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Encyclopedia > Escarpment

In geology, an escarpment is a transition zone between different physiogeographic provinces that involves an elevation differential, often involving high cliffs. Most commonly, an escarpment, also called a scarp, is a transition from one series of sedimentary rocks to another series of a different age and composition. In such cases, the escarpment usually represents the line of erosional loss of the newer rock over the older. Geology (from Greek γη- (ge-, the earth) and λογος (logos, word, reason)) is the science and study of the Earth, its composition, structure, physical properties, history, and the processes that shape it. ... Basic Definition In geography, the elevation of a geographic location is its height above mean sea level (or some other fixed point). ... Cliffs on the banks of the River Severn, near Bristol, England In geography, a cliff is a significant vertical, or near vertical, rock exposure. ... Two types of sedimentary rock: limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Severe soil erosion in a wheat field near Washington State University, USA. Erosion is the displacement of solids (soil, mud, rock, and so forth) by the agents of wind, water, ice, movement in response to gravity, or living organisms (in the case of bioerosion). ... Our earth is composed of three main types of rock, each having been formed in its own special way. ...

Escarpment face of a cuestabroken by a faultCumberland Plateau Tennessee
Escarpment face of a cuesta
broken by a fault
Cumberland Plateau Tennessee

Escarpments are also frequently formed by faults. In some cases land may be lifted to an elevation above the surrounding area by a thrust fault. A strike-slip fault may bring a piece of high ground adjacent to an area of lower ground. The latter is common in California along the San Andreas fault and the many other strike-slip faults in the area. Download high resolution version (1200x900, 1185 KB)cuesta Cumberland Plateau Tennessee Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:12, Dec 31, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1200x900, 1185 KB)cuesta Cumberland Plateau Tennessee Image copyleft: Image taken by me, released under GFDL, Pollinator 04:12, Dec 31, 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Cuestas in geology are ridges formed by gently tilted hard rock layers. ... The Cumberland Plateau includes much of eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia in the United States. ... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Official languages English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ... Old fault exposed by roadcut near Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official language(s) English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault, known as a right-lateral strike-slip fault, that spans a length of roughly 800 miles (1287 kilometers) through California. ...


In England escarpments are found in a diagonal line across the country from the Yorkshire coast on the North Sea to the Hampshire coast on the English Channel. There the features of an escarpment include the scarp slope (the leading edge); the dip slope, dry valleys, coombes (both found in chalk downland), and clay vales occur on the side away from the scarp. Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... The White Yorkshire rose. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Hampshire (abbr. ... Satellite view of the English Channel The English Channel, also for some time known as the British Sea (French: La Manche, the sleeve) is the part of the Atlantic Ocean that separates the island of Great Britain from northern France, and joins the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean. ... A coombe or (variant spellings) coomb, combe or cwm is a short valley or hollow on a hill or coastline. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone composed of the mineral calcium carbonate. ... A downland is an area of open chalk upland. ...


There are escarpments on other planets besides Earth. They are believed to be created when the crust contracts; as a result of cooling. Earth, also known as the Earth or Terra, is the third planet outward from the Sun. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ... Contraction can mean: Contraction (childbirth), a contraction during childbirth; Contraction (linguistics), a new word formed from two or more individual words; Contraction (science), one that can occur to solid matter as it cools; Contraction mapping, in mathematics, a type of function on a metric space; Muscle contraction, one that occurs...


More loosely the term is used to describe the zone between coastal lowlands and continental plateau which have a marked change in altitude. In geology and earth science, a plateau (alternatively spelt in a false French spelling plâteau, the real spelling in French being plateau) is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat open country if the uplift was recent in geologic history. ...


