69–76. ISBN 92-3-102661-5. 
  • Vakhtin, Nikolai (1998). "Endangered Languages in Northeast Siberia: Siberian Yupik and other Languages of Chukotka", in Erich Kasten: Bicultural Education in the North: Ways of Preserving and Enhancing Indigenous Peoples’ Languages and Traditional Knowledge (pdf), Münster: Waxmann Verlag, 159–173. ISBN 978-3-89325-651-8. 

Cyrillic

  • Меновщиков, Г. А. (1964). Язык сиреникских эскимосов. Фонетика, очерк морфологии, тексты и словарь. Москва • Ленинград,: Академия Наук СССР. Институт языкознания.  The transliteration of author's name, and the rendering of title in English: Menovshchikov, G. A. (1964). Language of Sireniki Eskimos. Phonetics, morphology, texts and vocabulary. Moscow • Leningrad: Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 

Russian Academy of Sciences: main building Russian Academy of Sciences (Росси́йская Акаде́мия Нау́к) is the national academy of Russia. ...

External links

  • The Asiatic (Siberian) Eskimos
  • Eskimo Music

  Results from FactBites:
 
Eskimo - LoveToKnow 1911 (2557 words)
In person the Eskimo are usually filthy, and never wash. Infants are, however, sometimes cleaned by being licked by their mother before being put into the bag of feathers which serves as their bed, cradle and blankets.
Thus the Eskimo canoe is made of seal-skin stretched on a wooden or whalebone frame, with a hole in the centre for the paddler.
The Eskimo sledge is made of two runners of wood or bone - even, in one case on record, of frozen salmon (Maclure) - united by cross bars tied to the runners by hide thongs, and drawn by from 4' to 8 dogs harnessed abreast.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m