FACTOID # 26: Delaware is the latchkey kid capital of America, with 71.8% of households having both parents in the labor force.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Error" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Error
Look up Error in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Error refers to a difference between actual behavior or measurement and the norms or expectations for the behavior or measurement. The concrete meaning of the Latin word error means "wandering" or "straying", although the metaphorical meaning "mistake, misapprehension" is more common. Look up error in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1750 × 2100 pixel, file size: 531 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Train wreck at Montparnasse 1895. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1750 × 2100 pixel, file size: 531 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Other versions Image:Train wreck at Montparnasse 1895. ... Train wreck at Gare Montparnasse, Paris, France, 1895 For the American rock band, see Trainwreck (band). ... View of the Gare Montparnasse from the Tour Montparnasse The Gare Montparnasse is one of the six large terminus train stations of Paris, located in the Montparnasse area, in the XVe arrondissement. ... The word norm coming from the latin word norma which means angle measure or (lawlike) rule, has a number of meanings: A social or sociological norm; see norm (sociology). ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Look up mistake in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Human behavior

One particular reference differentiates between "error" and "mistake" as follows: An ‘error' is a deviation from accuracy or correctness. A ‘mistake' is an error caused by a fault: the fault being misjudgment, carelessness, or forgetfulness. Now, say that I run a stop sign because I was in a hurry, and wasn't concentrating, and the police stop me, that is a mistake. If, however, I try to park in an area with conflicting signs, and I get a ticket because I was incorrect on my interpretation of what the signs meant, that would be an error. The first time it would be an error. The second time it would be a mistake since I should have known better.[1] Image File history File links Wikitext. ... Look up mistake in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In human behavior the norms or expectations for behavior or its consequences can be derived from the intention of the actor or from the expectations of other individuals or of a social grouping or from social norms. (See deviance.) Gaffes and faux pas can be labels for certain instances of this kind of error. More serious departures from social norms carry labels such as misbehavior and labels from the legal system, such as misdemeanor and crime. Departures from norms connected to religion can have other labels, such as sin. For the Björk song, see Human Behaviour Human behavior is the collection of behaviors exhibited by human beings and influenced by culture, attitudes, emotions, values, ethics, authority, rapport, hypnosis, persuasion, coercion and/or genetics. ... In sociology, a norm, or social norm, is a pattern of behavior expected within a particular society in a given situation. ... DEViANCE ASCII logo by Strick9. ... Look up faux pas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ... For other uses, see Sin (disambiguation). ...


Errors can occur even when individuals have the required knowledge to perform a task correctly. Examples include forgetting to collect your change after buying chocolate from a vending machine, forgetting the original document after making photocopies, and forgetting to turn the gas off after cooking a meal. These slip errors can occur when an individual is distracted by something else.


Oral and written language

An individual language user's deviations from standard language norms in grammar, syntax, pronunciation and punctuation are sometimes referred to as errors. At present, this usage is out of favor outside of language classes. In light of the role of language usage in everyday social class distinctions, some feel that linguistics should be descriptive rather than prescriptive to avoid reinforcing dominant class value judgments about what linguistic forms should and should not be used. For the rules of English grammar, see English grammar and Disputes in English grammar. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... Look up pronunciation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The term punctuation has two different linguistic meanings: in general, the act and the effect of punctuating, i. ...


Gaffe

A gaffe is a verbal mistake made by a company or individual, usually in a social environment. The mistake comes from saying something that is true, but inappropriate, or, what might be as bad, an erroneous attempt to reveal a truth. Finally, gaffes can be malapropisms, grammatical errors or other verbal and gestural weaknesses or revelations through body language. Actually revealing factual or social truth through words or body language, however, can commonly result in embarrassment or, when the gaffe has negative connotations, friction between people involved. The social environment is the direct influence of a group of individuals and their contributions to this environment, as both groups and individuals who are in frequent communication with each other within their cultural or socio-economical strata, which create role identity(-ies) and guide the individuals self (sociology... This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or examples of poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... For other uses, see Body language (disambiguation). ...


A grammatical or literary error is more embarrassing in the company of intellectuals, professors or serious students, just as errors of science can be embarrassing among scientists or doctors. The protagonist attorney in the film Liar Liar plays on the nature of truth revelation, however, and its ambiguous or unexpected consequences. This section has been identified as trivia. ...


