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Encyclopedia > Ernst Reuter
Ernst Reuter, 1950
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Ernst Reuter, 1950

Ernst Rudolf Johannes Reuter (born July 29, 1889 in Apenrade (today Aabenraa, Denmark); died September 29, 1953 in Berlin) was the mayor of West Berlin from 1948 to 1953, during the time of the Cold War. July 29 is the 210th day (211th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 155 days remaining. ... 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Åbenrå (pre-1948 spelling Aabenraa, German Apenrade), is a municipality in south Denmark, in the county of South Jutland on the peninsula of Jutland. ... September 29 is the 272nd day of the year (273rd in leap years). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... Berlin is the capital city and a single state of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Boroughs of West Berlin West Berlin was the name given to the western part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война , Kholodna-ya voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ...

Contents


Early years

Reuter attended the universities of Münster and Marburg where he completed his studies in 1912 and passed the examinations as a teacher. The same year he became a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD). The University of Münster (German Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, WWU) is a public university located in the city of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. ... The University of Marburg, officially called Philipps-Universität Marburg after its founder, the Landgrave Philipp I of Hesse (usually called the Magnanimous), was founded in 1527 and is the worlds first and oldest Protestant university. ... SPD redirects here. ...


During the First World War, Reuter was wounded and captured by the Russians. In captivity he learned Russian and joined the bolsheviks. In 1917, Lenin sent him to Saratov in the to-be-established Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic as a “People's Commissar”. Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... Saratov flag Saratov (Russian: ) is a major city in southern European Russia. ... 1937 flag of the Volga German ASSR The Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (German: Autonome Sozialistische Sowjet-Republik der Wolga-Deutschen, Russian: Автономная Советская Социалистическая Республика Немцев Поволжья) was an autonomy established in the Soviet Union, with its capital at the Volga port of Engels (until 1931 known as... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with: :Sovnarkom. ...


Weimar Republic

Upon his return to Germany, Reuter joined the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) and was named the First Secretary its Berlin section. He embraced a position on the left wing of the party endorsing an open rebellion in March 1921 in central Germany and placed himself hereby in opposition to the leader of the party, Paul Levi. Although Reuter was seen as a favorite of Lenin, he was expelled from the party in 1922. He moved briefly to the Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (USPD), and then returned to the Social Democrats for good. 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... Paul Levi Paul Levi (March 11, 1883 – February 9, 1930) was a German Communist politician. ... Vladimir Ilyich Lenin ( Russian: Влади́мир Ильи́ч Ле́нин  listen?), original surname Ulyanov (Улья́нов) ( April 22 (April 10 ( O.S.)), 1870 – January 21, 1924), was a Russian revolutionary, the leader of the Bolshevik party, the first Premier of the Soviet Union, and the founder of the ideology of Leninism. ... USPD election poster, 1919 The Independent Social Democratic Party of Germany (Unabhängige Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands, or USPD) was a short-lived political party in Germany during the Second Reich and the Weimar Republic. ...


In 1926, he entered services in the government of Berlin and was responsible for transportation. Accomplishments were the foundation of the Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG), the introduction of a unified ticket for public transportation, and extensions of the Berlin subway system. The Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (German: Berlin Transporation Company), often abbreviated the BVG, manages the Berlin U-Bahn, the Berlin Straßenbahn, and the Berlin bus network, as well as several ferry lines. ...


From 1931 until 1933 Reuter was the mayor of Magdeburg where he fought lack of housing and jobs due to the economic crisis. He also was reelected as a member of the Reichstag. In 1933, with the Nazis now in power, he was forced to abdicate his positions and was brought to the concentration camp (KZ Lichtenburg)near Torgau . After his release, he went into exile in Turkey where stayed until the end to the Nazi era. In Ankara he lectured about urban planning. 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1931 calendar). ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... View of Magdeburg with the cathedral, from the tower of the Johanniskirche. ... The Reichstag is both an institutional assembly and a specific building. ... It has been suggested that Internment be merged into this article or section. ... Torgau is a town on the banks of the Elbe in northwestern Saxony, Germany. ... Ankara is the capital of Turkey and the countrys second largest city after Ä°stanbul. ... Urban planning is concerned with the ordering and design of settlements, from the smallest towns to the worlds largest cities. ...


Post-War Berlin

After the end of World War II Reuter returned Berlin, and was elected in 1946 to the Magistrat (governing body) where he oversaw initially the Transportation Department. In 1947 he was elected Lord Mayor (Oberbürgermeister ) of Berlin but in the deepening crisis of the Cold War, the Soviet government withheld their necessary consent. Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная война , Kholodna-ya voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between the global superpowers of the Soviet Union and the United States, supported by their alliance partners. ...

