FACTOID # 24: Looking for table makers? Head to Mississippi, with an overwhlemingly large number of employees in furniture manufacturing.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Ernst Stavro Blofeld
James Bond character
Blofeld played by Donald Pleasence
Ernst Stavro Blofeld
Gender Male
Role Villain
Affiliation SPECTRE
Current status Deceased
Portrayed by Anthony Dawson (uncredited)

Eric Pohlmann (uncredited, voice)
Donald Pleasence
Telly Savalas
Charles Gray
John Hollis (uncredited)
Robert Rietty (uncredited, voice)
Max von Sydow Flemings image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The shield and spear of the Roman god Mars, which is also the alchemical symbol for iron, represents the male sex. ... The James Bond novels and films are notable for their memorably despicable villains and henchmen. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... Anthony Dawson (October 18, 1916 – January 8, 1992), born in Edinburgh, was a Scottish-born actor. ... Eric Pohlmann (July 18, 1913 in Vienna—July 25, 1979 Bavaria, Germany), was an Austrian actor and voice actor, perhaps most famous to James Bond fans for his audio portryal of Ernst Stavro Blofeld in the James Bond films. ... Donald Pleasence, OBE (October 5, 1919 – February 2, 1995) was an English stage and film actor. ... Telly Savalas (January 21, 1922 – January 22, 1994) was a prominent Emmy Award-winning American film and television actor whose career spanned four decades. ... Charles Gray (August 29, 1928 - March 7, 2000) was an English actor, born Donald Marshall Gray in Bournemouth, Hampshire, (now Bournemouth, Dorset) Charles Gray as Ernst Blofeld in Diamonds Are Forever Donald Gray attended Bournemouth School along side Benny Hill, whose school had been evacuated to the same buildings, during... John Hollis (born 1931; died October 18, 2005) was a British actor. ... Robert Rietti (usually credited as Robert Rietty) is an actor, born 8 February 1923 in London of Italian ancestry. ...  , (born April 10, 1929) is an Academy-Award nominated Swedish actor, known in particular for his collaboration with filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. ...

Ernst Stavro Blofeld is a fictional character from the James Bond universe. An evil genius, he is the archenemy of the British Secret Service agent James Bond and head of the global terrorist organization SPECTRE with aspirations of world domination. Flemings image of James Bond; commissioned to aid the Daily Express comic strip artists. ... A fictional universe is an imaginary world that serves as the setting or backdrop for one or (more commonly) multiple works of fiction or translatable non-fiction. ... Ernst Stavro Blofeld in You Only Live Twice, a textbook example of an evil genius. ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6 (Military Intelligence, Section 6),[1] is the United Kingdoms external intelligence agency. ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... Alexander the Great Philip II of Spain Napoleon Bonaparte For other uses, see World domination (disambiguation). ...


Blofeld usually appears with a white Persian cat in the films (but not in the novels). It was also briefly a convention of the Bond films not to show Blofeld's face, only a closeup of Blofeld stroking his cat. This convention was later broken in the film You Only Live Twice and subsequent films. It was also mimicked in the animated series Inspector Gadget, and spoofed in Austin Powers: International Man Of Mystery. The Persian cat is one of the oldest breeds of cat. ... Ian Flemings You Only Live Twice is the fifth film in the EON Productions James Bond series, the fifth to star Sean Connery as British Secret Service agent Commander James Bond 007, and the sixth film to feature James Bond. ... Animation refers to the process in which each frame of a film or movie is produced individually, whether generated as a computer graphic, or by photographing a drawn image, or by repeatedly making small changes to a model (see claymation and stop motion), and then photographing the result. ... Inspector Gadget is an animated television series about a clumsy, absent-minded, and oblivious detective, Inspector Gadget, who is a cyborg with various gadgets built into his anatomy. ... Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery, directed by Jay Roach, is the first film of the Austin Powers series. ...


Blofeld appears in six official James Bond movies as well as Never Say Never Again, the 1983 remake of Thunderball, which makes him the most persistent and arguably greatest of James Bond's enemies. Never Say Never Again is a James Bond film, itself a remake of the 1965 film Thunderball. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...

