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Encyclopedia > Erwin Rommel
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel
15 November 1891(1891-11-15)14 October 1944 (aged 52)

Field Marshal Erwin Rommel
Nickname "Wüstenfuchs" ("Desert Fox")
Place of birth Heidenheim, Germany
Place of death Herrlingen, Germany
Allegiance Flag of German Empire German Empire (to 1918)
Flag of Germany Weimar Republic (to 1933)
Flag of Nazi Germany Nazi Germany
Years of service 1911 –1944
Rank Field marshal
Commands 7.Panzer-Division
Afrika Korps
Panzer Army Africa
Commander-in-chief North Italy
Army Group E, Greece
Army Group B
Battles/wars World War I

World War II
is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Heidenheim an der Brenz (short: Heidenheim) is a city in eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany_1933. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... The 7th Panzer Division, which participated in the Battle of France, was nicknamed the Ghost Division because nobody knew where they were attacking from, not even the German High Command. ... The seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. ... As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure... Army Group E (Heeresgruppe E) was a German Army Group active during World War II. Army Group E was created on 1 January 1943. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Awards Pour le Mérite
Knight’s Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves, Swords, and Diamonds
Relations Manfred Rommel

Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (listen ) (15 November 189114 October 1944) was perhaps the most famous German Field Marshal of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname "The Desert Fox" (Wüstenfuchs, listen ) for the skillful military campaigns he waged on behalf of the German Army in North Africa. He was later in command of the German forces opposing the Allied cross-channel invasion at Normandy. He is thought by many to have been the most skilled commander of desert warfare in World War II. Belligerents France United Kingdom Canada Czechoslovakia Poland Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg Germany Italy Commanders Maurice Gamelin, Maxime Weygand Lord Gort (British Expeditionary Force) Leopold III H.G. Winkelman WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Sikorski Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group A) Fedor von Bock (Army Group B) Wilhelm von Leeb (Army Group C) H... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Major-General Harold Franklyn Generalmajor Erwin Rommel Casualties About 100 killed or wounded 300 killed or wounded, 400 Captured. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Combatants Australia United Kingdom South Africa Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 35,000? Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Poland Germany Italy Commanders Claude Auchinleck Alan Gordon Cunningham Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Strength 8th Army comprising XIII Corps, XXX Corps and 70th Division. ... Combatants Panzer Army Afrika Italian Army Eighth Army Commanders Erwin Rommel Claude Auchinleck Neil Ritchie Strength 80,000 390 tanks 175,000 949 tanks Casualties 32,000 dead, wounded, or captured 114 tanks destroyed 98,000 dead, wounded, or captured 540 tanks destroyed The Battle of Gazala was an important... Combatants Free French Forces Afrika Korps Commanders Marie Pierre Koenig Erwin Rommel Strength 3703  ? Casualties 140 Dead, 229 Wounded, 814 Captured 3300 Dead and Wounded, 277 Captured The Battle of Bir Hakeim (May 26, 1942 - June 11, 1942) is a World War II battle following the Afrika Korps 1942 campaign. ... Combatants Allies (mostly British Empire forces) Axis Commanders Claude Auchinleck Erwin Rommel Strength 150,000 troops in 3 army corps, 7 infantry and 3 armoured divisions 1,114 tanks, over 1,000 artillery and over 1,500 planes 96,000 troops (including 56,000 Italians) 8 infantry and 4 armoured... Battle of Alam Halfa Conflict World War II Date August 30–September 6, 1942 Place El Alamein, Egypt Result Allied strategic victory Axis tactical victory The Battle of Alam el Halfa took place between August 30 and September 6, 1942 during the Western Desert Campaign of World War II. The... Belligerents Australia Free French Greece New Zealand South Africa United Kingdom Indian Empire Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme Ettore Bastico Strength 220,000 men 1,029 tanks[1] 750 aircraft (530 serviceable) 900 medium and field artillery guns[2] 1,401 Anti Tank Guns... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Operation Capri. ... Combatants Germany Italy United States United Kingdom Free France Commanders Erwin Rommel Lloyd Fredendall Strength 22,000 30,000 Casualties 2,000 10,000 (including 6,700 Americans) The Battle of Kasserine Pass took place in World War II during the Tunisia Campaign. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ... Manfred Rommel (born December 24, 1928) is a German politician (CDU), who was Mayor of Stuttgart from 1974 until 1996. ... Image File history File links De-Erwin Rommel-pronunciation. ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Deutsches Afrikakorps (often just Afrika Korps or DAK) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypts Western Desert during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps the term is... Image File history File links De-Wüstenfuchs-pronunciation. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Allies. ... This article is about the assault phase of Operation Overlord. ... Desert warfare is combat in deserts. ...


Rommel's military successes earned the respect not only of his troops and Adolf Hitler, but also that of his enemy Commonwealth troops in the North African Campaign. An enduring legacy of Rommel's character is that he is also considered to be a chivalrous and humane military officer in contrast with many other figures of Nazi Germany. Most captured Commonwealth soldiers during his Africa campaign report to have been largely treated humanely, and orders to kill captured Jewish soldiers and civilians in all theatres of his command were defiantly ignored. Following the defeat of Axis forces in North Africa, and whilst commanding the defence of Occupied France, his fortunes changed when he was suspected of involvement in the failed July 20 Plot of 1944 to kill Hitler and was forced to commit suicide. Hitler redirects here. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ... Motto Travail, famille, patrie French: Unoccupied zone of Vichy France (until November 1942) Capital Vichy Capital-in-exile Sigmaringen (1944-1945) Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholic Government Dictatorship Chief of state  - 1940 — 1944 Philippe Pétain President of the Council  - 1940 — 1942 Philippe Pétain  - 1942 — 1944 Pierre Laval... Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ...

Contents

Early life and career

Rommel was born in Heidenheim, Germany, approximately 45 kilometres from Ulm, in the Kingdom of Württemberg (then part of the German Empire). He was baptised on 17 November 1891. He was the second son of a Protestant headmaster of the secondary school at Aalen, Prof. Erwin Rommel the elder, and Helene von Luz, a daughter of a prominent local dignitary. The couple also had three more children, two sons, Karl and Gerhard, and a daughter, Helene. Later, recalling his childhood, Rommel wrote that "my early years passed very happily." Heidenheim an der Brenz (short: Heidenheim) is a city in eastern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. ... “km” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ... Arms of the Kingdom of Württemberg The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Wuerttemberg. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Aalen (pronounced ) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ...


At the age of fourteen, Rommel and a friend built a full-scale glider that was able to fly short distances. Young Erwin considered becoming an engineer and would throughout his life display extraordinary technical aptitude; however, much to his family's dismay young Rommel joined the local 124th Württemberg Infantry Regiment as an officer cadet in 1910 and, shortly after, was sent to the Officer Cadet School in Danzig. He graduated in November 1911 and was commissioned as a lieutenant in January 1912. Aerospace engineering is the branch of engineering concerning aircraft, spacecraft and related topics. ... For alternative meanings of GdaÅ„sk and Danzig, see GdaÅ„sk (disambiguation) and Danzig (disambiguation) Motto: Nec temere, nec timide (No rashness, no timidness) Coordinates: , Country Voivodeship Powiat city county Gmina GdaÅ„sk Established 10th century City Rights 1263 Government  - Mayor PaweÅ‚ Adamowicz Area  - City 262 km²  (101. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ...


While at Cadet School, early in 1911, Erwin Rommel met his future wife, 17-year-old Lucia Maria Mollin (commonly called Lucie). They married in 1916, and in 1928 had a son, Manfred, who would later become the mayor of Stuttgart. Scholars argue that during this time, Rommel also had an affair with Walburga Stemmer in 1913 and that relationship produced a daughter named Gertrud.[1] Manfred Rommel (born December 24, 1928) is a German politician (CDU), who was Mayor of Stuttgart from 1974 until 1996. ... For other uses, see Stuttgart (disambiguation). ... Walburga Stemmer was a fruit-seller living in Weingarten (Württemberg) who historians John Bierman and Colin Smith assert had an affair with Erwin Rommel and gave birth to his daughter, Gertrud Pan, in 1913. ...


World War I

During World War I, Rommel fought in France, as well as in Romania (see: Romanian Campaign) and Italy (see: Italian Campaign), initially as a member of the 6th Württemberg Infantry Regiment, and through most of the war in the Württemberg Mountain Battalion of the élite Alpenkorps. While serving with that unit, he gained a reputation for making quick tactical decisions and taking advantage of enemy confusion. He was wounded three times and awarded the Iron Cross; First and Second Class. Rommel also received Prussia's highest medal, the Pour le Mérite after fighting in the mountains of west SloveniaBattles of the Isonzo – Soca front. The award came as a result of the Battle of Longarone, and the capture of Mount Matajur, Slovenia, and its defenders, numbering 150 Italian officers, 9,000 men and 81 pieces of artillery. His battalion used chemical warfare gas during the battles of the Isonzo and also played a key role in the victory of the Central Powers over the Italian Army at the Battle of Caporetto. Interestingly, Rommel for a time served in the same infantry regiment as Friedrich Paulus, both of whom were to preside over catastrophic defeats for the Third Reich in their own markedly different ways. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Central Powers, Bulgaria Romania, Russia Commanders General Falkenhayn General Mackensen General Averescu, General Zaionchovsky Strength 450,000 600,000 Casualties 60,000 roughly 330,000 (50% POWs) The Romanian Campaign was a campaign in the Balkans theatre of World War I fought between Romania and Russia against armies of... Combatants Italy United Kingdom  France  Austria-Hungary  German Empire Commanders Armando Diaz Luigi Cadorna Lord Cavan Conrad von Hötzendorf Svetozar Boroević Otto von Below The Italian campaign refers to a series of battles fought between the armies of Austria-Hungary and Italy, along with their allies, in northern Italy... Elite may refer to Elitism - the concept of social stratification by innate or social qualities Elite - computer software game Elite - a skilled hacker Leet - an online culture or attitude sometimes identified by frequent use of leetspeak Elite Systems, a UK video game developer. ... A stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Bundeswehr, Germanys Armed Forces. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... The Order Pour le Mérite, known informally as the Blue Max (German: Blauer Max), was Prussias highest military order until the end of World War I. The award was a blue-enameled Maltese Cross with eagles between the arms, the Prussian royal cypher, and the French legend Pour... During the First World War the Isonzo valley was part of the Alpine sector of the Italian Front, between Italy and Austria-Hungary. ... Longarone is a town and commune on the banks of the Piave in province of Belluno in North-East Italy. ... Mount Matajur (Monte Mataiur in Italian) is a 1650 meter tall mountain in Italy. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... Kaiser Wilhelm II, Mehmed V, Franz Joseph: The three emperors of the Central Powers in World War I. European military alliances in 1914. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Friedrich Paulus. ...


While fighting at Isonzo, Rommel was taken prisoner by the Italians. He escaped his captors, and, with a fluency in the Italian language and other skills, he was back to the German lines within two weeks. Later, when the German and Italian armies were allied during the Second World War, Rommel tempered his initial disdain of Italian soldiers when he realised that their lack of success in battle was principally due to poor leadership and equipment, which when overcome, easily made them equal to German forces [2]. The river Soča (Italian Isonzo) is a river in West Slovenia and North Italy. ...


Inter-war years

After the war, Rommel held battalion commands and was an instructor at the Dresden Infantry School from 1929 to 1933 and the Potsdam War Academy from 1935 to 1938. Rommel's war diaries, Infanterie greift an (Infantry Attacks), published in 1937, became a highly regarded military textbook, and attracted the attention of Adolf Hitler, who placed him in charge of the War Ministry liaison with the Hitler Jugend’s (Hitler Youth), Headquarters of Military Sports, the Hitler Jugend branch involved with paramilitary activities: terrain exercises and marksmanship. Rommel applied himself energetically to the new task. The army provided instructors to the Hitler Jugend Rifle School in Thuringia, which in turn supplied qualified instructors to the HJ's regional branches. This article is about the city in Germany. ... Infantry Attacks is a classic book on military tactics written by German General Erwin Rommel about his experiences in World War I. In it were his stosstruppen(shock troops) tactics. ... Hitler redirects here. ... The German Nazi party established the Hitler Youth (in German: Hitler-Jugend or HJ) in 1926. ...


In 1937, Rommel conducted a tour of HJ meetings and encampments, delivered lectures on German soldiering while inspecting facilities and exercises. Simultaneously he was pressuring Baldur von Schirach, the Hitler Jugend leader, to accept an agreement expanding the army's involvement in Hitler Jugend training. Schirach interpreted this as a bid to turn the Hitler Jugend into an army auxiliary, a "junior army" in his words. He refused and Rommel, whom he had come to dislike personally and apparently envy for his "real soldier"'s appeal to the youngsters, was denied access to the Hitler Jugend. An army-Hitler Jugend agreement was concluded, but on a far more limited scope than Rommel had sought; cooperation was restricted to the army providing personnel to the Rifle School, much to the army's chagrin. By 1939, the Hitler Jugend had 20,000 rifle instructors. Simultaneously, Rommel retained his place at Potsdam. In his class, Rommel was awarded the highest war ribbons for excellent performance. Baldur von Schirach Baldur Benedikt von Schirach (May 9, 1907 – August 8, 1974) was a Nazi youth leader later convicted of being a war criminal. ...


In 1938, Rommel, now a colonel, was appointed commandant of the War Academy at Wiener Neustadt (Theresian Military Academy). Here he started his follow-up to Infantry Attacks, Panzer greift an (Tank Attacks, sometimes translated as The Tank In Attack). Rommel was removed after a short time however, to take command of Adolf Hitler's personal protection battalion (FührerBegleitbataillon), assigned to protect him in the special railway train (Führersonderzug) used during his visits to occupied Czechoslovakia and Memel. It was at this period that he met and befriended Joseph Goebbels, the Reich's minister of propaganda. Goebbels became a fervent admirer of Rommel and later ensured that Rommel's exploits were celebrated in the media. Wiener Neustadt (Hungarian: Bécsújhely) is located south of Vienna in the state of Lower Austria. ... The Theresian Military Academy is an academy, where the Austrian Armed Forces trains its officers. ... The Tank In Attack (also known as Tank Attacks or Panzer greift an ) is an unfinished book on armored tactics and warfare by Erwin Rommel. ... Hitler redirects here. ... Historical map of Memelland and the northern part of East Prussia. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


World War II

Rommel in World War II

Poland 1939

Rommel continued as Führerbegleitbataillon commander during the Polish campaign, often moving up close to the front in the Führersonderzug, and seeing much of Hitler. After the Polish defeat, Rommel returned to Berlin to organise the Führer's victory parade, taking part himself as a member of Hitler's entourage. During the Polish campaign Rommel was asked to intervene on behalf of one of his wife's relatives, a Polish priest who had been arrested. He has been criticised[citation needed] for not doing enough on the man's behalf, though he did apply to the Gestapo for information, only to be, inevitably, brushed off with the reply that no information on the man existed. For the Soviet Unions military action against Poland under the same alliance, see Soviet invasion of Poland (1939). ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei: “secret state police”) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ...


France 1940

Panzer commander

Rommel asked Hitler for command of a panzer division and, on 6 February 1940 only three months before the invasion, Rommel was given command of the 7.Panzer-Division for Fall Gelb ("Case Yellow"), the invasion of France and the Low Countries. This string-pulling provoked resentment among fellow officers. The Chief of Army Personnel had rejected Rommel's request on the grounds of him having no experience with armour, instead suggesting Rommel was more suitable for commanding a mountain division lacking a commander.[3] Rommel had, however, emphasised the use of mobile infantry, and had come to recognise the great usefulness of armoured forces in Poland. He set about adapting himself and learning the techniques of armoured warfare rapidly and with great enthusiasm.[4] is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 7th Panzer Division, which participated in the Battle of France, was nicknamed the Ghost Division because nobody knew where they were attacking from, not even the German High Command. ... In World War II, Battle of France or Case Yellow (Fall Gelb in German) was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries, executed 10 May 1940 which ended the Phony War. ... For information about the confusion between the Low Countries and the Netherlands, see Netherlands (terminology). ...


The invasion of France

On 10 May 1940 a part of 15th Corps under General Hoth, advanced into Belgium to proceed to the Meuse river near Dinant. At the Meuse 7th Panzer was held up, due to the bridge having been destroyed and determined sniper and artillery fire from the Belgian defenders. The Germans lacked smoke grenades, so Rommel, having assumed personal command of the crossing, ordered a few nearby houses to be torched to conceal the attack. The German Panzer Grenadiers crossed the rivers in rubber boats, with Rommel leading the second wave across the river.[5] The Division dashed further inland, always spurred on by Rommel, and far in front of any friendly forces. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... General Hermann Hoth Hermann Papa Hoth (12 April 1885 - 26 January 1971) was a general of the Third Reich during World War II, notable for victories in France and on the Eastern Front, and later, after serving six years in prison for war crimes, as a writer on military history. ... The Meuse (Maas) at Maastricht Meuse near Grave The Meuse (Dutch & German Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea. ... The tower of Notre-Dame, seen from the citadel Dinant is a municipality located on the River Meuse in the Belgian province of Namur, Belgium. ...


