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Encyclopedia > Escherichia coli
Escherichia coli

Scientific classification
Domain: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Escherichia
Species: E. coli
Binomial name
Escherichia coli
(Migula 1895)
Castellani and Chalmers 1919

Escherichia coli (pronounced /ˌɛʃɪˈrɪkiə ˈkoʊlaɪ/) (E. coli), is a bacterium that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded animals. Most E. coli strains are harmless, but some, such as serotype O157:H7, can cause serious food poisoning in humans, and are occasionally responsible for costly product recalls.[1][2] The harmless strains are part of the normal flora of the gut, and can benefit their hosts by producing vitamin K2,[3] or by preventing the establishment of pathogenic bacteria within the intestine.[4][5] Leishmania donovani, (a species of protozoan) in a bone marrow cell (in Greek proto = first and zoa = animals) are one-celled eukaryotes (that is, unicellular microbes whose cells have membrane-bound nuclei) that commonly show characteristics usually associated with animals, mobility and heterotrophy. ... A parasite is an organism that spends a significant portion of its life in or on the living tissue of a host organism and which causes harm to the host without immediately killing it. ... Entamoeba coli is a non-pathogenic species of amoeba that is important clinically in humans only because it can be confused with Entamoeba histolytica, which is pathogenic, on microscopic examination of stained stool specimens. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x861, 165 KB)Escherichia coli: Scanning electron micrograph of Escherichia coli, grown in culture and adhered to a cover slip. ... Scientific classification redirects here. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Escherichia - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Latin name redirects here. ... Chalmers can refer to: Chalmers University of Technology - a university in Sweden William Chalmers - a Swedish 18th century businessman and the founder of Chalmers University of Technology David Chalmers - a philosopher occupied with the philosophy of mind (consciousness) Floyd Chalmers - a Canadian editor, publisher and philanthropist George Paul Chalmers, Scottish... Phyla/Divisions Actinobacteria Aquificae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chlamydiae/Verrucomicrobia Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Nitrospirae Omnibacteria Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Bacteria (singular, bacterium) are a major group of living organisms. ... Gut redirects here. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... A serovar or serotype is a grouping of microorganisms or viruses based on their cell surface antigens. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... A product recall is a request to return to the maker a batch or an entire production run of a product, usually due to the discovery of safety issues. ... In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... For the Physics term GUT, please refer to Grand unification theory The gastrointestinal or digestive tract, also referred to as the GI tract or the alimentary canal or the gut, is the system of organs within multicellular animals which takes in food, digests it to extract energy and nutrients, and... Vitamin K1 (phylloquinone). ... A pathogen (from Greek pathos, suffering/emotion, and gene, to give birth to), infectious agent, or more commonly germ, is a biological agent that causes disease or illness to its host. ...


E. coli are not always confined to the intestine, and their ability to survive for brief periods outside the body makes them an ideal indicator organism to test environmental samples for fecal contamination.[6][7] The bacteria can also be grown easily and its genetics are comparatively simple and easily-manipulated, making it one of the best-studied prokaryotic model organisms, and an important species in biotechnology. E. coli was discovered by German pediatrician and bacteriologist Theodor Escherich in 1885,[6] and is now classified as part of the Enterobacteriaceae family of gamma-proteobacteria.[8] Horse feces Feces, faeces, or fæces (see spelling differences) is a waste product from an animals digestive tract expelled through the anus (or cloaca) during defecation. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... The structure of insulin Biotechnology is technology based on biology, especially when used in agriculture, food science, and medicine. ... Theodor Escherich (November 29, 1857 - February 15, 1911) was an Austrian (born in Ansbach, Mittelfranken, and died in Vienna, Austria) pediatrician and bacteriologist and a professor at universities in Munich, Graz, and Vienna. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ... Orders Alpha Proteobacteria    Caulobacterales - e. ...

Contents

Strains

Model of successive binary fission in E. coli
Model of successive binary fission in E. coli

A strain of E. coli is a sub-group within the species that has unique characteristics that distinguish it from other E. coli strains. These differences are often detectable only on the molecular level; however, they may result in changes to the physiology or lifecycle of the bacterium. For example, a strain may gain pathogenic capacity, the ability to use a unique carbon source, the ability to inhabit a particular ecological niche or the ability to resist antimicrobial agents. Different strains of E. coli are often host-specific, making it possible to determine the source of fecal contamination in environmental samples.[citation needed] Depending on which E. coli strains are present in a water sample, for example, assumptions can be made about whether the contamination originated from a human, other mammal or bird source. In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... Pathogenicity is the ability of an organism to cause disease in another organism. ...


New strains of E. coli evolve through the natural biological process of mutation, and some strains develop traits that can be harmful to a host animal. Although virulent strains typically cause no more than a bout of diarrhea in healthy adult humans, particularly virulent strains, such as O157:H7 or O111:B4, can cause serious illness or death in the elderly, the very young or the immunocompromised.[4] This article is about evolution in biology. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... Look up trait in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... Immunosuppression is the medical suppression of the immune system. ...


