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Encyclopedia > Erwin Schrödinger
Erwin Schrödinger, as depicted on the former 1000 .
Erwin Schrödinger, as depicted on the former Austrian 1000 Schilling bank note.
Bust of Schrödinger, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria.

Erwin Rudolf Josef Alexander Schrödinger (August 12, 1887January 4, 1961), an Austrian physicist, achieved fame for his contributions to quantum mechanics, especially the Schrödinger equation, for which he won the Nobel Prize in 1933. He proposed the Schrödinger's cat thought experiment. Erwin Schrödinger, as depicted on the Austrian 1000 Schilling bank note I suppose its fair use to use this image here, although it it of course copyright (c) Austrian National Bank (Österreichische Nationalbank) Simon A. 11:22, 14 Jun 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Erwin Schrödinger, as depicted on the Austrian 1000 Schilling bank note I suppose its fair use to use this image here, although it it of course copyright (c) Austrian National Bank (Österreichische Nationalbank) Simon A. 11:22, 14 Jun 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... The Schilling was the currency of Austria until the Euro exchange in 2002. ... A £20 Ulster Bank banknote. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 944 KB) Bust of Erwin Schrödinger, physicist, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 944 KB) Bust of Erwin Schrödinger, physicist, in the courtyard arcade of the main building, University of Vienna, Austria. ... University of Vienna Main Building The University of Vienna (German: Universität Wien) in Austria was founded in 1365 by Rudolph IV and hence named Alma mater Rudolphina. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... January 4 is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year—i. ... The word physicist should not be confused with physician, which means medical doctor. ... Fig. ... In physics, the Schrödinger equation, proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1925, describes the time-dependence of quantum mechanical systems. ... Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... Schrödingers Cat: every hour, there is a 50% chance that the poisonous gas will be released and kill the cat. ... In philosophy, physics, and other fields, a thought experiment (from the German Gedankenexperiment) is an attempt to solve a problem using the power of human imagination. ...

Contents

Biography

Early years

In 1887 Schrödinger was born in Erdberg, Vienna to Rudolf Schrödinger (cerecloth producer, botanist) and Georgine Emilia Brenda (daughter of Alexander Bauer, Professor of Chemistry, k.u.k. Technische Hochschule Vienna). In 1898 he attended the Akademisches Gymnasium. Between 1906 and 1910 Schrödinger studied in Vienna under Franz Serafin Exner (1849 - 1926) and Friedrich Hasenöhrl (1874 - 1915). He also conducted experimental work in Kohlrausch. In 1911, Schrödinger became an assistant to Exner. 1887 is a common year starting on Saturday (click on link for calendar). ... The abbreviation k. ... Technische Hochschule (acronym TH) is, what a university of technology (i. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Friedrich Hasenöhrl (1874 - October 7, 1915), was an Austrian scientist. ... 1874 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... A database query syntax error has occurred. ...


Middle years

In 1914 Erwin Schrödinger achieved Habilitation (venia legendi). Between 1914 and 1918 he participated in war work (Görz, Duino, Sistiana, Prosecco, Vienna). On April 6, 1920 Schrödinger married Annemarie Bertel. In 1920, he became the assistant to Max Wien, in Jena. In September 1920 he attained the position of a. o. Prof. (Ausserordentlicher Professor), roughly equivalent to Reader (UK) or associate professor (US)), in Stuttgart. In 1921, he became o. Prof. (Ordentlicher Professor, i.e. full professor), in Breslau (presently Wroclaw, Poland). 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Habilitation is a term used within the university system in Germany, Austria, and some other European countries such as the German-speaking part of Switzerland, in Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary and Slovenia. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... German physicist, born 1866 in Königsberg (Prussia, at that time german, today Kaliningrad, Russia), died 1938 in Jena, Germany. ... Map of Germany showing Jena Jena is a town in central Germany on the River Saale. ... 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. ... Stuttgart is a city located in southern Germany, it is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg, and has a population of approximately 600,000 as of June 2004. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... . Wrocław (in Polish pronounced: [:vrɔʦwaf], Czech Vratislav, German Breslau, Hungarian: Boroszló, Latin: Wratislavia; many Polish documents in English use the spelling Wroclaw) is the capital of Silesia in southwestern Poland, situated on the Oder River. ...


In 1922, he went to Zürich University. In 1926, Schrödinger published in the Annalen der Physik the paper "Quantisierung als Eigenwertproblem" [tr. Quantisation as an Eigenvalue Problem] on wave mechanics and what is now known as the Schrödinger equation. In 1927, he joined Max Planck at the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin. In 1933, however, Schrödinger decided to leave Germany; he disliked the Nazis' anti-semitism. He became a Fellow of Magdalen College at the University of Oxford. Soon after he arrived, he received the Nobel Prize together with Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac. His position at Oxford did not work out, it seems that his unconventional personal life (Schrödinger lived with two women) did not meet with acceptance. In 1934, Schrödinger lectured at Princeton University and though offered a permanent position there did not accept it. Again, his wish to set up house with his wife and his mistress may have posed a problem. He had the prospect of a position at the University of Edinburgh but visa delays occurred, and in the end he took up a position at the University of Graz in Austria in 1936. 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The University of Zurich (in German: Universität Zürich) is the largest university of Switzerland. ... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... In mathematics, a number is called an eigenvalue of a matrix if there exists a nonzero vector such that the matrix times the vector is equal to the same vector multiplied by the eigenvalue. ... In physics, the Schrödinger equation, proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1925, describes the time-dependence of quantum mechanical systems. ... 1927 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Max Planck This article is about Planck, the German physicist. ... Alternative meaning: Humboldt State University, located in Arcata, California Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is the successor to Berlins oldest university, the Friedrich Wilhelm University (Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität), founded in 1810 by the liberal Prussian educational reformer... Berlin (pronounced: , German ) is the capital of Germany and its largest city, with 3,426,000 inhabitants (as of January 2005); down from 4. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Anti-Semitism (alternatively spelled antisemitism) is hostility towards Jews (not: Semites - see the Misnomer section further on). ... Magdalen College (pronounced ) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Photographs of Nobel Prize Medals. ... Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, (August 8, 1902 – October 20, 1984) was a British theoretical physicist and a founder of the field of quantum physics. ... 1934 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Princeton University, located in Princeton, New Jersey, is the fourth-oldest institution of higher education in the United States. ... The University of Edinburgh, founded in 1583, is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Graz [graːts] (Slovenian: Gradec, pronounced grah-dets), with a population of 305,000 (council census 2000) is the second-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Styria (Steiermark in German). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Later years