As used by some journalists, particularly sportswriters, "gaffe" becomes an imagined synonym for any kind of mistake, e.g. a dropped ball by a player in a baseball game. Philosophers and psychologists interested in the nature of the gaffe include Freud and Gilles Deleuze. Deleuze, in his Logic of Sense, places the gaffe in a developmental process that can culminate in stuttering. Gilles Deleuze (IPA: ), (January 18, 1925 – November 4, 1995) was a French philosopher of the late 20th century. ...


Medicine

See medical error for a description of error in medicine. See also preventable medical errors In the United States medical error is estimated to result in 44,000 to 98,000 unnecessary deaths and 1,000,000 excess injuries each year. ...


Statistics

In statistics, an error is not a "mistake" but is a difference between a computed, estimated, or measured value and the true, specified, or theoretically correct value. In statistics and optimization, the concepts of error and residual are easily confused with each other. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ...


Experimental science

An error is a bound on the precision and accuracy of the result of a measurement. These can be classified into two types: statistical error (see above) and systematic error. Statistical error is caused by random (and therefore inherently unpredictable) fluctuations in the measurement apparatus, whereas systematic error is caused by an unknown but nonrandom fluctuation. If the cause of the systematic error can be identified, then it can usually be eliminated. Such errors can also be referred to as uncertainties. Italic textSystematic errorsBold text are biases in measurement which lead to measured values being systematically too high or too low. ... “Uncertain” redirects here. ...


Engineering

In engineering, an error is a difference between the desired and actual performance or behavior of a system or object. (In computational mechanics, when solving a system such as Ax=b there is a distinction between the "error"—the inaccuracy in x—and residual—the inaccuracy in Ax.) Engineering is the discipline of acquiring and applying knowledge of design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Buskers perform in San Francisco A performance, in performing arts, generally comprises an event in which one group of people (the performer or performers) behave in a particular way for another group of people (the audience). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... In philosophy, an object is a thing, an entity, or a being. ... Computational mechanics is the subject/profession concerned with the use of computational methods and devices to study phenomena governed by the principles of mechanics. ... In mathematics, loosely speaking, a residual is the error in a result. ...


Engineers often seek to design systems in such a way as to mitigate or preferably avoid the effects of error, whether unintentional or not. Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see System (disambiguation). ... Hanlons razor is an adage which reads: Also worded as: // According to Joseph Bigler,[1] the quotation first came from a certain Robert J. Hanlon as a submission for a book compilation of various jokes related to Murphys law published in 1980 entitled Murphys Law Book Two...


One type of error is human error which includes cognitive bias. Human factors engineering is often applied to designs in an attempt to minimize this type of error by making systems more forgiving or error-tolerant. This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Human factors is an umbrella term for several areas of research that include human performance, technology, design, and human-computer interaction. ... Error tolerant refers to a design that does not unduly penalize user errors. ...


Errors in a system can also be latent design errors that may go unnoticed for years, until the right set of circumstances arises that cause them to become active. See also Observational error. All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ... Observational error is the difference between a measured value of quantity and its true value. ...


Aviation

See aviation safety for a description of how flying has been made safer by making the aviation system more error-tolerant. During the 1920s, the first laws were passed in the USA to regulate civil aviation. ... Aviation encompasses all the activities relating to airborne devices created by human ingenuity, generally known as aircraft. ...


Telecommunication

In telecommunications, an error is a deviation from a correct value caused by a malfunction in a system or a functional unit. An example would be the occurrence of a wrong bit caused by an equipment malfunction. (Sources: Federal Standard 1037C and MIL-STD-188). See also error-correcting code and error-detecting code. A soft error is a deviation from a correct value which does not necessarily imply a malfunction. Telecommunication involves the transmission of signals over a distance for the purpose of communication. ... A malfunction is a partial or total failure of a parachuting device to operate as intended. ... In computer engineering, an execution unit is a part of a CPU that performs the operations and calculations called for by the program. ... BIT is an acronym for: Bannari amman Institute of Technology Bangalore Institute of Technology Beijing Institute of Technology Benzisothiazolinone Bilateral Investment Treaty Bhilai Institute of Technology - Durg Birla Institute of Technology - Mesra Battles in Time (Doctor Who magazine) BIT International College, formerly the Bohol Institute of Technology in Bohol, Philippines... Federal Standard 1037C, entitled Telecommunications: Glossary of Telecommunication Terms is a United States Federal Standard, issued by the General Services Administration pursuant to the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949, as amended. ... MIL-STD-188 is a series of U.S. military standards relating to telecommunications. ... In information theory and coding, an error-correcting code or ECC is a code in which each data signal conforms to specific rules of construction so that departures from this construction in the received signal can generally be automatically detected and corrected. ... In information theory and coding, an error-detecting code is a code in which each data signal conforms to specific rules of construction so that departures from this construction in the received signal can generally be automatically detected. ... In electronics and computing, an error is a signal or datum which is wrong. ...