Biology and biochemistry

E. coli is Gram-negative, facultative anaerobic and non-sporulating. It can live on a wide variety of substrates. E. coli uses mixed-acid fermentation in anaerobic conditions, producing lactate, succinate, ethanol, acetate and carbon dioxide. Since many pathways in mixed-acid fermentation produce hydrogen gas, these pathways require the levels of hydrogen to be low, as is the case when E. coli lives together with hydrogen-consuming organisms such as methanogens or sulfate-reducing bacteria.[9] Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... A facultative anaerobic organism is an organism, usually a bacterium, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... An endospore is a dormant, tough, non-reproductive structure produced by a small number of bacteria from the Firmicute family. ... For the production of milk by mammals, see Lactation. ... Succinate is the anion of succinic acid. ... Grain alcohol redirects here. ... For other uses, see Acetate (disambiguation). ... Methanogens are archaea that produce methane as a metabolic byproduct in anoxic conditions. ... Sulfate-reducing bacteria comprise several groups of bacteria that use sulfate as an oxidizing agent, reducing it to sulfide. ...


Optimal growth of E. coli occurs at 37°C, but some laboratory strains can multiply at temperatures of up to 49°C.[10] Growth can be driven by aerobic or anaerobic respiration, using a large variety of redox pairs, including the oxidation of pyruvic acid, formic acid, hydrogen and amino acids, and the reduction of substrates such as oxygen, nitrate, dimethyl sulfoxide and trimethylamine N-oxide.[11] ed|other uses|reduction}} Illustration of a redox reaction Redox (shorthand for reduction/oxidation reaction) describes all chemical reactions in which atoms have their oxidation number (oxidation state) changed. ... Pyruvic acid (CH3COCO2H) is an alpha-keto acid which plays an important role in biochemical processes. ... Formic acid (systematically called methanoic acid) is the simplest carboxylic acid. ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... This article is about the class of chemicals. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... Trinitrate redirects here. ... Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is the chemical compound with the formula (CH3)2SO. This colorless liquid is an important polar aprotic solvent that dissolves both polar and nonpolar compounds and is miscible in a wide range of organic solvents as well as water. ... Trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO or TMANO) is a naturally occurring osmolyte that occurs in saltwater fish, sharks and rays, molluscs, and crustaceans. ...


Strains that possess flagella can swim and are motile, but other strains lack flagellum. The flagella of E. coli have a peritrichous arrangement.[12] For the insect anatomical structure, see Antenna (biology). ... Motile A term to describe Intelligent Mobile Applications. ... A flagellum (plural, flagella) is a whip-like organelle that many unicellular organisms, and some multicellular ones, use to move about. ...


E. coli and related bacteria possess the ability to transfer DNA via bacterial conjugation, transduction or transformation, which allows genetic material to spread horizontally through an existing population. It is believed that this process led to the spread of shiga toxin from Shigella to E. coli O157:H7.[citation needed] The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact. ... Transduction is the process by which bacterial DNA is moved from one bacterium to another by a virus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Transfection. ... Horizontal gene transfer (HGT), also Lateral gene transfer (LGT), is any process in which an organism transfers genetic material to another cell that is not its offspring. ... Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, whose genes are considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages. ... Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ...


Normal Role

E. coli normally colonizes an infant's gastrointestinal tract within 40 hours of birth, arriving with food or water or with the individuals handling the child. In the bowel, it adheres to the mucus of the large intestine. It is the primary facultative organism of the human gastrointestinal tract.[13] As long as these bacteria do not acquire genetic elements encoding for virulence factors, they remain benign commensals.[14] Gut redirects here. ... Mucus cells. ... The large intestine, an organ which is now more commonly referred to by its Greek name, the colon, is the last part of the digestive system: the final stage of the alimentary canal in vertebrate animals. ... A facultative anaerobic organism is an organism, usually a bacterium, that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but is also capable of switching to fermentation under anaerobic conditions. ... An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ... Virulence factors are molecules produced by a pathogen that specifically influence their hosts function to allow the pathogen to thrive. ... In ecology, commensalism is a kind of relationship between two organisms where one benefits and the other is not significantly harmed or helped (like a bird living in a tree). ...