The four sectors of Berlin, 1948
The four sectors of Berlin, 1948

Reuter’s name is intrinsically linked to the time of the Cold War in Berlin. During the Soviet-imposed Berlin Blockade (1948/49), the western part of city was sustained by the Berlin airlift that was established by the American Military Governor,Lucius D. Clay. In response to the threat, the citizen in the western sectors had to come together. Ernst Reuter became their spokesman and leader, a symbol figure of the “Free Berlin”. Memorable is Reuter’s speech in front of the burned-out Reichstag building on September 9, 1948 facing a crowd of 300,000 where he appealed to the world not to abandon Berlin. In the election that was conducted in the western part of Berlin two moths later, his popularity gave the SPD the highest win with 64.5 % ever achieved by any party in a free election in Germany. As mayor he formed a grand coalition government with the next two largest parties to demonstrate West Berlin’s unity. Image File history File links map showing sectors of occupation of berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links map showing sectors of occupation of berlin File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Berlin Blockade, one of the first major crises of the Cold War, occurred from June 24, 1948 to May 11, 1949 when the Soviet Union blocked railroad and street access to West Berlin. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... The Soviet Union blocked Western rail and road access to West Berlin from June 24, 1948 - May 11, 1949. ... Lucius Dubignon Clay (April 23, 1897 - April 16, 1978) was an American general. ... The Reichstag building. ... September 9 is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years). ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


When the new Berlin State Constitution became effective for West Berlin, Reuter was reelected and became on January 18, 1951 what was now called the Governing Mayor (Regierender Bürgermeister) of Berlin. He served in this function until his death. January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ...


Under his aegis, the Free University of Berlin was founded, as the traditional place of mayor education, the University of Berlin, was in the Soviet sector and under communist rule. In 1953 Reuter established the "Bürgermeister-Reuter-Stiftung" (Mayor Reuter Foundation) to assist refugees coming to West-Berlin. Satellite photo of Berlin. ... There is no institution called the University of Berlin, but there are four universities in Berlin, Germany: Humboldt University of Berlin (Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) Technical University of Berlin (Technische Universität Berlin) Free University of Berlin (Freie Universität Berlin) Berlin University of the Arts (Universität der Künste Berlin) This is... 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link is to a full 1953 calendar). ...


A few weeks after the uprising of June 17, 1953, Reuter died suddenly and unexpectedly form a heart attack at the age of 64. His funeral was attended by more than 1 million people. His grave is in the Waldfriedhof in Berlin-Dahlem. [1] Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ...


Family

Ernst Reuter was married since 1920, and he and his wife Hanna had two children. His son, Edzard became the CEO of Daimler-Benz. DaimlerChrysler AG (FWB:DCX, NYSE: DCX, TYO: 7663 ), headquartered in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg and Auburn Hills, Michigan, is a prominent automobile and truck manufacturer and financial services provider (through DaimlerChrysler Services). ...


Honors

  • “Ernst-Reuter-Plakette”: an honor established by the Berlin Senate in 1954 for persons whose work benefited the city.
  • ”Ernst-Reuter-Gesellschaft (Ernst Reuter Association)”: a group of alumni and friends of the Free University of Berlin that was founded in 1954. The Association names the winners of the annual "Ernst-Reuter-Preis" for excellent dissertations from the university and provideds “Ernst-Reuter-Stipends” for studies abroad.
  • Former places where Reuter lived received memorial plaques: Hardenbergstraße 35 (Berlin-Charlottenburg), and Bülowstraße 33 (Berlin-Zehlendorf).
  • Among the many places in Berlin that commemorate Reuter are:
    • a major public square and subway station Ernst-Reuter-Platz (Berlin U-Bahn),
    • a government building [2]
    • a school [3]
    • a youth hostel [4]

Other towns in Germany have streets or schools named after Ernst Reuter. Satellite photo of Berlin. ... A stipend is a form of payment or salary, such as for an internship or apprenticeship. ... Charlottenburg is an area in Berlin, formerly a borough, now part of Charlottenburg-Wilmersdorf. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Ernst-Reuter-Platz is an Berlin U-Bahn station located on the U2. ...


Quote

  • "Ihr Völker der Welt ... Schaut auf diese Stadt und erkennt, dass ihr diese Stadt und dieses Volk nicht preisgeben dürft, nicht preisgeben könnt!" ( People of this world… look upon this city and see that you should not and can not abandon this city and this people)
  • Reuter’s speech from September 9, 1948 (German) [5]

Publications

  • Ernst Reuter: Rationalisierung der Berliner Verkehrsbedienung. Verkehrstechnik (June 29,1928) 9; 26:437-439.
  • Ernst Reuter: Die Gründung der Berliner Verkehrs-A.-G. Verkehrstechnik (December 14, 1928) 9; 50: 917-919

Literature

  • Willy Brandt, Richard Lowenthal: Ernst Reuter - Ein Leben für die Freiheit (Eine politische Biographie). München: Kindler Verlag, 1957
  • Klaus Harpprecht: Ernst Reuter - Ein Leben für die Freiheit (Eine Biographie in Bildern und Dokumenten). München: Kindler Verlag, 1957
  • Ernst Reuter. Schriften - Reden. Hg. v. Hans E. Hirschfeld und Hans J. Reichardt. Vorwort von Willy Brandt. Bd. 1-4. Frankfurt am Main; Berlin; Wien 1972-1975.
  • David E. Barclay: Schaut auf diese Stadt / Der unbekannte Ernst Reuter. Berlin: Siedler Verlag, 2000. ISBN 3-88680-527-1

Willy Brandt, born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm (December 18, 1913 – October 8, 1992) was a German politician and Chancellor of Germany from 1969 to 1974. ...

References

This article is based on the corresponding article of the German wikipedia from 5/10/2006.


Links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Ernst Reuter - Wikipedia (677 words)
Reuter wurde von Lenin von Mai bis Ende 1918 als Volkskommissar nach Saratow in die Wolgarepublik gesandt.
Reuter gehörte zu den Initiatoren der Gründung der Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe (BVG).
Juni 1953, dessen Niederschlagung er scharf kritisierte, verstarb Reuter 64-jährig an den Folgen einer Grippeinfektion.
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