Rommel's technique of pushing forward boldly, ignoring risks to his flanks and rear and relying on the shock to enemy morale to hinder attacks on his vulnerable flanks, paid large dividends during his rapid march across France.[6] When encountering resistance, Rommel would simply order his tanks forward, all guns blazing, relying on the shock of the sudden assault to force the enemy to surrender. This method offset the disadvantage the German panzers had in terms of armour and low calibre guns, often causing large formations of enemy heavy tanks to simply give up a fight they would otherwise have had a good chance of winning.[7] This approach, although it saved lives on both sides by avoiding prolonged engagements, did cause mishaps. On one occasion his tanks, following this tactic, closed with a convoy of French trucks and fired into them, only to realise that the trucks acted as ambulances ferrying wounded from the front.[8]


Battle of Arras

By 18 May the Division had captured Cambrai, but here Rommel's advance was checked briefly, as his Chief of Staff, still with the unmotorised part of the Division in Belgium and not having received radio reports from Rommel, had written Rommel and his combat group off as lost and had not arranged for fuel to be sent up.[9] There was a degree of controversy over this issue, with Rommel furious with what he perceived as a negligent attitude on the part of his supply officers, whereas his Chief of Staff was critical of Rommel's failure to keep his Staff officers up to speed on his actions. is the 138th day of the year (139th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cambrai (Dutch: Kamerijk) is a French city and commune, in the Nord département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ...


On 20 May Rommel's panzers reached Arras. Here he wanted to cut off the British Expeditionary Force's path to the coast, and Hans von Luck, commanding the reconnaissance battalion of the Division, was tasked with forcing a crossing over the La Bassée canals near the city. Supported by Stuka dive bombers the unit managed to force a crossing. The British launched a counterattack (the Battle of Arras) on 21 May with Matilda tanks, and the Germans found their 3.7 cm antitank and tank guns useless against its heavy armour. A battery of 88 mm guns had to be brought up to deal with the threat, with Rommel personally directing the fire. is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Arras (Dutch: ) is a town and commune in northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Pas-de-Calais département. ... The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the British army sent to France and Belgium in World War I and British Forces in Europe from 1939–1940 during World War II. The BEF was established by Secretary of State for War Richard Haldane following the Second Boer War in case the... Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten (15 July 1911–15 January 1997), usually shortened to Hans von Luck, was a Colonel in the German Armored Forces (Oberst der Panzerwaffe) during World War II. He served with the 7th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division, seeing action in Poland, France, North... Stuka redirects here. ... Combatants United Kingdom Germany Commanders Major-General Harold Franklyn Generalmajor Erwin Rommel Casualties About 100 killed or wounded 300 killed or wounded, 400 Captured. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Tank, Infantry, Mk II, Matilda II (A12) (sometimes referred to as Senior Matilda) was a British tank of World War II. In a somewhat unorthodox move, it shared the same name as the Tank, Infantry, Mk I (A11). ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ... German 88 mm guns were used in anti-aircraft and anti-tank roles. ...


After Arras, Hitler ordered his Panzers to hold their positions, while the British evacuated their troops at Dunkirk and the 7th Panzer Division was given a few days of much needed rest. On 26 May 7th Panzer continued its advance and it reached Lille on 27 May. For the assault on the town, General Hoth placed his other tank division, 5th Panzer Division under Rommel's command, to the chagrin of its commander, General Max von Hartlieb.[10] The same day Rommel received news that he had been awarded the Knight's Cross, as the first Divisional Commander during the campaign. This award, which had been secured for Rommel at Hitler's behest, caused some animosity among fellow officers, who were critical of Rommel's close relationship with Hitler as it seemed to give him preferential treatment.[10] French troops rescued by a British merchant ship at Dunkirk British evacuation on Dunkirk beach Operation Dynamo (or Dunkirk Evacuation, the Miracle of Dunkirk or just Dunkirk) was the name given to the World War II mass evacuation of Allied soldiers from May 26 to June 4, 1940, during the... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Lille (disambiguation). ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 5th Panzer Division is a German armored unit. ... The Iron Cross (German: Eisernes Kreuz) is a military decoration of Germany which was established by King Friedrich Wilhelm III of Prussia and first awarded on 10 March 1813. ...


On 28 May, while making the final push into Lille and far in front of friendly forces, 7th Panzer came under heavy fire from French artillery due to the rapidity of the advance. Eagerly Rommel drove his forces on, capturing Lille and trapping half of the French First Army, preventing them from retreating to Dunkirk. After this coup, Rommel's forces were again given time to rest. is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


To the English Channel coast

Rommel resumed his advance on 5 June, in a drive for the River Seine to secure the bridges near Rouen. Advancing 100 km in two days, the Division reached Rouen, only to find the bridges destroyed. On 10 June Rommel reached the coast near Dieppe, sending his "Am at coast" signal to the German HQ. is the 156th day of the year (157th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the river in France; it should not be confused with the Senne, a much smaller river that flows through Brussels. ... , Rouen (pronounced in French) is the historical capital city of Normandy, in northwestern France on the River Seine, and currently the capital of the Haute-Normandie (Upper Normandy) région. ... “km” redirects here. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dieppe is a town and commune in the Seine-Maritime département of Haute-Normandie (eastern Normandy), France. ...


On 15 June 7th Panzer started advancing on Cherbourg. On 17 June the Division advanced 35 km, and on 18 June the town was captured. The Division then proceeded towards Bordeaux, but stopped when the armistice was signed on 21 June. In July the Division was sent to the Paris area to start preparations for Operation Seelöwe. The preparations were half-hearted however, as it became clearer and clearer that the Luftwaffe would not be able to secure air superiority over the British coast. is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cherbourg is a city of Normandy, in northwestern France, in the Manche département, of which it is a sous_préfecture. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bordeaux (disambiguation). ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Operation Sealion (Unternehmen Seelöwe in German) was a World War II German plan to invade Britain. ...


The Ghost Division

7.Panzer-Division was later nicknamed Gespenster-Division (the "Ghost Division"), due to the speed and surprise it was consistently able to achieve, to the point that even the German High Command lost track of where it was. He also set the record for the longest thrust in one day by Panzers up to that point, covering nearly 200 miles. The Oberkommando des Heeres (OKH) was Germanys Army High Command from 1936 to 1945. ...


Rommel received both applause and criticism for his tactics during the French campaign. Many, like General Georg Stumme, who had previously commanded 7th Panzer Division, were impressed with the speed and success of Rommel's drive, others were more reserved, some out of envy, others because they felt Rommel took needless risks. Hermann Hoth publicly expressed praise for Rommel's achievements, but he did have private reservations saying, in a confidential report, that Rommel should not be given command over a corps unless he gained "greater experience and a better sense of judgment."[11] Hoth also accused Rommel of an unwillingness to acknowledge the contributions of others to his victories. Georg Stumme (1886-1942) was a World War Two German general most remembered for his brief command of the German-Italian forces during the Second Battle of El Alamein. ...


The Fourth Army's commander, General Günther von Kluge, also criticised Rommel for falsely claiming all the glory for his achievements. Rommel did not, Kluge felt, acknowledge the contribution of the Luftwaffe, and Rommel's manuscript describing his campaign in France misrepresented the advances of neighbouring units to elevate the achievements of his own dazzling advances. Kluge also cited the complaint by General Hartlieb that Rommel had misappropriated the 5th Panzer's bridging tackle on 14 May after his own supplies had run out in order to cross the Meuse, delaying 5th Panzer Division for several hours.[12] Rommel had repeated this procedure on 27 May at the River Scarpe crossing. Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... May 14 is the 134th day of the year (135th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


North Africa 1941–1943

Rommel's reward for his success was to be promoted and appointed commander of the 5th Light Division (later reorganised and redesignated 21.Panzer-Division) and of the 15.Panzer-Division, which were sent to Libya in early 1941 to aid the hapless and demoralised Italian troops, forming the Deutsches Afrika Korps (listen ) in February 1941. It was in Africa where Rommel achieved his greatest fame as a commander. 5th Light Division 21st Panzer Division Created as 5th Light Division or 5th Light Afrika Division in Africa in early 1941, from an ad hoc collection of smaller units rushed to support the collapsing Italian army. ... The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the Battles of El Alamenein (1942) and Normandy (1944) during World War II. Created as 5th Light Division or 5th Light Afrika Division in Africa in early 1941, from an ad hoc collection of smaller... 33rd Infantry Division 15th Panzer Division 15th Panzergrenadier Division History This unit was created as the 33rd Infantry Division in 1936, and mobilized in 1939, but it did not take part in the invasion of Poland. ... During World War II. Operation Sonnenblume (German for sunflower) was the deployment of German troops (the “Afrika Korps”) to the North African Campaign in February, 1941. ... The Deutsches Afrikakorps (often just Afrika Korps or DAK) was the corps-level headquarters controlling the German Panzer divisions in Libya and Egypts Western Desert during the North African Campaign of World War II. Since there was little turnover in the units attached to the corps the term is... Image File history File links De-Deutsches Afrikakorps-pronunciation. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


The first Axis offensive

The Western Desert area, showing Rommel's first offensive 24 March 1941 – 15 June 1941.
The Western Desert area, showing Rommel's first offensive 24 March 194115 June 1941.

His campaign in North Africa earned Rommel the nickname "The Desert Fox." On 6 February 1941 Rommel was ordered to lead the Afrika Korps, sent to Libya to help shore up the Italian forces who had been driven back during Operation Compass launched by British Commonwealth forces under Major-General Richard O'Connor during December 1940. Initially ordered to assume a defensive posture and hold the frontline, the German High Command had slated a limited offensive towards Agedabia and Benghazi in May, and hold the line between those cities. Rommel argued that such a limited offensive would be ineffective, as the whole of Cyrenaica would have to be captured if the frontlines were to be held.[13] The task of even holding the remaining Italian possessions seemed daunting, as the Italians had only 7,000 troops remaining in the area, after O'Connor's successful capture of 130,000 prisoners and almost 400 tanks during the previous three months of advance.[14] Download high resolution version (1202x446, 105 KB)Rommels first offensive -- March 24, 1941 - June 15, 1941 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... Download high resolution version (1202x446, 105 KB)Rommels first offensive -- March 24, 1941 - June 15, 1941 Source: US ARMY License: US Government document. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Australia Free France  New Zealand  Poland South Africa  United Kingdom India Italy Germany Commanders to June 22 1941: Archibald Wavell to August 8 1942: Claude Auchinleck to February 1943: Harold Alexander Ugo Cavallero Rodolfo Graziani Erwin Rommel The Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War was the... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. ... Combatants Western Desert Force United Kingdom Indian Empire Australia Italian Tenth Army Commanders Richard OConnor Rodolfo Graziani Pietro Maletti † Annibale Bergonzoli Strength 31,000 soldiers(december 1940 250,000)[1] 120 artillery pieces 275 tanks 60 Armoured cars 150,000 soldiers 1,600 guns 600 tanks Casualties 500 dead... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Major General or Major-General is a military rank used in many countries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... The Roman Empire ca. ...


On 24 March 1941 Rommel launched a limited offensive with only the 5th Light Division supported by two Italian divisions. This thrust was to be minor, in anticipation of Rommel receiving the 15th Panzer Division in May. The British, who had been weakened by troops being withdrawn to fight in the Greece operation, fell back to Mersa el Brega and started constructing defensive works. Rommel decided to continue the attack against these positions, to prevent the British from building up the fortifications.[15] After a day of fierce fighting, the Germans prevailed, and the advance continued, as Rommel disregarded holding off the attack on Agedabia until May. The British Commander-in-Chief, General Archibald Wavell, overestimating the strength of the Axis forces and, already apprehensive about the extent of his advances during the previous winter, ordered a withdrawal from Benghazi in early April to avoid being cut off by Rommel's thrust. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the Battles of El Alamenein (1942) and Normandy (1944) during World War II. Created as 5th Light Division or 5th Light Afrika Division in Africa in early 1941, from an ad hoc collection of smaller... 33rd Infantry Division 15th Panzer Division 15th Panzergrenadier Division // This unit was created as the 33rd Infantry Division in 1936, and mobilized in 1939, but it did not take part in the invasion of Poland. ... Belligerents Germany Italy Bulgaria Greece United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Commanders Wilhelm List Alexander Papagos, Henry Maitland Wilson, Bernard Freyberg Thomas Blamey Strength Germany:[1] 680,000 men, 1200 tanks 700 aircraft 1Italy:[2] 565,000 men 1Greece:[3] 430,000 men British Commonwealth:[4] 262,612 men 100 tanks... Archibald Percival Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell (May 5, 1883 _ May 24, 1950) was a British General and the commander of British Army forces in the Middle East during World War II. He led British forces to victory over the Italians, only to be defeated by the German army. ...


Rommel, seeing the British reluctance to fight a decisive action, decided on a bold move, the seizure of the whole of Cyrenaica, despite having only light forces. He ordered the Italian Ariete armoured division to pursue the retreating British, while the 5th Light Division was to move on Benghazi. Generalmajor Johannes Streich, the 5th Light Division's commander, protested this order on the grounds of the state of his vehicles, but Rommel brushed the objections aside because, in his words, "One cannot permit unique opportunities to slip by for the sake of trifles."[16] The Italian Commander-in-Chief, General Italo Gariboldi, tried repeatedly to halt Rommel's advance, but was unable to contact him.[17] Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Italo Gariboldi (born 20 April 1879, Lodi; died 3 February 1970, Rome) was a senior officer in the Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) before and during World War II. In 1935, Gariboldi commanded an Italian division on the northern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War. ...


After Benghazi had been secured following the British withdrawal, Cyrenaica as far as Gazala was captured by 8 April, despite fervent protests from Italian HQ, which felt Rommel was going beyond his orders, especially since he was nominally under Italian command. Rommel had received orders from the German High Command that he was not to advance past Maradah, but he turned a blind eye to this as well as protests from some of his staff and divisional commanders, grasping what he perceived to be a great possibility of largely destroying the Allied presence in North Africa and capturing Egypt. Rommel decided to keep up the pressure on the retreating British, and launched an outflanking offensive on the important port of Tobruk,[18] during which he managed to capture the Western Desert Force commander O'Connor as well as the commander of the troops in Egypt, General Philip Neame, on 9 April. With Italian forces attacking along the coast, Rommel decided to sweep around to the south and attack the harbour from the south-east with the 5th Light Division, hoping to trap the bulk of the enemy force there. This outflanking could not be carried out as rapidly as was necessary due to logistical problems from lengthening supply lines and spoiling flank attacks from Tobruk, so Rommel's plan failed. By 11 April, the envelopment of Tobruk was complete, and the first attack was launched. Other forces continued pushing east, reaching Bardia and securing the whole of Libya by 15 April. Combatants Panzer Army Afrika Eighth Army Commanders Erwin Rommel Claude Auchinleck Neil Ritchie Strength 80,000 560 tanks[1] 175,000 843 tanks[1] Casualties 32,000 dead, wounded, or captured 114 tanks destroyed 98,000 dead, wounded, or captured 540 tanks destroyed The Battle of Gazala was an important... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Tobruk is on the Mediterranean Sea in northeastern Libya. ... The Western Desert Force, during World War II, was a British Commonwealth Army unit stationed in Egypt. ... Philip Neame (VC, KBE, CB, DSO, Chevalier, Legion dHonneur and Croix de Guerre (France), Croix de Guerre (Belgium)) was an English recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bardia is a geographic region in the Kingdom of Nepal. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The siege of Tobruk

The following Siege of Tobruk lasted 240 days, with the garrison consisting of the Australian 9th Division under Lieutenant General Leslie Morshead and reinforced by all the British troops who had withdrawn to the port city, bringing the defenders to a total of 25,000. Impatient to secure success, Rommel launched repeated, small-scale attacks. These were easily defeated by the defenders. Rommel would later criticise the Italian High Command for failing to provide him with the blueprints of the port's fortifications, but this was due to his surprising advance so far beyond the agreed point, hardly allowing them time to produce the plans. Reflecting on this period, General Kircheim, the then commander of the 5th Light Division, said: "I do not like to be reminded of that time because so much blood was needlessly shed." Kirchheim had been reluctant to launch further attacks on Tobruk, as the cost of earlier assaults was very high. Combatants Australia United Kingdom South Africa Poland Czechoslovakia Germany Italy Commanders Leslie Morshead Erwin Rommel Strength 14,000 35,000? Casualties Britain: 9009 killed 941 captured estimated 12,000 total 8,000 The Siege of Tobruk was a lengthy confrontation between Axis and Allied forces, mostly Australian, in the North... My God, I wish we had [the] 9th Australian Division with us this morning. ... Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Lieutenant General Sir Leslie James Morshead, KCB, KBE, CMG, DSO, ED (September 18, 1889 – September 26, 1959) was an Australian soldier with a distinguished career in both world wars. ...

Rommel's Africa tunic (Deutsches Panzermuseum Munster)

Rommel remained wishfully positive that success was imminent. In his memoirs he would claim that he immediately realised that the enemy was determined to cling to Tobruk, however this seems to be in doubt. In a letter to his wife dated 16 April,[19] he wrote that the enemy was already abandoning the town by sea, and he remained confident that the enemy were not going to defend the town until well into April.[20] In reality the ships arriving at the port were not evacuating the defenders but unloading supplies and even some reinforcements. A letter of his, written on 21 April[21], suggests that he was beginning to realise this, while the arrival of the Italian blueprints of fortifications provided further grounds for discouragement. Nonetheless Rommel continued to insist that success was imminent. His relations with his subordinate commanders were at their nadir at this point, especially with Streich who was openly critical of Rommel's decisions and refused to assume any responsibility for the attacks, and Rommel began holding a series of court martials, though ultimately he signed almost none of the verdicts. This state of affairs led Army Chief Walther von Brauchitsch to write to him that instead of making threats and requesting the replacement of officers who "hitherto had excelled in battle... a calm and constructive debate might bring better results". Rommel remained unmoved. The Deutsches Panzermuseum is an Armoured fighting vehicle museum in Munster, Germany. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ...