Role in disease

Virulent strains of E. coli can cause gastroenteritis, urinary tract infections, and neonatal meningitis. In rarer cases, virulent strains are also responsible for peritonitis, mastitis, septicemia and Gram-negative pneumonia.[13] Recently it is thought that E. coli and certain other foodborne illnesses can sometimes trigger serious health problems months or years after patients survived that initial bout.Food poisoning can be a long-term problem. See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea Gastroenteritis is a general term referring to inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Meningitis is the inflammation of the protective membranes covering the central nervous system, known collectively as the meninges. ... Mastitis is the inflammation of the mammalian breast caused by the blocking of the milk ducts while the mother is lactating (see breastfeeding). ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις) is a serious medical condition caused by a severe systemic infection leading to a systemic inflammatory response. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Virulence properties

Enteric E. coli (EC) are classified on the basis of serological characteristics and virulence properties.[13] Virotypes include:

  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) – causative agent of diarrhea (without fever) in humans, pigs, sheep, goats, cattle, dogs, and horses. ETEC uses fimbrial adhesins (projections from the bacterial cell surface) to bind enterocyte cells in the small intestine. ETEC can produce two proteinaceous enterotoxins: the larger of the two proteins, LT enterotoxin, is similar to cholera toxin in structure and function, while the smaller protein, ST enterotoxin causes cGMP accumulation in the target cells and a subsequent secretion of fluid and electrolytes into the intestinal lumen. ETEC strains are non-invasive, and they do not leave the intestinal lumen.
  • Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) – causative agent of diarrhea in humans, rabbits, dogs, cats and horses. Like ETEC, EPEC also causes diarrhea, but the molecular mechanisms of colonization and etiology are different. EPEC lack fimbriae, ST and LT toxins, but they utilize an adhesin known as intimin to bind host intestinal cells. This virotype has an array of virulence factors that are similar to those found in Shigella, and may possess a shiga toxin. Adherence to the intestinal mucosa causes a rearrangement of actin in the host cell, causing significant deformation. EPEC cells are moderately-invasive (i.e. they enter host cells) and elicit an inflammatory response. Changes in intestinal cell ultrastructure due to "attachment and effacement" is likely the prime cause of diarrhea in those afflicted with EPEC.
  • Enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) – found only in humans. EIEC infection causes a syndrome that is identical to Shigellosis, with profuse diarrhea and high fever. EIEC are highly invasive, and they utilize adhesin proteins to bind to and enter intestinal cells. They produce no toxins, but severely damage the intestinal wall through mechanical cell destruction.
  • Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) – found in humans, cattle, and goats. The sole member of this virotype is strain O157:H7, which causes bloody diarrhea and no fever. EHEC can cause hemolytic uremic syndrome and sudden kidney failure. It uses bacterial fimbriae for attachment, is moderately-invasive and possesses a phage-encoded Shiga toxin that can elicit an intense inflammatory response.
  • Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAggEC) – found only in humans. So named because they have fimbriae which aggregate tissue culture cells, EAggEC bind to the intestinal mucosa to cause watery diarrhea without fever. EAggEC are non-invasive. They produce a hemolysin and an ST enterotoxin similar to that of ETEC.

Enterotoxigenic Escherichia Coli is a type of Escherichia Coli that can cause Travelers Diarrhea ... In bacteriology, fimbria is a proteinaceous appendage in many gram-negative bacteria that is thinner and shorter than a flagellum. ... Enterocyte is a type of epithelial cell of the superficial layer of the small and large intestine tissue. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... Drawing of Death bringing the cholera, in Le Petit Journal. ... Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a second messenger derived from GTP. Cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) is a cyclic nucleotide derived from guanosine triphosphate (GTP). ... artery anatomy, showing lumen The lumen (pl. ... Adhesin Adhesins are antigens that may exist on the surface of microbes. ... Species S. boydii S. dysenteriae S. flexneri S. sonnei This article is about the bacteria. ... Shiga toxins are a family of related toxins with two major groups, Stx1 and Stx2, whose genes are considered to be part of the genome of lambdoid prophages. ... G-Actin (PDB code: 1j6z). ... In medicine, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, abbreviated HUS) is a disease characterised by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure and a low platelet count (thrombopenia). ... Tissue culture refers to the growth of tissues and/or cells separate from the organism. ... Hemolysin is a form of antibody which causes beta hemolysis. ...

Gastrointestinal infection

Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped.
Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. Each individual bacterium is oblong shaped.

Certain strains of E. coli, such as O157:H7, O121 and O104:H21, produce toxins. Food poisoning caused by E. coli are usually associated with eating unwashed vegetables and meat contaminated post-slaughter. O157:H7 is further notorious for causing serious and even life-threatening complications like Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS). This particular strain is linked to the 2006 United States E. coli outbreak of fresh spinach. Severity of the illness varies considerably; it can be fatal, particularly to young children, the elderly or the immunocompromised, but is more often mild. E. coli can harbor both heat-stable and heat-labile enterotoxins. The latter, termed LT, contains one 'A' subunit and five 'B' subunits arranged into one holotoxin, and is highly similar in structure and function to Cholera toxins. The B subunits assist in adherence and entry of the toxin into host intestinal cells, while the A subunit is cleaved and prevents cells from absorbing water, causing diarrhea. LT is secreted by the Type 2 secretion pathway.[15] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2598x1889, 899 KB) Low-temperature electron micrograph of a cluster of E. coli bacteria, magnified 10,000 times. ... Escherichia coli O157:H7 is an emerging cause of foodborne illness. ... Escherichia coli O121 is a serotype of Escherichia coli, a species of bacteria that lives in the lower intestines of mammals. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ... In medicine, Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (or haemolytic-uraemic syndrome, abbreviated HUS) is a disease characterised by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, acute renal failure and a low platelet count (thrombopenia). ... Warning: Wikipedia does not give medical advice. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Diarrhea, also spelled diarrhoea (see spelling differences), is a condition in which the sufferer has frequent watery, loose bowel movements (from the Greek word διάρροια; literally meaning through-flowing). Acute infectious diarrhea is a common cause of death in developing countries (particularly among infants), accounting for 5 to 8 million deaths...