Computer programming

Error messages can appear on Wikimedia pages. This example shows a warning that was displayed when a user attempted to save an edited page.
Error messages can appear on Wikimedia pages. This example shows a warning that was displayed when a user attempted to save an edited page.

In software engineering, the term error refers to an incorrect action or calculation performed by software. In general, an error results from a combination of a defect (code that does not correctly implement the requirements or intended behavior) and a fault (situation or event that exercises a program's susceptibility to error). If, as a result of the error, the system performs an undesired action or fails to perform a desired action, then this is referred to as a failure. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 741 pixels, file size: 74 KB, MIME type: image/png)Sometimes errors happen on Wikimedia pages. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 579 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 741 pixels, file size: 74 KB, MIME type: image/png)Sometimes errors happen on Wikimedia pages. ... Software engineering is the application of a systematic, disciplined, quantifiable approach to the development, operation, and maintenance of software. ...


In software, defects are more commonly referred to as software bugs. It is important to note that a defect can exist in software but never give rise to an error (if no fault event ever occurrs to exercise the defect). Similarly an error can occur without causing a failure if the program detects the error and recovers from it before it can give rise to a system failure. A software bug is an error, flaw, mistake, failure, or fault in a computer program that prevents it from behaving as intended (e. ...


An error may be detected by the software which can be handled by raising an exception. For instance, it is an error to attempt to write more files onto a disk that is full. Careful programmers write code that can handle errors that may occur, and prevent them from turning into failures; strategies for doing so include using error codes and using exception handling. Continuing past an unhandled error can cause error avalanche, a condition in which errors pile up and one or more failures occur. Also, in hierarchically structured systems, a complete failure of one component may constitute only a fault within a higher level system, which can be detected and corrected at a higher level. In computer programming, error codes are enumerated messages that correspond to faults in a specific software application. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ... In computer science, an error avalanche is the mechanism by which a small problem can become compounded until it eventually becomes a very large one. ...


In more general parlance, the term error is also used to describe incorrect actions on the part of a programmer. A syntax error is an ungrammatical or nonsensical statement in a program; one that cannot be parsed by the language implementation. A logic error is a mistake in the algorithm used, which causes erroneous results or undesired operation. Anti-patterns, or undesirable program design elements, may make it harder to detect or correct errors. A syntax error refers to a mistake in a statements syntax. ... With a runtime error the program begins running, but then crashes or gets stuck pursuing a never ending calculation. ... In mathematics, computing, linguistics, and related disciplines, an algorithm is a finite list of well-defined instructions for accomplishing some task that, given an initial state, will terminate in a defined end-state. ... Anti-patterns, comprises the study or specific repeated practices that appear initially to be beneficial, but ultimately result in bad consequences that outweigh the hoped-for advantages. ...


Biology

In biology, an error is said to occur when perfect fidelity is lost in the copying of information. For example, in an asexually reproducing species, an error (or mutation) has occurred for each DNA nucleotide that differs between the child and the parent. Errors in this sense are not judged as "good" or "bad", although an error may make an organism either more or less adapted to its environment. Biology studies the variety of life (clockwise from top-left) E. coli, tree fern, gazelle, Goliath beetle Biology (from Greek: βίος, bio, life; and λόγος, logos, knowledge), also referred to as the biological sciences, is the study of living organisms utilizing the scientific method. ... The ASCII codes for the word Wikipedia represented in binary, the numeral system most commonly used for encoding computer information. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... A parent is a father or mother; one who begets or one who gives birth to or nurtures and raises a child; a relative who plays the role of guardian // Mother This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Life on Earth redirects here. ...