In 1938, after Hitler occupied Austria, Schrödinger had problems due to leaving Germany in 1933 and to his known opposition to Nazism. He issued a statement recanting this opposition, something he later regretted and for which he personally apologized to Einstein. However, this did not fully appease the new dispensation and the university dismissed him from his job for political unreliability. He suffered harassment and received instructions not to leave the country, but he and his wife fled to Italy. From there he went to visiting positions in Oxford and Ghent Universities. In 1940 he received an invitation to help establish an Institute for Advanced Studies in Dublin, Ireland. He became the Director of the School for Theoretical Physics and remained there for 17 years. He wrote about 50 further publications on various topics. These attempted to approach a unified field theory. 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Nazi Party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... Portrait of Albert Einstein taken by Yousuf Karsh on February 11, 1948 Albert Einstein (March 14, 1879 – April 18, 1955) was a theoretical physicist who is widely regarded as the greatest scientist of the 20th century. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Ghent University (in Dutch, Universiteit Gent, abbreviated UGent) is one of the two large Flemish universities. ... The Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (Irish: Institiúid Ard-Léinn Bhaile Átha Cliath) at 65 Merrion Square, Dublin, Ireland was established in 1940 by the Taoiseach of the time Eamon de Valera. ... Dublins Hapenny Bridge. ... In physics, unified field theory is an attempt to unify all the fundamental forces and the interactions between elementary particles into a single theoretical framework. ...


In 1944, he wrote "What is Life?" (which contains Negentropy, concepts for genetic code). According to James D. Watson's memoir, DNA, The Secret of Life, Schrödinger's 1944 book What is Life? gave Watson the inspiration to research the gene, which led to the discovery of the DNA double helix structure. Schrödinger stayed in Dublin until retiring in 1955. During this time he remained committed to his particular passion; scandalous involvements with students occurred and he fathered two children by two different Irish women. He had a life-long interest in Vedanta. 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... Negentropy import is entropy export. ... James Watson James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is one of the discoverers of the structure of the DNA molecule. ... This stylistic schematic diagram shows a gene in relation to the double helix structure of DNA and to a chromosome (right). ... Space-filling model of a section of DNA molecule Deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA) is a nucleic acid that contains the genetic instructions specifying the biological development of all cellular forms of life (and many viruses). ... Vedanta, literally meaning the end section of the Vedas, is a branch of Hindu philosophy. ...


In 1956, he returned to Vienna (chair ad personam). At an important lecture during the World Energy Conference he refused to speak on nuclear energy because of his scepticism about it and gave a philosophical lecture instead. 1956 was a leap year starting on Sunday. ...


Death and afterwards

In 1961, Schrödinger died in Vienna at the age of 73 due to tuberculosis. He left a widow, Anny. He was buried in Alpbach (Austria). 1961 (As MAD Magazine pointed out on its first cover for the year) was the first upside-down year—i. ... Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]) is the capital of Austria, and also one of Austrias nine federal states (Bundesland Wien). ... Tuberculous lungs show up on an X-ray image Tuberculosis is an infection with the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system (meningitis), lymphatic system, circulatory system (miliary TB), genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Alpbach is a village in Western Austria in the state of Tyrol. ...


After his death, the huge Schrödinger crater on the far side of the Moon was named for him by the IAU. Schrödinger is a huge lunar impact crater of the form normally called a walled-plain. ... This article concerns the far side of the Moon. ... Crust composition Oxygen 43% Silicon 21% Aluminium 10% Calcium 9% Iron 9% Magnesium 5% Titanium 2% Nickel 0. ... The International Astronomical Union (IAU) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ...


See also

Schrödingers Cat: every hour, there is a 50% chance that the poisonous gas will be released and kill the cat. ... In combinatorial mathematics and probability theory, the Schrödinger method, named after the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger, is used to solve some problems of distribution and occupancy. ... In physics, the Schrödinger equation, proposed by the Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger in 1925, describes the time-dependence of quantum mechanical systems. ... This is a list of Austrian scientists Economists Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk Friedrich Hayek, economist and social scientist, Nobel Prize in economics 1974 Leopold Kohr, economist Carl Menger, founder of the Austrian School of economics Ludwig von Mises, free-market economist Oskar Morgenstern, co-founder of game theory Joseph... The following list is an election of famous Austrians. ...

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