If E. coli bacteria escape the intestinal tract through a perforation (for example from an ulcer, a ruptured appendix, or a surgical error) and enter the abdomen, they usually cause peritonitis that can be fatal without prompt treatment. However, E. coli are extremely sensitive to such antibiotics as streptomycin or gentamicin, so treatment with antibiotics is usually effective. This could change since, as noted below, E. coli quickly acquires drug resistance.[16] Endoscopic images of a duodenal ulcer. ... Appendicitis, or epityphlitis, is a condition characterised by inflammation of the appendix. ... Ancient Greek painting in a vase, showing a physician (iatros) bleeding a patient. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. ... Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ...


Intestinal mucosa-associated E. coli are observed in increased numbers in the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.[17] Invasive strains of E. coli exist in high numbers in the inflamed tissue, and the number of bacteria in the inflamed regions correlates to the severity of the bowel inflammation.[18] In medicine, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the large intestine and, in some cases, the small intestine. ... Crohns disease (also known as regional enteritis) is a chronic, episodic, inflammatory condition of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by transmural inflammation (affecting the entire wall of the involved bowel) and skip lesions (areas of inflammation with areas of normal lining between). ...


Epidemiology of gastrointestinal infection

Transmission of pathogenic E. coli often occurs via fecal-oral transmission.[19][14][20] Common routes of transmission include: unhygienic food preparation,[19] farm contamination due to manure fertilization,[21] irrigation of crops with contaminated greywater or raw sewage,[22] feral pigs on cropland,[23] or direct consumption of sewage-contaminated water.[24] Dairy and beef cattle are primary reservoirs of E. coli O157:H7,[25] and they can carry it asymptomatically and shed it in their feces.[25] Food products associated with E. coli outbreaks include raw ground beef,[26] raw seed sprouts or spinach,[21] raw milk, unpasteurized juice, and foods contaminated by infected food workers via fecal-oral route.[19] Many diseases can be passed when fecal particles from one host are introduced into the mouth of another potential host. ... Greywater, sometimes spelled graywater, grey water or gray water and also known as sullage, is non-industrial wastewater generated from domestic processes such as washing dishes, laundry and bathing. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ...


According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration, the fecal-oral cycle of transmission can be disrupted by cooking food properly, preventing cross-contamination, instituting barriers such as gloves for food workers, instituting health care policies so food industry employees seek treatment when they are ill, pasteurization of juice or dairy products and proper hand washing requirements.[19] The United States Food and Drug Administration is the government agency responsible for regulating food, dietary supplements, drugs, cosmetics, medical devices, biologics and blood products in the United States. ...


Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), specifically serotype O157:H7, have also been transmitted by flies,[27][28][29] as well as direct contact with farm animals,[30][31] petting zoo animals,[32] and airborne particles found in animal-rearing environments.[33] A petting zoo (often called, and/or part of, a childrens zoo) features a combination of domestic animals and some wild species that are docile enough to touch and feed. ...


Urinary tract infection

Uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) is responsible for approximately 90% of urinary tract infections (UTI) seen in individuals with ordinary anatomy.[13] In ascending infections, fecal bacteria colonize the urethra and spread up the urinary tract to the bladder. Because women have a shorter urethra compared with men, they are 14-times more likely to suffer from an ascending UTI.[13] A urinary tract infection (UTI) is a bacterial infection that affects any part of the urinary tract. ... In anatomy, the urethra is a tube which connects the urinary bladder to the outside of the body. ... The urinary system is a system of organs, tubes, muscles, and nerves that work together to create, store, and carry, urine. ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ...


Uropathogenic E. coli utilize P fimbriae (pyelonephritis-associated pili) to bind urinary tract endothelial cells and colonize the bladder. These adhesins specifically bind D-galactose-D-galactose moieties on the P blood group antigen of erythrocytes and uroepithelial cells.[13] Approximately 1% of the human population lacks this receptor, and its presence or absence dictates an individual's susceptibility to E. coli urinary tract infections. Uropathogenic E. coli produce alpha- and beta-hemolysins, which cause lysis of urinary tract cells. Pyelonephritis is an ascending urinary tract infection that has reached the pyelum (pelvis) of the kidney (nephros in Greek). ... In Polynesian mythology, Pili is the gecko-god, and was considered an ancestor of many Polynesian peoples. ... The endothelium is the layer of thin, flat cells that lines the interior surface of blood vessels, forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. ... Look up moiety in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... An antigen or immunogen is a molecule that stimulates an immune response. ... Human red blood cells Red blood cells are the most common type of blood cell and are the vertebrate bodys principal means of delivering oxygen to body tissues via the blood. ... Examples of alpha (top), beta (middle), and gamma (bottom) hemolysis on sheep blood agar plates Hemolysis is used in the empirical identification of microorganisms based on the ability of bacterial colonies grown on agar plates to break down red blood cells in the culture. ... This article is about the biological definition of the word Lysis. ...