At this point Rommel requested reinforcements for a renewed attack but the High Command, then completing preparations for Operation Barbarossa, could not spare any. Chief of Staff General Franz Halder had also told Rommel, before the latter left for Africa, that a larger force could not be logistically sustained, only to be told "that's your pigeon". Now Halder sarcastically commented: "now at last he is constrained to state that his forces are not sufficiently strong to allow him to take full advantage of the 'unique opportunities' offered by the overall situation. That is the impression we have had for quite some time over here."[22] Angry that his order not to advance beyond Maradah had been disobeyed, and alarmed at mounting losses, Halder, never an admirer of Rommel, dispatched Friedrich Paulus to "head off this soldier gone stark mad" in Halder's words.[23] The command flag for the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1938 - 1941) The command flag for a Generalfeldmarschall as the Chief of the High Command of the German Armed Forces (1941 - 1945) The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW (Wehrmacht High Command, Armed Forces High Command... Combatants Germany Romania Finland Italy Hungary Slovakia  Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb Fedor von Bock Gerd von Rundstedt Heinz Guderian Günther von Kluge Franz Halder Ion Antonescu C.G.E. Mannerheim Giovanni Messe, CSIR Italo Garibaldi, ARMIR Iosef Stalin Kliment Voroshilov Semyon Timoshenko Fyodor Kuznetsov... Franz Halder Franz Ritter Halder (June 30, 1884 – April 2, 1972) was a German General and the head of the Army General Staff from 1938 until September 1942, when he was dismissed after frequent disagreements with Adolf Hitler. ... Friedrich Paulus. ...


Upon arrival, Paulus on 27 April was initially convinced to authorise yet another attack on Tobruk. Back in Berlin, Halder wrote "in my view it is a mistake", but deferred to Paulus. When the attack, launched on 4 May, seemed to turn into a disaster Paulus intervened and ordered it halted. In addition he now forbade Rommel from committing the forces into any new attack on Tobruk, and further ordered that the attacks were to halt until the regrouping was completed and even then no new assault was to take place without OKH's specific approval. is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Furious with what he perceived as the lack of fighting spirit in his commanders and Italian allies, Rommel, on the insistence of Paulus and Halder, held off further attacks until the detailed plans of the Tobruk defences could be obtained, the 15th Panzer Division could be brought up to support the attack, and more training of his troops in positional warfare could be conducted,[24] after the last attack launched on 4 May.[25] For Streich however it was too late. He was transferred from command of 15th Panzer Division. When he met Rommel for the last time as he was taking his leave, Rommel told him that he had been "too concerned for the well-being of your troops"; Streich shot back: "I can recognise no greater words of praise", and a new quarrel ensued. After the decision was made to hold off attacks on Tobruk for an indefinite period, Rommel set about creating defensive positions, with Italian infantry forces holding Bardia, the Sollum-Sidi Omar line and investing Tobruk, and mobile German and Italian forces held in reserve to fight any British attacks from Egypt. To this end, Halfaya Pass was secured, the high water mark of Rommel's offensive. A elaborately prepared great assault was scheduled for 21 November 1941, but this attack never took place. is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Halfaya Pass (Hellfire Pass) is located in North Africa. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


Whereas the defenders could be supplied by sea, the logistical problems of the Afrika Korps greatly hampered its operations, and a concentrated counter-attack by the besieged Allies might have succeeded in reaching El Adam and severing the Axis forces' communications. General Morshead, however, was misled by intelligence overestimates of the German forces investing Tobruk, thus no major action was attempted.


General Wavell made two unsuccessful attempts to relieve Tobruk (Operation Brevity (launched on 15 May) and Operation Battleaxe) (launched on 15 June). Both operations were easily defeated as they were hastily prepared, partly due to Churchill's impatience for speedy action. During Brevity the important Halfaya Pass was briefly recaptured by the British, but lost again on 27 May. Battleaxe resulted in the loss of 87 British for 25 German tanks, in a three day battle raging on the flanks of the Sollum and Halfaya Passes, with the British being unable to take these, by now, well fortified positions.[26] Combatants Germany Italy  United Kingdom Commanders Erwin Rommel Archibald Wavell Noel Beresford-Peirse Strength Afrika Korps: German 5th Light Division German 15th Panzer Division Italian 132nd Armored Division Ariete Italian 27 Infantry Division Brescia Italian 102 Motorised Division Trento XIII Corps: British 7th Armoured Division Indian 4th Infantry Division 20... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Panzer Army Africa British XIII Corps Commanders Erwin Rommel Archibald Wavell Noel Beresford-Peirse Strength 13,000 infantry 150-200 tanks[1] 20,000+ infantry[2] 200 tanks[3] Casualties 685 Germans, 592 Italians[4] 12 tanks[5] 10 aircraft[6] 960 (122 killed[7]) 91 tanks[8] 36... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Churchill redirects here. ... is the 147th day of the year (148th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In August, Rommel was appointed commander of the newly created Panzer Group Africa. His previous command, the Afrika Korps comprising the 15th Panzer Division and the 5th Light Division, which by then had been redesignated 21st Panzer Division, was put under command of Generalleutnant Ludwig Crüwell, with Fritz Bayerlein as chief of staff. In addition to the Afrika Korps, Rommel's Panzer Group had the 90th Light Division and six Italian divisions, the Ariete and Trieste Divisions forming the XX Motorised Corps, three infantry divisions investing Tobruk and one holding Bardia. Lieutenant General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Ludwig Crüwell (March 20, 1892 - September 25, 1958), German General known for his involvement with the Afrika Korps. ... General Fritz Bayerlein Fritz Bayerlein (January 14, 1899 - January 30, 1970) was a German Panzer general during the Second World War. ... The 90th Light Infantry Division was created in August 1941 as Division zbV Africa, from units already in Africa under the control of . ...


The Allied counter offensive—Operation Crusader

Following the costly failure of Battleaxe, Wavell was replaced by Commander-in-Chief India, General Claude Auchinleck. The Allied forces were reorganised and strengthened to two corps, XXX and XIII, as the British Eighth Army under the command of Alan Cunningham. Auchinleck, having 770 tanks and 1,000 aircraft to support him, launched a major offensive to relieve Tobruk (Operation Crusader) on 18 November 1941. Rommel had two armoured divisions, the 15th and 21st with 260 tanks, the 90th Light Infantry division, and three Italian corps, five infantry and one armoured division with 154 tanks, with which to oppose him. Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - March 23, 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from... The XXX Corps was an infantry corps in the British Army. ... The Western Desert Force, during World War II, was a British Commonwealth Army unit stationed in Egypt. ... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... Alan Cunningham, British Army Officer Sir Alan Gordon Cunningham (1st May 1887 _ 30th January 1983) was a British Army officer noted for victories over Italian forces in the East African Campaign during World War II. He was the younger brother of the renowned Admiral Andrew Cunningham. ... Combatants United Kingdom Australia New Zealand Poland Germany Italy Commanders Claude Auchinleck Alan Gordon Cunningham Neil Ritchie Erwin Rommel Ludwig Crüwell Strength 8th Army comprising XIII Corps, XXX Corps and 70th Division. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ...


The Eighth Army deeply outflanked the German defences along the Egyptian frontier with a left hook through the desert, and reached a position from which they could strike at both Tobruk and the coastal road, the "Via Balbia". Auchinleck planned to engage the Afrika Korps with his armoured division, while XXX Corps assaulted the Italian positions at Bardia, encircling the troops there. The British operational plan had one major flaw. When XXX corps reached the area of Qabr Salih, it was assumed that the Afrika Korps would move eastward and accept battle, allowing the British to surround them with the southerly armour thrust. Rommel, however, did not find it necessary to do as the British planned, instead attacking the southern armoured thrust at Sidi Rezegh.[27] Bardia is a geographic region in the Kingdom of Nepal. ...

Rommel in Africa, Summer 1941.

Rommel was faced with the decision of whether to go through with the attack on Tobruk, trusting his screening forces to hold off the advancing British, or to reorient his forces to hit the British columns approaching. He considered the risks too great if he chose to attack Tobruk, and so called off this attack.[28] Rommel in Africa - Summer 1941 This work is copyrighted. ... Rommel in Africa - Summer 1941 This work is copyrighted. ...


The British armoured thrusts were largely defeated by fierce resistance from antitank positions and German and Italian tanks. The Italian Ariete Armoured Division was forced to give ground while inflicting losses on the advancing British at Bir el Gobi, whereas the 21st Panzer Division checked the attack launched against them and counterattacked on Gabr Saleh.[29] Over the next two days the British continued pressing the attack, sending their armoured brigades into the battle in a piecemeal fashion,[30] while Rommel, aware of his numerical inferiority, launched a concentrated attack on 23 November with all his armour. 21st Panzer Division held defensively at Sidi Rezegh, while 15th Panzer Division and the Italian Ariete Division attacked the flanks and enveloped the British armour. During this battle, among the biggest armoured battles of the North African campaign, the British tanks were surrounded, with about two-thirds destroyed and the survivors having to fight themselves out of the trap and head south to Gabr Saleh.[31] is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rommel counterattacks

On 24 November Rommel, wanting to exploit the halt of the British offensive, counterattacked deep into the British rear areas in Egypt with the intention of exploiting the disorganisation and confusion in the enemy's bases and cutting their supply lines. Rommel considered the other, more conservative, course of action of destroying the British forces halted before Tobruk and Bardia too time consuming.[32] Rommel knew his forces were incapable of driving such an effort home, but believed that the British, traumatised by their recent debacle, would abandon their defences along the border at the appearance of a German threat to their rear.[33] is the 328th day of the year (329th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


General Cunningham did, as Rommel had hoped, decide to withdraw the Eighth Army to Egypt, but Auchinleck arrived from Cairo just in time to cancel the withdrawal orders.[34] The German attack, which began with only 100 operational tanks remaining,[35] stalled as it outran its supplies and met stiffening resistance. The counterattack was criticised by the German High Command and some of his staff officers as too dangerous with Commonwealth forces still operating along the coast east of Tobruk, and a wasteful attack as it bled his forces, in particular his remaining tank force. Among the Staff officers who were critical was Friedrich von Mellenthin, who said that "Unfortunately, Rommel overestimated his success and believed the moment had come to launch a general pursuit.".[36] In Rommel's favour, the attack very nearly succeeded, with the British Eighth Army commander ordering a withdrawal, and only Auchinleck's timely intervention prevented this.[37] For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... Friedrich Wilhelm von Mellenthin (30 August 1904 - 28 June 1997) was a Generalmajor in the German Army during World War II. A participant in most of the major campaigns of the war, he became well-known afterwards for his memoirs Panzer Battles, first published in 1956 and regularly reprinted since...


While Rommel drove into Egypt, the remaining Commonwealth forces east of Tobruk threatened the weak Axis lines there. Unable to reach Rommel for several days,[38] Rommel's Chief of Staff, Oberstleutnant Westphal, ordered the 21st Panzer Division withdrawn to support the siege of Tobruk. On 27 November the British attack on Tobruk linked up with the defenders, and Rommel, having suffered losses that could not easily be replaced, had to concentrate on relieving the 90th Light Divisions that had attacked into Egypt. By 6 December the Afrika Korps had averted the danger, and on 7 December Rommel fell back to a defensive line at Gazala, all the while under heavy attacks from the RAF. The Italian forces at Bardia were now cut off from the retreating Axis. The Allies, briefly held up at Gazala, kept up the pressure to some degree, although they were almost as exhausted and disorganised as Rommel's force,[39] and Rommel was forced to retreat all the way back to the starting positions he had held in March, reaching El Agheila on 30 December. His main concern during his withdrawal was being flanked to the south, so the Afrika Korps held the south flank during the retreat. The Allies followed, but never attempted a southern flanking move to cut off the retreating troops as they had done in 1940. The German-Italian garrison at Bardia surrendered on 2 January 1942. Oberstleutnant is the German Army (Bundeswehr) equivalent to Lieutenant Colonel, above Major, and below Oberst. ... is the 331st day of the year (332nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Desert Air Force (DAF), later known as the First Tactical Air Force, was an Allied tactical air force formed during World War II. The DAF was formed in North Africa to provide close air support to the Eighth Army. ... Operation Crusader November 18, 1941 - December 31, 1941 El Agheila is on the lower left (Click to enlarge) El Agheila is a coastal city on the Gulf of Sidra in far southwestern Cyrenaica, Libya. ... is the 364th day of the year (365th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 5 January 1942 the Afrika Korps received 55 tanks and new supplies, and Rommel started planning a counterattack. On 20 January the attack was launched, which mauled the Allied forces, costing them some 110 tanks and other heavy equipment. The Afrika Korps retook Benghazi on 29 January and the Allies pulled back to the Tobruk area and commenced building defensive positions at Gazala. is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Colourful buildings in the city centre. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the confusion caused by the Crusader operation, Rommel and his staff found themselves behind Allied lines several times. On one occasion, he visited a New Zealand Army field hospital that was still under Allied control. "[Rommel] inquired if anything was needed, promised the British [sic] medical supplies and drove off unhindered."[40] For other uses, see SIC. Sic is a Latin word, originally sicut [1] meaning thus, so, or just as that. In writing, it is placed within square brackets and usually italicized — [sic] — to indicate that an incorrect or unusual spelling, phrase, punctuation, and/or other preceding quoted material has been...


The second German offensive—The Battle of Gazala

Camouflaged PzKmpw III command vehicle. In desert position some 45 kilometres west of Gazala.
Camouflaged PzKmpw III command vehicle. In desert position some 45 kilometres west of Gazala.

Following General Kesselring's successes in creating local air superiority and suppressing the Malta defenders in April 1942, an increased flow of vital supplies reached the Afrika Korps, after it had been receiving about a third of its needed supplies for several months. With his forces thus strengthened, Rommel began planning a major push for the summer. Rommel felt the very strong British positions around Gazala could be outflanked, and he could then drive up behind them and destroy them.[41] The British were planning a summer offensive on their own, and their dispositions were more suited for an attack rather than a defence. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 403 pixel Image in higher resolution (921 × 464 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Erwin Rommel Metadata... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 403 pixel Image in higher resolution (921 × 464 pixel, file size: 180 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Erwin Rommel Metadata... ==Biography== Albrecht von Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful generals of Nazi Germany, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or Smiling Kesselring. At least one source claims that Kesselring was born on August 8, 1881 [2...


The British had 900 tanks in the area, 200 of which were new Grant tanks, whereas Rommel's Panzer Army Africa commanded a mere 320 German, 50 of which were the obsolete Panzer II model, and 240 Italian tanks, which were no better than the Panzer IIs.[42] Therefore Rommel had to rely predominantly on 88 mm guns to destroy the British heavy tanks, but even these were in short supply. In infantry and artillery Rommel found himself vastly outnumbered also, with many of his units under-strength following the campaigns of 1941. In contrast to the previous year, the Axis had more-or-less air parity. The Medium Tank M3 was an American tank used during World War II. In Britain the tank was called General Lee named after General Robert E. Lee, and its modified version built to British specification, with a new turret, was called General Grant named after General Ulysses S. Grant. ... As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure... The Panzer II was a German tank used in World War II. Designed as a stopgap while other tanks were developed, it played an important role in the early years of World War II, during the Polish and French campaigns. ... German 88 mm guns were used in anti-aircraft and anti-tank roles. ...


On 26 May 1942 Rommel's army attacked in a classic outflanking Blitzkrieg operation in the Battle of Gazala. His Italian infantry assaulted the Gazala fortifications head on, with some armour attached to give the impressions that this was the main assault, while all his motorised and armoured forces outflanked the positions to the south. On the following morning Rommel cut through the flank and attacked north, but throughout the day a running armour battle occurred, where both sides took heavy losses. The attempted encirclement of the Gazala position had failed, and the Germans had lost a third of their heavy tanks. Renewing the attack on the morning of 28 May, Rommel concentrated on encircling and destroying separate units of the British armour. Heavy British counterattacks forced Rommel to assume a defensive posture, and not pursue his original plan of a dash north for the coast. On 2 June 90th Light Division and the Trieste Division surrounded and reduced the strongpoint at Bir Hakeim, capturing it on 11 June. With the southern strongpoint of the British line thus secured, Rommel attacked north again, forcing the British back, relying on the minefields of the Gazala lines to protect his left flank.[43] On 14 June the British began a headlong retreat eastwards, the so-called "Gazala Gallop", to avoid being completely cut off. is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the military term. ... Combatants Panzer Army Afrika Italian Army Eighth Army Commanders Erwin Rommel Claude Auchinleck Neil Ritchie Strength 80,000 390 tanks 175,000 949 tanks Casualties 32,000 dead, wounded, or captured 114 tanks destroyed 98,000 dead, wounded, or captured 540 tanks destroyed The Battle of Gazala was an important... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Free French Forces Afrika Korps Commanders Marie Pierre Koenig Erwin Rommel Strength 3703  ? Casualties 140 Dead, 229 Wounded, 814 Captured 3300 Dead and Wounded, 277 Captured The Battle of Bir Hakeim (May 26, 1942 - June 11, 1942) is a World War II battle following the Afrika Korps 1942 campaign. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 15 June Axis forces reached the coast, eliminating any escape for the Commonwealth forces still occupying the Gazala positions. With this task completed, Rommel set off in pursuit of the fleeing Allied formations, aiming to capture Tobruk while the enemy was confused and disorganised.[44] Tobruk, isolated and alone, was now all that stood between the Afrika Korps and Egypt. The defenders were mostly disorganised units recovering from the Gazala battle. On 21 June, after a swift, coordinated and fierce combined arms assault, the city surrendered along with its 33,000 defenders, including most of the South African 2nd Division. Only at the fall of Singapore, earlier that year, had more British Commonwealth troops been captured. Hitler made Rommel a Field Marshal for this victory. (Rommel later told his confidante, Hans von Luck, that he would have preferred the Führer gave him another division.) is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects. ... The South African 2nd Infantry Division was an infantry division of the South African Army during World War II. // The division was formed on 23 October 1940 with its divisional HQ at Voortrekkerhoogte, South Africa. ... Combatants Malaya Command: Indian III Corps Australian 8th Div. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... The confidant (feminine: confidante, same pronunciation) character is usually someone the lead character confides in and trusts. ... Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten (15 July 1911–15 January 1997), usually shortened to Hans von Luck, was a Colonel in the German Armored Forces (Oberst der Panzerwaffe) during World War II. He served with the 7th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division, seeing action in Poland, France, North... Nazi propaganda poster. ...