Contents

Biography

Fleming details Blofeld's background in the novel Thunderball, though none of his past is ever revealed in the Bond films. According to the novel,a[›] Blofeld was born on May 28, 1908b[›] to a German father and a Greek mother in Gdynia.c[›] After World War I, he became a Polish national. Blofeld attended the University of Warsaw where he studied economics and political history, and then the Warsaw University of Technology to study engineering and radionics. He then took a communication position at the Polish Ministry of Posts and Telegraphs, and used his position for buying and selling stocks at the Warsaw Stock Exchange.[1] Thunderball is the ninth novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series. ... May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar). ... Gdynia (IPA: , German: (until 1939 and after 1945) / Gotenhafen (1939-1945); Kashubian: ) is a city in the Pomeranian Voivodeship of Poland and an important seaport at GdaÅ„sk Bay on the south coast of the Baltic Sea. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... University of Warsaw (Polish: ) is the largest university in Poland. ... Face-to-face trading interactions on the New York Stock Exchange trading floor. ... Warsaw University of Technology is the largest academic school of technology in Poland, and one of the largest in East Europe, employing 2. ... Engineering is the design, analysis, and/or construction of works for practical purposes. ... Radionics is a body of ideas and practice concerning medical diagnosis and healing, originating in the early 1900s. ... Warsaw Stock Exchange in 1880 The Warsaw Stock Exchange (WSE), Polish: GieÅ‚da Papierów WartoÅ›ciowych w Warszawie SA (GPW) is the largest stock exchange in Central and Eastern Europe. ...


Foreseeing World War II, Blofeld made copies of top-secret wires and sold them to Nazi Germany. Before the German invasion of Poland in 1939, he destroyed all records of his existence, then moved to Turkey, where he worked for Turkish radio and set up an intelligence organization. During the war, he sold information to both sides. After the defeat of Erwin Rommel, he decided to back the Allied war effort; ironically, he was awarded numerous medals by the Allied powers after the war's end. After the war, Blofeld temporarily moved to South America before founding SPECTRE. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Poland Germany, Slovakia, Soviet Union Commanders Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Fedor von Bock (Army Group North), Gerd von Rundstedt (Army Group South), Mikhail Kovalov (Belorussian Front), Semyon Timoshenko (Ukrainian Front), Ferdinand ÄŒatloÅ¡ (Field Army Bernolak) Strength 39 divisions, 16 brigades, 4,300 guns, 880 tanks, 400 aircraft Total: 950... Erwin Johannes Eugen Rommel ( ) (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was one of the most distinguished German field marshals of World War II. He was the commander of the Deutsches Afrika Korps and also became known by the nickname “The Desert Fox” (Wüstenfuchs,  ) for the skillful military campaigns he... A representation of the changes in territory controlled by Allies and Axis powers over the course of the war. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ...


Novels

In the novel series by Ian Fleming, Blofeld makes three appearances. He first appears as the leader of SPECTRE in the 1961 novel Thunderball, but his role was relatively minor. The plot, that he formulates, is carried out by his henchman Emilio Largo. Ian Lancaster Fleming (May 28, 1908 – August 12, 1964) was a British author, journalist and Second World War Naval Officer. ... Thunderball is the ninth novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series. ... Emilio Largo is a fictional character from the James Bond novel Thunderball. ...


Blofeld is absent from the next book, The Spy Who Loved Me, though its events take place while Bond is searching for Blofeld in North America. In On Her Majesty's Secret Service (1963) Bond learns that Blofeld is in hiding in Switzerland under the guise of Comte de Bleuville and defeats his plans to destroy Britain's agricultural economy. In the final sequence of the novel, Blofeld gets revenge by murdering Bond's new wife, Tracy. 2003 Penguin Books paperback edition The Spy Who Loved Me is a James Bond novel by Ian Fleming first published in 1962. ... On Her Majestys Secret Service is the eleventh novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series. ... Guðrún agitates her sons, Hamðir and Sörli, to avenge their sister. ... Tracy Bond (born Teresa Draco, aka Countess Teresa di Vicenzo) is a fictional character in the James Bond film and novel On Her Majestys Secret Service (OHMSS). ...


In You Only Live Twice published in 1964, Blofeld returns and is found by Bond (more by accident than by design) to be hiding in Japan under the alias Dr. Guntram Shatterhand. Bond strangles him to death at the end of the novel, making it the villain's last appearance. You Only Live Twice is the twelfth novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series. ...


Films

In the film series, Blofeld first appears in From Russia with Love and Thunderball. Afterwards, he is the main villain in You Only Live Twice, On Her Majesty's Secret Service and Diamonds Are Forever, and his final appearance is the pre-title teaser of For Your Eyes Only 1981, in which he attempts to kill Bond by using a device to take remote control of a helicopter that Bond is in. Bond disables the device, takes manual control of the helicopter, and descends upon Blofeld, picking him up and dropping him into a factory smokestack. Due to a legal dispute between Kevin McClory and the film rights to Thunderball, Blofeld's name is neither mentioned nor listed in the end credits of For Your Eyes Only. The only indications that the wheelchair-bound man is Blofeld are his bald head, the Persian cat, and the obscured face.[2] For the video game, see From Russia with Love (video game). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Thunderball is the ninth novel in Ian Flemings James Bond series. ... Kevin ODonovan McClory (b. ...