UPEC can evade the body's innate immune defenses (e.g. the complement system) by invading superficial umbrella cells to form intracellular bacterial communities (IBCs).[34] They also have the ability to form K antigen, capsular polysaccharides that contribute to biofilm formation. Biofilm-producing E. coli are recalcitrant to immune factors and antibiotic therapy and are often responsible for chronic urinary tract infections.[35] K antigen-producing E. coli infections are commonly found in the upper urinary tract.[13] A complement protein attacking an invader. ... IBC is an acronym that can stand for: IBC Root Beer Impedance Boundary Condition Inflammatory Breast Cancer Insurance Bureau of Canada Intermediate Bulk Container Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation, Channel 13, Philippines International Bank of Commerce of Laredo, Texas -- USA International Baptist College International Biographical Centre International Botanical Congress International Boxing Commission... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ...


Descending infections, though relatively rare, occur when E. coli cells enter the upper urinary tract organs (kidneys, bladder or ureters) from the blood stream. The kidneys are the organs that filter wastes (such as urea) from the blood and excrete them, along with water, as urine. ... A bladder is a pouch or other flexible enclosure with waterproof or gasproof walls. ... Transverse section of ureter. ...


Laboratory diagnosis

Enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) - UTI or GIT infections in infants are caused by EPEC which presents as watery diarrhea, meaning that PMN's will not be observed in the stool neither with methylene blue nor Gram stain. First off, G - ve, rods, with no particular arrangement are seen in Gram stain. Then, either MacConkey agar or EMB agar (or both) are inoculated with the stool. On MacConkey agar, deep red colonies are produced as the organism is lactose positive, and this utilization will cause the medium's pH to drop leading to darkening of the medium. Growth on Levine EMB agar would show black colonies with greenish-black metallic sheen. This is diagnosic of E. coli. The organism is lysine positive, and grows on TSI slant with a (A/A/g+/H2S-) profile. Also, IMViC is ++-- for E. coli; as it's indol positive (red ring) and methyl red positive (bright red), but VP negative (no change-colorless) and citrate negative (no change-green color). Serology is done using the SSS-Coagglutination test. Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... UTI is an acronym for Urinary Tract Infection and the calculator programming group United-TI. ... Look up git in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Methylene blue is a heterocyclic aromatic chemical compound with molecular formula: C16H18ClN3S. It has many uses in a range of different fields, such as biology or chemistry. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... MacConkeys Agar is a culture medium designed to grow up Gram-negative bacteria and stain them for lactose fermentation. ... // Look up Mac, mac in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Lysine is one of the 20 amino acids normally found in proteins. ... Indole is an aromatic heterocyclic organic compound. ... The chemical makeup of Methyl Red Methyl Red, also called C.I. Acid Red 2, is an indicator dye that turns red in acidic solutions. ... Chemical strucutre of citric acid. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ...


Enterohaemorrhagic E. coli O157:H7 - isolated either from urine or, more commonly, stool. There exist three protocols for diagnosis:


(a) Diagnosis is carried out as is the case with EPEC and ETEC.


(b) Gram stain:- G - ve, rods, with no particular arrangement. Sorbitol-MacConkey agar is a modified MacConkey agar which has sorbitol instead of lactose. EHEC would produce colorless colonies as it can't utilize sorbitol. TSI slant and IMViC are then performed. Serology detects O157:H7 antigens. Gram staining is a method for staining samples of bacteria that differentiates between the two main types of bacterial cell wall. ... MacConkeys Agar is a culture medium designed to grow up Gram-negative bacteria and stain them for lactose fermentation. ... Sorbitol, also known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol the body metabolises slowly. ... Lactose is a disaccharide that consists of β-D-galactose and β-D-glucose molecules bonded through a β1-4 glycosidic linkage. ... TSI may refer to: TSI, an independent nightclub, venue, and art gallery in Jacksonville, FL The Spaghetti Incident?, a covers album by Guns N Roses. ... Serology is the scientific study of blood serum. ... An antigen is any molecule that is recognized by antibodies. ...


(c) Two bottles of verocells are used. One is inoculated with equal portions of a stool extract and antitoxin, while the other has only a stool extract. If the first bottle shows neutralization (no cytopathic effects) while the second doesn't, then the test is considered positive. Otherwise, it's not. This is based on the fact that the toxin produced by this strain is neutralized in the presence of its specific antibody, meaning that it won't be able to exert its effects on cells. Cytopathic effect(CPE) refers to degenerative changes in cells (especially in tissue culture) associated with the multiplication of certain viruses. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...