The drive for Egypt
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, with his aides during the desert campaign. 1942
Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, with his aides during the desert campaign. 1942

Determined to ensure his supply lines, Rommel determined to press the attack on Mersa Matruh, despite the heavy losses he had suffered at Gazala and Tobruk. He also wanted to prevent the British from establishing a new frontline, and felt the weakness of the reeling British formations had to be exploited by a thrust into Egypt.[45] This decision met with some criticism, as an advance into Egypt meant a significant lenghthening of the supply lines.[46] It also meant that a proposed attack on Malta would have to wait, as the Luftwaffe would be required to support Rommel's drive eastwards. Kesselring strongly disagreed with Rommel's decision, and went as far as threatening to withdraw his aircraft to Sicily.[47] Hitler agreed to Rommel's plan, despite protest from Italian HQ and some of his staff officers, seeing the potential for a complete victory in Africa.[48] Rommel, apparently aware of his growing reputation as a gambler, defended his decision by claiming that to merely hold the lines at Sollum would confer upon the British a distinct advantage, in that they could more easily outflank the positions at Sollum, and the overseas supply lines would still have to be routed via Tripoli unless he secured a front further east.[49] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (506 × 660 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Commander of the German forces in North Africa, with his aides during the desert campaign. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 460 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (506 × 660 pixel, file size: 54 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, Commander of the German forces in North Africa, with his aides during the desert campaign. ... Mersa Matruh is a seaport in Egypt, Africa. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ...


On 22 June Rommel continued his offensive eastwards, and initially little resistance was encountered. Apart from fuel shortages, the advance continued, until Mersa Matruh was encircled on 26 June, surrounding four infantry divisions, the bulk of the Eighth Army. One of the divisions managed to break out during the night, and over the next two days some elements of the remaining three divisions also slipped away. The fortress fell on 29 June, yielding enormous amounts of supplies and equipment, in addition to 6,000 POWs.[50] is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rommel continued his march eastwards, but with the supply situation steadily worsening and his men exhausted after five weeks of constant warfare, the offensive on El Alamein seemed in doubt. On 1 July the First Battle of El Alamein started, but after almost a month of inconclusive fighting both sides, completely exhausted, dug in, halting Rommel's drive eastwards. This was a serious blow to Rommel, who had hoped to drive his advance into the open desert beyond El Alamein where he could conduct a mobile defence.[51] Although the Eighth Army suffered higher casualties in the fighting around El Alamein, some 13,000, Rommel lost 7,000 men, 1,000 of which were Germans, and he could afford the losses to a much lesser degree. El Alamein is a town in northern Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea coast. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allies (mostly British Empire forces) Axis Commanders Claude Auchinleck Erwin Rommel Strength 150,000 troops in 3 army corps, 7 infantry and 3 armoured divisions 1,114 tanks, over 1,000 artillery and over 1,500 planes 96,000 troops (including 56,000 Italians) 8 infantry and 4 armoured...


The Allies attack again—Second Battle of El Alamein

The summer standoff

After the stalemate at El Alamein, Rommel hoped to go on the offensive again before massive amounts of men and material could reach the British Eighth Army. With Allied forces from Malta intercepting his supplies at sea, and the Desert Air Force keeping up a relentless campaign against Axis supply vessels in Tobruk, Bardia and Mersa Matruh, most of what supplies reaching the Afrika Korps still had to be landed at Benghazi and Tripoli, and the enormous distances supplies had to travel to reach his forward troops, meant that a rapid reorganisation of the Afrika Korps could not be done. Further hampering Rommel's plans was the fact that the Italian divisions received priority on supplies, with the Italian authorities shipping material for the Italian formations at a much higher rate than for those of German formations.[52] It seems the Italian HQ was uneasy with Rommel's ambitions, and wanted their own forces, whom they at least had some control over, resupplied first.[53]


The British, preparing for a renewed drive, replaced C-in-C Auchinleck with General Harold Alexander. The Eighth Army also got a new commander, Bernard Montgomery. They received a steady stream of supplies, and were able to reorganise their forces. In late August they received a large convoy, carrying over 100,000 tons of supplies, and Rommel, learning of this, felt that time was running out. Rommel decided to launch an attack, with the 15th and 21st Panzer Division, 90th Light Division and the Italian XX Motorised Corps in a drive through the southern flank of the El Alamein lines. The terrain here was without any easily defensible features and so open to attack. Montgomery, having realised this threat, had set up his main defences behind the El Alamein line, along the Alam El Halfa Ridge, where he could meet any outflanking thrust. Field Marshal Harold Rupert Leofric George Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis (December 10, 1891 - June 16, 1969) was a British military commander and Field Marshal, notably during World War II as the commander of the 15th Army Group. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ...


The Battle of Alam El Halfa

The Battle of Alam el Halfa was launched on 30 August, with Rommel's forces driving through the south flank. After passing the El Alamein line to the south, Rommel drove north at the Alam el Halfa Ridge, just as Montgomery had anticipated. Under heavy fire from British artillery and aircraft, and in the face of well prepared positions that Rommel could not hope to outflank due to lack of petrol, the attack stalled, and by 2 September Rommel decided the battle unwinnable, and decided to withdraw.[54] Combatants Allies: United Kingdom New Zealand Axis: Germany Italy Commanders Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Strength XIII Corps (Eighth Army): 4 Divisions Panzer Armee Afrika: 6 Divisions Casualties 1750 killed, wounded or captured 67 tanks 67 aircraft[1] 2930 killed, wounded or captured 49 tanks 36 aircraft 395 other vehicles The... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Montgomery, seeing that the enemy withdrew, ordered his 2nd New Zealand Division and 7th Armoured Division to attack on 3 September, but the attack was stalled by a fierce rearguard action by the 90th Light Division, and Montgomery called off further pursuits.[55] On 5 September Rommel was back where he had started, with only heavy losses to show for it. Rommel had 2,940 casualties, lost 50 tanks, a similar number of guns and perhaps worst of all 400 trucks, vital for supplies and movement. The British losses, except tank losses of 68, were much less, further adding to the numerical inferiority of Panzer Armee Afrika. The Desert Air Force had inflicted the highest proportions of damage to Rommel's forces, and he now realised the war in Africa was unwinnable without more air support, which was an impossibility with the Luftwaffe already stretched to breaking point on other fronts.[56] The 2nd New Zealand Division was that countrys major land formation during much of World War II. Commanded for most of its existence by Lieutenant General Sir Bernard Freyberg. ... Composed of regular British Army units, the famous Desert Rats division was originally formed as the Mobile Division or Mobile Force (Egypt) and was one of two training commands used by the British before World War II to develop armoured warfare techniques. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Second Battle of El Alamein
El Alamein 1942: British Matilda tanks move forward at Tobruk.
El Alamein 1942: British Matilda tanks move forward at Tobruk.

In September the British launched a series of raids on important logistical harbours and supply points, collectively known as Operation Agreement. Added to this, the level of supplies successfully ferried across the Mediterranean had fallen to a dismal level. Some two-thirds of the supplies intended for Rommel were being destroyed at sea. In addition, Rommel's health was failing and he took sick leave in Italy and Germany from late September, thus being away from the front when the Second Battle of El Alamein was launched on 23 October 1942. Although he immediately set out for the front it took him two vital days to reach his HQ in Africa. The defensive plan at El Alamein was more static in nature than Rommel had wished, but with the shortness of motorised units and fuel supply he had felt it was the only course left open to him.[57] The defensive line had strong fortifications and was protected with a large minefield, which in turn was covered with machine guns and artillery. This, Rommel hoped, would allow his infantry to hold the line at any point until motorised and armour units in reserve behind the front could advance to the points of engagement and counterattack any British breaches.[58] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (698x658, 78 KB) Description: El Alamein 1942: British Matilda tanks move forward at Tobruk Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (698x658, 78 KB) Description: El Alamein 1942: British Matilda tanks move forward at Tobruk Source: IWMCollections IWM Photo No. ... During World War II, Operation Agreement consisted of ground and amphibious attacks by British, Rhodesian and New Zealand forces on German- and Italian-held Tobruk (Operation Daffodil), Benghazi (Operation Snowdrop), Jalo oasis (Operation Tulip) and Barce (Operation Hyacinth) launched on 13 September 1942. ... Belligerents Australia Free French Greece New Zealand South Africa United Kingdom Indian Empire Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme Ettore Bastico Strength 220,000 men 1,029 tanks[1] 750 aircraft (530 serviceable) 900 medium and field artillery guns[2] 1,401 Anti Tank Guns... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the initial fighting the commander in charge of Panzer Army Africa in Rommel's absence, General Georg Stumme, died of a heart attack while en route between two command posts. This delayed the German command staff in reaching vital decisions in the battle's early hours, until General Ritter von Thoma took command. After having returned to the El Alamein front, Rommel learnt that the fuel supply situation, critical when he left in September, was now disastrous, with his army scarcely having any fuel left, hampering any mobile defence Rommel might undertake.[59] Counterattacks by the 15th and 21st Panzer Divisions on 24 October and 25 October had caused heavy tank losses, due to the intensity of the British artillery and aircraft bombardments. Rommel's main concern was to counterattack in full force and throw the British out of the defensive lines, in his view the only chance the Germans had of avoiding defeat.[60] The counterattack was launched early on 26 October, but the British units that had penetrated the defensive line held fast on Kidney Ridge. The British continued pushing hard with armoured units to force the breakthrough, but the defenders' fire destroyed many tanks, leading to doubts among the officers in the British armoured brigades about the chances of clearing a breach.[61] Georg Stumme (1886-1942) was a World War Two German general most remembered for his brief command of the German-Italian forces during the Second Battle of El Alamein. ... General Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma Wilhelm Josef Ritter von Thoma (November 11, 1891, Dachau – April 30, 1948, Dachau) was a German General der Panzertruppe during World War II. // Promotions Fahnenjunker: September 23, 1912 Fahnenjunker-Unteroffizier: January 25, 1913 Fähnrich: May 20, 1913 Leutnant: August 1, 1914 Oberleutnant: December 14... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Montgomery, seeing his armoured brigades losing tanks at an alarming rate, stopped major attacks until 1 November, when he achieved a 4 km penetration of the line. Rommel immediately counterattacked with what tanks he had available in an attempt to encircle the pocket during 2 November, but the heavy British fire stopped the attempt. By this time Panzer Army Africa had only one-third of its initial strength remaining, with only 35 tanks left operational, virtually no fuel or ammunition and with the British in complete command of the air,[62] yet the British had been fought to a standstill, having taken murderous losses with some armour brigades reporting losses of 75% of their strength. is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Rommel's retreat

On 3 November Montgomery found it impossible to renew his attack, and he had to wait for more reinforcements to be brought up. This lull was what Rommel needed for his withdrawal, which had been planned since 29 October, when Rommel determined the situation hopeless.[63] At midday, however, Rommel received a message from Hitler, forbidding a retreat with his infamous "victory or death" stand fast order. Although this order demanded the impossible and virtually ensured the destruction of Panzer Army Africa, Rommel could not bring himself to disobey a direct order from his Führer and the Axis forces clung desperately on.[64] is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 4 November Montgomery renewed the attack, with fresh forces brought up from the rear, and with almost 500 tanks against the 20 or so remaining to Rommel. By midday the Italian XX Motorised Corps had been surrounded, and after some hours of desperate resistance the Corps was completely destroyed. This left a 20 km gap in Rommel's line, with powerful armour and motorised British units pouring through the lines, threatening the entire Panzer Army Africa with encirclement. At this point Rommel could no longer uphold the no retreat order, and ordered a general retreat. Early on 5 November he received authorisation by Hitler to withdraw, 12 hours after his decision to do so—but it was far too late, with only remnants of his army streaming westwards, while most of his unmotorised forces (the bulk of his army) unable to reach safety.[65] is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


After the defeat at El Alamein, Rommel's forces managed to escape, but took heavy losses from constant air attacks. Despite urgings from Hitler and Mussolini, Rommel's forces did not stop to engage the pursuing Allies until they had entered Tunisia, except for brief holding engagements, due to the numerical superiority and air supremacy of the Allied and most of Rommel's remaining divisions reduced to combat groups.[66] Hitler redirects here. ... Benito Mussolini created a fascist state through the use of propaganda, total control of the media and disassembly of the working democratic government. ...


The end in Africa

A Tiger I tank, captured by American forces in Tunisia in 1943.
A Tiger I tank, captured by American forces in Tunisia in 1943.

In Tunisia Rommel launched an offensive against the U.S. II Corps, rather than the British Eighth Army, in part due to his reluctance to hold the British east of Tunisia with his depleted forces and seeing this as a way of redeploying some forces west.[67] Rommel inflicted a sharp defeat on the American forces at the Kasserine Pass in February. Download high resolution version (900x592, 210 KB)First Tiger Tank captured by Allied Forces in WWII near Tunis in North Africa Source: US military File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (900x592, 210 KB)First Tiger Tank captured by Allied Forces in WWII near Tunis in North Africa Source: US military File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Tiger I ( ) is the common name of a German heavy tank of World War II. The initial official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen VI Ausführung H (abbreviated PzKpfw VI Ausf. ... The US II Corps was the first American formation of any size to see combat in Europe or Africa during World War II. History It came to prominence in the Battle of Kasserine Pass when Field Marshal Erwin Rommel defeated the formation. ... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... Combatants Germany Italy United States United Kingdom Free France Commanders Erwin Rommel Lloyd Fredendall Strength 22,000 30,000 Casualties 2,000 10,000 (including 6,700 Americans) The Battle of Kasserine Pass took place in World War II during the Tunisia Campaign. ...


Turning once again to face the British Commonwealth forces in the old French border defences of the Mareth Line, Rommel could only delay the inevitable. At the end of January 1943, the Italian General Giovanni Messe was appointed the new commander of Rommel’s Panzer Army Africa, which was now renamed the 1st Italo-German Panzer Army (in recognition of the fact that it consisted of one German and three Italian corps). Though Messe was to replace Rommel, he diplomatically deferred to the German, and the two coexisted in what was theoretically the same command until 9 March, when Rommel finally departed Africa. Rommel's departure was kept secret on Hitler's explicit orders, so that the morale of the Axis troops could be maintained and respectful fear by their enemies retained. The last Rommel offensive in North Africa occurred on 6 March 1943, when he attacked Bernard Montgomery’s Eighth Army at the Battle of Medenine with three Panzer divisions (10, 15, and 21). Decoded Ultra intercepts allowed Montgomery to deploy large numbers of anti-tank guns in the path of the offensive. After losing 52 tanks, Rommel was forced to call off the assault. On 9 March he handed over command of Armeegruppe Afrika to General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim and left Africa, because of health reasons, never to return. On 13 May 1943, after the collapse of the German 5th Army, the fall of Tunis and the surrounding of the Italian 1st Army, still holding the line at Enfidaville, General Messe formally surrendered the remnants of Armeegruppe Afrika to the Allies. On 12 May, one day before the surrender, Messe was promoted to the rank of field marshal. The Mareth Line was a system of fortifications built by the French near the coastal town of Medenine in southern Tunisia prior to World War II. It was designed to defend against attacks from the Italians in Libya, but following the fall of France it fell into Axis hands. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Giovanni Messe Giovanni Messe (December 10, 1883 - December 19, 1968) was an Italian soldier, politician and quite possibly the most distinguished Italian Field Marshal. ... As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein, KG, GCB, DSO, PC (17 November 1887 – 24 March 1976) was a British Army officer, often referred to as Monty. He successfully commanded Allied forces at the Battle of El Alamein, a major turning point in World War II, and... The Eighth Army was one of the best-known formations in World War II, fighting in the campaigns in North Africa and Italy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Operation Capri. ... The 10th Panzer Division was created in 1939, and served in the Army Group North reserve during the invasion of Poland (1939). ... 33rd Infantry Division 15th Panzer Division 15th Panzergrenadier Division History This unit was created as the 33rd Infantry Division in 1936, and mobilized in 1939, but it did not take part in the invasion of Poland. ... The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the Battles of El Alamenein (1942) and Normandy (1944) during World War II. Created as 5th Light Division or 5th Light Afrika Division in Africa in early 1941, from an ad hoc collection of smaller... Ultra (sometimes capitalized ULTRA) was the name used by the British for intelligence resulting from decryption of German communications in World War II. The term eventually became the standard designation in both Britain and the United States for all intelligence from high-level cryptanalytic sources. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 - 11 September 1962), was a German colonel-general of cavalry, serving during World War II. He was born in Ernsdorf, Germany in 1889, the son of General Sixt von Arnim. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The German Fifth Army (German: ) was a World War II field army. ... The Italian First Army was an Italian field army of World War II that fought on the North African Front. ... Giovanni Messe Giovanni Messe (December 10, 1883 - December 19, 1968) was an Italian soldier, politician and quite possibly the most distinguished Italian Field Marshal. ... is the 132nd day of the year (133rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ...