In the films, Blofeld's appearance and personality vary, because of the different actors portraying him. His facial scar in You Only Live Twice appears neither in On Her Majesty's Secret Service nor in Diamonds Are Forever; in On Her Majesty's Secret Service Blofeld has removed his earlobes; in Diamonds Are Forever he has them along with hair. This follows Fleming's novels, which described Blofeld changing his appearance so as to remain unnoticed by Bond.


Film portrayals

Film series Year Actor Notes
From Russia with Love 1963 Anthony Dawson
Eric Pohlmann (voice)
Both were uncredited - only hands and back of the head are shown in this appearance; in the credits, the actor is labeled as a question mark
Thunderball 1965 Anthony Dawson
Eric Pohlmann (voice)
Still both were uncredited - only hands are shown in this appearance; in the credits, Blofeld does not appear
You Only Live Twice 1967 Donald Pleasence
On Her Majesty's Secret Service 1969 Telly Savalas
Diamonds Are Forever 1971 Charles Gray
For Your Eyes Only (implied) 1981 John Hollis
Robert Rietty
Both were uncredited as it is implied. Although Blofeld's bald hair and body in a wheelchair appear his face is not seen and his voice was dubbed by Rietty who had dubbed other characters such as Emilio Largo and Tiger Tanaka earlier in the series
Never Say Never Again (unofficial) 1983 Max von Sydow

Other appearances

GoldenEye: Rogue Agent is a first-person shooter video game from Electronic Arts using the James Bond license. ...

Imitations and parodies

Many of the characteristics of Blofeld have become clichés of supervillains in popular fiction, representing the stock character of Blofeld. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Doctor Doom, one of the most archetypal supervillains and his arch-enemies The Fantastic Four (in background). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ...

Dr. Evil in Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery, a parody of Ernst Stavro Blofeld

The appearance of Donald Pleasence as Blofeld in You Only Live Twice inspired that of Dr. Evil in the Austin Powers films down to his penchant for referring to henchmen by number designations, facial scar, and the Persian cat called "Mr. Bigglesworth". Blofeld himself in two films (You Only Live Twice and Diamonds are Forever) wears a similar Mao jacket. The look of Blofeld was also imitated by Jim Backus in Gilligan's Island episode 79 enitled "The Invasion", in which Backus plays a character named Mr. Evil in Gilligan's dream. Download high resolution version (848x440, 49 KB)Dr. Evil This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... Download high resolution version (848x440, 49 KB)Dr. Evil This is a screenshot of a copyrighted website, video game graphic, computer program graphic, television broadcast, or film. ... Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery, directed by Jay Roach, is the first film of the Austin Powers series. ... Dr. Evil is a fictional supervillain played by Mike Myers in the Austin Powers film series. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... Zhongshan suit Chiang Kai-shek (front centre) and Mao Zedong (front right) both dressed in the Zhongshan suit (1945) The Mao suit, also known as Chinese tunic suit or tunic suit, is the western name for the style of male attire known in China as the Zhongshan suit (Traditional Chinese... James Gilmore Backus (February 25, 1913 in Cleveland, Ohio - July 3, 1989 In Los Angeles, California) was a radio, television, film actor, character actor, and voice actor. ... For the NES (Nintendo Entertainment System) video game, see The Adventures of Gilligans Island. ...


In the Super Mario Bros. Super Show episode "On Her Majesty's Sewer Service," the villain "Koopfinger" (himself a spoof of another Bond villain Goldfinger) strokes a porcupo in imitation of Blofeld.[3] A number of television shows based on the Super Mario Bros. ... On Her Majestys Sewer Service is the twenty-second animated episode of the The Super Mario Bros. ... Auric Goldfinger is a fictional character in the James Bond film and novel Goldfinger. ...


In the first season of the Pokémon TV series, Giovanni, the leader of the Team Rocket, is depicted like Blofeld, hiding in the shadow with a Persian on his lap.[4][5] In Donkey Kong 64, K. Rool was shown stroking a pet Klaptrap. Original run Original Series: April 1, 1997 – November 14, 2002 September 8, 1998 – October 25, 2003 Advanced Generation: November 21, 2002 – September 14, 2006 November 1, 2003 – March 3, 2007 Diamond & Pearl: September 28, 2006 – June 4, 2007 – No. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Team Rocket ) is a fictional syndicate in the metaseries Pokémon. ... Persian (ペルシアン Perushian in Japan, Snobilikat in Germany and Persian in France) is a Classy Cat Pokémon and the evolved form of Meowth. ... Donkey Kong 64 is a 3D platformer video game developed by Rare for the Nintendo 64. ... King K. Rool from Donkey Kong Country. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Kremlings. ...