Significant escarpments

Rattlesnake Point near Milton, Ontario. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) • Land 917,741 km² • Water 158,654 km² (14. ... State nickname: Badger State State motto: Forward Other U.S. States Capital Madison Largest city Milwaukee Governor Jim Doyle (D) Senators Herb Kohl (D) Russ Feingold (D) Official languages None Area 169,790 km² (23rd)  - Land 140,787 km²  - Water 28,006 km² (17%) Population (2000)  - Population 5,453,896... State nickname: The Wolverine State, The Great Lakes State Other U.S. States Capital Lansing Largest city Detroit Governor Jennifer Granholm (D) Senators Carl Levin (D) Debbie Stabenow (D) Official language(s) English de-facto Area 96,889 mi² / 250,941 km² (11th)  - Land 56,855 mi² / 147,255 km... State nickname: The Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Rodham Clinton (D) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² or 54,556 square miles (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water... The Onondaga Formation is a group of hard limestones and dolostones of Devonian age that form an important geographic feature in the area of outcrop. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Other Canadian provinces and territories Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Area 1,076,395 km² (4th) • Land 917,741 km² • Water 158,654 km² (14. ... State nickname: The Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Rodham Clinton (D) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² or 54,556 square miles (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water... The fall line has meanings in both geographical features and the sport of alpine skiing. ... State nickname: Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York Governor George Pataki Official languages None Area 141,205 km² (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water 18,795 km² (13. ... State nickname: Camellia State, The Heart of Dixie¹, Yellowhammer State Other U.S. States Capital Montgomery Largest city Birmingham Governor Bob Riley (R) Senators Richard Shelby (R) Jeff Sessions (R) Official language(s) English Area 52,423 mi²/135,775 km² (30th)  - Land 50,750 mi²/131,442 km²  - Water... The Allegheny Front is an escarpment, or abrupt change in elevation, extending from northern Pennsylvania into southeastern West Virginia. ... State nickname: The Keystone State Other U.S. States Capital Harrisburg Largest city Philadelphia Governor Ed Rendell (D) Senators Arlen Specter (R) Rick Santorum (R) Official language(s) None Area 119,283 km² (33rd)  - Land 116,074 km²  - Water 3,208 km² (2. ... State nickname: Old Line State; Free State Other U.S. States Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Governor Robert L. Ehrlich (R) Senators Paul Sarbanes (D) Barbara Mikulski (D) Official language(s) English Area 32,160 km² (42nd)  - Land 25,338 km²  - Water 6,968 km² (21%) Population (2000)  - Population 5... State nickname: Mountain State Other U.S. States Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Governor Joe Manchin (D) Senators Robert Byrd (D) Jay Rockefeller (D) Official languages English Area 62,809 km² (41st)  - Land 62,436 km²  - Water 376 km² (0. ... State nickname: The Empire State Other U.S. States Capital Albany Largest city New York City Governor George Pataki (R) Senators Charles Schumer (D) Hillary Rodham Clinton (D) Official languages None (English is de facto) Area 141,205 km² or 54,556 square miles (27th)  - Land 122,409 km²  - Water... The Pottsville Escarpment is a resistant sandstone belt of cliffs and steep sided, narrow crested valleys in eastern Kentucky, USA. It features not only spectacular cliffs, but also rock shelters, waterfalls, and natural bridges. ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Other U.S. States Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher (R) Senators Mitch McConnell (R) Jim Bunning (R) Official languages English Area 104,749 km² (37th)  - Land 102,989 km²  - Water 1,760 km² (1. ... State nickname: Volunteer State Other U.S. States Capital Nashville Largest city Memphis Governor Phil Bredesen (D) Senators Bill Frist (R) Lamar Alexander (R) Official languages English Area 109,247 km² (36th)  - Land 106,846 km²  - Water 2,400 km² (2. ... The Cumberland Plateau includes much of eastern Kentucky and western West Virginia in the United States. ... The Highland Rim is a geographic term for the area in Tennessee surrounding the Nashville Basin. ... The Nashville Basin is a geographic term used to describe the area surrounding