Some historians contrast Rommel's withdrawal to Tunisia against Hitler's wishes with Friedrich Paulus's obedience of orders to have the German Sixth Army stand its ground at the Battle of Stalingrad, which resulted in its annihilation. Field Marshal Albert Kesselring, appointed overall Axis commander in North Africa, saw things differently. He believed the withdrawals, some of which were carried out against his orders, unnecessary and ruinous since they brought forward British airfields ever closer to the port of Tunis. As far as he was concerned, Rommel was an insubordinate defeatist and string-puller. The increasingly acrimonious relations between the two did nothing to enhance performance. Friedrich Paulus. ... The 6. ... Belligerents Germany Romania Italy Hungary Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Wolfram von Richthofen Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Italo Gariboldi Gusztáv Vitéz Jány Josef Stalin Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovskiy Rodion Malinovskiy Andrei Yeremenko Strength Army Group B... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... ==Biography== Albrecht von Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful generals of Nazi Germany, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or Smiling Kesselring. At least one source claims that Kesselring was born on August 8, 1881 [2...


Role Of Communications Intelligence

Axis

According to various sources ([1], [0001.htm|2]), the early success of Rommel was due to a major Axis Communications Intelligence success: Colonel Fellers, US Army (military attaché in Cairo) was reporting (by radio) on the British order of battle and operations plans daily to the US general staff. Italian military intelligence had copied the codebook used by Fellers and handed that information indirectly to German Intelligence. From the Italian decrypts, German Intelligence was able to work out the code and forward Fellers' messages to Rommel very rapidly. This COMINT exploit explains many of Rommel's early ingenious moves.


Allied

British Intelligence (GC&CS) eventually broke all German machine ciphers, notably the Enigma machine. This cipher was used to coordinate supply shipping from Europe to Africa and therefore allowed the RAF and Royal Navy to destroy the majority of Axis supply ships bound for North Africa. All wars since WWI depend on the timely delivery of supplies and munitions, so it is clear that Rommel was doomed due to these Allied COMINT successes. The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) (previously named the Government Code and Cipher School (GC&CS)) is the main British intelligence service providing signals intelligence (SIGINT). ... For a discussion of how Enigma-derived intelligence was put to use, see Ultra (WWII intelligence). ...


According to papers left by Lieutenant-Colonel G.C.T Keyes there was a failed Allied attempt to capture Rommel from his headquarters, 250 miles behind enemy lines during February 1943.[68]


France 1943–1944

The inglorious end of the North African campaign meshed poorly with the Nazi propaganda machine's relentless portrayal of Rommel as an unbeatable military genius. This opened in Berlin the awkward question of precisely what use now to make of the erstwhile Desert Fox. Back in Germany, he was for some time virtually "unemployed". On 23 July 1943 he moved to Greece as commander of Army Group E, to defend the Greek coast against a possible Allied landing that never happened, only to return to Germany two days later, upon the overthrow of Mussolini. On 17 August 1943, Rommel moved his headquarters from Munich to Lake Garda, as commander of a new Army Group B, created to defend the north of Italy. is the 204th day of the year (205th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Army Group E (Heeresgruppe E) was a German Army Group active during World War II. Army Group E was created on 1 January 1943. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Lake Garda (Italian Lago di Garda or Benaco) is the largest lake in Italy. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in...


After Hitler gave General Albert Kesselring sole Italian command, on 21 November, Rommel moved Army Group B to Normandy, France, with responsibility for defending the French coast against the long anticipated Allied invasion. Dismayed by the situation he found, the slow building pace, and fearing he had just months before an invasion, Rommel reinvigorated the whole fortification effort along the Atlantic coast. While Gerd von Rundstedt, Commander-in-Chief West, believed strongly in a landing at Pas-de-Calais because it offered a great strategical springboard for a thrust against Germany, Führer HQ, although agreeing with this assessment, considered a landing at Normandy as a possibility.[69] Rommel, believing that Normandy was indeed a likely landing ground, argued that it did not matter to the Allies where they landed, just that the landing was successful.[70] He therefore toured the Normandy defences extensively during January and February 1944, ordering millions of mines laid, and thousands of tank traps and obstacles set up on beaches and throughout the countryside, including in fields suitable for glider aircraft landings, the so-called Rommelspargel ("Rommel's asparagus").[71] ==Biography== Albrecht von Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful generals of Nazi Germany, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or Smiling Kesselring. At least one source claims that Kesselring was born on August 8, 1881 [2... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Pas-de-Calais is a département in northern France named after the strait which it borders. ...


After his battles in North Africa, Rommel concluded that any offensive movement would be nearly impossible due to overwhelming Allied air superiority. He argued that the tank forces should be dispersed in small units and kept in heavily fortified positions as close to the front as possible, so they would not have to move far and en masse when the invasion started.[72] He wanted the invasion stopped right on the beaches. However, his commander, von Rundstedt, felt that there was no way to stop the invasion near the beaches due to the equally overwhelming firepower of the Royal Navy and US Navy. He felt the tanks should be formed into large units well inland near Paris, where they could allow the Allies to extend into France and then cut off the Allied troops. Other renowned Panzer commanders agreed with von Rundstedt, with Heinz Guderian among his supporters. The commander of Panzer Group West, General Geyr von Schweppenburg strongly disagreed with Rommel, wanting the armour placed far inland. When asked to pick a plan, Hitler vacillated and placed them in the middle, far enough to be useless to Rommel, not far enough to watch the fight for von Rundstedt, in an order in late April.[73] Rommel did order some of the armoured formations under his command to take up positions as far forward as possible, ordering General Erich Marcks, commanding the 84th Corps defending the Normandy section, to move his reserves into the frontline. Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... USN redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... Leo Dietrich Franz Freiherr[1] Geyr von Schweppenburg (2 March 1886 – 27 January 1974) was a German cavalry officer in World War I and a general during World War II. He was particularly noted for his expertise in armoured warfare. ...


In April the Allies started their Operation Fortitude, a plan to mislead the Germans as to the actual landing place for D-Day. Although Hitler himself firmly believed in a Normandy invasion as late as early May, the information his belief was based on, intercepted Allied plans, analysis of enemy mine laying and bombing operations and air reconnaissance over southern England, was not revealed to the commanders in France, and Rommel, along with most Wehrmacht commanders in France, also started believing in a Pas-de-Calais landing.[74] With this, his focus on building obstacles shifted to the River Somme estuary, lagging the work in Normandy. By D-Day on 6 June 1944, virtually all German officers, including those in the Führer's HQ, firmly believed that Pas-de-Calais was going to be the invasion site, and, when it occurred, many thought that the Normandy landing was a mere diversion. There was still some doubt though, with Jodl's staff still warning of the favourable landing opportunities in Normandy on 2 June, indeed this was confirmed by intelligence intercepts of British messages to the French resistance movement in Normandy. However, this information was not heeded by the commanders in France.[75] Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings (Operation Overlord). ... Categories: France geography stubs | French rivers ... Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alfred Jodl (May 10, 1890 – October 16, 1946) was a German military commander, attaining the position of Chief of the Operations Staff of the Armed Forces High Command (Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, or OKW) during World War II, acting as deputy to Wilhelm Keitel. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


During the confusing opening hours of D-Day, the German command structure in France was in disarray. Rommel, along with several other important officers, was on leave.[76] Several tank units, notably the 12th SS Panzer Division and Panzer Lehr, were close enough to the beaches to create serious havoc. The absence of Rommel, along with the still reigning confusion among the Staff officers, led to a hesitation and unwillingness to release the Panzer reserves, fearing the second part of the invasion which was imagined to land further north. Facing only small-scale German attacks, the Allies quickly secured a beachhead. Rommel personally oversaw the bitter fighting around Caen, where only the determined defence of Kampfgruppe von Luck hindered a British breakout on the first day. Here, again, the necessary liberty of the on-site commanders were withheld, and the German commanders did not launch a concentrated counterattack before midday on the 6 June. The 12. ... Panzergrenadiers of I./902. ... A beachhead is a military term used to describe the line created when a unit (by sea) reaches a beach, and begins to defend that area of beach, while other reinforcements (hopefully) help out, until a unit large enough to begin advancing has arrived. ... , Caen (pronounced ) is a commune of northwestern France. ... Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten (15 July 1911–15 January 1997), usually shortened to Hans von Luck, was a Colonel in the German Armored Forces (Oberst der Panzerwaffe) during World War II. He served with the 7th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division, seeing action in Poland, France, North... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The plot against Hitler

On 17 July 1944, Rommel's staff car was strafed by a Royal Canadian Air Force Spitfire piloted by Charley Fox; he was hospitalized with major head injuries. [77] is the 198th day of the year (199th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “RCAF” redirects here. ... The Supermarine Spitfire was a British single-seat fighter, which was used by the Royal Air Force and many other Allied countries during the Second World War, and into the 1950s. ... Charles W. Fox (born in 1920 in Guelph, Ontario) is a former flight lieutenant in the Royal Canadian Air Force in World War II. Fox, the son of an Irish immigrant, joined the RCAF in 1939 at the beginning of the war (his brother Ted joined the Royal Canadian Artillery). ...


In the meantime, after the unsuccessful July 20 Plot against Adolf Hitler, a widespread investigation was conducted to identify possible participants in the plot. Rommel was identified in some of the coup ringleaders’ documentation as a potential supporter and an acceptable military leader to be placed in a position of responsibility should their coup succeed. Claus von Stauffenberg The July 20 Plot was an attempt to assassinate Adolf Hitler, the dictator of Germany, on July 20, 1944. ... Hitler redirects here. ...


No evidence was found that directly linked Rommel to the plot, nor that he had been contacted by any of the plot ringleaders. At the same time, local Nazi party officials reported on Rommel's extensive and scornful criticism of Nazi incompetent leadership and wrong-doings during the time he was hospitalized. Bormann was certain of Rommel's involvement, Goebbels was not. A piece of evidence against Rommel was that his name was found on a list drawn up by Dr Carl Goerdeler on which he was earmarked as a possible future President of Germany. Unfortunately for Rommel, the 'Court of Military Honour' that was to decide whether or not to hand him over to Roland Freisler's People's Court included two men with whom Rommel had crossed swords before, Heinz Guderian and Gerd von Rundstedt. The Court decided that Rommel should be handed over to the People's Court. Martin Bormann Martin Bormann (June 17, 1900 - c. ... Paul Joseph Goebbels (German pronunciation: IPA: ; English generally IPA: ) (October 29, 1897 – May 1, 1945) was a German politician and Minister for Public Enlightenment and Propaganda during the National Socialist regime from 1933 to 1945. ... Judge Freisler Roland Freisler (October 30, 1893 – February 3, 1945) was a prominent and notorious Nazi German judge. ... The Peoples Court (German: Volksgerichtshof) was a court established by Adolf Hitler after the Reichstag fire to handle those accused of political criminal offences, such as treason against the Third Reich. ... This article is about the World War II general Heinz Guderian. ... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ...

A memorial at the site of Field Marshall Erwin Rommel's suicide outside of the town of Herrlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (west of Ulm).
A memorial at the site of Field Marshall Erwin Rommel's suicide outside of the town of Herrlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (west of Ulm).

The true extent of Rommel's knowledge of or involvement with the plot is still unclear. After the war, however, his wife maintained that Rommel had been against the plot. It has been stated that Rommel wanted to avoid giving future generations of Germans the perception that the war was lost because of backstabbing, the infamous Dolchstoßlegende, as was commonly believed by some Germans of World War I. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (570x695, 248 KB) Summary A memorial at the site of Field Marshall Erwin Rommels suicide outside of the town of Herrlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (west of Ulm) Author: John C. Watkins V Licensing File links The following pages link... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (570x695, 248 KB) Summary A memorial at the site of Field Marshall Erwin Rommels suicide outside of the town of Herrlingen, Baden-Württemberg, Germany (west of Ulm) Author: John C. Watkins V Licensing File links The following pages link... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Minister-President Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ... Magazine title from 1924, example of a propaganda illustration in support of the legend The Dolchstoßlegende, (German dagger-thrust legend, often translated in English as stab-in-the-back legend) refers to a social mythos and persecution-propaganda theory popular in post-World War I Germany. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Because of Rommel's popularity with the German people, and possibly because he had been one of Hitler's favourites and one of Germany's most successful battlefield commanders, he was approached at his home by Wilhelm Burgdorf and Ernst Maisel on October 14, 1944. Burgdorf offered him a choice from Fieldmarshall Keitel—he could face the People's Court and potential persecution of his family, or choose to commit suicide quietly, and in the latter case the government would assure his family pension payments and a state funeral claiming he had died a hero. After a few minutes' thought alone, Rommel announced that he chose to end his own life and explained his decision to his wife and son. Returning to Burgdorf's Opel, driven by SS Master Sergeant Heinrich Doose, Rommel was driven out of the village. Doose walked away from the car, leaving Rommel with Maisel. Five minutes later, Burgdorf gestured to the two men to return to the car, and Doose noticed that Rommel was slumped over. Doose, while sobbing, replaced Rommel's fallen cap atop his head. Ten minutes later the group phoned Rommel's wife to inform her that General Rommel was dead.[78][79] Wilhelm Burgdorf (14 February 1895-1 May 1945) was born in Fürstenwalde and served as a commander and staff officer in the German army during World War II. He was one of the officers most loyal to Adolf Hitler in the final months of the war and commited suicide... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ... The Volksgerichtshof (German for Peoples Court) was a court established by Hitler after the Reichstag fire to handle those accused of political criminal offences, such as treason. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ...


However, there also exists an alternate theory about the German Commander's death: that Rommel was given a choice to face the People's Court or to be shot down by the German police. Rommel chose the latter because, he explained to his wife and son, it would be better to die immediately with honour rather than die after facing national humiliation at the People's Court. He was then taken to a secret place in or around Berlin where he was shot by two Gestapo officials. He was then hailed as a national hero who died as a result of sustaining injuries.[80]


After the war, an edited version of his diary was published as The Rommel Papers. He is the only member of the Third Reich establishment to have a museum dedicated to him. His grave can be found in Herrlingen, a short distance west of Ulm. Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... For other uses, see Ulm (disambiguation). ...

Rommel's grave
Rommel's grave

The official story of Rommel's death, as initially reported to the general public, stated that Rommel had either suffered a heart attack,[81] or succumbed to his injuries[82] from the earlier strafing of his staff car. To further strengthen the story, Hitler ordered an official day of mourning in commemoration, and Rommel was buried with full military honours. Hitler himself cynically took a leading role in the highly publicized funeral. Image File history File links Rommels-grab. ... Image File history File links Rommels-grab. ... A myocardial infarction occurs when an atherosclerotic plaque slowly builds up in the inner lining of a coronary artery and then suddenly ruptures, totally occluding the artery and preventing blood flow downstream. ... The Buick Century Series 60 A staff car is a vehicle used by a senior military officer, and is part of their countrys white fleet. ...


Rommel as a military commander

Rommel has been hailed as a brilliant tactician and competent strategist,[83] but certainly not without flaws. Contemporaries who had to work with him under adversity often had very few kind words to say about him and his abilities. Following Paulus' return from his inspection of Rommel's doings in North Africa and also considering the reports submitted by Alfred Gause, Halder concluded: "Rommel's character defects make him very hard to get along with, but no one cares to come out in open opposition because of his brutality and the backing he has at top level". Others mentioned his leadership style, with expecting much of his commanders, and not being open to criticism or objections.[84] He had little patience for sub-commanders who did not do their jobs properly. Only three weeks after assuming command of the 7th Panzer Division in February 1940 Rommel found a battalion commander performing sub-par, and had the man sacked and sent on his way in 90 minutes.[85] This management style would certainly send a signal that he demanded the utmost of his men, but it was bound to create a feeling of resentment among some of his officers.


F.W. von Mellenthin, who served on Rommel's staff during the Africa campaign, says Rommel took great chances on several occasions, gambling entire battles on decisions made almost on the spur of the moment and with incomplete information, citing Rommel's counterattack during Operation Crusader as just one such instance.[86] Others who served under him in Africa, most notably General Fritz Bayerlein, said he took risks, but only after carefully weighing the potential dangers and rewards.[87] Rommel himself was aware of his growing reputation as a gambler, and added careful notes in his papers explaining and defending his actions, especially concerning his decision to drive into Egypt during the 1942 Summer Offensive.[88]


His leadership style was also admired and criticised, with aggressive sub-ordinates, like Hans von Luck, praising his leadership from the front,[89] while others, like Mellenthin, question this leadership style, as it often led to his staff officers becoming involved in the fighting, instead of maintaining an overview of the situation. His sometimes long absences from HQ also meant that subordinates had to make decisions without consulting Rommel, leading to confusion.[90]


In France, Rommel's aggressive drive through the French and British lines, disregarding the safety of his flanks and rear, succeeded to a remarkable degree. His aggressive attacks often caused larger enemy formations to simply surrender. His aggressiveness did cause resentment among fellow officers, however, who felt he at times acted too recklessly and failed to keep his commanders and colleague commanders properly informed of his intentions. He was also criticised for claiming too much of the glory himself, neglecting support from other elements of the Wehrmacht, and downplaying other units' achievements.


Rommel won many battles in Africa, both during 1941 and 1942, against British forces that always outnumbered him and had better supply lines, through aggressive attacks (which on several occasions violated direct orders not to attack), but his eagerness to drive for Egypt, despite not having the logistical "tail" to support it, meant that these drives were stopped, with great losses in men and materiel. Rommel perceived "unique opportunities" in capturing Egypt and perhaps the Middle East, a result which would definitely have had a huge impact on the Allies' capabilities of waging war, but his grand vision was never supported by Hitler nor the General Staff in Berlin to the extent that Rommel desired. Nevertheless, he received all the troops that the theater could support, despite the pressing need for them on the Eastern Front, and more logistical support, for instance in the number of motorized trucks he was given, than other formations of similar size and importance. Material (from the French matérial for equipment or hardware, related to the word material) is a term used in English to refer to the equipment and supplies in military and commercial supply chain management. ...