Baseball

In baseball, an error is judged by the official scorer when a runner advances a base because of a fielding mistake, and perfect play would have prevented the advancement, and the mistake was physical. Mental misjudgments are not errors. Failing to get more than one out on a given play is not an error. Application of this rule is necessarily subjective. See error (baseball). This article is about the sport. ... In the game of baseball, the official scorer is a person appointed by the league to record the events on the field and to send this official record of the game back to the league offices. ... In baseball, baserunning is the act of running around the bases performed by members of the team at bat. ... In baseball, an error is the act, in the judgment of the official scorer, of a fielder misplaying a ball in a manner that allows a batter or baserunner to reach one or more additional bases, when such an advance should have been prevented given ordinary effort by the fielder. ...


Error Correction

Norman (1986, 1988) argued that because error is inevitable, ‘designers’ should minimize the causes of error, make it possible to undo erroneous actions and make it easier to discover and correct errors. Edmondson’s research focuses on pinpointing specific conditions on group levels which can influence the degree of errors caught and corrected. Although her study was in a specific sector (medicine) some of her conditions can be generalized: a) Unit Leader behaviours. b) Unit performance outcomes c) Unit shared beliefs.


Unit leader behaviours are crucial in creating a culture in which openness of discussing errors, through their open and stimulating behaviour, are used as an example for the others. The unit performance outcomes consist of factors such as quality of interpersonal relations, unit performance and detected error rates. The leader behaviour and the performance outcomes result in shared beliefs. The shared beliefs of error report that first of all, everybody should accept that making mistakes is normal and that it will not be used against one (Helmreich, 1988). Further, the more errors are reported and discussed, the bigger the incentive should be to report and solve other errors.


Jones (1999) adds that technocratic movements have a positive influence on error correction due improved communication. Technological improvements stimulate collaborate thinking and striving for optimalization of systems. Through this, error correction is maximalized. Tsuvijek (1988) implies how technology on one hand can improve error correction, but on the other hand cause more errors due to decreased human intervention.


References

  1. ^ Robinson, P. "In the Matter of:The Gatekeeper: The Gate Contracts"

See also

Psychology of error “Uncertain” redirects here. ... Trial and error is a method for obtaining knowledge, both propositional knowledge and know-how. ... An anomaly is something which deviates from the standard or expected. ... Look up Blunder in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A blooper usually describes a short sequence of a film or video production which contains a mistake made by a member of the cast or crew. ... Popular errors are false ideas that are used widely and provide a basis for stereotypes and can cause poor judgments or a faulty impression of the topic to which they refer. ... Measurement is the determination of the size or magnitude of something. ... Look up anomaly in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Error in reasoning Absent-mindedness can refer to three very different things: 1) a low level of attention (blanking or “zoning out”); 2) intense attention to a single object of focus (hyperfocus) that makes us oblivious to events around us (See absent-minded professor); or 3) unwarranted distraction of attention from the object... Involuntary mistake made while writing or speaking. ... A Freudian slip, or parapraxis, is an error in speech, memory or physical action that is believed to be caused by the unconscious mind. ...

Errors in language Look up fallacy in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Error Diagnosis and Prevention This article or section seems to contain too many examples (or examples of poor quality) for an encyclopedia entry. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up faux pas in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... It has been suggested that Fat finger be merged into this article or section. ...

In the Swiss Cheese model, individual weaknesses are modelled as holes in slices of swiss cheese, such as this Emmental. ... In computing terms, a spelling checker (also spell checker) is a software program designed to verify the spelling of words in a file, helping a user ensure his/her spelling is correct. ... A root cause is a cause that is at a root of an effect. ... Root cause analysis (RCA) is a class of problem solving methods aimed at identifying the root causes of problems or events. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Error (630 words)
The subject-matter of error so far as mortals go, like that of the want of knowledge whence it proceeds, is either (1) the law itself, or (2) a fact, or circumstance of a fact.
Error is deemed to be invincible when, in spite of what is called moral diligence in the premises, it still persists.
Error is reckoned morally vincible as often as it is chargeable to the failure to exercise these ordinary and necessary precautions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m