Antibiotic therapy and resistance

Main article: Antibiotic resistance

Bacterial infections are usually treated with antibiotics. However, the antibiotic sensitivities of different strains of E. coli vary widely. As Gram-negative organisms, E. coli are resistant to many antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive organisms. Antibiotics which may be used to treat E. coli infection include amoxicillin as well as other semi-synthetic penicillins, many cephalosporins, carbapenems, aztreonam, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and the aminoglycosides. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Staphylococcus aureus - Antibiotics test plate. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Amoxicillin (INN) or amoxycillin (former BAN) is a moderate-spectrum β-lactam antibiotic used to treat bacterial infections caused by susceptible microorganisms. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ... Carbapenems are a class of beta-lactam antibiotics. ... Aztreonam (Azactam®) is a synthetic monocyclic beta-lactam antibiotic (a monobactam) originally isolated from Chromobacterium violaceum. ... Co-trimoxazole is a bacteriostatic antibiotic combination of trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole, in the ratio of 1 to 5, used in the treatment of a variety of bacterial infections. ... Ciprofloxacin is the generic international name for the synthetic antibiotic manufactured and sold by Bayer Pharmaceutical under the brand names Cipro, Ciproxin and Ciprobay (and other brand names in other markets, e. ... Nitrofurantoin is an antibiotic. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ...


Antibiotic resistance is a growing problem. Some of this is due to overuse of antibiotics in humans, but some of it is probably due to the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in food of animals.[36] A study published in the journal Science in August 2007 found that the rate of adaptative mutations in E. coli is "on the order of 10–5 per genome per generation, which is 1,000 times as high as previous estimates," a finding which may have significance for the study and management of bacterial antibiotic resistance.[37] Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... For linguistic mutation, see Apophony. ... In biology the genome of an organism is the whole hereditary information of an organism that is encoded in the DNA (or, for some viruses, RNA). ...


Antibiotic-resistant E. coli may also pass on the genes responsible for antibiotic resistance to other species of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus. E. coli often carry multidrug resistant plasmids and under stress readily transfer those plasmids to other species. Indeed, E. coli is a frequent member of biofilms, where many species of bacteria exist in close proximity to each other. This mixing of species allows E. coli strains that are piliated to accept and transfer plasmids from and to other bacteria. Thus E. coli and the other enterobacteria are important reservoirs of transferable antibiotic resistance.[38] Binomial name Rosenbach 1884 Staphylococcus aureus , literally Golden Cluster Seed and also known as golden staph, is the most common cause of staph infections. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... Genera see text The Enterobacteriaceae are a large family of bacteria, including many of the more familiar pathogens, such as Salmonella and Escherichia coli. ...


Beta-lactamase strains

Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics has become a particular problem in recent decades, as strains of bacteria that produce extended-spectrum beta-lactamases have become more common.[39] These beta-lactamase enzymes make many, if not all, of the penicillins and cephalosporins ineffective as therapy. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase–producing E. coli are highly resistant to an array of antibiotics and infections by these strains is difficult to treat. In many instances, only two oral antibiotics and a very limited group of intravenous antibiotics remain effective. β-lactam antibiotics are a broad class of antibiotics which include penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and β-lactamase inhibitors; basically any antibiotic agent which contains a β-lactam nucleus in its molecular structure. ... Beta-lactamase is an enzyme (EC 3. ... Penicillin core structure Penicillin (abbreviated PCN) is a group of β-lactam antibiotics used in the treatment of bacterial infections caused by susceptible, usually Gram-positive, organisms. ... The cephalosporins, are a class of β-lactam antibiotics. ...


Increased concern about the prevalence of this form of "superbug" in the United Kingdom has led to calls for further monitoring and a UK-wide strategy to deal with infections and the deaths.[40] Susceptibility testing should guide treatment in all infections in which the organism can be isolated for culture. Antibiotic resistance is the ability of a microorganism to withstand the effects of an antibiotic. ...


Phage therapy

Phage therapy—viruses that specifically target pathogenic bacteria—has been developed over the last 80 years, primarily in the former Soviet Union, where it was used to prevent diarrhea caused by E. coli.[41] Presently, phage therapy for humans is available only at the Phage Therapy Center in the Republic of Georgia and in Poland.[42] However, on January 2 2007, the United States FDA gave Omnilytics approval to apply its E. coli O157:H7 killing phage in a mist, spray or wash on live animals that will be slaughtered for human consumption.[43] A 3D rendering showing T4 type bacteriophages landing on a bacterium to inject genetic material. ... Georgia (Georgian: საქართველო Sakartvelo), known from 1991 to 1995 as the Republic of Georgia, is a country to the east of the Black Sea in the southern Caucasus. ...