Rommel himself only belatedly acknowledged that his continual supply problems were not the result of intrasigence or slacking from the Italians, who handled the trans-shipment of his supplies, but were a result of his aggresive actions in overextending his lines of communication. In his analysis of the logistical aspects of the North African Campaign, military historian Martin van Creveld wrote: Martin van Creveld (1946- ) is an Israeli military historian and theorist. ...

Given that the Wehrmacht was only partly motorized and unsupported by a really strong motor industry; that the political situation necessitated the carrying of much useless Italian ballast; that the capacity of the Libyan ports was so small, the distances to be mastered so vast; it seems clear that, for all of Rommel's tactical brilliance, the problem of supplying an Axis force for an advance into the Middle East was insoluble. ... Rommel's repeated defiance of his orders and attempts to advance beyond a reasonable distance from his bases, however, was mistaken and should never have been tolerated.[91]

During the siege of Tobruk, Rommel launched frequent attacks during the first month of the siege, and these were costly. The level of losses incurred caused Rommel to have several rows with his unit commanders, and also with the German High Command — indeed some sources indicate that Chief of Staff Halder had to send Friedrich Paulus to Africa to rein Rommel in, although Rommel himself maintained he had realised the futility of further attacks on the fortress on his own accord.


Popular perception

Rommel was in his lifetime extraordinarily well known, not only by the German people, but also by his adversaries. Popular stories of his chivalry and tactical prowess earned him the respect of many opponents: Claude Auchinleck, Winston Churchill, George S. Patton, and Bernard Montgomery, for example. Rommel, for his part, was complimentary towards and respectful of his foes. Hitler considered Rommel among his favourite generals. Field Marshal Sir Claude John Eyre Auchinleck, GCB, GCIE, CSI, DSO, OBE (June 21, 1884 - March 23, 1981), nicknamed The Auk, was a British army commander during World War II. // Born in Aldershot, he grew up in impoverished circumstances, but was able through hard work and scholarships to graduate from... Churchill redirects here. ... George Patton redirects here. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ...


The Afrika Korps was never accused of any war crimes, and Rommel himself referred to the fighting in North Africa as Krieg ohne Hass—war without hate. Numerous examples exist of Rommel's chivalry towards Allied POWs, such as his defiance of Hitler's infamous Commando Order following the capture of Lt. Roy Woodridge and Lt. George Lane as part of Operation Fortitude, as well as his refusal to comply with an order from Hitler to execute Jewish POWs. Fritz Bayerlein, Rommel's friend and chief of staff in North Africa, was part-Jewish. During Rommel's time in France, Hitler ordered him to deport the Jews in France; Rommel disobeyed the order. Several times, he wrote letters protesting the treatment of the Jews. When British Major Geoffrey Keyes was killed during a failed Commando raid to kill or capture Rommel behind German lines, Rommel ordered him buried with full military honours. Also, during the construction of the Atlantic Wall, Rommel directed that French workers were not to be used as slaves, but were to be paid for their labour. The Commando Order was a top secret order issued by Adolf Hitler on October 18, 1942 stating that all commandos captured in Europe and Africa (but excluding sailors), should be immediately executed even if they attempted to surrender. ... Operation Fortitude was the codename for the deception operations used by the Allied forces during World War II in connection with the Normandy landings (Operation Overlord). ... Lieutenant-Colonel The Honourable Geoffrey Charles Tasker Keyes, VC MC CdeG SCOTS GREYS, (18 May 1917 - 18 November 1941) was awarded the Victoria Cross during the Second World War. ... German coastal artillery in the Pas-de-Calais area, with laborers at work on casemate. ...


His military colleagues would also play their part in perpetuating his legend. His former subordinate Kircheim, though privately critical of Rommel's performance, nonetheless explained: "thanks to propaganda, first by Goebbels, then by Montgomery, and finally, after he was poisoned (sic), by all former enemy powers, he has become a symbol of the best military traditions. ....Any public criticism of this legendary personality would damage the esteem in which the German soldier is held" (in a letter to Johannes Streich, who also served under Rommel as the commander of the 5th Light Division in North Africa, and came to loathe Rommel).

Erwin Rommel's death mask (Deutsches Panzermuseum Munster)
Erwin Rommel's death mask (Deutsches Panzermuseum Munster)

After the war, when Rommel's alleged involvement in the plot to kill Hitler became known, his stature was enhanced greatly among the former Allied nations. Rommel was often cited in Western sources as a general who, though a loyal German, was willing to stand up to the evil that was Hitler. The release of the film The Desert Fox: The Story of Rommel (1951) helped enhance his reputation as one of the most widely known and well-regarded leaders in the German Army. In 1970 a Lütjens-class destroyer was named the FGS Rommel in his honour. The Deutsches Panzermuseum is an Armoured fighting vehicle museum in Munster, Germany. ... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... Mölders as museum ship The Type 103 Lütjens class was the last class of destroyers in service with the German Navy. ... FGS Rommel (D187) D187 Rommel was a guided missile destroyer of the Bundesmarine (West German Navy) and later the Deutsche Marine (Navy of reunited Germany). ...


Rommel was also the namesake of Operation Desert Fox, a United States military strike against alleged Iraqi nuclear weapons facilities, launched in December 1998. Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United...


In fiction

He has been portrayed by:

In Philip K. Dick's alternative history novel The Man in the High Castle, Rommel is the Nazi-appointed president of the United States of America in the early 1960s. Erich von Stroheim (September 22, 1885 – May 12, 1957) was an Austrian - American star of the silent film age, lauded for his directional work in which he was a proto-auteur. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... Five Graves to Cairo is a 1943 World War II film by Billy Wilder, starring Franchot Tone and Anne Baxter. ... James Neville Mason (May 15, 1909 – July 27, 1984) was a three-time Academy Award nominated English actor who attained stardom in both British and American films. ... The Desert Rats is a 1953 war film starring Richard Burton and Robert Douglas directed by Robert Wise. ... The Longest Day is a 3-hour-long 1962 war film with a very large cast, based on the 1959 book The Longest Day by Cornelius Ryan, about D-Day, the invasion of Normandy on 6 June 1944, during World War II. // The movie was adapted by Romain Gary, James... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Night of the Generals is a 1967, World War II film. ... Karl Michael Vogler as Field Marshal Erwin Rommel in Patton (1970) Karl Michael Vogler (born August 28, 1928, in Remscheid, Germany) is a German actor perhaps best-known for his appearance as Erwin Rommel in the George C. Scott film Patton. ... Patton (UK: Patton: Lust for Glory) is a 1970 epic biographical film which tells the story of General George S. Patton during World War II. It stars George C. Scott, Karl Malden, Michael Bates, and Karl Michael Vogler. ... George Campbell Scott (October 18, 1927 - September 22, 1999) was a stage and film actor, director, and producer. ... Wolfgang Preiss (February 27, 1910 at Nuremberg - November 27, 2002 at Baden-Baden) was a German cinema and television actor. ... Hardy Krüger (born Franz Eberhard August Krüger on April 12, 1928 in Berlin-Wedding) is a German actor. ... A miniseries, in a serial storytelling medium, is a production which tells a story in a limited number of episodes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the American hockey player, see Mike York. ... Brian Jackson is a sociologist and author of the book Life In Classrooms, 1968. ... Patricide is a short film, which tells the story of the last day of Field Marshal Erwin Rommels life. ... Philip Kindred Dick (December 16, 1928 – March 2, 1982) was an American writer, mostly known for his works of science fiction. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Man in the High Castle is a 1962 alternate history novel by science fiction writer Philip K. Dick. ...


In Douglas Niles's and Michael Dobson's alternative history novel Fox on the Rhine (ISBN 0-8125-7466-4), Hitler is killed by the bomb plot of 20 July 1944. This leads to Rommel's survival, and a different quick offensive strike. This is repelled and the book ends with his surrender to the Americans and British, in the belief that the Germans would be better off with the Western powers than with the Soviets. Fox on the Rhine was followed by a sequel, Fox at the Front (ISBN 0-641-67696-4). Douglas Niles is a fantasy author and game designer. ... Promotional photo. ... Fox on the Rhine is an alternate history book co-authored by Michael Dobson and Douglas Niles. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Donna Barr's novel Bread and Swans, the historical Rommel shares his concerns and career with a fictitious younger brother, Pfirsich, also known as The Desert Peach. Both Rommels also appear as focal characters of Barr's long-running comic strip series about "The Peach". Donna Barr (born 1952 in Everett, Washington) is an American comic book author and cartoonist. ... The Desert Peach is a comic book created by Donna Barr chronicling the adventures of Field Marshal Erwin Rommels imaginary gay younger brother, Pfirsich Marie Rommel---the Desert Peach. ...


In Harry Turtledove's "Timeline-191" an American officer named "Irving Morrel" shares many similarities with Rommel. Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ...


Much of Rommel's success in North Africa was due to his detailed intelligence about his British opponents. The Key To Rebecca, by Ken Follett, concerns an Egyptian belly dancer who rifles the briefcases of British officers who sleep with her, and passes their contents to Rommel. City of Gold, by Len Deighton, follows a hunt in Cairo for a different German spy. Both books are based on true events, and in real life, the shutting down of both spy networks contributed to Rommel's ultimate loss at the Second Battle of El Alamein. Ken Follett (born June 5, 1949) is a British author of thrillers and historical novels. ... Belly Dancer (Bananza) is the title of a hit single by R&B singer Akon. ... Len Deighton (left) teaches Michael Caine how to break an egg on the set of The IPCRESS File. ... Belligerents Australia Free French Greece New Zealand South Africa United Kingdom Indian Empire Germany Italy Commanders Harold Alexander Bernard Montgomery Erwin Rommel Georg Stumme Ettore Bastico Strength 220,000 men 1,029 tanks[1] 750 aircraft (530 serviceable) 900 medium and field artillery guns[2] 1,401 Anti Tank Guns...


Quotations about Rommel

The British Parliament considered a censure vote against Winston Churchill following the surrender of Tobruk. The vote failed, but in the course of the debate, Churchill stated: The Parliament of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is the supreme legislative institution in the United Kingdom and British overseas territories (it alone has parliamentary sovereignty). ... Churchill redirects here. ... Tobruk is on the Mediterranean Sea in northeastern Libya. ...

  • "We have a very daring and skilful opponent against us, and, may I say across the havoc of war, a great general."

Churchill again, on hearing of Rommel's death: Churchill redirects here. ...

  • "He also deserves our respect, because, although a loyal German soldier, he came to hate Hitler and all his works, and took part in the conspiracy to rescue Germany by displacing the maniac and tyrant. For this, he paid the forfeit of his life. In the sombre wars of modern democracy, there is little place for chivalry."

Theodor Werner was an officer who, during World War I, served under Rommel:

  • "Anybody who came under the spell of his personality turned into a real soldier. He seemed to know what the enemy were like and how they would react."

British General Claude Auchinleck, one of Rommel's opponents in Africa, in a letter to his field commanders:

  • "There exists a real danger that our friend Rommel is becoming a kind of magical or bogey-man to our troops, who are talking far too much about him. He is by no means a superman, although he is undoubtedly very energetic and able. Even if he were a superman, it would still be highly undesireable that our men should credit him with supernatural powers."

See also

This article is about the military term. ... During World War II, the North African Campaign, also known as the Desert War, took place in the North African desert from September 13, 1940 to May 13, 1943. ... Combatants  Australia Free France  New Zealand  Poland South Africa  United Kingdom India Italy Germany Commanders to June 22 1941: Archibald Wavell to August 8 1942: Claude Auchinleck to February 1943: Harold Alexander Ugo Cavallero Rodolfo Graziani Erwin Rommel The Western Desert Campaign, also known as the Desert War was the... The straight-armed Balkenkreuz, a stylized version of the Iron Cross, the emblem of the Wehrmacht. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with List of German divisions in WWII. (Discuss) Listing of German divisions and division-sized units operational during World War II. Formation dates are provided where known. ... Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 - 11 September 1962), was a German colonel-general of cavalry, serving during World War II. He was born in Ernsdorf, Germany in 1889, the son of General Sixt von Arnim. ... The seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. ... As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure... Statue of Count László Almásy at the Hungarian Geographical Museum in Érd. ...

References

Notes

  1. ^ Bierman and Smith The Battle of Alamein: Turning Point, World War II, p. 56
  2. ^ Current Biography 1942, pp701–04. See also: http://www.storico.org/Rommel.htm
  3. ^ Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 39
  4. ^ Liddell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p. 6.
  5. ^ von Luck. Panzer Commander. p. 38
  6. ^ Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 44
  7. ^ Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 45
  8. ^ Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 45
  9. ^ Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 50
  10. ^ a b Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 51
  11. ^ Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 55
  12. ^ Irving, The Trail of the Fox, p. 56
  13. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 106
  14. ^ Windrow. Rommel's Desert Army, p. 9.
  15. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 107
  16. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 110
  17. ^ Windrow. Rommel's Desert Army, p. 10.
  18. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 121
  19. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 126
  20. ^ Irving. Trail of the Fox, p. 84.
  21. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 129
  22. ^ Irving. Trail of the Fox, p. 90.
  23. ^ Irving. Trail of the Fox, p. 92.
  24. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 129
  25. ^ Windrow. Rommel's Desert Army.
  26. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 146
  27. ^ Stegman, Germany and the Second World War – Volume III – Part V – Chapter V.VI ("Operation Crusader"), p. 729
  28. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 159
  29. ^ This attack could have been a serious mistake, according to von Mellenthin—if the British 7th Armoured Division had concentrated their armour, they might very well have inflicted a serious loss on 21st Panzer Division, and it would have been a more prudent course if Rommel had held off the counterattack. (Panzer Battles, p. 74).
  30. ^ von Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 76.
  31. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 162
  32. ^ Fritz Bayerlein in Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 165
  33. ^ Stegman, Germany and the Second World War — Volume III
  34. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 166
  35. ^ von Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 88
  36. ^ von Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 88
  37. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 166
  38. ^ 23 Nov to 28 Nov according to von Mellenthin. (Panzer Commander p. 58)
  39. ^ von Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 99.
  40. ^ Fritz Bayerlein, The Rommel Papers, Chapter 8.
  41. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.195
  42. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.196
  43. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.217
  44. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.224
  45. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.233
  46. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.234
  47. ^ von Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 150.
  48. ^ von Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 152.
  49. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.235
  50. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.239
  51. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.254
  52. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.267
  53. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.268
  54. ^ Carver, El Alamein p.67
  55. ^ Carver, El Alamein p.70
  56. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.286
  57. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.298
  58. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.299
  59. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.305
  60. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.306
  61. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.307
  62. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.319
  63. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.319
  64. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p. 322
  65. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.326
  66. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.342–357
  67. ^ Irving. Trail of the Fox, p. 258
  68. ^ The National Archives | Research, education & online exhibitions | Exhibitions | The Art of War | Valour & Gallantry | Valour
  69. ^ Liddell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p. 510, Irving. The Trail of the Fox, p. 332.
  70. ^ Liddell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p. 510, Irving. The Trail of the Fox, p. 326.
  71. ^ Irving. The Trail of the Fox, p. 327.
  72. ^ Liddell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p. 508
  73. ^ Irving. The Trail of the Fox, p. 345.
  74. ^ Irving. The Trail of the Fox, p. 347.
  75. ^ Irving. The Trail of the Fox, p. 354.
  76. ^ Irving. The Trail of the Fox, p. 362.
  77. ^ (Although the Americans claimed to have hit the vehicle as well, German reports specifically mentioned a Canadian Spitfire as the sole attacker).
  78. ^ Manfred Rommel, Nuremberg testimony
  79. ^ Irving, David The Trail of the Fox, 1977.
  80. ^ Shirer, William The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich
  81. ^ Marshall, p189, The Rommel Murder
  82. ^ Ryan, Cornelius. A Bridge Too Far. 1974. pp 43
  83. ^ Lidell-Hart, The Rommel Papers
  84. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 110
  85. ^ Irving, Trail of the Fox, p. 42.
  86. ^ von Mellenthin, Panzer Battles, p. 88
  87. ^ Liddel-Hart The Rommel Papers, p. 165
  88. ^ Lidell-Hart. The Rommel Papers, p.235
  89. ^ von Luck. Panzer Commander. p. 38
  90. ^ von Mellenthin. Panzer Battles, p. 58.
  91. ^ van Creveld, Martin Supplying War p.201

Friedrich Wilhelm von Mellenthin (30 August 1904 - 28 June 1997) was a Generalmajor in the German Army during World War II. A participant in most of the major campaigns of the war, he became well-known afterwards for his memoirs Panzer Battles, first published in 1956 and regularly reprinted since... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... November 28 is the 332nd day (333rd on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For other persons of the same name, see David Irving (footballer) and David Irving (politician). ... William Lawrence Shirer (1904 - 1993), U.S. historian & journalist. ... The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich by journalist William L. Shirer was the first definitive history of Nazi Germany in English. ... Cornelius Ryan, (5 June 1920 – 23 November 1974) was an Irish journalist and author mainly known for his writings on popular military history, especially World War II. // Born in Dublin and educated at Christian Brothers School Synge Street, South Circular Road, Dublin, Ryan moved to London in 1940, and became... Martin van Creveld (1946- ) is an Israeli military historian and theorist. ...