In the Police Squad! episode Rendezvous at Big Gulch, the leader of the mobsters is shown stroking a cat. His face, much like Blofeld, is not seen until he bends low, an obvious parody of the James Bond movies, in which Blofeld's face is initially never shown. Police Squad! is a television comedy series first broadcast in 1982. ...


The enemy of the cartoon hero Dangermouse, Baron Greenback, is always seen with a fluffy white caterpillar pet, 'Nero', a parody of the Persian cat. DangerMouse is a British animated television series which was produced by Cosgrove Hall Films. ...


In the game Fur Fighters, the main villain is a parody of Blofeld's cat. Fur Fighters is a video game developed by Bizarre Creations and published by Acclaim for the Sega Dreamcast in 2000, then later for the PC. The game was designed very much as a standard third person shooter, but used a world populated by cute little animals as its setting. ... In contemporary usage, a parody (or lampoon) is a work that imitates another work in order to ridicule, ironically comment on, or poke some affectionate fun at the work itself, the subject of the work, the author or fictional voice of the parody, or another subject. ...


Savalas's portrayal of Blofeld was Clancy Brown's inspiration for his characterization of Lex Luthor in Superman: The Animated Series. He got the role because he reminded series creator Bruce Timm of Savalas's Blofeld, whom Timm saw as a "cultured thug." Clarence J. Brown III (born January 5, 1959) is an American actor. ... Lex Luthor is a fictional character owned by DC Comics. ... Superman: The Animated Series is the unofficial title given to Warner Bros. ... Bruce Walter Timm (born on February 8, 1961) is an American character designer, animator and producer. ...


In an interview with TV Guide, Julian Sands mentions Pleasance's portrayal of Blofeld as one the inspirations for his portrayal of Russian terrorist Vladimir Bierko on the fifth season of 24. TV Guide is the name of two North American weekly magazines about television programming, one in the United States and one in Canada. ... Julian Sands (born January 15, 1958) is a British actor. ... Vladimir Bierko is a fictional character from the fifth season of the television series 24. ... 24 is an Emmy and Golden Globe award-winning American television series created by Joel Surnow and Robert Cochran, and produced by Imagine Television. ...


Vivendi Universal's PC game Evil Genius features a title character named Maximilian with a strong resemblance to Blofeld. In the game, the player must build a secret lair on a remote island and fend off the attacks of superagents while pulling off complex international capers in an ultimate bid for world domination. Evil Genius is a tongue-in-cheek take on the 1960s spy thriller genre offering the player the chance to play the villain himself and control a secret island fortress complete with powerful henchmen, loyal minions and a wide range of gizmos, gadgets and traps. ...


The Animaniacs episode From Burbank With Love features a villain named Blowfinger, a cross between Blofeld and Auric Goldfinger.[6] Steven Spielberg Presents Animaniacs, usually referred to as the shorter title Animaniacs, is an American animated television series, distributed by Warner Bros. ... Auric Goldfinger is a fictional character in the James Bond film and novel Goldfinger. ...

The filming style of not revealing Blofeld's face and his stroking of his cat has inspired a number of imitators, most notably the main villain of Inspector Gadget, Dr. Claw, and his crime syndicate, M.A.D. Image File history File links Inspector_Gadget14. ... Image File history File links Inspector_Gadget14. ... Dr. Claw is a partially seen character who is the main villain in the animated television series Inspector Gadget. ... Inspector Gadget is an animated television series about a clumsy, absent-minded, and oblivious detective, Inspector Gadget, who is a cyborg with various gadgets built into his anatomy. ... Inspector Gadget is an animated television series about a clumsy, absent-minded, and oblivious detective, Inspector Gadget, who is a cyborg with various gadgets built into his anatomy. ... Dr. Claw is a partially seen character who is the main villain in the animated television series Inspector Gadget. ...