Vaccination

Researchers have actively been working to develop safe, effective vaccines to lower the worldwide incidence of E. coli infection.[44] In March of 2006, a vaccine eliciting an immune response against the E. coli O157:H7 O-specific polysaccharide conjugated to recombinant exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (O157-rEPA) was reported to be safe in children two to five years old. Previous work had already indicated that it safe for adults.[45] A phase III clinical trial to verify the large-scale efficacy of the treatment is planned.[45] A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... Binomial name Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Schroeter 1872) Migula 1900 Synonyms Bacterium aeruginosum Schroeter 1872 Bacterium aeruginosum Cohn 1872 Micrococcus pyocyaneus Zopf 1884 Bacillus aeruginosus (Schroeter 1872) Trevisan 1885 Bacillus pyocyaneus (Zopf 1884) Flügge 1886 Pseudomonas pyocyanea (Zopf 1884) Migula 1895 Bacterium pyocyaneum (Zopf 1884) Lehmann and Neumann 1896 Pseudomonas polycolor... In medicine, a clinical trial (synonyms: clinical studies, research protocols, medical research) is a research study. ... Efficacy is the ability to produce a desired amount of a desired effect. ...


In January 2007 the Canadian bio-pharmaceutical company Bioniche announced it has developed a cattle vaccine which reduces the number of O157:H7 shed in manure by a factor of 1000, to about 1000 pathogenic bacteria per gram of manure.[46][47][48]


Role in biotechnology

Because of its long history of laboratory culture and ease of manipulation, E. coli also plays an important role in modern biological engineering and industrial microbiology.[49] The work of Stanley Norman Cohen and Herbert Boyer in E. coli, using plasmids and restriction enzymes to create recombinant DNA, became a foundation of biotechnology.[50] Biological engineering (a. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... Stanley Norman Cohen is an American geneticist. ... Herbert (Herb) Boyer (born 1936) is a Co-recipient of the 1996 Lemelson-MIT Prize and a co-founder of Genentech. ... Figure 1: Illustration of a bacterium with plasmids enclosed showing chromosomal DNA and plasmids. ... A restriction enzyme (or restriction endonuclease) is an enzyme that cuts double-stranded DNA. The enzyme makes two incisions, one through each of the sugar-phosphate backbones (i. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ...


Considered a very versatile host for the production of heterologous proteins,[51] researchers can introduce genes into the microbes using plasmids, allowing for the mass production of proteins in industrial fermentation processes. Genetic systems have also been developed which allow the production of recombinant proteins using E. coli. One of the first useful applications of recombinant DNA technology was the manipulation of E. coli to produce human insulin.[52] Modified E. coli have been used in vaccine development, bioremediation, and production of immobilised enzymes.[51] E. coli cannot, however, be used to produce some of the more large, complex proteins which contain multiple disulfide bonds and, in particular, unpaired thiols, or proteins that also require post-translational modification for activity.[49] In medicine a heterologous transplant means between species or from one species to another. In protein quaternary structure a heterologous interface is a subunit-subunit interface which occurs between different sequence regions of the protein subunit. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin showing coloured alpha helices. ... This article is about industrial fermentation. ... Recombinant proteins are proteins that are produced by different genetically modified organisms following insertion of the relevant DNA into their genome. ... Recombinant DNA (rDNA) is an artificial DNA sequence resulting from the combination of different DNA sequences. ... Not to be confused with inulin. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Bioremediation can be defined as any process that uses microorganisms, fungi, green plants or their enzymes to return the environment altered by contaminants to its original condition. ... Ribbon diagram of the enzyme TIM, surrounded by the space-filling model of the protein. ... In chemistry, a disulfide bond is a single covalent bond derived from the coupling of thiol groups. ... Sulphydryl // In organic chemistry, a thiol is a compound that contains the functional group composed of a sulfur atom and a hydrogen atom (-SH). ... Posttranslational modification means the chemical modification of a protein after its translation. ...


Model organism

E. coli is frequently used as a model organism in microbiology studies. Cultivated strains (e.g. E. coli K12) are well-adapted to the laboratory environment, and, unlike wild type strains, have lost their ability to thrive in the intestine. Many lab strains lose their ability to form biofilms.[53][54] These features protect wild type strains from antibodies and other chemical attacks, but require a large expenditure of energy and material resources. A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... An agar plate streaked with microorganisms Microbiology is the study of microorganisms, which are unicellular or cell-cluster microscopic organisms. ... In biology, a wild type is one of the major genotypes of a species that occur in nature, in contrast to induced mutations or artificial cross-breeding. ... Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on an indwelling catheter. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ...