Primary sources

  • Liddel-Hart, Basil ed. The Rommel Papers (1982)
  • Erwin Rommel, Infantry Attacks (2006)
  • Erwin Rommel, Rommel and his Art of War (2006)
  • Laszlo Almasy. With Rommel's Army in Libya (2001)

Bibliography

  • John Bierman and Colin Smith. The Battle of Alamein: Turning Point, World War II, (2002). ISBN 0-670-03040-6
  • Michael Carver (1962); El Alamein; Wordsworth Editions; ISBN 1-84022-220-4
  • Francois De Lannoy.Afrikakorps, 1941-1943: The Libya Egypt Campaign, ISBN 2-84048-152-9
  • George Forty. The Armies of Rommel, (Arms and Armour Press, London 1997) ISBN 1-85409-379-7
  • David Fraser. Knight's Cross: A Life of Field Marshal Erwin Rommel, ISBN 0-06-092597-3
  • Jack Greene. Rommel's North Africa Campaign: September 1940 – November 1942, . ISBN 1-58097-018-4
  • David Irving (1977). The Trail of the Fox — The Search for the True Field Marshal Rommel, Weidenfeld & Nicolson. ISBN 1-872197-29-9 – 2005 Electronic Version.Download from David Irvings website
  • Thomas L. Jentz. Tank Combat in North Africa: The Opening Rounds: Operations Sonnenblume, Brevity, Skorpion and Battleaxe February 1941–June 1941 (Schiffer Military History), . ISBN 0-7643-0226-4
  • Orr Kelly. Meeting the Fox: The Allied Invasion of Africa, from Operation Torch to Kasserine Pass to Victory in Tunisia, . ISBN 0-471-41429-8
  • Jon Latimer. Alamein, . ISBN 0-674-01016-7
  • Jon Latimer. Tobruk 1941: Rommel's Opening Move ISBN 1-84176-092-7
  • Ronald Lewin. Rommel as military commander B&N Books: ISBN 0-7607-0861-4
  • F.W. von Mellenthin (1956). Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the Second World War., Ballantine Books. ISBN 0-345-32158-8
  • Charles F. Marshall The Rommel Murder:The Life and Death of the Desert Fox, Stackpole Books, 1994, ISBN 0-8117-2472-7
  • Samuel W. Mitcham. Rommel's Greatest Victory, ISBN 0-89141-730-3
  • Reuth, Ralf Georg. Rommel: The End of a Legend. London: Haus Books, 2006 (hardcover, ISBN 1904950205).
  • Hans Sakkers. (1993) Generalfeldmarschall Rommel: opperbevelhebber van Heeresgruppe B bij de voorbereiding van de verdediging van West-Europa, 5 November 1943 tot 6 juni 1944. ISBN 90-800900-2-6
  • Dennis Showalter. Patton and Rommel: Men of War in the Twentieth Century. 2005. 441 pp. ISBN 978-0-425-20663-8.
  • Bernad Stegmann. (1995) Germany and the Second World War — Volume III — Part IV and V, Clarendon Press • Oxford.
  • Martin van Creveld Supplying War: Logistics from Wallenstein to Patton Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977. ISBN 0-521-29793-1
  • Hans von Luck (1989). Panzer Commander: The Memoirs of Colonel Hans von Luck, Cassel Military Paperbacks. ISBN 0-304-36401-0
  • Desmond Young. Rommel The Desert Fox (1950)
  • Inside the Afrika Korps: The Crusader Battles, 1941–1942. ISBN 1-85367-322-6

For other persons of the same name, see David Irving (footballer) and David Irving (politician). ... Friedrich Wilhelm von Mellenthin (30 August 1904 - 28 June 1997) was a Generalmajor in the German Army during World War II. A participant in most of the major campaigns of the war, he became well-known afterwards for his memoirs Panzer Battles, first published in 1956 and regularly reprinted since... Panzerschlachten (Panzer Battles) is the German language title of Major General Frederich W. von Mellenthins autobiographical account of his service in the Panzer arm of the Heer during World War II. The most prominent English language version is Panzer Battles: A Study of the Employment of Armor in the... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Martin van Creveld (1946- ) is an Israeli military historian and theorist. ... Hans-Ulrich von Luck und Witten (15 July 1911–15 January 1997), usually shortened to Hans von Luck, was a Colonel in the German Armored Forces (Oberst der Panzerwaffe) during World War II. He served with the 7th Panzer Division and 21st Panzer Division, seeing action in Poland, France, North...

External links

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Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel
Military offices
Preceded by
New Creation
Commandant of the Theresian Military Academy NCO WarSchool
19381938
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
?
Commander of the Führer Begleit Battalion
19385 February 1940
Succeeded by
?
Preceded by
General der Kavallerie Georg Stumme
Commander of 7th Panzer Division
5 February 194015 February 1941
Succeeded by
General der Panzertruppen Hans Freiherr von Funck
Preceded by
New creation
Commander of the Afrika Korps
19 February 194115 August 1941
Succeeded by
Generalleutnant Ludwig Crüwell
Preceded by
New creation
Commander of Heeresgruppe Afrika
15 August 19419 March 1943
Succeeded by
General Hans-Jürgen von Arnim
Preceded by
New creation
Commander of Heeresgruppe B
15 July 194319 July 1944
Succeeded by
Generalfeldmarschall Günther von Kluge
Persondata
NAME Rommel, Erwin Johannes Eugen
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Desert Fox (nickname)
SHORT DESCRIPTION German Field Marshal
DATE OF BIRTH November 15, 1891(1891-11-15)
PLACE OF BIRTH Heidenheim, Germany
DATE OF DEATH October 14, 1944
PLACE OF DEATH Herrlingen, Germany