The Powerpuff Girls episode Cat Man Do features a faceless villain stroking a white Persian cat. The girls thwart the villain's plan and rescue the cat and bring it back to their home. However, it turns out that the cat is the real mastermind who can hypnotize any man to do his evil bidding.[7] This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the anime series Dragon Ball, "Red Leader", the commander of the Red Ribbon Army's face is hidden in his first appearances. He has a strange cat-like animal on his lap in reference to Blofeld, and conducts operations from a hidden base sequestered in the Alps, similar to On Her Majesty's Secret Service. He orders the murder of a henchman that fails a mission, and he wears an eyepatch, like Largo. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Spice Girl's movie, Spice World features a character called "the Chief" clearly fashioned after Blofeld. He is sometimes only heard, sometimes only shown holding a different kind of animal (a rabbit, a pit, a cat, etc.), until finally it is shown that he is being played by Roger Moore. He is usually giving Richard E. Grant's character odd advice in the form of cryptic philosophical babble. Spiceworld is the second album by British pop group the Spice Girls, released in 1997 (see 1997 in music). ...


The second season of the TV series Martial Law featured an evil organization known as Scorpio, which bore more than a passing resemblance to SPECTRE. It was headed by a mysterious recurring villain known only as "The One" (a possible reference to Blofeld's "Number One" SPECTRE codename) who, like Blofeld, was only seen in shadow (when he was seen at all) until the final episode. Martial Law was a television show that ran from 1998 to 2000. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ... Spectre, taken from the Battle for Wesnoth computer game. ...


The Season 7 episode "The Simpsons 138th Episode Spectacular" introduces a cutscene where Homer is a blackjack dealer in a game between Mr. Bont and his enemies Oddjob, Blofeld and Jaws.


In the Scrubs episode "My White Whale" Dr. Cox is petting a doll white cat to intimidate the pediatrician that he wants to take care of his son Jack. My White Whale is the 49th episode of the American sitcom Scrubs. ...


The TV comedy show The Mary Whitehouse Experience did a sketch on life at school. It was mentioned in the sketch towards the audience that at school there was always one teacher you were scared of, but did not know why. The sketch then showed someone dressed as Blofeld telling a school boy off for not doing his homework. He presses a button on his chair and the boy explodes. The Mary Whitehouse Experience was a UK topical comedy show, both on radio and TV, in the late 80s/early 90s. ...


The videogame series Timesplitters feature a villain by the name of Khallos, whose appearance and manner of speech resemble Blofeld. He is also shown stroking a mechanical cat, whom the player can eventually operate in Timesplitters: Future Perfect. For the race of creatures from the series see: TimeSplitters (race). ... TimeSplitters: Future Perfect Categories: 2005 computer and video games | GameCube games | PlayStation 2 games | Xbox games | First-person shooters | Computer and video game stubs ...


In the webcomic Kung Fu Rabbit, the antagonist is a shadowy rabbit figure known only as the Director who sits in a high backed chair in the shadows and strokes his pet tortoise while directing the global domination efforts of his crime syndicate H.A.R.E.


In the film Cats and Dogs the villain is a cat called Mr Tinkles who is an imitation of Blofeld's cat. Cats and dogs is a Wall Street slang used to describe: Nonperforming securities, or Highly speculative securities. ...


Notes

^  a:  It is commonly believed that the name Blofeld was inspired by the English cricket commentator Henry Blofeld's father, with whom Fleming went to school. The truth, however, is that he was named after 'Ernst Blofeld', the father of the author 'John Blofeld' with whom Fleming was associated through Club membership. Henry and John were cousins of some degree.
^  b:  This is also Ian Fleming's birthday
^  c:  At the time of Blofeld's birth, Gdynia (Poland), was a small village. The city of Gdynia was built almost from scratch in the 1920s in a grand-scale engineering project already under Polish authority. Construction of the city took less than a decade. This detail doesn't make the biography impossible—just less convincing.
  1. ^ http://www.mjnewton.demon.co.uk/bond/blofeld.htm
  2. ^ http://www.moviedeaths.com/for_your_eyes_only/ernst_stavro_blofeld/
  3. ^ "On Her Majesty's Sewer Service". Super Mario Bros. Super Show!.
  4. ^ "Battle Aboard the S. S. Anne". Pokémon (anime). No. 15, season 1.
  5. ^ "The Island of Giant Pokémon". Pokémon (anime). No. 17, season 1.
  6. ^ "From Burbank With Love". Animaniacs.
  7. ^ "Cat Man Do". The Powerpuff Girls.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Bond Film Informant: Ernst Stavro Blofeld (1506 words)
Blofeld was born in Gdynia, Poland, to a Polish father and a Greek mother on 28 May 1908 (this was also Fleming's birthdate).
Blofeld is presented to the viewer as a shadowy figure, guiding events from his luxury yacht moored near Venice.
Blofeld's change of appearance is again not mentioned, although he is seen dabbling in plastic surgery, creating disposable doubles in order to foil potential assassins such as Bond.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m