In 1946, Joshua Lederberg and Edward Tatum first described the phenomenon known as bacterial conjugation using E. coli as a model bacterium,[55] and it remains the primary model to study conjugation.[citation needed] E. coli was an integral part of the first experiments to understand phage genetics,[56] and early researchers, such as Seymour Benzer, used E. coli and phage T4 to understand the topography of gene structure.[57] Prior to Benzer's research, it was not known whether the gene was a linear structure, or if it had a branching pattern. Joshua Lederberg speaking at a conference in 1997 Joshua Lederberg (born May 23, 1925) is an American molecular biologist who is known for his work in genetics, artificial intelligence, and space exploration. ... Tatum won the Nobel Prize for his work in genetics Edward Lawrie Tatum (December 14, 1909 - November 5, 1975) was an American geneticist. ... Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacteria through direct cell-to-cell contact. ... An artists rendering of an Enterobacteria phage T4. ... Seymour Benzer (October 15, 1921-November 30, 2007) was an accomplished American physicist, molecular biologist and behavioral geneticist. ...


See also

Bacterial water analysis is a routine check to make sure the concentration of potentially pathogenic bacteria is sufficiently low to say it is safe to drink by humans with a reasonable level of confidence. ... Coliform bacteria are used often as an indicator of sanitary quality of foods and water. ... Foodborne illness or food poisoning is caused by consuming food contaminated with pathogenic bacteria, toxins, viruses, prions or parasites. ...

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External links

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General

  • E.coli Food poisoning can be long-term problem - Yahoo News
  • E. coli statistics
  • Spinach and E. coli Outbreak - U.S. FDA
  • E. coli Outbreak From Fresh Spinach - U.S. CDC
  • E. coli Info

Databases

  • EcoCyc: Encyclopedia of E. coli genes and metabolism
  • Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC)
  • NIAID Enteropathogen Resource Integration Center (ERIC) Genome information on diarrheagenic E.coli and evolutionarily related organisms
  • EcoliHub
  • EcoliWiki The community annotation system for E. coli K-12 and its phages and plamids
  • ECODAB The structure of the O-antigens that form the basis of the serological classification of E. coli
EcoCyc is a bioinformatics database for the bacterium Escherichia coli K-12. ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... This article is about the general scientific term. ... Sheep redirects here. ... Enterobacteria phage λ (lambda phage) is a temperate bacteriophage that infects Escherichia coli. ... Binomial name Chlamydomonas reinhardtii P.A.Dang. ... Species T hegewischi Tetrahymena are non-pathogenic free-living ciliate protozoa. ... Binomial name Meyen ex E.C. Hansen Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of budding yeast. ... Binomial name Schizosaccharomyces pombe Schizosaccharomyces pombe, also called fission yeast, is a species of yeast. ... Binomial name Neurospora crassa Shear & B.O. Dodge Neurospora crassa is a type of red bread mold of the phylum Ascomycota. ... This article is about the maize plant. ... Binomial name Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. ... Binomial name Medicago truncatula Gaertn. ... Binomial name Maupas, 1900 Caenorhabditis elegans (IPA: ) is a free-living nematode (roundworm), about 1 mm in length, which lives in temperate soil environments. ... Binomial name Meigen, 1830[1] Drosophila melanogaster (from the Greek for black-bellied dew-lover) is a two-winged insect that belongs to the Diptera, the order of the flies. ... Species Xenopus amieti (volcano clawed frog) Xenopus andrei (Andres clawed frog) Xenopus borealis (Kenyan clawed frog) Xenopus boumbaensis (Mawa clawed frog) Xenopus clivii (Eritrea clawed frog) Xenopus fraseri (Frasers clawed frog) Xenopus gilli (Cape clawed frog) Xenopus laevis (African clawed frog) Xenopus largeni Xenopus longipes (savannah clawed frog... Binomial name Danio rerio (Hamilton-Buchanan, 1822) The Zebra Danio or Zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio or Danio rerio) is a tropical fish, commonly kept in aquaria and used for scientific research, belonging to the minnow family (Cyprinidae). ... Binomial name (Berkenhout, 1769) Brown Rat range The brown rat, common rat, Norway rat, Norwegian rat or wharf rat (Rattus norvegicus) is one of the best-known and common rats, and also one of the largest. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 The House Mouse (Mus musculus) is one of the most numerous species of the genus Mus commonly termed a mouse. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Disease Listing, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Gen Info | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases (1522 words)
Escherichia coli O157:H7 is a leading cause of foodborne illness.
coli O157:H7 was first recognized as a cause of illness in 1982 during an outbreak of severe bloody diarrhea; the outbreak was traced to contaminated hamburgers.
coli O157:H7 is diagnosed by detecting the bacterium in the stool.
US FDA/CFSAN - Bad Bug Book - Escherichia coli O157:H7 (2591 words)
In June and July 1997, simultaneous outbreaks of Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection in Michigan and Virginia were independently associated with eating alfalfa sprouts grown from the same seed lot.
This report describes the investigation of a pseudo-outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 infection that occurred in New Jersey during July 1994 after a year-long increase in the number of laboratories culturing all diarrheal specimens for this pathogen.
Escherichia coli O157:H7 was isolated from the stools of 17 patients.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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