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... The Theresian Military Academy is an academy, where the Austrian Armed Forces trains its officers. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Führer-Begleit-Brigade was a German armoured brigade, later an armoured division (Panzer-Führer Begleit-Division), in World War II. It was formed in November 1944 and destroyed in April 1945. ... Year 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Georg Stumme (1886-1942) was a World War Two German general most remembered for his brief command of the German-Italian forces during the Second Battle of El Alamein. ... The 7th Panzer Division, which participated in the Battle of France, was nicknamed the Ghost Division because nobody knew where they were attacking from, not even the German High Command. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full 1940 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... The seal of the Deutsches Afrikakorps. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... This article is about the day of the year. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Ludwig Crüwell (March 20, 1892 - September 25, 1958), German General known for his involvement with the Afrika Korps. ... As the number of German armed forces committed to the North Africa Campaign of World War II grew from the initial commitment of a small corps the Germans developed a more elaborate command structure and placed the now larger Afrika Korps, with Italian units under this new German command structure... This article is about the day of the year. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans-Jürgen von Arnim (4 April 1889 - 11 September 1962), was a German colonel-general of cavalry, serving during World War II. He was born in Ernsdorf, Germany in 1889, the son of General Sixt von Arnim. ... Army Group B was the name of three different German Army Groups that saw action during World War II. The first was involved in the western campaign in 1940 in Belgium and the Netherlands which was to be aimed to conquer the Maas bridges after the German airborne actions in... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Note: This article is about the military usage of the word marshal. For other usages, see the end of this article. ... German Grand Admiral Sleeve Insignia Grand Admiral Shoulder Insignia In the German Navy the rank of Grand Admiral (Großadmiral) was considered the highest Naval rank. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Replica of the marshals baton of Generalfeldmarschall von Richthofen (Third Reich) Generalfeldmarschall ( ) (general field marshal, usually translated simply as field marshal, and sometimes written only as Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states, the Holy Roman Empire, and the Austrian Empire. ... Werner von Blomberg. ... Fedor von Bock (December 3, 1880 - May 4, 1945) was an officer in the German military from 1898 to 1942, attaining the rank of Generalfeldmarschall during World War 2. ... 1915 portrait of Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli Eduard Freiherr von Böhm-Ermolli (February 12, 1856 - December 9, 1941) was an Italian-born Austrian officer during World War I who rose to the rank of Field Marshal in the Austro-Hungarian Army. ... Walther von Brauchitsch in 1939. ... Ernst Busch (6 July 1885 - 17 July 1945) was a German field marshal during World War II. He was born in Essen-Steele, Germany, and was educated at the Groß Lichterfelde Cadet Academy. ...   (January 12, 1893 – October 15, 1946) was a German politician and military leader, a leading member of the Nazi Party, second in command of the Third Reich, designated successor to Adolf Hitler, and commander of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force). ... Robert Ritter von Greim. ... Wilhelm Bodewin Johann Gustav Keitel (September 22, 1882–October 16, 1946) was a German field marshal (Generalfeldmarschall) and a senior military leader during World War II. // Keitel was born in Helmscherode, Brunswick, German Empire, the son of Carl Keitel, a middle-class landowner, and his wife Apollonia Vissering. ... ==Biography== Albrecht von Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful generals of Nazi Germany, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or Smiling Kesselring. At least one source claims that Kesselring was born on August 8, 1881 [2... Ewald von Kleist Ewald von Kleist Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (August 8, 1881, Braunfels an der Lahn - ca. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Field Marshal Georg von Küchler Georg Karl Friedrich Wilhelm von Küchler (May 30, 1881 - May 25, 1968) was a German field marshal during World War II. Born in Philippsruhe castle near Hanau, Küchler led the German German Eighteenth Army in 1940 in the invasion of neutral Holland... Wilhelm Ritter von Leeb in a photo from 1946 Wilhelm Ritter[1] von Leeb (September 5, 1876 - April 29, 1956) was a German Field Marshal during World War II. // Born in Landsberg am Lech, Bavaria as Wilhelm Leeb, he joined the Bavarian Army in 1895 as an officer cadet. ... Wilhelm List (Siegmund Wilhelm von List) (May 14, 1880 - August 17, 1971), was a German Field Marshal during World War II. He entered the Army in 1898 and served as a staff officer in the First World War. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Erhard Milch (left) with his brother Dr. Werner Milch, who worked as his associate defense counsel at the Nuremberg Trials. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Friedrich Paulus. ... Walther von Reichenau (August 16, 1884 - January 17, 1942), German military commander, was the son of a Prussian general and joined the German Army in 1902. ... Generalfeldmarschall Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 - 12 July 1945) was a German fighter ace during World War I and a general and field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II. Von Richthofen was a distant cousin of the German World War I flying ace Manfred von Richthofen... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... Hugo Sperrle Hugo Sperrle (February 7, 1885 - April 2, 1953), was a German Field Marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II. He joined the German Army in 1903 and transferred to the Luftstreitkräfte (German Army Air Service) at the start of World War I, serving as an observer... Maximilian von Weichs Maximilian Maria Joseph Karl Gabriel Lamoral Reichsfreiherr von Weichs zu Glon (12 November 1881 - 27 September 1954) was a German Generalfeldmarschall and a military leader in World War II. He was born into a noble family at Dessau, a son of an Army colonel. ... Job-Wilhelm Georg Erwin von Witzleben (born 4 December 1881 in Breslau; died 8 August 1944 in Berlin, executed) was a German army officer (by 1940 a Generalfeldmarschall) and in the Second World War an Army commander and a resistance fighter in the July 20 Plot. ... The rank of Grand Admiral has also appeared in science fiction literature, most notable the Star Wars Expanded Universe where the rank is held by Grand Admiral Thrawn. ... Karl Dönitz (IPA pronunciation:  ) (born 16 September 1891; died 24 December 1980) was a German naval leader, who commanded the German Navy (Kriegsmarine) during the second half of World War II. Dönitz was also President of Germany for 23 days after Adolf Hitlers suicide. ... Grossadmiral Erich Raeder Erich Johann Albert Raeder (April 24, 1876 - November 6, 1960) was a naval leader in Germany before and during World War II. Raeder attained the highest possible naval rank – that of Großadmiral (Grand Admiral) – in 1939, becoming the first person to hold that rank since Alfred... The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Werner Mölders (March 18, 1913 - November 22, 1941) was a German Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adolf Dolfo Joseph Ferdinand Galland[1] (19 March 1912-9 February 1996) was a World War II German fighter pilot and commander of Germanys fighter force (General der Jagdflieger) from 1941 to 1945. ... Gordon MacGollob (16 June 1912 - 8 September 1987) was an Austrian fighter pilot and flying ace in the Luftwaffe from 1938 to 1945) during World War 2. ... Hans-Joachim Marseille (13 December 1919 - 30 September 1942) was a Luftwaffe pilot and flying ace during World War II. He was nicknamed the Star of Africa. Marseille scored all but seven of his 158 victories against the British Commonwealths Desert Air Force over North Africa. ... Category: ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... One of Nazi Germanys most successful U-Boat aces, Wolfgang Lüth (15 October 1913–13 May 1945) was the youngest German ever appointed captain, and the youngest to ever command the German Naval Academy. ... Walter Nowi Nowotny (December 7, 1920 - November 8, 1944) was a Sudeten German fighter ace of World War II with 258 confirmed victories in 442 missions, 255 victories over Russian pilots. ... Adelbert Schulz (1900 to 1/28/1944) was a Generalmajor and Division Commander in the German Wehrmacht in WWII. He was one of only 27 people to be awarded the Knights Cross with oakleaves, swords, and diamonds. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hans-Ulrich Rudel (July 2, 1916 – December 18, 1982) was a Stuka dive-bomber pilot during World War II. Rudel is famous for being the most highly decorated German serviceman of the war. ... Generalleutnant der Reserve & SS-Brigadeführer Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz, 1943 Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz (July 30, 1893 -April 25, 1968) was a Silesian officer and panzer ace. ... Herbert Otto Gille (March 8, 1897 in Gandersheim - December 27, 1966) was a German general, and the highest decorated member of the Waffen SS. Military Career He started his military career as a first lieutenant during the First World War . ... General der Panzertruppen Hans-Valentin Hube Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890 - 21 April 1944) was a general who served in the German Army during the First and Second World Wars. ... ==Biography== Albrecht von Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful generals of Nazi Germany, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or Smiling Kesselring. At least one source claims that Kesselring was born on August 8, 1881 [2... German Night-fighter pilot. ... SS-Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich Josef Sepp Dietrich also known as Ujac (May 28, 1892–April 21/22, 1966) was a German Waffen-SS general, an SS-Oberstgruppenführer, and one of the closest men to Hitler. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Erich Alfred Bubi Hartmann (April 19, 1922 - September 20, 1993), also nicknamed The Blond Knight Of Germany by friends and The Black Devil by his enemies, is the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial combat. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Hermann-Bernhard Gerhard Ramcke (January 24, 1889 - July 04, 1968) is a winner of the Knights Cross with Swords, Oak Leaves, and Diamonds, one of only 27 people in the German military to do so. ... Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer (February 16, 1922-1950) was the top night fighter ace of all time. ... Albrecht Brandi (1914-1966) was a famous German U-boat commander. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... Theodor Tolsdorff (November 3, 1909 to May 25, 1978) was lieutenant general and one of 27 carriers of Oak Leaves with Swords and Diamonds to the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross in the Second World War . ... Dr. Karl Mauss (May 17, 1898 - February 9, 1959) was one of the most distinguished tank commanders of the Wehrmacht during World War II. He was a lieutenant general and commander of The 7th Panzer Division, and one of only 31 ever to receive the Knights Cross with Oakleaves... Dietrich von Saucken (1892–1990) was a General in the German Army (Wehrmacht) during World War II. He was born in East Prussia in 1892 and personified all the aristocratic Prussian militarists who despised the braune Bande of Nazis. ... The penultimate expression of the award: the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with golden Oakleaves, Swords and Diamonds. ... Generalleutnant Ernst-Günther Baade (1897-1945), was a German general serving during World War II. He was wounded in action and died from his injuries on the last day of World War II in Europe. ... A colour photograph of Oberst der Reserve Dr.med. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heinz Pritzl Bär (21 March 1913 - 28 April 1957) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace who served through the whole of World War II. He had a total of 221 victories,[1] fighting in all the major German theaters of war, including ETO, MTO and the Eastern Front. ... Erich Bärenfänger was a German officer during World War II. He was born on 12 January 1915 in Menden, Germany, and was the son of an upper post office secretary. ... Gerhard Gerd Barkhorn (20 March 1919 - 8 January 1983) was the second most successful fighter ace of all time after fellow Luftwaffe pilot Erich Hartmann. ... Wilhelm Willi Batz (born 21 May 1916 in Bamberg – died 11 September 1988 in Mauschendorf in Unterfranken) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace. ... Otto Baum, (born 15 November 1911 in Stetten; died 18 June 1998) was was a SS-Oberführer of the Waffen-SS. He was also a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Werner Baumbach (1916-1953) was a bomber pilot in the German Luftwaffe during World War 2 and commander of the secret bomber wing KG 200. ... General Fritz Bayerlein Fritz Bayerlein (January 14, 1899 - January 30, 1970) was a German Panzer general during the Second World War. ... Wilhelm Bittrich Wilhelm Willi Bittrich (February 26, 1894 – April 19, 1979) was a General of the German SS during World War II. Born in the town of Wernigerode in the Harz mountains of Germany, Bittrich served as an army officer during World War I. He joined the SS-Verfügungstruppe... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Major Alwin Boerst (born 20 October 1910 in Osterode – Killed in action 30 March 1944 near IaÅŸi) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Stuka ace[1]. Boerst participated in the Battle of Crete and assisted in the sinking of HMS Kelly and HMS Kashmir[2]. Together with his... Georg Freiherr von Boeselager (August 25, 1915 – August 27, 1944) was a German nobleman and officer of the Wehrmacht, who ultimately served as Colonel (Oberst) of Cavalry. ... Albrecht Brandi (1914-1966) was a famous German U-boat commander. ... Josef Bremm (born 3 May 1914 in Mannebach Pfalz, died 21 October 1998 in Monreal), was a German Officer, serving during World War II. He is noted for being the last recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords which he received from... Kurt Bühlingen (born 13 December 1917 in Granschütz, Thuringia, died 11 August 1985 in Nidda, Hesse) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1936 until the end of hostilities 8 May 1945. ... Eduard Dietl (Born 21 July 1890, Bad Aibling, Died 23 June 1944, Styria) Lieutenant General Eduard Dietl commanded the German 3rd Mountain Division that participated in the German invasion of Norway on April 9 and 10, 1940. ... General Sepp Dietrich Josef Sepp Dietrich (May 28, 1892–April 21/22, 1966) was a German Waffen-SS general, an SS-Oberstgruppenführer, and one of the closest men to Hitler. ... Oberst Alfred Druschel (born 4 February 1917 in Bindsachsen, Büdingen, Hesse; Killed in action on 1 January 1945 near Aachen in Unternehmen Bodenplatte) was a German Luftwaffe combat pilot and Flying ace during World War II. He was the first combat pilot to be honored with the Knights... Maximilian Reichsfreiherr von Edelsheim[1], (born 6 July 1897 in Berlin; died 26 April 1994 in Konstanz) was a German general during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Obergruppenführer Hermann Otto Fegelein (30 October 1906–c. ... Adolf Dolfo Joseph Ferdinand Galland[1] (19 March 1912-9 February 1996) was a World War II German fighter pilot and commander of Germanys fighter force (General der Jagdflieger) from 1941 to 1945. ... Herbert Otto Gille (March 8, 1897 in Gandersheim - December 27, 1966) was a German general, and the highest decorated member of the Waffen SS. Military Career He started his military career as a first lieutenant during the First World War . ... Gordon MacGollob (16 June 1912 - 8 September 1987) was an Austrian fighter pilot and flying ace in the Luftwaffe from 1938 to 1945) during World War 2. ... Category: ... Fritz-Hubert Gräser (January 3, 1888 - November 4, 1960), was a German general of World War II and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Anton Toni Hackl (born 25 March 1915 in Regensburg, died 10 July 1984 in Regensburg) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords during World War II. Anton Hackl flew about 1000 combat missions and... Josef Harpe (1887-1968), was a German Generaloberst, serving during World War II. Iron Cross (1914) 2nd and 1st Class Wound Badge (1914) in Black Cross of Honor Wehrmacht-Dienstauszeichnung 4th to 1st Class Clasp to the Iron Cross 2nd and 1st Class Panzer Badge in Silver Eastern Front Medal... Erich Alfred Bubi Hartmann (April 19, 1922 - September 20, 1993), also nicknamed The Blond Knight Of Germany by friends and The Black Devil by his enemies, is the most successful fighter ace in the history of aerial combat. ... Paul Papa Hausser (October 7, 1880 - December 21, 1972) was an officer in the German Army, achieving the high rank of Lieutenant General in the inter-war Reichswehr, after retirement from regular Army he became the father (thus the nickname “Papa”) of the Waffen-SS and one of its most... Gotthard Heinrici. ... Oberst Joachim Helbig (born 10 September 1915 in Börln, Torgau-Oschatz; killed in car accident on 5 October 1985 while on vacation in Spain) was a bomber pilot in the German Luftwaffe during World War II and recipient of the Knights Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Traugott Herr (1890-1976), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II. Wound Badge in Black 1914 Iron Cross 2nd Class (14 September 1914) 1st Class (21 October 1915) House Order of Hohenzollern with Swords Bavarian Military Merit Cross (3. ... Hajo Herrmann (born 1 August 1913 in Kiel, Germany), is a German lawyer focusing his activities mostly on the defense of former Nazis and Neo-Nazis, deniers of the holocaust and political activists of the far-right. ... General Hermann Hoth Hermann Papa Hoth (12 April 1885 - 26 January 1971) was a general of the Third Reich during World War II, notable for victories in France and on the Eastern Front, and later, after serving six years in prison for war crimes, as a writer on military history. ... General der Panzertruppen Hans-Valentin Hube Hans-Valentin Hube (29 October 1890-21st April 1944) was a General who served in the German Heer during the First and Second World Wars. ... Herbert Ihlefeld (born 1 June 1914 in Pinnow, Pommern, died 8 August 1995 in Wenningsen, Niedersachsen) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1936 until the end of World War II in 1945. ... ==Biography== Albrecht von Kesselring (August 8, 1881 - July 16, 1960) was a Generalfeldmarschall during World War II. One of the most respected and skillful generals of Nazi Germany, he was nicknamed Smiling Albert or Smiling Kesselring. At least one source claims that Kesselring was born on August 8, 1881 [2... Otto Kittel (February 21, 1917 - February 14, 1945) was a World War II pilot. ... Ewald von Kleist Ewald von Kleist Paul Ludwig Ewald von Kleist (August 8, 1881, Braunfels an der Lahn - ca. ... Günther “Hans” von Kluge (October 30, 1882 – August 19, 1944), was a German military leader. ... Otto von Knobelsdorff (1886-1966), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II. Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords Knights Cross (17 September 1941) 322. ... Hans Kreysing, (born 17 August 1890; died 14 April 1969) was a German general who commanded the . ... Hans Kroh (born 13 May 1907 in Heidelberg; died 18 July 1967 in Braunschweig) was a highly decorated German Fallschirmjäger and general in the Bundeswehr. ... For other persons named Walter Krüger, see Walter Krüger (disambiguation). ... Otto Kumm, (born 1 October 1909 in Hamburg; died 23 March 2004) was was a SS-Brigadeführer and Generalmajor of the Waffen-SS. He was also a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Oberst Dr. Ernst Kupfer (born 2 July 1907 in Coburg – Killed in aircraft accident 6 November 1943 60km north of Thessaloniki in the Belasica mountain range) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Stuka ace. ... Major Friedrich Lang (born 12 January 1915 in Mährisch-Trübau – died 29 December 2003 in Hannover) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Stuka ace[1]. Verwundetenabzeichen in Black Front Flying Clasp of the Luftwaffe in Gold with Pennant 1. ... Heinz-Georg Lemm (born 1 June 1919 in Schwerin; died 17 November 1994 in Ruppichteroth) fought in the 12th Infantry Division. ... German Night-fighter pilot. ... One of Nazi Germanys most successful U-Boat aces, Wolfgang Lüth (15 October 1913–13 May 1945) was the youngest German ever appointed captain, and the youngest to ever command the German Naval Academy. ... Heinrich Freiherr von Lüttwitz[1] (1896-1969), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II. His cousins Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz and Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Gross-Zauche und Camminetz were also decorated with the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with... Smilo Freiherr von Lüttwitz[1] (1895-1976), was a German general of the Panzer troops, serving during World War II and son of Walther von Lüttwitz. ... Günther Lützow (4 September 1912 - 24 April 1945) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace and a leader in the Fighter Pilots Revolt. Lützow was credited with 110 victories achieved in over 300 combat missions. ... Hellmuth Mäder, (born 5 July 1908 in Rotterode, Thuringia; died 12 May 1984 in Konstanz) was a German general during World War II. He was also a recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords. ... Generalfeldmarschall Erich von Manstein The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Hasso-Eccard Freiherr von Manteuffel (January 14, 1897 — September 24, 1978) was a German soldier and politician of the 20th century. ... Hans-Joachim Marseille (13 December 1919 - 30 September 1942) was a Luftwaffe pilot and flying ace during World War II. He was nicknamed the Star of Africa. Marseille scored all but seven of his 158 victories against the British Commonwealths Desert Air Force over North Africa. ... Dr. Karl Mauss (May 17, 1898 - February 9, 1959) was one of the most distinguished tank commanders of the Wehrmacht during World War II. He was a lieutenant general and commander of The 7th Panzer Division, and one of only 31 ever to receive the Knights Cross with Oakleaves... Egon Mayer (born 19 August 1917 in Konstanz at the Bodensee, killed in action March 2, 1944 near Montmédy) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1937 until his death in 1944. ... Kurt Panzermeyer Meyer in 1942 after being awarded the Oakleaves to the Knights Cross Kurt Panzermeyer Meyer (December 23, 1910-December 23, 1961) served as an officer in the Waffen-SS during the Second World War. ... Otto Moritz Walter Model (IPA: ) (24 January 1891 – 21 April 1945) was a German general and later field marshal during World War II. He is noted for his defensive battles in the latter half of the war, mostly on the Eastern Front but also in the west, and for his... Werner Mölders (March 18, 1913 - November 22, 1941) was a German Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. ... Friedrich-Wilhelm Müller (b. ... Werner Mummert (31 March 1897 to January/February 1950) was a German officer during both World War I and World War II. Mummert was born in Luttwitz/Saxony. ... Joachim Müncheberg was born on 18 December 1918 at Friedrichsdorf. ... Walter Nehring (August 15, 1892 - April 20, 1983), was a German General of World War II, known for his involvement with the Afrika Korps. ... Hermann Niehoff was a German General during World War II. Niehoff was the garrison commander of Festung Breslau during the Battle of Breslau. ... Major Theodor Nordmann (born 18 December 1918 in Dorsten – Killed in flying accident 19 January 1945 near near Insterburg) was a German World War II Luftwaffe Stuka ace[1]. His radio operator and gunner, Feldwebel Gerhard Rothe, was one of only 15 Stuka gunners to be honored with the Knight... Walter Nowi Nowotny (December 7, 1920 - November 8, 1944) was a Sudeten German fighter ace of World War II with 258 confirmed victories in 442 missions, 255 victories over Russian pilots. ... Hans von Obstfelder (1886-1976), was a German general of the Infantry, serving during World War II. Bavarian Military Merit Cross (3. ... Walter Gulle Oesau (28 June 1913 – 11 May 1944) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1934 until his death in 1944. ... Hermann Leopold August von Oppeln-Bronikowski (born 2 January 1899 in Berlin; died 19 September 1966 in Gaißach, in the district of Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen, Bavaria) was German Army officer and panzer ace. ... Max-Hellmuth Ostermann (born 11 December 1917 in Hamburg, killed in action 9 August 1942 near Amossovo on the Eastern front) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords during World War II. // Max-Hellmuth... Joachim Peiper (January 30, 1915 - July 13, 1976) more often known as Jochen Peiper from the common German nickname for Joachim, was a senior Waffen-SS officer in World War II and a convicted war criminal. ... Generalmajor Dietrich Peltz (born 9 June 1914 in Gera – died 10 August 2001 in Munich) was a German World War II Luftwaffe bomber pilot. ... Hans Philipp (born 13 March 1917 in Meißen, Sachsen, killed in action 8 October 1943 near Neuenhaus in the Nederlands) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1936 until he was killed in action 8 October 1943 by P-47 Thunderbolts. ... Hermann Prieß (May 24, 1901 - February 2, 1985) was the commander of 3rd SS Division Totenkopf following the death of Theodor Eicke in February 1943. ... Josef Pips Priller (27 July 1915 - 20 May 1961) was a Luftwaffe World War II fighter ace. ... Günther Rall (10 March 1918) was the third most successful Luftwaffe fighter ace of World War 2. ... Hermann-Bernhard Gerhard Ramcke (January 24, 1889 - July 04, 1968) is a winner of the Knights Cross with Swords, Oak Leaves, and Diamonds, one of only 27 people in the German military to do so. ... Ernst-Wilhelm Reinert (born 2 February 1919 in Lindenthal) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords[1] during World War II. Reinert flew 715 combat missions and was officially credited with shooting down 174... Georg-Hans Reinhardt (March 1st, 1887 to November 23rd, 1963)) was Colonel General of the German Third Reichs Panzer Group 3, 3rd Panzer Army, Army Group Center. ... Lothar Rendulic (November 23, 1887 – January 18, 1971) was a Colonel General in the Wehrmacht during WWII. Rendulic was born on in Wiener Neustadt, Austria to a Croatian family (Croatian spelling of the surname is Rendulić). He entered the Austro-Hungarian Army in 1910 and served during World War I... Robert Ritter von Greim. ... Hans-Ulrich Rudel (July 2, 1916 – December 18, 1982) was a Stuka dive-bomber pilot during World War II. Rudel is famous for being the most highly decorated German serviceman of the war. ... Erich Rudorffer (born 1 November 1917 in Zwochau, Sachsen) is a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace, one of a handful who served with the Luftwaffe through the whole of World War II. He had a total of 222 victories, fighting in all the major German theaters of war, including ETO... Karl Rudolf Gerd von Rundstedt (December 12, 1875 - February 24, 1953) was a Generalfeldmarschall of the German Army during World War II. He held some of the highest field commands in all phases of the war. ... Dietrich von Saucken (1892–1990) was a General in the German Army (Wehrmacht) during World War II. He was born in East Prussia in 1892 and personified all the aristocratic Prussian militarists who despised the braune Bande of Nazis. ... Prince Heinrich Zu Sayn-Wittgenstein was one of two fighting night-fighter pilot aces in the Luftwaffe in World War Two. ... Heinz-Wolfgang Schnaufer (February 16, 1922-1950) was the top night fighter ace of all time. ... SS-Gruppenführer Fritz von Scholz, as commander of 11. ... Ferdinand Schörner (December 5, 1892 - February 7, 1973) was a general and later Field Marshal in the German Wehrmacht during World War II. // Early life He was born in Munich, Bavaria. ... Adelbert Schulz (1900 to 1/28/1944) was a Generalmajor and Division Commander in the German Wehrmacht in WWII. He was one of only 27 people to be awarded the Knights Cross with oakleaves, swords, and diamonds. ... General der Panzertruppe (Lieutenant-General) Gerhard (Gerd) Helmuth Detloff Graf von Schwerin was a German commander in World War II who was tasked with defending the city of Aachen while in command of the 116. ... SS-Brigadeführer Sylvester Stadler (1910 - 1995) was a German Waffen-SS officer, a commander of the 4. ... Reiner Stahel (1892 – 1952 or 1955), also known as Rainer Stahel, was a German and Finnish military officer and a notable member of the Nazi Party. ... Leopold Bazi Steinbatz (born 25 October 1918 in Wien, Austria, killed in action 23 June 1942 near Volchansk, Kharkov region, on the Eastern front) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and sole non Officer recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords... This article or section is missing needed references or citation of sources. ... Johannes Steinhoff (September 15, 1913 - February 21, 1994) was a German Luftwaffe fighter ace of World War II and a senior West German air force officer after the war . ... Generalleutnant der Reserve & SS-Brigadeführer Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz, 1943 Hyazinth Graf Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz (July 30, 1893 -April 25, 1968) was a Silesian officer and panzer ace. ... Werner Streib (born 13 June 1911 in Pforzheim, died 15 June 1986 in München) was a German former Luftwaffe fighter ace and recipient of the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross with Oak Leaves and Swords during World War II. After the war he attained the rank of... Reinhard Teddy Suhren (April 16, 1916 - August 25, 1984) was a German U-boat commander in World War II and younger brother of Korvettenkapitän (Ing. ... Theodor Tolsdorff (November 3, 1909 to May 25, 1978) was lieutenant general and one of 27 carriers of Oak Leaves with Swords and Diamonds to the Knights Cross of the Iron Cross in the Second World War . ... Erich Topp (b. ... General Helmuth Weidling was the German officer who surrended Berlin to the Soviet forces in the final stages of world war two. ... Wolf-Dietrich Fürst Wilcke (born 11 March 1913 in Schrimm, Posen, killed in action 23 March 1944 near Schöppenstedt) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1935 until his death on 23 March 1944. ... Theodor Wisch (born 13 December 1907 in Wesselburener Koog Schleswig-Holstein, died 11 January 1995 in Norderstedt), was a German Officer in the Waffen-SS, serving during World War II. Infantry Assault Badge in Silver Wound Badge in Silver German Cross in Gold (25 February 1943) Iron Cross 2nd Class... Günther-Eberhardt Wisliceny (5 September 1912 in Angerburg - 25 August 1985 in Hannover) was a highly decorated German Waffen-SS officer. ... Michael Wittmann (April 22, 1914 - August 8, 1944) was a German SS-Hauptsturmführer during World War II. Wittmans crews (chiefly gunner Balthasar Bobby Woll, also a Knights Cross holder) are credited with the confirmed destruction of 138 tanks and 141 artillery pieces, along with an unknown number... Josef Sepp Wurmheller (born 4 May 1917 in Hausham, Bavaria, killed in action 22 June 1944 near Alençon, France) was a German World War II fighter ace who served in the Luftwaffe from 1937 until his death on 22 June 1944. ... In this Japanese name, the family name is Yamamoto Fleet Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto ) (4 April 1884 – 18 April 1943) was Commander-in-Chief of the Combined Fleet during World War II, graduate of Imperial Japanese Naval Academy and an alumnus of U.S. Naval War College and Harvard University (1919... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


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Erwin Rommel - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3565 words)
Rommel was born in Heidenheim,Germany approximately 45 kilometres from Ulm, in the state of Württemberg.
He was the second son of a Protestant Headmaster of the secondary school at Aalen, Erwin Rommel the elder and Helene von Luz, a daughter of a prominent local dignitary.
Erwin (Johannes Eugen) Rommel, The Desert Fox / Der Wüstenfuchs at Achtung Panzer!
Erwin Rommel (992 words)
Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel (November 15, 1891 - October 14, 1944) was a German Field Marshal and commander of the Afrika Korps in World War II.
Rommel was born in Heidenheim an der Brentz[?], approximately 50km from Ulm, in the state of Württemberg.
When Rommel was back in Germany, Hitler made him the commander of Army Group B[?], responsible for defending the French coast against a possible Allied invasion.
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