Nashville, Tennessee. ... Middle Tennessee is a distinct portion of the state of Tennessee, delineated according to law as well as custom. ... The Missouri Escarpment is a ridge in North Dakota approximately 100 miles to the west of the Red River Valley. ... State nickname: Peace Garden State, Roughrider State, Flickertail State Other U.S. States Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Governor John Hoeven (R) Senators Kent Conrad (D) Byron Dorgan (D) Official languages English Area 183 272 km² (19th)  - Land 178 839 km²  - Water 4 432 km² (2. ... Muldraugh Hill is an escarpment in central Kentucky separating the Bluegrass on the north and north-east from the Pennyrile on the south and south-west. ... State nickname: Bluegrass State Other U.S. States Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Governor Ernie Fletcher (R) Senators Mitch McConnell (R) Jim Bunning (R) Official languages English Area 104,749 km² (37th)  - Land 102,989 km²  - Water 1,760 km² (1. ... The Balcones Fault is a zone of normal faulting in Texas (USA) that runs approximately from the southwest part of the state to the north central region. ... ... The Mogollon Rim is a topographical and geological feature running across Arizona, extending approximately 400 miles (650 km) from northern Yavapai County eastward to the Mogollon Mountains in southwest New Mexico. ... State nickname: The Grand Canyon State, The Copper State Other U.S. States Capital Phoenix Largest city Phoenix Governor Janet Napolitano (D) Senators John McCain (R) Jon Kyl (R) Official language(s) English Area 295,254 km² (6th)  - Land 294,312 km²  - Water 942 km² (0. ... The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is almost entirely in eastern California. ... State nickname: The Golden State Other U.S. States Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger (R) Senators Dianne Feinstein (D) Barbara Boxer (D) Official language(s) English Area 410,000 km² (3rd)  - Land 404,298 km²  - Water 20,047 km² (4. ... // Etymology World map showing Africa (geographically) The name Africa came into Western use through the Romans, who used the name Africa terra — land of the Afri (plural, or Afer singular) — for the northern part of the continent, as the province of Africa with its capital Carthage, corresponding to modern-day... Gods Window Escarpment is a popular vantage point along the Blyde River Canyon, in South Africa. ... The Bandiagara escarpment seen from the south The Bandiagara Escarpment is an escarpment in the Dogon country of Mali. ... Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK 50. ... The North Downs in England are a ridge of chalk hills that stretch about 100 mi (160 km) from Hampshire through Surrey and Kent. ... Near Beachy Head The South Downs is one of the two areas of chalk downland in southern England. ... Edge Hill is an escarpment in the county of Warwickshire, England (national grid reference SP3747). ... The Battle of Edgehill (or Edge Hill) was the first major engagement of the First English Civil War. ... The term English Civil War (or Wars) refers to the series of armed conflicts and political machinations which took place between Parliamentarians and Royalists from 1642 until 1651. ... Kinver Edge is a high heath and woodland just west of Kinver, about 4 miles west of Stourbridge, and 4 miles north of Kidderminster. ... Wenlock Edge is a limestone escarpment near Much Wenlock, Shropshire, England. ... The Côte dOr is a limestone escarpment in Burgundy, France. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... For other uses, see Côte dOr (disambiguation). ... // Etymology Etymologically, the name of Bray comes from a Gaulish word for mud. ... Clay is a generic term for an aggregate of hydrous silicate particles less than 4 μm (micrometres) in diameter. ... The Needles, part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation Chalk is a soft, white, porous form of limestone composed of the mineral calcium carbonate. ...

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
escarpment on Encyclopedia.com (449 words)
Examples of erosional escarpments include the Palisades along the Hudson River and the long break separating the coastal region from the inland area in Texas, roughly paralleling the coast.
Landscape characterization of the Niagara escarpment in Southwestern Ohio by use of geographic information science technology.
An area of sandstone plateaux, escarpments and gorges dominated by eucalyt forests.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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